WorldWideScience
1

Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System  

OpenAIRE

Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1), tie line length (?3.42–35.27%), NaCl (?2.5...

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Amid Mehrnoush; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

2012-01-01

2

FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

2009-05-15

3

PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii  

OpenAIRE

Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase produc...

Tivkaa Amande; Bukola Adebayo-Tayo; Uduak Ndubuisi-Nnaji; Benjamin Ado

2013-01-01

4

Biomethanization of orange peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741

Martín, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

2010-12-01

5

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel  

OpenAIRE

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week ...

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Amid Mehrnoush

2012-01-01

6

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-03-01

7

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-01-01

8

PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P?0.05. The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P?0.05. Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

Tivkaa Amande

2013-08-01

9

Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

2014-09-15

10

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

11

HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL WASTE WITH CELLULASE AND PECTINASE ENZYMES  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 1 million Mg of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500 thousand Mg of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels t...

12

The impact of extraction with a chelating agent under acidic conditions on the cell wall polymers of mango peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to evaluate whether mango peel is a potential source of functional cell wall polymers. To reach this objective, the native pectin polymers (NPP) extracted as alcohol insoluble residue from mango peel, were characterised in terms of uronic acid content, degree of methoxylation, neutral sugar content, and molar mass and compared to citric acid (pH 2.5, 2h at 80°C) extracted polymers, mimicking industrial pectin extraction conditions. Water-solubilised NPP were highly methoxylated having two populations with a Mw of 904 and 83kDa and a degree of methoxylation of 66%. Citric acid extraction with a yield higher than H2SO4 extraction resulted in a very branched pectin with an extremely high DM (83%) and a high molar mass. Comparing the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy of extracted and native WSF showed that citric acid remained partially associated to the extracted pectin due to its chelating properties. PMID:24837941

Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Kyomugasho, Clare; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Ramezani, Mohsen; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

2014-10-15

13

Hydrolysis of grapefruit peel waste with cellulase and pectinase enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 1 million metric tons of grapefruit were processed in the 2003/04 season resulting in 500,000 metric tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels to hydrolyze grapefruit peel waste to produce sugars. Pectinase and cellulase loadings of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10mgprotein/g peel dry matter were tested at 45 degrees C. Hydrolyses were supplemented with 2.1mg beta-glucosidase protein/g peel dry matter. Five mg pectinase/g peel dry matter and 2mgcellulase/g peel dry matter were the lowest loadings to yield the most glucose. Optimum pH was 4.8. Cellulose, pectin, and hemicellulose in grapefruit peel waste can be hydrolyzed by pectinase and cellulase enzymes to monomer sugars, which can then be used by microorganisms to produce ethanol and other fermentation products. PMID:16934453

Wilkins, Mark R; Widmer, Wilbur W; Grohmann, Karel; Cameron, Randall G

2007-05-01

14

Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000, potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w, system pH (6–9, and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%. Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2011-10-01

15

Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

16

Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System  

OpenAIRE

An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w), system pH (6–9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficie...

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Amid Mehrnoush

2011-01-01

17

Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

2013-04-01

18

Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC and kernel (FA extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC. In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

2013-04-01

19

Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of alk(en)ylresorcinols using rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction of mango peels and rye grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaustive extraction of alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs) from biological matrices is a prerequisite for economic screening of extensive plant collections including their rapid quantitation. For this purpose, an ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol was developed to facilitate the liberation of ARs from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.) and rye grains (Secale cereale L.). While maintaining or even improving the extraction efficiency of the analytes, the duration of analytical extraction was shortened from more than 1h to only 45s as compared to previous methods. In addition, sample weight and solvent use were significantly reduced. Besides the validation of the extraction procedure, validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD-MS(n) based characterisation and quantitation method are provided. In particular, fully satisfactory recovery rates and quantitation limits were achieved, and coefficients of variation (CV) for repeatability and reproducibility were ?8 and <5%, respectively. Moreover, a high compound stability was shown for all ARs during storage in methanolic solution at room temperature for 48h and at -80°C for up to 13months. The developed method was exemplified using two mango and three rye cultivars, and the results were compared to previously published data. PMID:25236225

Geerkens, Christian H; Matejka, Anna E; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

2015-02-15

20

Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de ácido cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%. A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga.Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb., which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperature and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%. The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

2012-06-01

21

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

2009-07-01

22

Molecular characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinnow peel, a waste rich in glycosylated phenolic substances, is the principal by-product of the citrus fruit processing industry and its disposal is becoming a major problem. This peel is rich in naringin and may be used for rhamnose production by utilizing ?-L-rhamnosidase (EC 3.2.1.40), an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal rhamnosyl groups from naringin to yield prunin and rhamnose. In this work, infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirmed molecular characteristics of naringin extracted from kinnow peel waste. Further, recombinant ?-L-rhamnosidase purified from Escherichia coli cells using immobilized metal-chelate affinity chromatography (IMAC) was used for naringin hydrolysis. The purified enzyme was inhibited by Hg2+ (1 mM), 4-hydroxymercuribenzoate (0.1 mM) and cyanamide (0.1 mM). The purified enzyme established hydrolysis of naringin extracted from kinnow peel and thus endorses its industrial applicability for producing rhamnose. PMID:20920523

Puri, Munish; Kaur, Aneet; Schwarz, Wolfgang H; Singh, Satbir; Kennedy, J F

2011-01-01

23

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

B. G. Ridoutt

2009-07-01

24

Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ?92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. PMID:23180376

Dandi, N D; Dandi, B N; Chaudhari, A B

2013-04-01

25

Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

2014-12-15

26

Integrated utilization of fruit-processing wastes for biogas and fish production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated system for biogas production from mango-processing wastes and utilization of biogas effluent for production of major carp Rohu, (Labeo rohita) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Mango peels produced 0.21 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg of total solids. Biogas effluent of mango peels, when used at 34 kg/100 m{sup 2} area in ponds as the sole source of feed for carps, yielded 8.35 kg/100 m{sup 2} of fish which had acceptable colour, flavour and taste every 120 days. (author).

Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India))

1990-01-01

27

PROPIEDADES TÉCNICO-FUNCIONALES DE LA FIBRA DIETARIA DE CÁSCARAS DE MANGO VARIEDADHILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFECTO DEL SECADO POR CONVECCIÓN / TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DIETARY FIBER FROM MANGO PEEL VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFFECT OF CONVECTION DRYING / PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS DA FIBRA DIETÉTICA DA CASCA DE MANGA VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFEITO DA SECAGEM POR CONVECÇÃO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Um subproduto da produção de sumo de manga é a sua casca, que contém níveis significativos de fibra dietética que pode ser utilizado no processamento de alimentos, no entanto, não é actualmente utilizada. O processo de secagem prolonga-se a vida útil da casca e permite que seja adicionada a outros a [...] limentos. Neste estudo, CMH foi caracterizado quimicamente e avaliado o efeito da temperatura de secagem nas propriedades funcionais da fibra dietética; Capacidade inchaço (CI), capacidade de Reter Água (CRA) e Capacidade de Adsorção de Lipídeos (CAL), características determinam em grande parte a qualidade da fibra dietética (FD). Os resultados mostraram que o HMP é semelhante a outras variedades de manga, porque tem um conteúdo similar de fibra dietética total, proteína, extrato etéreo, carboidratos e fibra bruta. A casca seca da manga Hilacha (CSMH) obtido, é uma fonte promissora de DF porque a sua qualidade não afetou de forma significativa para o processo de secagem utilizado neste trabalho. Abstract in spanish Un subproducto de la obtención del jugo de mango es su cáscara; la cual contiene niveles considerables de fibra dietaria que podrían ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos alimenticios, sin embargo, actualmente no es muy aprovechado. El proceso de secado prolonga la vida útil de la cascara y [...] permite que pueda ser adicionada a otros alimentos. En este estudio, se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente la Cáscara de Mango Hilacha (CMH) y se evaluó el efecto de cinco temperaturas de secado sobre las propiedades técnico-funcionales de la fibra dietaria; Capacidad de Hinchamiento (CH), Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) y Capacidad de Adsorción de Lípidos (CAL), características que determinan en gran medida la calidad de la fibra dietaria (FD). Los resultados obtenidos indican que la CMH tiene un contenido de fibra dietaria total, proteína, extracto etéreo, carbohidratos y fibra cruda similar al de otras variedades de mango. La cáscara de mango hilacha seca y molida (CSMH) obtenida, es una promisoria fuente de FD, ya que su calidad no se vio afectada significativamente por el proceso de secado empleado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A byproduct from juice extraction of mango is the peel, which contains significant levels of dietary fiber that could be used in food processing, however, is not currently utilized. The drying process extends the useful life of the peel and allows it to be added to other foods. In This work, we made [...] a chemical characterization of HMP and evaluated the drying temperature effect over functional properties of dietary fiber; Swelling Capacity (SC), Water Retention Capacity (WRC) and Lipid Adsorption Capacity (LAC), features that define, in high degree, dietary fiber (DF) quality. Results showed that the HMP is similar to other mangoes varieties, because have a similar content of total dietary fiber, protein, ether extract, carbohydrates and crude fiber. The dry peel of Hilacha mango (MDPHM) obtained, is a promising source of DF because their quality didn’t affected significantly for the drying process used in this work.

GUSTAVO ADOLFO, HINCAPIÉ LL.; DIANA CAROLINA, VÁSQUEZ O; VALERIA SOFÍA, GALICIA M; CARLOS AUGUSTO, HINCAPIÉ LL..

2014-06-30

28

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion ...

Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

2011-01-01

29

Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds

30

BIOSORPTION OF Fe (II FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TAMARIND BARK AND POTATO PEEL WASTE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sorptive potential of tamarind bark (Tamarindus indica and potato peel waste (Solanum tuberosum for Fe(II ions has been investigated in a batch system. These two biosorbents have been examined for their capacity to sequester Fe(II from aqueous solution under varying range of pH, biomass dosage, initial concentration of Fe(II and contact time. The adsorbents used in this study exhibited a good adsorption potential with increase pH from 1 to 2.5. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Experimental data of Fe(II biosorption onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste fitted well to Langmuir model in comparison to model of Freundlich. The maximum adsorption capacity of tamarind bark and potato peel waste was 11.75 mg.g-1 and 7.87 mg.g-1 respectively as calculated from Langmuir model. The mean free energies calculated from Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R model for the adsorption process of Fe(II onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste were found to be 12.86 and 10.78 kJ.mol-1 respectively, indicating that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. Results show that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.

MOHAMMED ABDULSALAM ABDULLAH

2009-12-01

31

Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512w, pH of 1.8, time of 140s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

2015-02-01

32

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

2011-04-01

33

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

2011-04-01

34

Peel and peel again  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To determine if the internal limiting membrane (ILM) was present in the epiretinal membrane (ERM) when we deliberately tried to perform a "double peel" for macular pucker. Methods: Pars-plana vitrectomy and a "double peel" were carried out. The ERM and ILM were stained with Trypan Blue and peeled separately over the same area. The amount of ERM present in ILM specimens and the amount of ILM present in ERM specimens were evaluated by histological examination. Results: Seventeen eyes in 17...

Wong, D.; Flemming, B.; Stappler, T.; Pearce, I.; Gibran, Sk; Groenewald, C.; Heimann, H.; Hiscott, P.

2008-01-01

35

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

OpenAIRE

In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t...

Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

2009-01-01

36

Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

OpenAIRE

Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

Ashok Kumar, K.; Narayani, M.; Subanthini, A.; Jayakumar, M.

2011-01-01

37

MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING  

OpenAIRE

Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. Th...

SAEED AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID; ISLAM-UD-DIN; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; MUHAMMAD AMIN

2008-01-01

38

Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM, ash, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, ether extract (EE, nitrogen-free extract (NFE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively. However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively, probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1 ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10; 2 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5; 3 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10; and 4 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15. Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively, probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy (DE showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

Sompong Sruamsiri

2009-10-01

39

Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

2014-11-01

40

Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L. in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L. en la obtención de azúcares fermentables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The common mango waste (Mangifera indica L. is a vegetable material containing a high level of lignocelluloses tissue which can be used to obtain fermentable metabolites and fermentation products. In this study hydrolysis treatments were applied to the common mango in order to make the conversion of its polysaccharides to fermentable sugar units. Acid hydrolysis was applied to three different concentrations of dilute sulphuric acid. An enzymatic hydrolysis with two types of commercial enzymes to different concentrations in standard work conditions, was also applied. In addition, a thermic hydrolysis was applied at two different temperatures. At each treatment, the following tests were applied: total sugar concentration, reduced sugar concentration, and percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose residuals. Based on the data obtained from the tests, the best treatments were identified and so the best combinations of the best hydrolysis treatments were carried out. The most significant treatment for individual tests was acid hydrolysis at 0, 50% v/v sulphuric acid at 80?C for one hour. In the combined treatments the most relevant result was the treatment that combined the enzymatic hydrolysis (as pretreatment plus a thermic hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis. For security reasons in the reagents use, as well as in the elimination of collateral adverse effects for further alcoholic fermentation, a procedure involving thermic hydrolysis as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, was chosen as the main treatment with the most appropriate application in the fermentable metabolites production from common mango waste in order to produce alcohol. Further studies have allowed approaching the hydrolysis via microbial with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride, as well as the alcoholic fermentation post-treatment hydrolytic using previous studies. The simultaneous hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation, and recently performing the simultaneity of the processes, adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L. es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80?C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han permitido abordar la hidrólisis por vía microbiana con Aspergillus niger y Trichoderma v

J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez

2007-12-01

41

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculu [...] m concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María, Torrado; Sandra, Cortés; José Manuel, Salgado; Belén, Max; Noelia, Rodríguez; Belinda P, Bibbins; Attilio, Converti; José Manuel, Domínguez.

2011-03-01

42

Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol. PMID:24802243

Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

2014-05-21

43

Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Chromium (VI Removal from Waste Water using Custard Apple Peel Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The potential use of custard apple peel powder for the removal of chromium (VI from waste water has been investigated in batch mode experiments. Influences of parameters like initial chromium (VI concentration (5 - 30 mg/l, pH (2 - 4, and biomass dosage (8 - 12 g/l on chromium (VI adsorption were examined using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental design in response surface methodology was used for designing the experiments as well as for full response surface estimation and 15 trials per the model were run. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of chromium (VI from the waste water are as follows: adsorbent dosage (10.3613 g/l, pH (2.78459 and initial chromium (VI concentration (9.03197 mg/l. The maximum percentage removal of chromium at optimum conditions was 92.82 % (with metal uptake of 2.3045 mg/g. The high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.997 between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to predict efficiently the percentage removal of chromium (VI from waste water using custard apple peel powder.

Darapureddi KRISHNA

2014-06-01

44

BIOSORPTION OF Fe (II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TAMARIND BARK AND POTATO PEEL WASTE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES  

OpenAIRE

The sorptive potential of tamarind bark (Tamarindus indica) and potato peel waste (Solanum tuberosum) for Fe(II) ions has been investigated in a batch system. These two biosorbents have been examined for their capacity to sequester Fe(II) from aqueous solution under varying range of pH, biomass dosage, initial concentration of Fe(II) and contact time. The adsorbents used in this study exhibited a good adsorption potential with increase pH from 1 to 2.5. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redush...

MOHAMMED ABDULSALAM ABDULLAH; Devi Prasad, A. G.

2009-01-01

45

Studies on the utilization of citrus peel wastes by microorganisms. Part I. Fermentative production of pyruvic acid from citrus peel extract by Debaryomyces coudertii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentative production of pyruvic acid by yeasts was studied using extracts from Citrus natsudaidai peel as a C source. Many yeasts showed good growth. Of these yeasts, Debaryomyces coudertii IFO 1381 produced pyruvic acid at high yield. Pretreatment of the peel extract with Amberlite IR-120B (Na+) led to increased production of pyruvic acid. Under optimum conditions, the accumulation of pyruvic acid reached a maximum of 970 mg/100 mL after 48 h fermentation.

Moriguchi, M.

1982-01-01

46

Chemical Peels  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

47

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

48

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste  

OpenAIRE

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and ...

Sushil Kumar Middha; Veena Pande; Talambedu Usha

2013-01-01

49

Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 56.5; 10, 53.5; 20, 43.5 and 30, 33.5 %, respectively. Each animal received each diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake (g/d, average daily gain (g/d, milk yield (g/d and composition (%, feed conversion ratio (FCR and fat – corrected milk (FCM were determined for each cow per dietary regime. Results showed that feed intake and milk yield were not affected (P>0.05 by diets. FCM (kg however, differed among treatments with diets A (0.21 and B (0.24 having similar (P>0.05 but higher FCM yields than diets C (0.07 or D (0.13. Milk protein (Nx6.38, butterfat (BF, total solids (TS, lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF, ash and energy contents of milk did not vary (P>0.05 significantly. Feed conversion ratio was 0.70 for diet B and this value was superior (P< 0.05 to the corresponding values obtained for diets A (0.91, C (2.45 and D (1.56. The relationships between TS and energy (r = 0.54 and BF and energy (r = 0.98 were positive and significant (P< 0.05. Non-significant (P>0.05 negative correlation existed between milk yield and TS (r = - 0.02, milk yield and BF (r = -0.04, and milk yield and milk protein (r = -0.23. Milk yield was generally poor probably due to low level of supplementation.

A.I. Ndubueze

2006-01-01

50

Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products  

OpenAIRE

Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

Sompong Sruamsiri

2009-01-01

51

Isolation and purification of bromelain from waste peel of pineapple for therapeutic application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%), followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able [...] to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.

Iara Rocha Antunes Pereira, Bresolin; Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto, Bresolin; Edgar, Silveira; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Priscila Gava, Mazzola.

2013-12-01

52

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger. Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers. Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v sugar, the second portion was treated with sodium metabisulphite solution 2000 p.p.m concentration and the third portion was left without any treatment (control. Mango slices of each treatment were speeded on aluminum trays with an equal distribution and dried at room temperature under moving fan for seven days and then the dried products were packed in (polythene plastic socks then placed inside cartoons and stored at room temperature for nine months. The results showed that the treatment with sodiummetabisulphite solution was the best in keeping the nutritive value of mango slices (ascorbic acid. The results indicated that the best treatment which prevented browning was Gum Arabic addition. The study of the effect of storage periods at room temperature on some properties of mango slices (fingers showed there was a marked loss of some nutrients (e.g. ascorbic acid, sugars.

Inaam Awad Ismail

2011-01-01

53

Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

2014-10-29

54

Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. PMID:24011234

Novaes, Letícia Celia de Lencastre; Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho Santos; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa, Adalberto

2013-01-01

55

Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2013-06-01

56

Utilization of food waste materials for energy, food and/or animal feeds production. I. Biogas from dried banana peelings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dried banana peelings as a possible substrate for biogas production was investigated. Important fermentation parameters such as particle size, inoculum size, total solid requirements, predigestion treatment, pH, and nutrient supplementation for maximum production of biogas were determined.

Silverio, C.M.; Tan, B.V.; Pacheco, M.V.G.; Anglo, P.G.; Alamis, M.L.A.; Abad, E.J.

1984-01-01

57

Chilling injury in mangoes  

OpenAIRE

At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular fruits in the world market, and is considered to be a climacteric fruit, ripening rapidly after harvest, it is essential to study how storage affects the external and internal fruit quality in order...

Arafat, L. A. E. T.

2005-01-01

58

Chemical Peeling  

Science.gov (United States)

... has performed numerous chemical peels. Probably the greatest risk of side effects comes from not following your dermatologist’s instructions. Sun exposure, forgetting to care for the wound, scratching the treated skin, and using makeup before the skin heals can cause unwanted side ...

59

Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p Cashew Apple Waste (CAW) which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals. PMID:24506052

Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

2013-12-01

60

Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues  

Science.gov (United States)

A citrus processing industry priority is obtaining added value from fruit peel. Approximately one-half of each processed fruit is added to the waste stream. Peel residue mainly is composed of water (~80%), the remaining 20% (solid fraction) consists of pectin, soluble sugars, cellulose, proteins, ph...

61

Antioxidant Properties and Hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS Profiling of Chilean Pica Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu, 13 in Pica peel (ppe 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe. Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10, seven acid derivatives (peaks 1–4, 11, 20 and 21 and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12 and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7, which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13 was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14 was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively. The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products.

Javier E. Ramirez

2013-12-01

62

Banana Peel Carbon that Containing Functional Groups Applied to the Selective Adsorption of Au(III from Waste Printed Circuit Boards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This paper reports a kind of banana peel carbon (BPC containing -OH, -NH2 functional groups which prepared through controlling carbonization temperature and its application on the selective adsorption of gold from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs. The adsorption of BPC for Au(III reached equilibrium in 30 min and the adsorption of Au(III was favorable at pH 2.5. Meanwhile, the adsorption isotherm showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 801.7 mg/g for Au(III. The results displayed that BPC had a strong selectivity for Au(III and a negligible affinity to base metal ions, such as Cu(II, Ni(II, Fe(III and Pb(II. The BPC adsorbent, which absorbed gold, can be recovered completely by HCl-thiourea solution.

Huajun Zheng

2013-04-01

63

Chemical Composition and In Vitro Gas Production of Silage from Guinea Grass, Cassava Peel and Cashew Apple Waste at Different Periods of Ensilage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27 treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p0.05 different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p<0.05 from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

T.A. Amole

2013-01-01

64

Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. PMID:23196371

Bhattacherjee, A K

2013-02-01

65

Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical relevance of nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin was thought to be associated with the wrist lesion immediately below a glued portion of a wristwatch strap and metal clasp. PMID:15009389

Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

2004-03-01

66

Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

2012-09-01

67

Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha?¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg?¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹. PMID:21107525

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

2011-01-01

68

A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana and mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely banana, avocado and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavour dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25476008

Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción

2014-12-01

69

Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake  

OpenAIRE

Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel...

Chiraporn Sodchit; Worasit Tochampa; Teeraporn Kongbangkerd; Riantong Singanusong

2013-01-01

70

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

OpenAIRE

Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

2010-01-01

71

Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

72

Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in the adsorbent doses & temperature percent removal of copper increases. Thus mango seeds have the potential to be applied as alternative low-cost biosorbent in the remediation of heavy metal contamination in waste water.

Samiksha V. Ashtikar

2014-04-01

73

ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

Jesmine Melba, E.

2012-01-01

74

Determination of avocado and mango fruit properties by ultrasonic technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

A nondestructive ultrasonic measurement system was developed for the assessment of some transmission parameters which might have quantitative relations with the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties of avocado and mango fruits. The system utilizes a set of low-frequency probes arranged to measure the ultrasonic signal transmitted and received over a short distance across the peel. The attenuation of the ultrasonic waves, transmitted through the peel and the attached fruit tissue, changes as a result of the progressive ripening and softening of the fruit during the fruiting season and in the course of storage. The present study quantitatively addressed the linkage between the ultrasonic attenuation and the physiological parameters of the flesh of the fruits. Results were obtained in the time and frequency domain, and the data set was analyzed statistically to identify the relations between the major physiological indices and the ultrasonic parameters. Quantitative relations were developed to describe the linkage between ultrasonic parameters and the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties in mango and avocado fruits. PMID:10829759

Mizrach, A

2000-03-01

75

Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ?1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (?1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

76

Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

2014-01-01

77

A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radjars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that consumption of fruits and cut fruits in Greater Accra is relatively low. The knowledge of food irradiation is very low as food irradiation has been associated with food radioactivity. It was observed that irradiation did not have significant (p>0.05) effect on the physicochemical parameters measured however, there were significant varietal difference (p0.05) on sensory attributes evaluated. (au)

78

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.

2010-01-01

79

Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

2011-01-01

80

ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL TO PRODUCE ETHANOL AND OTHER PRODUCTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 1 million tons of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500,000 tons of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested several different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to hydrolyze grap...

81

Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

2015-05-01

82

Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100,000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly iine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. however, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031% was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 12 tabs

83

Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

84

Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

Costa, Maria Aparecida

1998-07-01

85

Coleoborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae) associated to culture wastes in mango crops in José de Freitas county – Piauí/
Coleobrocas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae) associadas a restos culturais da cultura da manga (Mangifera indica L. – Anacardiaceae) no município de José de Freitas – Piauí
 

OpenAIRE

The coleoborers use the wood to complete part of their cycle of life. In search for food they can make galleries and cause damages in the structure of the plant, allowing the entrance of pathogenic individuals that will harm the development of the crop. This research was carried out from January to May 2005 aiming to get information on the species of coleoborers associated to crop wastes in the area of mango crop, in José de Freitas county - Piauí. The insects had been collected in areas of...

Sávio Silveira Feitosa; Sergio Ide; Luiz Evaldo de Moura Pádua,; Paulo Roberto Ramalho Silva; Jean Kelson da Silva Paz

2007-01-01

86

7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...subpart. (a) Limitation of origin. The mangoes must have been grown on the island of Guimaras...forth in § 319.56-5 with regard to the mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae ). Mangoes from all other areas of the...

2010-01-01

87

Skin peeling syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

Gharpuray Mohan

1994-01-01

88

Skin peeling syndrome  

OpenAIRE

We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

Gharpuray Mohan; Mutalik Sharad

1994-01-01

89

Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

90

Antibacterial Activity of Mango Kernel Extracts  

OpenAIRE

This study is emphasized specifically on the potential of the mango Mangifera Indica seed kernel by discovering the prospective usage of mango seed kernels as a source of antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial strains. For this study, three types of mango were used; Blackgold, Lemak and Waterlily from Malaysia and Thiland. The approa...

Mirghani, M. E. S.; Yosuf, F.; Kabbashi, N. A.; Vejayan, J.; Yosuf, Z. B. M.

2009-01-01

91

Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes  

OpenAIRE

Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

Sengar, S. H.; Khandetod, Y. P.

2012-01-01

92

Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

S. H. Sengar

2012-02-01

93

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2013-04-15

94

Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango", "anaphylaxis", "contact dermatitis", "cross-reactivity", "food hypersensitivity", "oral allergy syndrome" and "urticaria". The bibliographies of all papers thus located were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 reports describing 22 patients were documented, including ten patients with immediate hypersensitivity reaction and twelve patients with delayed hypersensitivity reaction to mango. Ten of these patients (four with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from geographical areas cultivating mango, whereas twelve patients (six with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from the countries where large scale mango cultivation does not occur. The clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities of both these presentations are highlighted. The fruit mango can cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, as also "oral allergy syndrome". Although rare, it can even result in a life threatening event. Reactions may even occur in individuals without prior exposure to mango, owing to cross reactivity. It is imperative to recognize such a phenomenon early so as to avoid potentially severe clinical reactions in susceptible patients. PMID:22053296

Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

2011-04-01

95

Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: A new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22±0.03% and 4.16±0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02mgGA/100gdm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500W in only 3min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

2015-05-01

96

Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E

1992-05-15

97

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens, were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P<0.05 among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

CarmenWacher

2013-06-01

98

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive. PMID:23761788

Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

2013-01-01

99

Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa. PMID:18502231

Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

2008-06-01

100

Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

101

Coleoborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae associated to culture wastes in mango crops in José de Freitas county – Piauí/ Coleobrocas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae associadas a restos culturais da cultura da manga (Mangifera indica L. – Anacardiaceae no município de José de Freitas – Piauí  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coleoborers use the wood to complete part of their cycle of life. In search for food they can make galleries and cause damages in the structure of the plant, allowing the entrance of pathogenic individuals that will harm the development of the crop. This research was carried out from January to May 2005 aiming to get information on the species of coleoborers associated to crop wastes in the area of mango crop, in José de Freitas county - Piauí. The insects had been collected in areas of Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent and Palmer varieties, in 10 fallen branches, with approximately 50 cm long and 2.5 cm of diameter, that were taken to the plant health laboratory of Centro de Ciências Agrárias in Universidade Federal do Piauí. The coleoborers were removed from the wood, assembled in entomologic pins and sent to the Instituto Biológico in São Paulo SP for species identification. The coleoborers Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae were found.As coleobrocas usam a madeira para realizar o seu ciclo de vida, fazendo galerias e causando danos na estrutura da planta e em certas situações, permitindo a entrada de patógenos. Este trabalho foi realizado de janeiro a maio de 2005 objetivando identificar e obter informações sobre as espécies de coleobrocas associadas a restos de cultura em área de cultivo de manga, no município de José de Freitas-Piauí. Foram coletados em cada área das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, dez ramos caídos, com aproximadamente 50 cm de comprimento e 2,5 cm de diâmetro, que foram levados ao laboratório de Fitossanidade do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí. As coleobrocas adultas foram retiradas da madeira, montadas em alfinetes entomológicos e enviadas ao Instituto Biológico em São Paulo-SP para identificação das espécies. Foram coletadas as coleobrocas Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae e Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.

Sávio Silveira Feitosa

2007-08-01

102

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

OpenAIRE

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and tr...

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

103

Synthesis of silicon containing materials from the rise peel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown, that the rice peel - an agroindustrial waste can be used as the raw material, containing dioxide of silicon, in technology of reception of silicon containing materials as amorphous and crystal dioxide of silicon SiO2, water-soluble sodium silicate Na2SiO3 - liquid glass. (author)

104

Study of mango endogenous pectinases as a tool to engineer mango purée consistency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using mango endogenous pectinases to change the viscosity of mango purée. Hereto, the structure of pectic polysaccharide and the presence of sufficiently active endogenous enzymes of ripe mango were determined. Pectin of mango flesh had a high molecular weight and was highly methoxylated. Pectin methylesterase showed a negligible activity which is related to the confirmed presence of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor. Pectin contained relatively high amounts of galactose and considerable ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) activity was observed. The possibility of stimulating ?-Gal activity during processing (temperature/pressure, time) was investigated. ?-Gal of mango was rather temperature labile but pressure stable relatively to the temperature and pressure levels used to inactivate destructive enzymes in industry. Creating processing conditions allowing endogenous ?-Gal activity did not substantially change the consistency of mango purée. PMID:25442554

Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Houben, Ken; ten Geuzendam, Belinda; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

2015-04-01

105

Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benlate was found more effective than Topsin-M to reduce the problem of mango malformation.

Faqir Muhammad

1999-01-01

106

Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation (60Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H1) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H1 indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

107

Nutrient cycling in mango trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimates of nutrient amounts both shedding and demanding replacement in the maintenance of productivity of fruit trees require studies on element dynamics within the many ecosystem components generally made up of nutrient cycling. Thus, it was the objective of this study to evaluate the nutrient biochemical cycling in a mango tree (Mangifera indica L. orchard, Palmer variety. Macronutrients [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and sulfur (S] had their contents evaluated in leaves at different stages: new, mature, senescent, and litter. First exploratory analysis was performed for main components which preserve the multivariate structure shown by the data. It was possible to observe the association of new leaves with N, P, K, Mg, and S; senescent leaves and the leaves from the litter were associated to Ca, while mature leaves, to K. As a complement, taking the independent variables into consideration, Tukey test (p?0.01 showed that the averages of N, P, and Ca differ between the new and the mature leaves; average of Mg in new leaves differs from the others, and S does not differ along the stages. Also observed was the re-translocation of 41%, 63% and 57% of N, P, and K, respectively, when comparison was made among the contents of the elements in mature leaves as well as in litter, which indicates that the biochemical cycling is important for the mango tree cultivation.

Cinara Xavier de Almeida

2014-02-01

108

Decay control of carabao mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

109

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

Sharad J

2013-11-01

110

Opciones agroforestales para productores de mango  

OpenAIRE

La presente investigación se realizó durante el año 2002 con la meta de contribuir con opciones agroforestales mejoradas para plantaciones de mango (Mangifera indica) en el estado de Michoacán, con la metodología de diagnosis y diseño desarrollada por el Centro Internacional de Investigación en Agroforestería. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron diagnosticar el problema de uso de la tierra de los productores de mango y caracterizar las opciones agroforestales promisori...

Montiel-aguirre, G.; Krishnamurthy, L.; A. V\\u00E1zquez-Alarc\\u00F3n; Mez, M. Uribe-g U. F.

2006-01-01

111

Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes  

OpenAIRE

No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously hampering the export of fruit in the global chain. The consequence for consumers in western countries is that sometimes mangoes are overripe at the retailer, or have to be kept for several days, even w...

Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L. M. M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P. C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

2010-01-01

112

Anaphylaxis following ingestion of mango fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic reactions to fresh fruits and nuts have become increasingly common. Mango (Mangifera indica) is a popular fruit eaten all over the world. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who experienced oropharyngeal itching, swelling of the face and other parts of the body, and difficulty breathing within a few minutes of eating ripe mango fruit. The woman had no history of pollen or latex allergy. However, she reported instances of milder food allergic reactions to Indian dill and cashew apple. Skin prick tests using mango fruit pulp, Indian dill, and cashew apple extracts were positive. Prick tests with a panel of common grass and weed pollen extracts were negative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for mango-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E was positive. A specific protein allergen in mango could not be detected by immunoblotting. Based on the strongly positive clinical history and results of allergy testing, it was concluded that the woman had IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions to mango fruit. PMID:17982928

Hegde, V L; Venkatesh, Y P

2007-01-01

113

Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible

114

Non-Destructive Technique for Determining Mango Maturity  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important tropical fruit that has great potential in international markets. Currently, major markets for mango include North America, Europe, and Japan. The acceptance of exported mango in destination countries depends largely on eating quality, which is affected by maturity at harvest. Mango maturity can be judged visually, based on skin color, or determined chemically based on soluble solids content, acid content, and solids:acid ratio....

Salengke; Mursalim

2013-01-01

115

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2010-01-01

116

Swarm motility of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is inhibited by compounds from fruit peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlling spread of human pathogens on fresh produce is a top priority for public health reasons. Isolation of compounds from agricultural waste that would control spread of human pathogens was explored using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism. In the environment microorganisms migrate as a 'community' especially when they move on moist surfaces. This type of motility is characterized as swarming motility. We examined extracts from agricultural waste such as soybean husk, peels of orange, pineapple, avocado, and pomegranate for anti-swarming activity. Avocado and pineapple peels showed moderate (~40%) inhibition of swarming motility while pomegranate peel extract had high anti-swarming activity (~85% inhibition) and was examined in further detail. Although the pomegranate peel extract was acidic, swarm inhibitory activity was not due to low pH and the peel extract did not inhibit growth of Salmonella. Among the key swarm motility regulatory genes, class II (fliF, fliA, fliT, and fliZ) and class III (fliC and fliM) regulators were down regulated upon exposure to pomegranate peel extract. Pomegranate peels offer great potential as a bio-active repellent for pathogenic microorganisms on moist surfaces. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25422036

Mahadwar, Gouri; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Bhagavathy, Ganga Viswanathan; Murphy, Charles; Smith, Allen R; Bhagwat, Arvind A

2014-11-25

117

Influence of steam-peeled potato-processing waste inclusion level in beef finishing diets: effects on digestion, feedlot performance, and meat quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusion of potato-processing waste (PW) from the frozen potato products industry in high-grain beef cattle finishing diets was evaluated in two studies. In a randomized complete block design, 125 crossbred yearling heifers (365 +/- 0.3 kg initial BW; five pens per treatment; five heifers per pen) were used to evaluate PW level on feedlot performance and meat quality. Heifers were fed for 85 (two blocks) or 104 d (three blocks). In a digestion study, four ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated Holstein steers (474.7 +/- 26.6 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate effects of PW level on ruminal fermentation, site of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis. The control diet for both studies contained 80% corn, 10% alfalfa hay, 5% concentrated separator by-product (CSB), and 5% supplement (DM basis). Potato waste replaced corn and separator by-product (DM basis) in the diet at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in the feedlot study, and at 0, 13, 27, and 40% in the digestion study. In the feedlot study, DMI decreased (linear; P = 0.007) with increasing inclusion of PW. Increasing PW decreased ADG and feed efficiency from 0 to 30% and then increased at 40% (quadratic; P 0.30). No difference (P > 0.20) was observed for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 0, 10, 20, and 30% PW levels; however, 40% PW resulted in lower (P = 0.05) shear force values. Taste panel scores for juiciness and flavor intensity did not differ with increasing PW (P > 0.30). Steaks from cattle fed 0% were scored less tender than 10 and 40% PW (cubic; P Starch intake and ruminal disappearance decreased with increasing level of PW (quadratic; P < 0.05). Inclusion of PW decreased feedlot performance, with little effect on carcass characteristics or meat quality. Optimal inclusion of PW in finishing diets may depend on the cost of transportation and other dietary ingredients. PMID:14601870

Radunz, A E; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Marchello, M J; Loe, E R; Berg, P T

2003-11-01

118

Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought. PMID:10985036

Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

2000-08-01

119

[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631

Kroyer, G

1986-03-01

120

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Kunsong Chen

2012-09-01

121

Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

122

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

123

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento i [...] nteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle); ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS); e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR). A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a complete [...] ly randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control); diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT); diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS); and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR). The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Sales, Trevisan; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; André Luís da, Cunha; Ana Lúcia Fernandes, Pereira; Virgínia Kelly, Abreu; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

1025-10-01

124

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle; ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT; ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS; e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR. A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control; diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT; diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS; and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR. The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

2012-08-01

125

Powdery Mildew of Mango : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Powdery mildew is a serious disease of mango in the world caused by a fungus . Young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits are attacked by the fungus. Crop losses up to 100 percent have been reported in case of blossom infection when disease spreads in epidemic form. Conidia are dispersed by wind and germinate best at 20-25°C with moderate humidity. Pathogen survive from one season to the next as mycelia in dormant buds and as haustoria on old infected leaves. Telemorph of the fungus have not been reported in Pakistan or from the other mango growing regions of the world. No completely resistant cultivar of mango has been reported any where but they vary in their susceptibility to powdery mildew. Fungicides applied at 30-40 Percent flowering stage followed by two applications at 2-3 week intervals depending upon environmental conditions can effectively control the malady.

Khalid P. Akhtar

2000-01-01

126

An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

127

Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation  

OpenAIRE

Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benla...

Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Ibrahim; Aslam Pervez, M.

1999-01-01

128

Irradiation of carabao mangoes for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control of postharvest diseases of carabao mangoes by gamma radiation has been the subject of several local studies, notably that of Herrera and Valencia (1964) and Pablo et al (1971) which showed dose levels of 16.6 Kr. and 60 Kr. respectively, to be effective in extending the market life. The wide range of resorted effective dose levels for mangoes prompted this investigation which aimed to establish the pre-dominant spoilage-causing micro-organisms and the effectivity of irradiation in controlling or delaying the growth of these micro-organisms. (author)

129

Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully. PMID:18330124

Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W

2008-02-01

130

INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

2010-08-01

131

Patterning, prestress, and peeling dynamics of myocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then used to forcibly peel myotubes. The velocity at which cells peeled from the surface, V(peel), was measured as a continuously increasing function of the imposed tension, T(peel), which ranges from approximately 0 to 50 nN/ micro m. For each cell, peeling proved highly heterogeneous, with V(peel) fluctuating between 0 micro m/s ( approximately 80% of time) and approximately 10 micro m/s. Parallel studies of smooth muscle cells expressing GFP-paxillin also exhibited a discontinuous peeling in which focal adhesions fractured above sites of strong attachment (when pressure peeled using a small-bore pipette). The peeling approaches described here lend insight into the contractile-adhesion balance and can be used to study the real-time dynamics of stressed adhesions through both physical detection and the use of GFP markers; the methods should prove useful in comparing normal versus dystrophic muscle cells. PMID:14747355

Griffin, Maureen A; Engler, Adam J; Barber, Thomas A; Healy, Kevin E; Sweeney, H Lee; Discher, Dennis E

2004-02-01

132

Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape. PMID:25363615

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

2014-12-28

133

Line Creep in Paper Peeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling con?guration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ?nding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

Rosti J.

2010-06-01

134

Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

135

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

Yuh Shan Wong

2014-09-01

136

Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

137

Integrated studies on irradiated Philippine mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of the fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, has restricted export of Philippine mangoes to Japan and other countries with strict quarantine requirements. The anticipated banning of the ethylene dibromide (EDB) as fumigant necessitated studies to find a suitable replacement. Based on the encouraging results of previous disinfestation experiments further studies utilizing irradiation and its combination with a hot water dip were undertaken. The objective of the studies was to interrelate the effects of the disinfestation method to fruit maturity, storage temperature, and some related processes, including shipping, on the shelf-life, chemical, and sensory attributes of the carabao mango. Results show that the combination treatment of 0.65 kGy and a hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes can be a good alternative for ethylene dibromide with the added benefit of shelf life extension. The chemical, nutritive and sensory characteristics of the fruit also are retained. 32 refs, 19 tabs

138

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

OpenAIRE

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonen...

Li, Q.; Siles, Ja; Thompson, Ip

2010-01-01

139

76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

...0579-AD52 Importation of Mangoes From Australia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...the importation of fresh mangoes from Australia into the continental United States...be inspected prior to exportation from Australia and found free of this disease....

2011-10-25

140

Determination of 17 organophosphate pesticide residues in mango by modified QuEChERS extraction method using GC-NPD/GC-MS and hazard index estimation in Lucknow, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg(-1)) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg(-1). Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg(-1) and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg(-1) which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%-100% and 46.66%-100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg(-1) and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg(-1) body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one. PMID:24809911

Srivastava, Ashutosh K; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M K; Lohani, M; Mudiam, M K R; Srivastava, L P

2014-01-01

141

Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer mcf-7 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

2015-01-01

142

Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

2012-01-01

143

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

Kalpna Rakholiya

2013-01-01

144

Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation DNA sequencing. The RNA-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 Gb). De novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ?3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. Blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several Viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80% of total) and identified Citrus sinensis as closest neighbor of mango with 9,141 (37%) matched sequences. The annotation with gene ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Group terms categorized unigene sequences into 57 and 25 classes, respectively. More than 13,500 unigenes were assigned to 293 KEGG pathways. Besides major plant biology related pathways, KEGG based gene annotation pointed out active presence of an array of biochemical pathways involved in (a) biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids, flavones and flavonols, (b) biosynthesis of terpenoids and lignins and (c) plant hormone signal transduction. The mango transcriptome sequences revealed 235 proteases belonging to five catalytic classes of proteolytic enzymes. The draft genome of mango chloroplast (cp) was obtained by a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing. The draft mango cp genome size is 151,173 bp with a pair of inverted repeats of 27,093 bp separated by small and large single copy regions, respectively. Out of 139 genes in mango cp genome, 91 found to be protein coding. Sequence analysis revealed cp genome of C. sinensis as closest neighbor of mango. We found 51 short repeats in mango cp genome supposed to be associated with extensive rearrangements. This is the first report of transcriptome and chloroplast genome analysis of any Anacardiaceae family member. PMID:24515595

Azim, M Kamran; Khan, Ishtaiq A; Zhang, Yong

2014-05-01

145

Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development. PMID:12020010

Follett, Peter A

2002-04-01

146

Enrichment of Commercially-Prepared Juice With Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Peel Extract as a Source of Antioxidants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ready-to eat foods meet the demands of a modern lifestyle and the number of people seeking food that is convenient and safe is increasing. The extracts of peels from four different fruits were tested as potential value-added foods to offer to consumers. Physical and chemical analyses of the peel extracts were conducted to measure total phenolic compounds, tannins, phytic acid and antioxidant activity using the 1’-1’Diphenyl-2’picrylhydrazyl, and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid methods. The result of screening the antioxidant activity showed that the pomegranate peel had higher activity than the other peels (p<0.05. In addition, flavonoids and vitamin C were measured in the pomegranate peel, and low amounts of these components were found. The pomegranate peel had a high amount of phenolic compounds and high levels of antioxidants, and this peel was used to enrich a commercially-available juice. Furthermore, the sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control and enriched juice. The product was well accepted and feasible from a technological standpoint. Because the waste is rich in bioactive compounds, value is added to the final product, as these antioxidant compounds are known to protect health and improve the quality of life of the consumers.

Zilmar Meireles Pimenta Barros

2014-07-01

147

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

148

Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

2014-06-01

149

Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused significant effect only in peeled form, ash reduced significantly during peeling and cooking except in tomato. Four minerals reduced significantly in both peeling and cooking especially in peeled cooking. Vitamins losses were highly significant in both peeling and cooking.

Munir A. Sheikh

2003-01-01

150

Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ?, ethanol 80?: methanol 50?, methanol 80? and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2',-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-Carotene?linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50? peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g-1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g-1,106.78 mg QE 100 g-1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50? extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

151

Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

Chiraporn Sodchit

2013-12-01

152

Storage ability of gamma irradiated mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extension of shelf-life have been achieved by many methods. the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for the developing nations. The aim of this investigation is to study the effects of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with Alar or Benlate on 'Hindi Be Senara' mature green fruits and also to determine the optimum treatment and maximum extension in shelf - life. Mature-green 'Hindi be sinara' mango fruits were taken from trees planted in commercial orchard in 'kerdasa'Giza

153

Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for Cr(III) removal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5 ml of 2 M HNO/sub 3/. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III) on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. (author)

154

Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

155

Current Scenario of Production, Area and some Important Post Harvest Disease of Mango and their Management in India: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfort...

Bijendra Kumar Singh; Saurabh Singh,; Yadav, S. M.

2014-01-01

156

Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD, followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD, while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD. The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05 than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

J. Itelima

2013-04-01

157

Extratos etanólicos de manga como antioxidantes na alimentação de poedeiras / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for laying hens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos do caroço e da casca de manga, sobre o desempenho de poedeiras e sobre a qualidade e estabilidade lipídica dos ovos. Um total de 180 poedeiras comerciais Hisex White foi distribuído ao acaso em seis tratamentos, com cinco repetiçõ [...] es de seis aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante; ração com 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca de manga (Ecas); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato de caroço de manga (Ecar). Foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo produzida (grama por ave por dia), a conversão alimentar e características de qualidade dos ovos. A oxidação lipídica da gema durante o armazenamento foi determinada pela quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. As aves alimentadas com a ração sem adição de antioxidantes produziram ovos com os piores valores de unidade Haugh e maior oxidação lipídica da gema. Os teores de 400 ppm de Ecas e 200 ou 400 ppm de Ecar foram efetivos na prevenção de danos oxidativos aos ovos durante o armazenamento e podem ser utilizados na alimentação das poedeiras como substituto ao antioxidante sintético. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extracts of mango seeds and peel on laying hen performance, egg quality, and egg lipid stability. A total of 180 Hisex White hens were randomly distributed in six treatments, with five replicates of six birds. The treatments consisted [...] of: ration without antioxidant; ration with 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango peel extract (Ecas); and ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango seed extract (Ecar). Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, produced egg mass (gram by bird per day), feed conversion, and egg quality were evaluated. Yolk lipid oxidation during storage was determined by quantification of thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances. Birds fed diet without antioxidants produced eggs with the lowest Haugh unit values and the highest lipid oxidation of yolk. Ecas at 400 ppm and Ecar at 200 or 400 ppm were effective to prevent oxidative damage of eggs during storage and may be used in the diet of laying hens as a replacement for synthetic antioxidant.

Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Salles, Trevisan; André Luís da, Cunha; Nádia de Melo, Braz; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

2013-07-01

158

Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

159

Diversidad isoenzimática de mangos criollos de Chiapas, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

enzimático, por si solo, permitió diferenciar a cada uno de los mangos estudiados; sin embargo, la unión de los sistemas enzimáticos GPI-1 y GPI-2, generó patrones únicos que permitieron caracterizar a los diferentes mangos. El dendrograma indicó la existencia de 83 % de similitud entre las variedades analizadas, formando tres grupos: uno incluyó al mango Pomarrosa, diferente al resto de los individuos; otro grupo incluyó a los individuos criollos con características similares del fruto, así como alta cantidad de fibra y de azúcares y no comercializables. El tercer grupo incluyó mangos comerciales y algunos criollos que son comercializados localmente y que comparten similitudes en algunas características del fruto, como ausencia de fibra en la pulpa, alta cantidad de azúcares, entre otras.

D. G\\u00E1lvez-L\\u00F3pez

2007-01-01

160

Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

161

Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

162

Lipid composition and flavor changes in irradiated mango (Var. Alphonso)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes were studied in fatty acid composition of the pulp, aroma and flavor of gamma irradiated (0.25kGy) and control mature green Alphonso mangoes during ripening at 25-30 degrees C. Ripening of both control and irradiated mangoes was accompanied by changes in glycerides as well as fatty acids. Oleic acid of pulp oil of irradiated mangoes decreased appreciably during ripening as compared with controls. Linoleic acid of pulp oil of unirradiated fruits decreased markedly on the 6th day of storage. With irradiated fruits linoleic acid remained unaffected up to the 12th day of storage. Linoleic acid content of pulp oil of irradiated fruit increased much more than that of unirradiated fruit during ripening. Gas chromatographic profiles of volatiles of control and irradiated mangoes showed no difference

163

Automated Mango Fruit Grading System Using Fuzzy Logic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the size of mango fruit. Mangoes grading by humans in current agricultural industry are subjective, inconsistent and inefficient because there is an individual difference in visual inspecting which is affected by environment, physical and psychological conditions. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to create a novel grading method. A membership function and fuzzy rules are generated from training instances based on minimum entropy formulas. Computer and Red Green and Blue (RGB fiber optic sensor are used to examine and clarify data corresponding to human judgment and intelligence. A total of 77.78% of accuracy is achevied under the proposed method which capable of differentiating three different grades of mango. This paper offers a competent practice and capable to be applied to improve and standardize the current mango fruit grading system.

Yeong Kin Teoh

2013-12-01

164

Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura  

OpenAIRE

Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indic...

Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

2011-01-01

165

Heat treatment effects on ACC oxidase activity of 'Keitt' mangoes  

OpenAIRE

With the use of ethylene dibromide for mango disinfestation being ruled out, vapor heat or hot water treatments are the only alternatives for quarantine treatments of mangoes. Physical treatments such as heat treatments have been implicated in higher incidence of physiological disorders and enhancement of ripening processes. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to determine the effects of hot water treatments on ethylene production and on the in vitro activity of ACC oxidase. Cv. ...

Bender Renar João; Seibert Eduardo; Brecht Jeffrey K.

2003-01-01

166

Storage Studies of Jam Prepared from Different Mango Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six mango varieties i.e. Chaunsa, Dusehri, Langra, Anwar Ratol, Malda and Fajri were subjected to physicochemical analysis to assess their suitability for jam preparation Storage stability of jam from selected mango varieties (Chaunsa, Dusehri and Anwar Ratol was also investigated at ambient temperature (25±3°C and relative humidity 60±6%. Fajri mango had the highest pulp content (77.62% while Anwar Ratol pulp had the highest total soluble solids (21.9 °Brix, brix/acid ratio (43.80, reducing sugars (5.03% and total sugars (18.20%. Mango jams were prepared and analyzed for physicochemical, microbial and sensory parameters at 30 days storage interval for 150 days. Anwar Ratol jam had the highest total soluble solids (68.20°Brix, brix/acid ratio (101.79, reducing sugars (19.88% and total sugars (60.14% whereas Chaunsa jam had the highest acidity (0.71% and lowest pH (3.52. No detectable yeast and mold and negligible total viable count were observed in all mango jam samples during 150 days storage period. Sensory evaluation results revealed that Dusehri jam was ranked highest and more acceptable than others. However, all mango jams remained organoleptically acceptable after 150 days storage.

Nouman Siddiqui

2012-01-01

167

Sensory evaluation of irradiated mangoes for insect disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes 'Num Dok Mai' Variety at the dose of 0, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 kGy (Dose uniformity = 1.55) stored at 18 ± 1 degree C and 27 ± 1 degree C for 3, 7, 9 and 15 days after irradiation. Nine point hedonic scale method was applied. No significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes in colour, o dour, flavour and texture was found at 3, 7 and 9 days after irradiation, and the means were rather high. Fifteen days after irradiation, both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes that stored at 27 ± 1 degree C were too rot to eat, on the other hand, only irradiated mangoes that stored at 18 ± 1 degree C were non significant difference in colour, o dour, flavour and texture, however the means were rather high also. This experiment could be summarized that the panel list accepted the irradiated mangoes at the dose of 1.16 - 1.79 kGy, stored at 18 ± 1 degree C, 15 days after irradiation. This dosage could kill the adult mango seed weevil (L D99 = 1.39 kGy)

168

Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture under optimized fermentation conditions and maximum activity of 412 ± 12 U/mL was recorded after 4th day of incubation at pH 5.5 and 30?. Exo 1, 4-? glucanase was 4.17-fold purified with specific activity of 642 U/mg in comparison to the crude extract. To confirm its purity and molecular weight, sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE was performed. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 60 kDa with an optimum pH and temperature of 5 and 50?, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plot revealed that the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of purified Exo 1, 4-? glucanase were 76 µM and 240 U/mL.

Muhammad Irshad

2012-09-01

169

7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305...Treatments § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. ...immediately after the hot water immersion treatment, then the original dip...

2010-01-01

170

Analytical Study Of Mango Production In India With Special Reference To Mahamango Co- Operative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In India the production of mango is taken in large extent. In world India is number one in mango production. Uttar Pradesh state the production of mango is large compared to the other states. Also Maharashtra has different varieties of mango production. Especially the Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board (MSAMB has promoted the organization of Mango growers in the name of Mahamango. In order to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing, "MAHAMANGO", a co-operative partnership society has been established on 8th March, 1991. Researchers aspire is to analyze the production of mango in India with the special reference to MAHAMANGO Cooperative. Also researcher wants to know the state wise varieties grown and overall production of mango in India and the world.

Kadam Deepak R

2013-09-01

171

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase from the submerged fermentation of citrus wastes by Penicillium janthinellum MTCC 10889  

OpenAIRE

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase was studied in cultures of Penicillium janthinellum grown on citrus fruit waste supplemented cultivation media. Both dried orange peel and sweet lime peel could induce the production of this enzyme. The working strain showed a pronounced optimum pH and temperature for ?-xylosidase production at 6.0 and 27 °C, respectively. The enzyme production was found to remain stable for a long period of 120 h. Orange peel and sweet lime peel showed different ...

Kundu, Aditi; Ray, Rina Rani

2012-01-01

172

Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: Stabilization of corn oil  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant potential of 80% methanolic extracts of some agro wastes (pomegranate peel, apple peel, banana peel, citrus peel, corncob, wheat husk, wheat bran, rice bran, and rice hull) was assessed. The yields of the extracts varied over a wide range (8.83 to 29.9 g/100g of dry weight). TPC, TFC, total flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin; HPLC method), DPPH. radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation for the extracts varied significantly (P < 0.05) ranging fr...

Ali Shahid Chatha, Shahzad; Rafique Asi, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Sultana, Bushra

2008-01-01

173

A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region  

OpenAIRE

Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid...

Mannan, M. A.; Khan, S. A. K. U.; Islam, M. R.; Sirajul Islam, M.; Ayesha Siddiqa

2003-01-01

174

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

175

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

1991-06-15

176

New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

2002-03-01

177

Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the r detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

178

Tyrosinase inhibitory components of immature calamondin peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is broad range of applications in the use of tyrosinase inhibitors for suppressing unwanted hyperpigmentation in human skin and enzymic browning in fruits. In searching effective tyrosinase inhibitors from natural products, the components in unripe calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated by performing bioassay-directed fractionation and chromatographic separation coupled with tyrosinase inhibition assay. Herein it is reported for the first time that (1) there is a rich content of 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin in unripe calamondin peel, 3.69±0.44g/100g dry basis, (2) this C-glycosylated flavonoid showed the strongest inhibitory activity against tyrosinase among the components in this fruit, with an IC(50) of 0.87mg/ml, and (3) that unripe calamondin peel is also a rich source of naringin and hesperidin, 1.25% and 0.73% by dry weight, respectively, which also expressed strong tyrosinase inhibitory property. PMID:22953829

Lou, Shyi-Neng; Yu, Ming-Wen; Ho, Chi-Tang

2012-12-01

179

Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol / Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacé [...] tico e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulações, desencadeiam o peeling superficial, médio e profundo. O fenol tem sido utilizado como peeling profundo tanto isoladamente como em associação com outros componentes da fórmula que atuam como promotores de penetração e permeação. A utilização desses produtos resulta no processo de renovação celular intenso, normalizando a pigmentação da pele, atenuando marcas e minimizando as rugas. Devido a sua toxicidade e contra-indicações, o fenol deve ser aplicado cuidadosamente segundo a técnica recomendada, e o paciente deve ser monitorado para se obter a máxima eficácia do peeling e também minimizar os efeitos sistêmicos. Abstract in english The natural aging of facial skin is a source of preoccupation for many, who seek out the aid of a specialized physician to minimize its signs. The skin's youthfulness can be obtained using chemical peeling made from various active substances such as glycolic, retinoic, and trichloroacetic acids and [...] phenol. These substances proportion cutaneous exfoliation with subsequent cellular renovation. Depending on the formula concentration and pH value, peelings may be superficial, medium or deep. Phenol has been used in deep peeling. It is the main component of the Baker/Gordon formula, as well as other formula substances acting as penetration and permeation promoters. The use of these active substances results in an intensive process of cellular renovation. It decreases wrinkles, softens the presence of dark spots and gives the skin a youthful appearance. Due to its toxicity and side effects, phenol should be used carefully. Technical steps must be followed. The patient should be monitored in order to obtain maximum effectiveness from the peeling, thereby minimizing effects on the systemic functions.

Maria Valéria Robles, Velasco; Fernanda Rumi, Okubo; Maria Elizette, Ribeiro; Denise, Steiner; Valcenir, Bedin.

2004-02-01

180

INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS  

OpenAIRE

Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the pe...

Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan

2010-01-01

181

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

OpenAIRE

This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminateinhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel wasenzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of thereleased sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibitionby limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes wasa powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The enca...

Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Claes Niklasson,; Farid Talebnia; Mohammad Pourbafrani

2007-01-01

182

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

OpenAIRE

Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized condition...

Ibrahim, D.; Salikin, N-h; Lim, S. H.; Ahmad, R.; Weloosamy, H.

2013-01-01

183

Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

2013-06-01

184

Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically r storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

185

Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

186

Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

2014-06-01

187

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

188

Pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of Platycodon Grandiflorum peel and its cellulose extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of a biomass waste material, namely Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (P. G.) peel and its cellulose extract were studied at heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C/min under a nitrogen flow atmosphere. The most probable mechanism function and activation energy pre-exponential factors were calculated by using the Popescu, FWO and KAS methods. The three stages appeared during pyrolysis include: moisture evaporation, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. Significant differences in the average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were observed. Stage II of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract could be described by the function Avrami-Erofeev [-ln(1-?)](3) and the function chemical reaction (1-?)(-0.5), respectively. The average activation energy of P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were 157 and 196kJ/mol, respectively. Kinetic compensation effects of the pre-exponential factors and activation energy were also observed. PMID:25498683

Qiu, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Quan-Cheng; Geng, Jie

2015-03-01

189

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

OpenAIRE

Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil) Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy t...

Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

2010-01-01

190

Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m2 for 1.5-1.7 ?m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: ? Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. ? Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. ? Displacement and delactromagnet. ? Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. ? Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. ? The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m2.

191

Effects on storage life and quality of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the effect of irradiation at 50 Krad, hot water treatment at 55 degC 5 min and hot water treatment followed by irradiation were carried out on the mature green Keaw mango to eradicate anthracnose disease development and delay ripening. Before introducing all treatments, mangoes were inoculated by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. All samples were determined after stored at 10 +- 2 degC and at 85% RH for 3 weeks. No difference in disease control between untreated and irradiated batches, but fruits treated with hot water followed by irradiation were significantly different from untreated ones. All treatments were effective in delaying ripening. Higher dosage of irradiation with a combination of hot water treatment was studied on colour break Pimsen Prure mango and 75 Krad after hot water treatment proved to be promising. Further study is being conducted

192

Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper presents the core-centric programming model for establishing and using GS connections in MANGO. We show how OCP transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system

Bjerregaard, Tobias; SparsØ, Jens

2006-01-01

193

Spatiotemporal patterns formed by deformed adhesive in peeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamical properties of peeling an adhesive tape are investigated experimentally as an analogy of sliding friction. An adhesive tape is peeled by pulling an elastic spring connected to the tape. Controlling its spring constant k and pulling speed V, peel force is measured and spatiotemporal patterns formed on the peeled tape by deformed adhesive are observed. It is found that there exist two kinds of adhesive state in peeling front. The emergence of multiple states is caused by the stability of a characteristic structure (tunnel structure) formed by deformed adhesive. Tunnel structures are distributed spatiotemporally on adhesive tape after peeling. Based on the spatiotemporal distribution, a morphology-dynamical phase diagram is constructed on k-V space and is divided into the four regions: (A) uniform pattern with tunnel structure, (B) uniform pattern without tunnel structure, (C) striped pattern with oscillatory peeling, and (D) spatiotemporally coexistent pattern

194

Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.. Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.. The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

Murillo Freire Júnior

1999-05-01

195

Mango Malformation: I. Toxin Production Associated with Fusarium Pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Eight Fusarium species i.e. F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. monili-forme, F. avena and F. chlamydspore isolated from mango malformed disease were tested for their ability to cause mango malformation disease and their production of moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) using HPLC. A evaluated for moniliformin production, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.51 to 8.90 µg/ml. The higher levels were pr...

Abd El-Wahab M.; Sehab A.; Hazza M.; Wafaa Haggag M.

2011-01-01

196

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology / Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos), todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. [...] Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm), a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC) durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem. Abstract in english Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles) acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combinin [...] g the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm) at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC) during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1) was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.

Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de, Azeredo; Fátima Beatriz Silva de, Araújo; Deborah dos Santos, Garruti; Ana Amélia Martins, Queiroz; Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra, Pinto.

2005-04-01

197

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combining the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1 was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos, todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm, a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem.

Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de Azeredo

2005-04-01

198

Addition of Tomato Peel and Seed to Tomato Ketchup for Improving Its Nutritional Value and Rheological Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, tomato peel and waste seed obtained from tomato paste processing were dried and milled. The obtained powder was added to tomato ketchup sauce in different proportions (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10%. To study the effect of tomato peel and seed powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the tomato ketchup samples, the parameters including lycopen, total solid, brix, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein, fat, ash, fiber, vitamin C, pH, color (L, a/b were evaluated. Rheological properties of the ketchup samples (consistency and viscosity were determined and compared with control samples. Sensory evaluation of the ketchup samples was carried out after 1, 2 and 5 months of storage by a group of panelists. Addition of tomato peel and seed powder resulted in an increase in total solid, brix, ash, fiber, protein, fat, consistency and viscosity of the ketchup samples. Sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant difference between the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the control and samples containing 1 or 2 % of tomato peel and seed powder. In addition, sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant changes in the ketchup samples during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that nutritional and rheological properties of tomato ketchup can be improved by addition of tomato peel and seed powder.

A Abasi

2009-04-01

199

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali, Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna, Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P., its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrapali followed by Rad, Mallika, BARI mango-1 and BARI mango-2 and the lowest infestation of 13.78 and 18.55% found in Langra and Gopalbhog followed by Kazla-01 and Khirsapath. The other three varieties sustained 27.49-30.64 % leaf damage. To control the mango leaf cutting weevil bagging with mosquito net and bagging with polythin bag had the best performance with 100% reduction of leaf infestation followed by spraying of Ripcord. Spraying of Decis caused 82.23 % reduction of leaf damage followed by Sevin, Azodrin and Diazinon with the least control efficiency of Sumithion.

M. A. Uddin

2003-01-01

200

Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolu...

Orzua, Mari?a C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro La; Teixeira, J. A.; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noe?

2009-01-01

201

Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-01-01

202

Improved Manager of Next Generation Sequencing Orders – MANGO  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Genomics Center Zurich (FGCZ) is a joint state-of-the-art research and training facility of the ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich. With latest technologies and expert support in genomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, the FGCZ carries out research projects and technology development in collaboration with the Zurich Life Science research community. The FGCZ offers services for different applications on the Illumina HiSeq2500, Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent, Ion Proton and PACBIO RS. At the FGCZ, we handle hundreds of NGS projects a year. We conceptualized, developed and implemented the MANGO to help manage, track, monitor and document our various and diverse NGS service orders. The MANGO works in multiple levels, first, it is a web accessible sample tracking system. It can be accessed and sample data can be added in real-time through a computer, an android tablet or an Ipad. Second, it manages multiplexing of sequencing runs because it can detect sub-optimal index combinations from various popular commericial kits and self made indices. Third, the MANGO creates well-formatted sample sheets for the various sequencers available in the FGCZ. Fourth, it can accept data in .csv format from instruments used for QC during library preparation. And lastly, it is flexible in adapting to the ever changing NGS workflows and instrumentations. In the poster, we will present the new features that have been implemented in the MANGO.

Georgijevic, J. K.; Schlapbach, R.; Fournier, C. A.

2014-01-01

203

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that frof the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

204

Patterning, Prestress, and Peeling Dynamics of Myocytes  

OpenAIRE

As typical anchorage-dependent cells myocytes must balance contractility against adequate adhesion. Skeletal myotubes grown as isolated strips from myoblasts on micropatterned glass exhibited spontaneous peeling after one end of the myotube was mechanically detached. Such results indicate the development of a prestress in the cells. To assess this prestress and study the dynamic adhesion strength of single myocytes, the shear stress of fluid aspirated into a large-bore micropipette was then u...

Griffin, Maureen A.; Engler, Adam J.; Barber, Thomas A.; Healy, Kevin E.; Sweeney, H. Lee; Discher, Dennis E.

2004-01-01

205

Peeling Bifurcations of Toroidal Chaotic Attractors  

OpenAIRE

Chaotic attractors with toroidal topology (van der Pol attractor) have counterparts with symmetry that exhibit unfamiliar phenomena. We investigate double covers of toroidal attractors, discuss changes in their morphology under correlated peeling bifurcations, describe their topological structures and the changes undergone as a symmetry axis crosses the original attractor, and indicate how the symbol name of a trajectory in the original lifts to one in the cover. Covering or...

Letellier, Christophe; Gilmore, Robert; Jones, Timothy

2007-01-01

206

Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

2012-03-30

207

Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium (III Ion Adsorption by Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adsorption of Cr (III ion from aqueous solution using orange peels as adsorbent was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. The research is significant as it’s aimed at investigating the suitability of orange peel, a waste product as adsorbent for the adsorption of Cr (III ions from aqueous solution. Orange peel as an adsorbent is resource-saving and has an environmental friendly behavior. Adsorption envelope experiment was conducted using a constant Cr (III ion concentration of 0.1 M, adsorbent dose of 2.5 g and a temperature of 30°C at varying solution pH of 2, 4, 7, 9 and 12 respectively with pH of 2 having the highest adsorption and therefore it was selected for use in the adsorption isotherm experiment. Adsorption isotherm experiment was conducted at varying temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.3 M Cr(NO33. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G, ?H, ?Hr, ?A, and ?S were calculated from the experimental data which showed that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and followed physisorption mechanism 9H2O and adsorbent dosage (1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g respectively. The experimental results were tested using Langmuir, Freundlich, Linear and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The experimental data best fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The experimental results revealed the suitability of orange peel which is a waste product as effective adsorbent for the sorption of chromium (III ions from aqueous solution.

Fabian A. Ugbe

2014-07-01

208

In vitro interactions with repeated grapefruit juice administration--to peel or not to peel?  

Science.gov (United States)

Interactions of acutely administered grapefruit juice (GFJ) with cytochrome P450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) function are well established. In this study, we investigated in vitro the effect of repeated administration of GFJ and its major constituents (the flavonoid naringin, its aglycone naringenin and the furanocoumarin bergamottin) on mRNA expression of MDR1 and CYP3A4 in LS180 cells. Since the bergamottin content is higher in the peel than in the fruit, we compared GFJ containing peel (GFJP+) with juice without any peel extract (GFJP-). GFJP- (1%) showed no significant effect on MDR1 and CYP3A4 mRNA expression, whereas 1% GFJP+ increased expression of MDR1 3.7-fold (Ppeel extract may have a lower potential for interactions with CYP3A4 or P-glycoprotein. PMID:19148864

Brill, Shlomo; Zimmermann, Christian; Berger, Karin; Drewe, Juergen; Gutmann, Heike

2009-03-01

209

Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

210

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

211

The survey and the effect of gamma irradiation on Mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of the mango seed weevil during February to July of 1993-1995 at Ratchaburi province, Chachoengsao province and Chieng Mai province. Only at Chieng Mai province was found at 2.35 percent to 37.36 percent. Outbreak occurred in the mango orchard which there was no insecticide application and pruning. Over 20 years old of the mango trees with the crevices of the bark around the trunk would be the host area of the adult mango seed weevil. The adult would hibernate by living in the crevice of the bark and in the ground around the base of the trunk. All specimens of mango seed weevils found was Sternochaetus oliveri (Faust). The study on effect of gamma radiation on the adult of mango seed weevil found that L D99 is 1.39 kGy after 28 days of irradiation. They were very slow movement without feeding and mating

212

Occurrence of alk(en)ylresorcinols in the fruits of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars during on-tree maturation and postharvest storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regarding their relevance for the fungal resistance of mangoes in long supply chains, the alk(en)ylresorcinols (AR) were quantitated in peel and mesocarp throughout storage (27 days, 14 °C, ethylene absorption). The 12 'Chok Anan' and 11 'Nam Dokmai #4' lots picked between 83 and 115 days after full bloom (DAFB) had different harvest maturity indices. The development of dry matter and fruit growth indicated physiological maturity ?100 DAFB. During storage, all fruits ripened slowly, mostly until over-ripeness and visible decay. The total AR contents always ranged at 73 ± 4.5 and 6.4 ± 0.7 mg hg(-1) of 'Chok Anan' and 'Nam Dokmai #4' peel dry weight, respectively, but only at 6.7 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.1 mg hg(-1) for the corresponding mesocarp (P ? 0.05). These narrow concentration ranges were contradictory to the decreasing fungal resistance. Accordingly, the alk(en)ylresorcinols have not been a deciding factor for the fungal resistance. PMID:24350757

Kienzle, Stefanie; Carle, Reinhold; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Tosta, Carola; Neidhart, Sybille

2014-01-01

213

High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit  

OpenAIRE

We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted peel spotting. The in vitro activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), measured both in the whole peel and in peel spots, were lower in high oxygen than in ...

Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W. G.

2007-01-01

214

Mapping the economic structure and organisation of selected South African mango export supply chains  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation is the outcome of a study to map the economic structure and organisation of two selected mango export chains from South Africa by applying selected supply chain analysis tools. The study is part of an inventory on the export of fresh fruit and vegetables commissioned by the European Commission under the Veg-i-Trade Project Work Package 1. The two selected chains were the Bavaria fresh mango and the Blue Skies freshly cut mango export supply chains. The study so...

Mahoya, Sophia

2013-01-01

215

CONSUMERS'ACCEPTANCE OF FRESH AND COMBINED METHODS PROCESSED MELON, MANGO AND CASHEW APPLE  

OpenAIRE

Fresh and combined methods processed Cantaloupe melons, mangoes and cashew apples were submitted to consumers' acceptance and scored on a nine-point hedonic scale. Fruits were osmotically treated in sucrose syrup with two different concentrations of SO2. Overall acceptance, appearance, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated. Fresh cashew apples received lower scores for acceptance than processed cashew apples while fresh mangoes were more acceptable than processed mangoes. Acceptance of fre...

NASSU RENATA TIEKO; LIMA JANICE RIBEIRO; SOUZA FILHO MEN DE SÁ MOREIRA DE

2001-01-01

216

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement — a review  

OpenAIRE

The king of fruits “Mango” (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world’s mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destr...

Jha, S. N.; Narsaiah, K.; Sharma, A. D.; Singh, M.; Bansal, S.; Kumar, R.

2010-01-01

217

The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca++ and release of CO2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca++ treatment alone

218

Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing  

OpenAIRE

Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing...

Rendon, Marta I.; Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

2010-01-01

219

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

Ibrahim, D.

2013-12-01

220

Mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica), variedad de Colombia: características antioxidantes, nutricionales y sensoriales / Sugar mango (Mangifera indica), variety from Colombia: antioxidant, nutritional and sensorial characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango de azúcar es una variedad colombiana pequeña, de escasa fibra, buen aroma y sabor. Esta investigación evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del fruto en diferentes estados de maduración por FRAP y DPPH clasificados por inspección visual y escala CIELab. Las características nutricionales y el val [...] or ORAC se determinaron en el mango maduro. Las características sensoriales de dos formulaciones (sacarosa y sucralosa) con mango maduro se determinaron por prueba afectiva de aceptación y escala Hedónica. Resultados: la clasificación por inspección visual coincidió con la escala CIELab. El mango verde tiene 45% más flavonoides que el maduro. El contenido de carotenoides, valores DPPH y FRAP fueron similares en los diferentes estados de maduración. El 94% de los panelistas aceptaron el néctar con sucralosa comparado con el endulzado con sacarosa (89,1%). Los resultados indican que el mango de azúcar y un producto tipo néctar poseen capacidad antioxidante, compuestos bioactivos y nutricionales beneficiosos para la salud. Abstract in english The sugar mango is a small Colombian cultivar with low fiber content, good aroma and flavor. This research evaluated antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH) of the fruit at different ripening stages classified by visual inspection and CIELab scale. Nutritional and sensory characteristics and ORAC value we [...] re measured in the ripe fruit. Sensorial characteristics of two mango nectars sweetened with sucrose and sucralose using ripe fruit were determined by affective acceptance test and Hedonic scale. Results showed that classification by visual inspection coincided with the CIELab scale for all ripening stages. The green mango has 45% more flavonoids than the mature one. The carotenoid content, DPPH and FRAP values were similar in the different ripening stages. Sucralose sweetened nectar was accepted by 94.9% compared with that sweetened with sucrose (89.1%). Results indicate that mango sugar fruit and nectar present antioxidant capacity, bioactive and nutritional compounds with potential health benefits.

Andrea, Corrales-Bernal; Maria Elena, Maldonado; Luz Amparo, Urango; Maria Camila, Franco; Benjamín Alberto, Rojano.

2014-09-01

221

Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

222

Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD50 values (?-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved. (author)

223

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2010-04-01

224

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

225

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

226

Evaluation of Allelopathic Activity of Three Mango (Mangifera indica Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the allelopathic potential of three mango (Mangifera indica cultivars: Khirshapat, Himsagor and Sinduri. The aqueous methanol extracts of leaves at four different concentrations were examined against germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidum sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli and timothy (Phleum pratense. The germination and seedling growth of all test plant species were inhibited significantly by selected mango leaf extracts at concentrations greater than 0.01 g dry weight (DW equivalent extract mL-1. The inhibitory activities of the extracts were proportional to the extract concentrations. At 0.1 g DW equivalent extract mL-1, a significant delay or complete inhibition of germination were observed on all test plant species except for Sinduri extracts on barnyard grass. Alternatively, all extracts showed more than 70% hypocotyl/coleoptile and root growth inhibition of all test plant species except barnyard grass at the same concentration. The concentration required for 50% growth inhibition (I50 on the hypocotyls/coleoptiles and roots of the test plants ranged from 0.003-0.103 g DW equivalent extract mL-1. These results suggest that all three mango cultivars have allelopathic properties and thus allelopathic substances. As no prominent differences in the inhibitory activity were found among the three mango cultivars, all of them might be useful candidates for isolation and identification of allelopathic substances which may lead the basis for new natural herbicides development.

Md Sirajul Islam Khan

2013-01-01

227

Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris PV. magniferaeindicae in mango plants  

OpenAIRE

The yearly losses incurred by bacterial blackspot disease are high. Often trees are asymptomatic, with the pathogen either in the resident phase or latent stage of infection. Detection of the pathogen in these asymptomatic trees is one of the most important means of controlling the disease. Isolates which consistently differed in virulence were isolated from symptomatic mango plants. These isolates could be categorised into four groups based upon differences in virulence. Monoc...

Sanders, Gina Mercia

1993-01-01

228

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

OpenAIRE

Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative prom...

Davenport, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

229

Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text-book consist of two parts: (I) Treatment of solid non-active wastes (totally of nine chapters), and (II) Radioactivity and treatment of radioactive wastes (one chapter). This text-book is assigned for university students of the environment protection as well as for students of nuclear chemistry and related sciences

230

77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase  

Science.gov (United States)

...rate upon completion of the March 2010 referendum to determine whether mango handlers...approval of the Secretary, after the first referendum is conducted. Mango assessment collections...pound after the March 2010 continuance referendum. Of the members present at the...

2012-04-12

231

76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase  

Science.gov (United States)

...rate upon completion of the March 2010 referendum to determine whether mango handlers...approval of the Secretary, after the first referendum is conducted. Mango assessment collections...pound after the March 2010 continuance referendum. Of the members present at the...

2011-05-10

232

Evidence of Salmonella internalization into fresh mangos during simulated postharvest insect disinfestation procedures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent U.S. salmonellosis outbreak was epidemiologically associated with consumption of imported fresh mangos. Studies were conducted to simulate the commercial heat disinfestation method used to eliminate tephritid fly larvae from mangos, as well as subsequent product cooling procedures, to assess whether this process promotes internalization of Salmonella into mangos. The experimental parameters were chosen to mimic the disinfestation method used by the South American producer/packer implicated in the recent outbreak. Untreated domestically grown immature and ripened Tommy Atkins variety mangos were immersed in water at 47 degrees C for 90 min and then immersed in 21 degrees C water containing brilliant blue FD&C no. 1 dye for 10 min. After dye internalization potential was established (67%), the same experiment was performed using 21 degrees C water containing 10(7) CFU/ml Salmonella Enteritidis expressing constitutive green fluorescent protein. Fruit was then stored at 10, 20, or 30 degrees C for up to 1 week. Immature and ripened mangos were positive for Salmonella internalization at a frequency of 80 and 87%, respectively. Internalization frequency into the stem-end segment (83%) was significantly higher (P Salmonella was detected in the mango pulp after 1 week of incubation. The degree of fruit ripeness, posttreatment holding temperature, or duration of storage had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on internalization frequency or survival of Salmonella inside mangos. This study illustrates the high potential for pathogen internalization if heat-disinfested mangos are cooled using contaminated water. PMID:14717371

Penteado, Ana Lucia; Eblen, B Shawn; Miller, Arthur J

2004-01-01

233

Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirotetramat is a unique insecticide having both phloem and xylem mobility and imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used in the world. The combination formulation is very effective against sucking pests of mango. Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil was studied following application of the combination formulation, spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 SC) at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). Spirotetramat residues in/on mango fruits were 0.327 and 0.483 mg kg(-1) after giving 3 applications at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. The residues remained on mango fruits for 7 days and dissipated with the half-life of 3.3 and 5.2 days, respectively. Residues of spirotetramat-enol, the major metabolite of spirotetramat in plant, were not detected in mango fruits. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits from the two treatments were 0.329 and 0.536 mg kg(-1), respectively. Imidacloprid residues remained on mango fruits beyond 15 days and dissipated with the half-life of 5.2 and 8.2 days. The residues of spirotetramat, spirotetramat-enol and imidacloprid were found below quantifiable limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in mature mango fruits and field soil at harvest. PMID:22872376

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Lekha, S; Nethravathi, B; Radhika, B; Gourishanker, S

2012-10-01

234

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.)--a promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view. PMID:21857121

Policegoudra, R S; Aradhya, S M; Singh, L

2011-09-01

235

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

236

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement - a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The king of fruits "Mango" (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. PMID:23572595

Jha, S N; Narsaiah, K; Sharma, A D; Singh, M; Bansal, S; Kumar, R

2010-01-01

237

Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant  

OpenAIRE

The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100°C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating sampl...

Harivaindaran, K. V.; Rebecca, O. P. S.; Chandran, S.

2008-01-01

238

Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

Ayantu Tucho

2014-01-01

239

Current Scenario of Production, Area and some Important Post Harvest Disease of Mango and their Management in India: An Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfortunately, the final quality of mango batches is highly heterogeneous in fruit size as well as in gustatory quality and postharvest behaviour. A large amount of knowledge has been gathered on the effects of the maturity stage at harvest and postharvest conditions on the final quality of mango. Considerably, less attention has been paid to the influence of environmental factors on mango growth, quality traits and postharvest behaviour. The preharvest factors presented here are light, temperature, carbon and water availabilities which can be controlled by various cultural practices such as tree pruning, fruit thinning and irrigation management. Recent advances are also discussed in modelling mango function on the tree according to environmental conditions that combined with experimental studies, can improve our understanding of how these preharvest conditions affect mango growth and quality.

Bijendra Kumar Singh

2014-01-01

240

Evaluación de dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones de mango Evaluation of two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango  

OpenAIRE

El mango (Mangifera indica L.) es un fruto muy difundido en Venezuela que puede ser considerado como una fuente alternativa no convencional para la producción de almidón. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones del mango tipo Hilacha. Los cotiledones fueron molidos hasta harina, la cual fue sometida a dos tratamientos independientes de inmersión: (I) agua destilada, y (II) solución acuosa de NaOH 0,25 N. A los producto...

Carlos Medina; Alison Paredes; Rodri?guez, Mari?a E.; Mario Moreno; Douglas Belén-Camacho; David García; Carlos Ojeda

2010-01-01

241

Hongos endofitos en plantaciones de mango `Haden' de la planicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela Endophytes fungi in mango Haden' orchards of Maracaibo plain, Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

Se evaluó la presencia y distribución de hongos endofitos (asintomáticos) en cuatro plantaciones de mango `Haden' sometidos a diferentes prácticas agronómicas y ubicados en la Planicie de Maracaibo (condiciones semi-áridas). Los hongos se recuperaron empleando la técnica de la triple esterilización (método específico para hongos endofitos). Todos los hongos identificados son conocidos fitopatógenos del mango. En todas las plantaciones se registró la presencia de Fusarium decemcell...

Morales-rondo?n, V.; Rodri?guez-gonza?lez, M.

2006-01-01

242

Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

2004-01-01

243

Purification of citrus peel juice and molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peel juice and molasses are extremely bitter and unpalatable byproducts of orange and grapefruit juice production. Major components of interest are soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose, which account for 60-70% of the dry solids. Analyses indicate that the remaining components are suspended tissue fragments, proteins, organic acids, mineral ions, phenolic compounds, and polyols. A purification sequence that removed a majority of bitter limonoids and phenolic compounds by adsorption on nonionic, macroporous resins was tested. Residual phenolic compounds were removed by adsorption on activated carbon or anion-exchange resin, which also removed anions of organic and inorganic acids. Taste panel results suggested that debittered products could be acceptable for food uses. PMID:10606543

Grohmann, K; Manthey, J A; Cameron, R G; Buslig, B S

1999-12-01

244

Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

Okojie L. O.

2014-02-01

245

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase. PMID:24651387

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

2014-01-01

246

Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas / Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ta [...] manho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao final de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, si [...] ze and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each period, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; José Carlos, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado.

2013-06-01

247

Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. PMID:24907732

Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

2014-08-01

248

Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha / The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (25µm) com sachê absorv [...] edor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax) e controle (sem filme plástico). Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix), porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico) e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga. Abstract in english The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (2 [...] 5µm) with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax) and control (without film). The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

Luciana Bittencourt, Pfaffenbach; Josalba Vidigal de, Castro; Cássia Regina Limonta, Carvalho; Carlos Jorge, Rossetto.

2003-12-01

249

Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax e controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix, porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga.The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax and control (without film. The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

Luciana Bittencourt Pfaffenbach

2003-12-01

250

Novel Postharvest Treatment Reduces Ascorbic Acid Losses in Mango (Mangifera indica L. Var. Kent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Mango is a tropical fruit that ripens very quickly; for this reason, there has been a continuous effort to develop postharvest technologies to extend its shelf life and quality. Among them, 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP is widely used because it inhibits the action of ethylene receptors. Approach: Changes in physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and cell wall degrading activities were evaluated during storage and ripening of fresh whole mangoes treated with 1-MCP (750 nL L-1. Mature-green mangoes, cultivar Kent, untreated or treated with 1-MCP were evaluated for external quality, phytochemicals, Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methylesterase (PME enzymatic activities during storage at 20°C for 2 weeks. Results: Concentration of ascorbic acid decreased during fruit ripening but 1-MCP-treated mangoes had reduced losses. Polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase activities were reduced in the treated fruits as compared to untreated mangoes. Small changes in ?-carotene were observed between treated and untreated fruits. Conclusion: 1-MCP affected the ripening process in Kent mango, reducing losses of ascorbic acid, this treatment is justified since it helps to maintain mangos nutritional value during its shelf life.

Maria A. Islas-Osuna

2010-01-01

251

Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

252

Calidad del mango ataulfo producido en Nayarit, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en la región de Atonalisco, Municipio de Tepic, Nayarit durante la temporada 1998, con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L. variedad ?Ataulfo?, así como determinar la influencia sobre ésta de la época de cosecha, manejo postcosecha y almacenamiento. Se evaluaron tres fechas de cosecha (7 y 19 de junio y 4 de julio; cuatro etapas en la cadena postcosecha (huerto, empaque, lavado e hidrotérmico y dos condiciones de almacenamiento (ambiente: 25 ± 3 °C; 65-75 % HR por nueve días y refrigeración: 14 días a 12 ± 1 °C; 85 % HR y posterior exposición a temperatura ambiente por seis días. Se encontró que la calidad del fruto de mango Ataulfo producido en la región cumple satisfactoriamente los requisitos de la Norma Mexicana de calidad de mango fresco para exportación; sin embargo, ésta fue afectada significativamente por los factores en estudio. En madurez de consumo, los frutos de la primera y segunda cosecha presentaron valores superiores de la relación sólidos solubles totales/acidez, firmeza, color y apariencia externa, respecto a la tercera fecha. El tratamiento hidrotérmico cuarentenario fue la forma de manejo postcosecha que más influyó en la calidad, ya que afectó negativamente firmeza y agudizó el daño por látex, pero uniformizó el color interno y externo. Las condiciones de almacenamiento también influyeron significativamente en la mayoría de las variables. Los frutos almacenados bajo refrigeración y posterior simulación de mercadeo a temperatura ambiente por seis días, mostraron menor firmeza, pobre desarrollo de color interno y mayor daño por látex.

Jorge A. Osuna Garc\\u00EDa

2002-01-01

253

Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients  

OpenAIRE

Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a wel...

Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K.

2012-01-01

254

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA, produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

2012-04-01

255

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos / Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo [...] deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA). Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa. Abstract in english The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective [...] of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA), produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da, Silva; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Aline, Rocha; Luiz Carlos Chamhum, Salomão; Rosana Gonçalves Pires, Matias; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving.

2012-04-01

256

Microbial and Chemical Evaluation of Whey-Based Mango Beverage  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out on the development and storage of Whey Based Mango beverage. The storability of the beverage was studied at 4±1ºC for 30 days. The storage study showed that there is an increasing trend in the TSS, acidity, and reducing sugar and a decreasing trend in the pH and ascorbic acid but total sugar has non significant effect during storage. Total viable count, Yeast and mold count, Coliform count, and Salmonella count was analyzed using standard methods. The Total Viable...

Ahmed Eltayeb Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader; Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

257

Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin. In addition FRAP method was used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The results of colorimetric method showed that there was high concentration of flavonoids in all investigated samples, especially in peels (1156 mg/100 g in Satsuma peel and 804 mg/100 g in Clementine peel. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin, was determined in the highest concentration in both investigated pulps. In peels flavanon glycosides were present in decreasing sequence as follow: narirutin>hesperidin>naringin. According to FRAP method, all samples possess an evident antioxidant capacity especially peels. Correlation between total flavonoids, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin and antioxidant capacity was very high with correlation coefficiants between 0.81 and 0.98.

Branka Levaj

2009-12-01

258

Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak  

Science.gov (United States)

Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ? 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ? 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

2014-11-01

259

Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

260

Mango Malformation: I. Toxin Production Associated with Fusarium Pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight Fusarium species i.e. F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. monili-forme, F. avena and F. chlamydspore isolated from mango malformed disease were tested for their ability to cause mango malformation disease and their production of moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 using HPLC. A evaluated for moniliformin production, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.51 to 8.90 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by Fusarium subglutinans (8.51 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of moniliformin was produced by F.moniliforme (6.90 µg/ml, F. oxysporum (6.30 µg/ml, F. proliferatum (4.10 ?g/ml and F. sterilihyphosum (1.10 ?g/ml. Separation and identification of Fumonisin that was isolated from the pathogen- causing disease are made by (HPLC. A evaluated for total fumonisin production (FB1 + FB2, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.10 to 8.30 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by F. monili-forme (8.30 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of fumonisin was produced by F .proliferatum (0.64 µg/ml and F. subglutinans (0.50 µg/ml. Strong positive correlations between moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 activities and malformation disease incidence by F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum was observed.

Abd El-Wahab M.

2011-06-01

261

Acral peeling skin syndrome in two East-African siblings: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral peeling skin syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis due to a missense mutation in transglutaminase 5. The skin peeling occurs at the separation of the stratum corneum from the stratum granulosum. Case presentation We present a case of two siblings who developed continuous peeling of the palms and soles from the first year of life. This peeling was more severe on the soles than palms and on younger sibling than elder sibling. Peeling is worsened by occlusion and sweating. Conclusions Sporadic cases of Acral Peeling Skin Syndrome occur in African population. There is variability in time of presentation and clinical severity even within families.

Kiprono Samson K

2012-03-01

262

Chemical Studies of the Peel of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Tannia Cocoyam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The peels of xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam which is locally called kunkoro in Nupe land from four farms; randomly sampled to represent the four geographical areas in Bida, Niger State of Nigeria, were analyzed for their nutritive and anti-nutritional contents using standard analytical methods. The nutritive content of the peel and its effect on the period of sampling was also investigated, as a first step in their possible modification for use as animal feed. The results obtained show that samples collected during dry season contained more nutrients (proteins, lipid, etc. than those collected during the wet season. Macro-minerals (Na, K, Ca and P being the highest while the micro-mineral nutrients such as Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu etc were found to be generally lower than the dietary mineral requirement for animal feeds. The protein content of the peel ranged between 6.30-17.6%, while fibre and carbohydrate contents were 10.7-19.7% and 41.2-46.0% respectively. The lipid content was generally low and ranged between 0.70-2.14%. The peels collected during dry season contained lower concentration of phytate which ranged between (1.26-1.43%, hydrogen cyanide (3.17-3.20%, soluble oxalate (1.18-1.69% and tannin (1.43-8.24% than the peels collected during wet season, with the exception of sample CYD. These anti-nutritional factors in all the cocoyam peel studied were generally low, yet critical to the safety of the consumer as it affects bioavailability of some essential minerals. The proximate analysis of the peels suggests that they could serve as supplementary sources of essential nutrients for livestock production, especially with their low levels of anti-nutritional factors.

J.J. Bonire

2013-01-01

263

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

2015-01-01

264

Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges. PMID:11453761

Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

2001-07-01

265

Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

266

EL PACLOBUTRAZOL COMO PROMOTOR DE LA FLORACIÓN EN MANGO 'MANILA', AUN SIN CONDICIONES AMBIENTALES INDUCTIVAS  

OpenAIRE

En Nayarit las condiciones climáticas de los últimos cinco años han provocado un comportamiento fenológico heterogéneo en el mango 'Manila'. Lo anterior se refleja en una fuerte disminución del rendimiento y baja calidad del fruto. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto del paclobutrazol (PBZ) y del nitrato de potasio (KNO3) sobre la floración, época de cosecha, rendimiento y calidad del fruto de mango 'Manila'. El estudio se realizó durante 2008-2010 en un huerto comercia...

Rez-barraza, Mar U. Eda Hilda P. U. E.; Eda, Jorge Alberto Osuna-garc U.; Nchez-lucio, Roberto S. U. E.; Zquez-valdivia, Victor V. U. E.

2011-01-01

267

MANEJO INTEGRAL DE HUERTOS DE MANGO 'ATAULFO' CON ALTAS DENSIDADES DE PLANTACIÓN  

OpenAIRE

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de tratamientos integrales de manejo en huertos con altas densidades de plantación sobre el vigor, crecimiento vegetativo, floración, producción, época de producción y peso del fruto de árboles de mango 'Ataulfo'. Se seleccionó un huerto de mango 'Ataulfo' bajo condiciones de riego con alta densidad de plantación y se aplicaron tratamientos de manejo integrado (MI) diferentes que incluyen: poda, (ligera o moderada), riego (aplicación ...

Zquez-valdivia, V. V. U. E.; Rez-barraza, M. H. P. U. E.; Eda, J. A. Osuna-garc U.; Pez, Mario A. Ur U. Edas-l U. F.

2009-01-01

268

INCREMENTO DEL AMARRE Y TAMAÑO DE FRUTOS PARTENOCÁRPICOS EN MANGO 'ATAULFO' CON REGULADORES DE CRECIMIENTO  

OpenAIRE

Uno de los problemas más importantes del mango 'Ataulfo' en Nayarit, es la presencia de frutos partenocárpicos de tamaño pequeño. Con la finalidad de conocer el efecto de la aplicación de reguladores del crecimiento sobre el número de frutos amarrados, frutos cosechados y tamaño de frutos partenocárpicos de mango ¿Ataulfo¿, se realizó un estudio durante 2007 y 2008 en dos huertos comerciales con alta incidencia de frutos partenocárpicos (80 %). En ambos años se evaluaron los trat...

Rez-barraza, M. H. P. U. E.; Zquez-valdivia, V. V. U. E.; Eda, J. A. Osuna-garc U.; Pez, M. A. Ur U. Edas-l U. F.

2009-01-01

269

Selection of Yeasts Antagonists as Biocontrol Agent of Mango Fruit Rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae  

OpenAIRE

Fruit rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important post harvest disease of mango in Indonesia. Study on biological control on the disease is required to develop environmentally-sound control technology. The research objectives were to study the potency of yeasts in controlling post harvest mango disease i.e. fruit rot caused by B. theobromae and mechanism involve in the biocontrol. Total yeast isolates used for screening were twenty one, four from collection of Plant ...

DWI SUGIPRIHATINI; SURYO WIYONO; WIDODO

2011-01-01

270

Simple models for predicting leaf area of mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.), one of the most popular tropical fruits, is cultivated in a considerable part of southern Iran. Leaf area is a valuable parameter in mango research, especially plant physiological and nutrition field. Most of available methods for estimating plant leaf area are difficult to apply, expensive and destructive which could in turn destroy the canopy and consequently make it difficult to perform further tests on the same plant. Therefore, a non-destructive method which ...

Maryam Ghoreishi; Yaghoob Hossini; Manochehr Maftoon

2012-01-01

271

Preservation of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica, L.) Slices in Darfur  

OpenAIRE

Sun drying of 'Kitchiner', 'Alphonse' and 'Dibsha' mango (Mangifera indica, L.) cultivars grown in Darfur, Sudan was conducted to enhance durability, utilization of mango fruits and to reduce the cost of transportation and storage. Slices were soaked in cane-sugar, lime-juice and sodium chloride. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were measured initially and every three months. After six months, sensory acceptance of dried slices was determ...

Soad El-Tayeb Ahmed; Omer Khidir Ahmed

2012-01-01

272

Volatiles of Mango var. Ataulfo Characterized by SPME and Capillary GC/MS Spectroscopy  

OpenAIRE

Los compuestos volátiles emitidos por flores y frutas verdes y maduras de mangos de la variedad Ataulfo del Soconusco, Chiapas fueron colectados por medio de la técnica de Microextracción en Fase Sólida (MEFS). El análisis químico de los volátiles se llevó a cabo por Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas (CG-EM). El análisis mostró que los volátiles del mango están formados por una mezcla principalmente de monoterpenos y sesquiterpen...

Ignacio Salazar Sandoval; Antonio Santiesteban Hernández; German Velásquez Valdez; Leopoldo Cruz López

2007-01-01

273

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

Maruti J. Dhanavade

2011-08-01

274

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminateinhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel wasenzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of thereleased sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibitionby limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes wasa powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The encapsulated cells wereable to ferment the orange peel hydrolyzate in 7 h, and produce ethanol with a yield of 0.44g/g fermentable sugars. Cultivation of the encapsulated yeast in defined medium wassuccessful, even in the presence of 1.5% (v/v limonene. The capsules’ membranes wereselectively permeable to the sugars and the other nutrients, but not limonene. While1% (v/v limonene was present in the culture, its concentration inside the capsules was notmore than 0.054% (v/v.

Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2007-08-01

275

Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

2010-01-01

276

Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study. PMID:23579603

Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

2013-04-01

277

Observations of peeling of a polyisobutynele-based pressure-sensitive adhesive  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates.

Christensen, SØren. F.; Everland, Hanne.

1998-01-01

278

MÉTODOS COMBINADOS DE SECADO PARA EL ESCARCHADO DE MANGO (Mangifera indica) var. Kent COMBINING DRYING METHODS FOR CANDY MANGO (Mangifera indica) var. Kent  

OpenAIRE

En este trabajo la deshidratación osmótica (DO) y el secado con aire caliente se combinan para producir mango cristalizado conservando las propiedades organolépticas de la fruta fresca. El mango se procesa en cilindros de 1.5cm de diámetro por 2cm de altura. Estos se deshidratan osmóticamente durante 72 horas y luego se secan con aire a 35ºC hasta alcanzar concentraciones de 68 grados Brix (ºBx) y 72ºBx. El tratamiento se inicia con un pretratamiento osmótico (PO), utiliz...

Giraldo, Germa?n A. G.; Duque, Alba L. C.; Garci?a, Claudia L. W.

2005-01-01

279

Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815

Glazer, Ira; Masaphy, Segula; Marciano, Prosper; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Kerem, Zohar; Amir, Rachel

2012-05-16

280

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

KAUST Repository

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Marston, Jeremy O.

2014-03-21

281

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure ``fracture'' bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Marston, Jeremy O.; Riker, Paul W.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

2014-03-01

282

Peeled film GaAs solar cell development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thin film, single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity (>106) of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofloric acid (HF). The intent of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high efficiency, low mass GaAs solar cells. We have successfully produced a peeled film GaAs solar cell. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide (Alx Ga1 - x As) window and antireflective (AR) coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68% under AMO illumination

283

Theory of a mechanical method of peeling cassava tubers with knives  

OpenAIRE

A newbut highly promising mechanical cassava peeling concept was investigated. The concept is based on the principle of peel-flesh separation through compression and peel removal with knives. The mechanism of this principle was described and mathematically modelled. Preliminary experiments were carried out on root slices of 100 mm length using a peeling machine developed earlier on the basis of this principle. The data collected were used to validate the model. The model developed predicts th...

Aluko, O. B.; Adekoya, L. O.; Adetan, D. A.

2006-01-01

284

Utilization of banana peel by fungi for protein and carboxymethyl production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of protein and C/sub x/, cellulase by cultivation of fungi on banana peel was studied. The highest producer of cellulase was Trichoderma viride on dried peel, and the highest protein producer was Myrothecium verrucaria. All 10 fungi tested produced more protein on hot water extracts of banana peel than on dried peel, with the highest producer on aqueous extracts being Penicillium funiculosum.

Sethi, R.P.; Sood, S.M.

1977-01-01

285

Características físicas y químicas, y prueba de preferencia de tres tipos de mangos criollos venezolanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela, durante las últimas tres décadas los mangos criollos han sido usados como portainjertos. Recientemente se ha incrementado el interés por los frutos de estas plantas para destinarlos al consumo fresco o procesado; sin embargo, existe escasez de información sobre ellos. El presente traba [...] jo se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar físicamente el fruto y químicamente la parte comestible de mangos tipo Bocado Común, Bocado Jobo e Hilacha y evaluar la preferencia del consumidor por su pulpa. Se colectaron 480 frutos en madurez fisiológica, los cuales se dejaron madurar por tres días en condición ambiente (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% HR) y se procedió con las determinaciones y la prueba de preferencia. Se detectaron diferencias para las variables de masa fresca  total  del  fruto,  porcentaje  de  cáscara  y  pulpa, sólidos solubles totales (SST), acidez total titulable (ATT) y la relación entre SST/ATT en los tres materiales evaluados. En el mango Bocado Jobo se obtuvo la mayor masa fresca total, rendimiento en pulpa y SST/ATT. No hubo diferencia en el nivel de preferencia por la pulpa de los tres tipos mangos, indicando que la evaluación de esta característica no reflejó las diferencias detectadas en las variables químicas de las pulpas de los diferentes mangos. Abstract in english ABSTRACT Physical and chemical parameters, and preference tests of three Venezuelan native mangos In Venezuela, during the last three decades the native mangos have been used as rootstocks. Recently, the interest has increased for devoting the fruits of these plants, to fresh or processed consumptio [...] n; however, little information of these materials exists. An experiment was conducted with the objective of characterizing physical and chemically the fruit and the edible part of Bocado Comun, Bocado Jobo and Hilacha mangos; and to evaluate the consumer's preference for the pulp of them. A total of 480 fruits were collected in physiologic maturity and allowed to ripen for three days in natural ambient condition (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% RH) before beginning the fruit analysis and the preference test. There were significant differences for the fresh mass of the fruit, percentage of shell, seed, and pulp. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA) and the ratio TSS/TA for the three evaluated materials. The mango Bocado Jobo produced the largest total fresh mass, pulp yield, and TSS/TA. There was not difference in the level of preference of the pulp among the mangos, showing that the evaluation of this characteristic did not reflect the differences detected in the chemicals variables.

Jesús, Aular; Yecenia, Rodríguez.

2005-09-01

286

Características físicas y químicas, y prueba de preferencia de tres tipos de mangos criollos venezolanos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Venezuela, durante las últimas tres décadas los mangos criollos han sido usados como portainjertos. Recientemente se ha incrementado el interés por los frutos de estas plantas para destinarlos al consumo fresco o procesado; sin embargo, existe escasez de información sobre ellos. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar físicamente el fruto y químicamente la parte comestible de mangos tipo Bocado Común, Bocado Jobo e Hilacha y evaluar la preferencia del consumidor por su pulpa. Se colectaron 480 frutos en madurez fisiológica, los cuales se dejaron madurar por tres días en condición ambiente (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% HR y se procedió con las determinaciones y la prueba de preferencia. Se detectaron diferencias para las variables de masa fresca  total  del  fruto,  porcentaje  de  cáscara  y  pulpa, sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez total titulable (ATT y la relación entre SST/ATT en los tres materiales evaluados. En el mango Bocado Jobo se obtuvo la mayor masa fresca total, rendimiento en pulpa y SST/ATT. No hubo diferencia en el nivel de preferencia por la pulpa de los tres tipos mangos, indicando que la evaluación de esta característica no reflejó las diferencias detectadas en las variables químicas de las pulpas de los diferentes mangos.ABSTRACT Physical and chemical parameters, and preference tests of three Venezuelan native mangos In Venezuela, during the last three decades the native mangos have been used as rootstocks. Recently, the interest has increased for devoting the fruits of these plants, to fresh or processed consumption; however, little information of these materials exists. An experiment was conducted with the objective of characterizing physical and chemically the fruit and the edible part of Bocado Comun, Bocado Jobo and Hilacha mangos; and to evaluate the consumer's preference for the pulp of them. A total of 480 fruits were collected in physiologic maturity and allowed to ripen for three days in natural ambient condition (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% RH before beginning the fruit analysis and the preference test. There were significant differences for the fresh mass of the fruit, percentage of shell, seed, and pulp. Total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity (TA and the ratio TSS/TA for the three evaluated materials. The mango Bocado Jobo produced the largest total fresh mass, pulp yield, and TSS/TA. There was not difference in the level of preference of the pulp among the mangos, showing that the evaluation of this characteristic did not reflect the differences detected in the chemicals variables.

Jesús Aular

2005-09-01

287

The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

Grover C

2003-03-01

288

Reproductive physiology of mango / Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de inicia [...] ção independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano. Abstract in english Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently [...] from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.

Thomas L., Davenport.

2007-12-01

289

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano.

Thomas L. Davenport

2007-12-01

290

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: ? Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ ? Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. ? Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. ? Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. ? Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

291

OPTIMIZING THE USE OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES TO FACILITATE PEELING OF CITRUS FRUIT  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven commercially produced enzyme preparations were tested for their effectiveness in facilitating the peeling of Florida oranges and grapefruit. An automated citrus peeling machine, developed by the Florida Department of Citrus, was used to objectively assess peeling efficiency. Four enzyme prep...

292

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYMILK ADDED WITH DRAGON FRUIT AND EGGPLANT PEEL EXTRACTS [Karakteristik Susu Kedelai dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga dan Kulit Terong  

OpenAIRE

Soymilk has become progressively consumed in Indonesia since early 1990. However, soymilk has a short shelf life due to its high protein content that promotes growth of spoilage microorganisms. This study was aimed at utilizing peel waste of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus), to prolong shelf life of fresh soymilk through microbial growth inhibition, so that it will not be easily contaminated during storage, transportation and distribution time to meet t...

Diana Sari Kusuma; Filiana Santoso; Elisabeth Kartika Prabawati*

2013-01-01

293

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF) USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE  

OpenAIRE

Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized condi...

Brindha Chelliappan; Madhanasundareswari, K.

2013-01-01

294

Hypolipidemic Activity of Microwave-Dehydrated Mango (Mangifera indica L. Powder in Mice Fed a Hypercholesterolemic Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with mango (Mangifera indica L. powder obtained by microwave dehydration was studied in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. The phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activities were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays, respectively. The total phenolic content of microwave-dehydrated mango powder was 1451.7 ± 26.7 ?ggallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, and catechin. The anti-oxidant activity was 14.6% higher in microwave-dehydrated mango powder than in conventional mango powder. Mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1 g cholesterol/100g over 7 days. The hypercholesterolemic mice whose diets were supplemented with microwave-dehydrated mango powder showed a significant decrease (P ? 0.05 in total serum cholesterol compared to the hypercholesterolemic mice and the mice fed with conventional dehydrated mango powder. We observed a significant increase (P ? 0.05 in HDL-c levels in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group mice (12.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (8.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L and the conventional-dehydrated mango powder group (10.9 ± 1.3 mmol/L. The mice provided with microwave-dehydrated mango powder had significantly lower (P ? 0.05 levels of serum LDL-c (36.0% and total cholesterol (43.3% compared to the mice in hypercholesterolemic group. Notably, the atherogenic index was 72% lower in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. These results suggest that the biocompounds, such as polyphenols and dietary fiber, found in mango pulp might improve the lipid profile in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

Obed Osorio-Esquivel

2014-08-01

295

Bioactive compounds and acceptance of cookies made with Guava peel flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compou [...] nd, lycopene, and ?-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and ?-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality.

Silvana Maria Michelin, Bertagnolli; Márcia Liliane Rippel, Silveira; Aline de Oliveira, Fogaça; Liziane, Umann; Neidi Garcia, Penna.

2014-06-01

296

Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from pomegranate peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste pomegranate peel was investigated and optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (solid-liquid ratio, pH, extraction time and temperature) on the pectin yield was studied. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value. The optimal extraction condition was found to be 1:17.52 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio, 1.27 of pH, 28.31 min of extraction time and 61.90 °C of extraction temperature respectively. Under the optimal conditions, experimental yield was very close to the predicted values. PMID:25450551

Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Surya, S Muneeswari; Naganyashree, S; Shivamathi, C S

2015-01-01

297

Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mixed with the six pure substances at various concentrations; glucose, sucrose, citric acid and malic acid were tested with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%w/w, starch and cellulose were tested with the concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w. The NIRSystem 6500 was used to scan the spectra in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. The partial least square regression (PLSR was used to develop a model for each component. The result was a wavelength that corresponds to each component. It was found that the second derivative spectra of glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose mixtures showed the best PLSR result. The mango cultivar had no effect on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The coefficient of determination (R2 of all models was 0.99. The standard error of calibration (SEC and the standard error of prediction (SEP were less than 0.5%w/w. The regression coefficient plot exhibited more sharp peaks than pure substances. The wavelength selection for NIRS evaluation mango fruit quality could not be done by using only measured spectrum of pure substance. However, the cultivars of mango had no effected on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The most effective wavelength for glucose and sucrose were 900-1000 nm, citric acid and malic acid were 800-1000 nm, starch was 900-1000 nm and cellulose was 800-1000 nm.

Parichat Theanjumpol

2013-06-01

298

Actividad antioxidante de lámina flexible de mango (Mangifera indica) / Antioxidant activity in mango fruit leather (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una forma de concentrar las propiedades nutricionales de la fruta es mediante la elaboración de láminas flexibles, las cuales se realizan al secar una capa muy delgada de puré de fruta para obtener un producto con una textura blanda. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido [...] de polifenoles totales en láminas flexibles de mango cv. Tommy Atkins cultivados en el municipio Mara del estado Zulia. La actividad antioxidante de la lámina fue 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamina C/100g. El contenido de polifenoles totales en la lámina fue 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. Las láminas flexibles aportan una mayor cantidad de compuestos polifenólicos totales por lo que es una manera alternativa de consumir compuestos antioxidantes y nutritivos en la dieta. Abstract in english A way to concentrate the nutritional properties of the fruit is through the development of fruit leathers, which are made by drying a very thin layer of mashed fruit to obtain a product with a soft texture. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in fruit leathers [...] of mango cv. Tommy Atkints grown in Mara municipality, Zulia state. The antioxidant activity of the fruit leathers was 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamin C/100g. The total polyphenol content in the leathers was 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. The fruit leathers provide a greater amount of total polyphenolic compounds which is an alternative way of consuming antioxidant compounds and nutritious diet.

Josué, Hernández-Varela; Arturo, Moncayo; Viluzca, Fernández; Betzabé, Sulbarán.

2013-04-01

299

Irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica, Linn) carabao variety, for commercial export. Pt. 1 - Establishment of dose requirement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs of Dacus dorsalis Hendel implanted on carabao mangoes packed in commercial boxes for export has been carried out. Irradiation of as low as 50 krad proved to be effective in disinfecting 5 kg batches of mature-green Carabao mangoes. In addition, the effect of irradiation on storage life and organoleptic properties are described. (author)

300

Characterization of constituents in the peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid ?-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. PMID:24018684

Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Ouchi, Kazusa; Okuyama, Satoshi; Furukawa, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi

2013-01-01

301

Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity. PMID:23194504

Yu, Ming-Wen; Lou, Shyi-Neng; Chiu, E-Mean; Ho, Chi-Tang

2013-02-15

302

Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Pectin Extracted from Orange Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus juice and concentrate are among the major industrial products in Iran. Large quantities of citrus peels with considerable amounts of pectin are also produced. Pectin could be extracted from the peels to be used as a gelling agent in some food products. Unfortunately, all pectin used in the food industry is imported. This study was carried out to find the best conditions of pectin extraction from orange peels. Samples of orange peels were collected from a concentrated orange juice factory. Pectin was extracted by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. Certain qualitative and quantitative tests, such as yield of extraction and cost of extraction were determined. Also, food safety aspects as a result of using the above acids were considered. Hydrochloric acid was found to be the most suitable acid. In the second part of the research, the effects of temperature (85 and 90?C, time (40, 50 and 60 minutes and pH (1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 on the yield of extraction, purity, gelling ability, percentage of methoxylation and degree of esterification of the extracted pectins were measured. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best conditions for the extraction of pectin include a pH level of 1.6, a temperature of 90?C and a period of 50 minutes.

G. H. Kabir

2003-01-01

303

Spectral characteristics of grapefruit oil peel furanocoumarins and coumarins  

Science.gov (United States)

Grapefruit peel oil (GPO) contains numerous coumarins and furanocoumarins, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, ten of these compounds were isolated and studied by UV, FTIR, and mass spectroscopy (MS). These isolations were achieved by silica gel chromatography, preparative TLC, and r...

304

Effect of Scuffing Damage and Curing on Diffusion Rate of CO2 Through Citrus Fruit Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These studies were initiated to observe the effect of curing on the shelf life of damaged citrus fruits by reducing diffusion rate of CO2. The damaged peel had a higher diffusion rate of CO2 than undamaged fruit peel before curing. The effect of curing on peel was that the diffusion rate of CO2 through damaged and undamaged peel was reduced after curing. The peel of cured fruits did not show any change in diffusion rate of CO2 after 30 days of storage. Curing could be useful to reduce respiration/exchange of gases and in extending the storage life of damaged citrus fruit.

Muhammad Akram Tariq

2001-01-01

305

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limited. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

Adriana de Godoy

2009-01-01

306

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limi [...] ted. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

Adriana de, Godoy; Rodrigo J., Morita; Beatriz R., Cordenunsi; Franco M., Lajolo; João Roberto O. do, Nascimento.

307

Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

Mohapatra, Soudamini

2015-03-01

308

Dissipation of penconazole in peach, plum, apricot, and mango by HPLC-DAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissipation of penconazole was estimated in peach, plum, apricot, and mango fruits cultivated in different farms using QuEChERS method for sample preparation and High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector. Following one application of normal dose 25 mL 100 L(-1) water, the average initial deposits of penconazole were observed to be 0.44, 0.35, 0.66 and 1.12 mg kg(-1) for peach, plum, apricot, and mango, respectively. The residues dissipated below the maximum residues limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 15, 7, 10 and 21 days for peach, plum, apricot, and mango, respectively. The half-life value (T(1/2)) and pre-harvest interval of penconazole were 7.2 (12), 2.48 (12), 1.53 (7) and 4.54 (21) days for peach, plum, apricot, and mango, respectively. Thus, a waiting period of 21 days was suggested for the safe consumption of penconazole treated mango. PMID:23242260

Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Ahmed, Nevin S

2013-02-01

309

Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango-Producing Areas of Arba Minch, Southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15?cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

2015-01-01

310

A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Observations were made on different fruit characteristics, physical and chemical properties in three ripening stages viz. green, ripe and over ripe stage. The fruits of the varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota weighed 189, 455, 180, 170 and 592 g, respectively. Maximum percentage of edible portion (78.53%, juice content (56.50-72.77% and highest Total Soluble Solids (18.66% were found in Madrazi Tota. Riped Madrazi Tota tastes very sweet in comparison to other varieties of mangoes under study. Indian Lota was higher in content of titratable acidity (0.04091% and lowest in Neelambori (0.01866%.

M.A. Mannan

2003-01-01

311

Effects of nisin-incorporated films on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of minimally processed mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nisin-incorporated cellulose films on the physicochemical and microbiological qualities of minimally processed mangoes. The use of antimicrobial films did not affect the physicochemical characteristics of mangoes and showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus cereus. The mango slices were inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (10(7)CFU/g), and the viable cell numbers remained at 10(5) and 10(6)CFU/g, respectively, after 12days. In samples packed with antimicrobial films, the viable number of L. monocytogenes cells was reduced below the detection level after 4days. After 6days, a reduction of six log units was observed for S. aureus. In conclusion, nisin showed antimicrobial activity in mangoes without interfering with the organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This result suggests that nisin could potentially be used in active packing to improve the safety of minimally processed mangoes. PMID:23673058

Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Silva de Araújo, Hyrla Grazielle; Matos, Patrícia Nogueira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; Almeida de Castro, Alessandra

2013-06-17

312

Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

313

Phenolic extraction from apple peel by cellulases from Thermobifida fusca.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the optimization of the pretreatment conditions for the crude Thermobifida fusca cellulase activity and phenolic release from apple peel, we focused on the activity of individual purified cellulase related to the antioxidant activity. The overall phenolic release was significantly increased in a synergistic manner with combined pretreatment, not with individual pretreatment such as boiling, acid, and pectinase treatment. Approximately 60 mg of reducing sugar equivalent were produced per g of apple peel by treatment with T. fusca crude extract, and up to 3 times more reducing sugars were released when the apple peel was boiled and then treated with acid and pectinase. There was good correlation between the release of phenolics and reducing sugar by cellulase treatment and also between the amount of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity by each enzyme treatment (r2> 0.95). Among the tested enzymes purified from T. fusca cell extract, cellulase activity on apple peel was the highest with cellulase 6A (Cel 6A; 43% digestion), and the highest antioxidant capacity was obtained by incubation with Cel 6B (16 mg vitamin C equiv/g). Synergism in the activity was found from the combined treatment with Cel 6A and 6B in both cellulase activity and antioxidant capacity after 20 h of incubation. Cel 9A (progressive endocellulase) exhibited greater cellulase activity and antioxidant capacity than Cel 9A cd which lacks in cellulose-binding module, indicating that the cellulose-binding domain might play important roles in cellulolysis of apple peel. This study could provide some insights into the action mechanism of various cellulases on the digestion of cellulose-containing byproducts and expand the opportunity for cellulase utilization in the extraction of functional ingredients from the plant-derived byproducts. PMID:16302777

Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Chun, Ock Kyoung; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Jung, Hyungil; Lee, Chang Yong; Wilson, David B

2005-11-30

314

UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

Adolfo, Moreno Bermúdez; Deimer, Ballesteros Padilla; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

2012-12-01

315

Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L. var. rosa com açúcares Mango (Mangifera indica l. cv. rosa saturation with sugars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangas (Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose, sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada.Mango (Mangifera indica L cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm, treated in hot water in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

Margarida Sabino RIBEIRO

1999-01-01

316

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

317

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

1990-04-01

318

Especies de trips (Thysanoptera) en mango, fluctuación y abundancia / Thrips species (Thysanoptera) in mango, fluctuation and abundance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Campeche, se desconocen las especies de trips presentes en mango y su fluctuación poblacional, lo que dificulta su combate y ocasiona pérdidas en producción y calidad de la fruta. Debido a esto, el objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las especies de trips asociadas al cultivo, la fluctuación de s [...] u población y el nivel de daño. El trabajo se efectuó entre 2009 y 2010 en Castamay, Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos de las poblaciones de adultos y ninfas cada 15 días en follaje e inflorescencias y se determinó el nivel de daño a la fruta. Las poblaciones se correlacionaron con variables de precipitación y temperatura mediante el coeficiente de Pearson y, a través de chi-cuadrada, se establecieron variaciones entre las poblaciones de trips y fechas de muestreo. En 2009, la población más baja fue de 0,00 y la más alta 0,13 por hoja tanto en ninfas como en adultos. En 2010, la población más baja fue de 0,00 individuos por hoja tanto para ninfas como para adultos y las más altas de 0,15 adultos por hoja y 0,35 ninfas por hoja. Los niveles de daño observados fueron bajos y no mostraron influencia significativa en la producción de fruta. Se registraron Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae y S. hectorgonzalazi asociadas al cultivo, todas ellas fitófagas. La fluctuación de sus poblaciones no mostró correlación significativa con las variables climáticas. Abstract in english In the Campeche state, México, thrips species in mango and their population fluctuations are unknown which difficult their control causing losses in production and fruit quality; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the thrips associated with the crop, their population fluctuation and [...] the level of damage. Research was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Castamay, Campeche, Mexico. Samples were taken of the adults and nymph's population every 15 days in foliage and inflorescences and the level of damage to the fruit was determined. Thrips population was correlated with precipitation and temperature variables using the Pearson coefficient and ?2 tests were performed between thrips population and sampling dates. In 2009, the lowest population was 0.00 and 0.13, the highest per leave in both nymphs and adults. In 2010, the lowest populations were 0.00 individuals per leaf for both nymphs and adults and the highest of 0.15 adults per leaf and 0.35 nymphs per leaf. The observed damage levels were low and showed no significant influence on fruit production. Four thrips species associated with mango, all phytophagous were found Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae and S. hectorgonzalazi. The population fluctuation was not significantly correlated with climatic variables.

Luis Alberto, Aguirre U; Mario Alberto, Miranda S.; Mario Alfonso, Urías L.; Fermín, Orona C.; Isidro Humberto, Almeyda L.; ROBERTO, JOHANSEN N.; Martin, Tucuch C..

2013-06-01

319

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largestts: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

320

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

321

Effects of Adding Compost to Fertilization Programs on ‘Keitt’ Mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Dominican Republic during two years on adult ‘Keitt’ mango (Mangifera indica L. fields to examine the long-term effect of chemical and organic fertilization programs on marketable fruit yield. The treatments were (a 1.8 kg 15-15-15 (N-P-K/tree, once a year (b 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year (c 1.4 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year (d 1.8 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree (e 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree and (f 1.4 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree. The results indicate that the application of 1.8 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree and 1.3 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree improved marketable fruit number during both harvest years. The addition of compost for two years increased fruit number by averages of 17 and 24% in comparison with the same treatments without compost.

Bielinski M. Santos

2007-01-01

322

Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Mexican mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laboratory experiments involved the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina, A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata, over a range of doses between 10 and 250 Gy. Irradiation was carried out using a Co-60 AECL irradiator model JS-7400. The experiments were designed to achieve a dose distribution equal to or less than 1.025. Fricke dosimeters were used. Fertility tests were carried out on emerged adults of A. ludens and C. capitata; a larval dose of 40 Gy or more resulted in zero fertility in the case of A. ludens, while the corresponding figure for C. capitata was 60 Gy. The adults that emerged of A. serpentina died before reaching sexual maturity. It was concluded that i) irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy totally inhibits the emergence of A. serpentina and A. ludens adults; and ii) the dose of 150 Gy inhibits the emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults from 99.9% of irradiated larvae, and those which survive are sterile. The doses of 60 and 150 Gy exceed the mortality probit 9 threshold, and are within the tolerance limit of fresh fruit (approximately 1000 Gy). (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

323

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica Almond Seed Fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8?C and 10.9 min at 12?C. The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8?C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12?C, respectively and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

J.A. Solis-Fuentes

2007-01-01

324

MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and space on disk but resulting files require format conversion routines (i.e., from IAGA- 2002, WDC formats to flat ASCII tables) or specialized readers that unpack the desired magnetogram and index data. At present, 408 World Data Center ground magnetic field data products and the ring current Dst index data set have been converted into flat ASCII files, described via SPASE, and registered in the VMO metadata registry as a value-added service to users.

Bargatze, L. F.

2011-12-01

325

Assessment Of Production Potentials And Constraaints Of Mango (Mangifera INDICA) At Bati, Oromia Zone, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Production potentials and constraints of mango were assessed at Bati wereda, Oromiya zone, Ethiopia in 2013 using data from sixty randomly selected mango producers in the area. Data were collected using questionnaire and focus group discussion. The result revealed that most of the producers belonged to the age group of 41-50 (28.3%) and 31-40 (266.7%). 95% of the producers were male and the rest 5% were female. Analysis of production system revealed that 90% of the respondents do not use fert...

Seid Hussen; Zeru Yimer

2013-01-01

326

Growth Performance and Some Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw or Boiled Mango Kennel Meal  

OpenAIRE

In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control) diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK) or boiled mango kernel (BMK) meal as a replacement for maize. ...

Diarra, S. S.; Usman, B. A.

2008-01-01

327

Onion flesh and onion peel enhance antioxidant status in aged rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary onion flesh or onion peel on lipid peroxides and DNA damage in aged rats. Sprague Dawley male rats (n=40, 16 mo old) were blocked into five groups and raised for 3 mo with either an onion-free control diet or onion diets (Allium cepa L., intermediate-day variety) containing either 5% (w/w) powdered dried onion flesh, 5% (w/w) powdered dried onion peel or ethanol extracts of the two powdered forms of onion. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and levels of total polyphenols and quercetin were greatest in onion peel ethanol extract, followed by onion peel powder, onion flesh ethanol extract, and onion flesh powder. Plasma quercetin and isorhamnetin levels were markedly increased by onion peel powder and onion peel ethanol extract. Rats fed onion flesh powder or onion peel powder had a higher plasma TAS than rats fed the control diet. Onion peel powder reduced liver thiobarbituric reactive substances relative to those of the control diet in aged rats (ponion diets and the decrease was significant for the onion flesh powder and onion peel powder diets (pDNA damage in the kidney or brain tissue among rats fed the four onion diets. Onion flesh or onion peel enhanced antioxidant status in aged rats and may be beneficial for the elderly as a means of lowering lipid peroxide levels. PMID:17484375

Park, Juyeon; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Mi Kyung

2007-02-01

328

Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. Methods This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Results Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80±2.35?dB with peeling versus 13.19±2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3±6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10?dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9±4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). Conclusions These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum. PMID:23077227

Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

2012-01-01

329

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives. PMID:23496538

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

2013-02-01

330

Cambios fisicoquímicos y sensoriales limitantes de la vida de anaquel de mango fresco cortado / Physicochemical and sensory changes that limit shelf-life of fresh-cut mangoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. 'Haden' fueron procesados mínimamente y almacenados a 5 °C durante 14 d. A intervalos de 2 d se determinaron las variables fisicoquímicas de color [L*, a* y b*, y los valores derivados: croma (C*), ángulo de matiz (h°) y diferencia total de color (?E*)], así [...] como sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza y pH. También se evaluaron los atributos sensoriales de olor característico, apariencia, brillo, color, sabor, textura, acidez y dulzor, mediante un panel entrenado. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y análisis de regresión, para identificar las variables con mayor variabilidad durante el almacenamiento y estimar la tasa de cambio tanto de diferentes atributos sensoriales como de variables fisicoquímicas. El ACP indicó que la menor variabilidad del mango fresco cortado fue con respecto a h° y SST. Los atributos sensoriales con menor cambio fueron acidez, textura, dulzor y olor. El análisis de regresión indicó que el brillo presentó la mayor tasa de cambio, mientras que el olor característico tuvo la mayor duración en el producto durante el almacenamiento. Entre las variables fisicoquímicas, las de mayor y menor tasa de cambio fueron croma (C*) y firmeza, respectivamente. Los cambios fisicoquímicos y atributos sensoriales con mayor variabilidad y mayor tasa de deterioro, cambios críticos durante el almacenamiento, pueden usarse como indicadores del deterioro en estudios de vida de anaquel del mango fresco cortado. Abstract in english 'Haden' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were minimally processed and stored at 5 °C during 14 d. At 2 d intervals, processed fruits were sampled to evaluate physicochemical variables of color [L*, a*, b*, and derived values: chroma (C*), hue angle (h°) and total color difference (?E*)], as well a [...] s sensory attributes: sweetness, texture, brightness, color, flavor, odor and appearance, as perceived by a trained panel. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to assess changes physicochemical variables and sensory attributes during storage. Principal components analysis indicated that hue angle (h°) and total soluble solids (TSS), and the sensory attributes of acidity, texture, sweetness and odor, showed a slight relevance on the variability observed on the sliced mango units during storage. Regression analysis indicated that brightness had the highest deterioration rate, whereas odor was the attribute with less change during storage. In the same way, C* was the physicochemical variable with the highest deterioration rate while the lowest deterioration was for firmness. Physicochemical and sensory changes with the largest variability and with the highest deterioration rates, are critical changes that can be used as spoilage indicators in shelf-life studies of fresh-cut mangoes.

Rosa Ma, Salinas-Hernández; María Élida, Pirovani; Alfonso A., Gardea-Béjar; Gustavo A., González-Aguilar.

2010-09-01

331

Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions by cheaply available fruit waste and algal biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the effectiveness of different biosorbents, viz. materials commonly present in natural treatment systems (Scenedesmus quadricauda and reed) and commonly produced fruit wastes (orange and banana peel) to remove Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from a synthetic wastewater simulating tannery wastewater. The Cr(III) removal efficiency followed the order S. quadricauda>orange peel>banana peel>reed, whereas the Cr(VI) removal followed the order banana peel>S. quadricauda>reed>orange peel. The chromium biosorption kinetics were governed by the intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Isotherm data obtained using the different biosorbents were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and SIPS models, revealing that the experimental data followed most closely the monolayer sorption theory-based Langmuir model than the other models. The maximum Cr(III) sorption capacity, calculated using the Langmuir model, was found to be 12 and 9 mg/g for S. quadricauda and orange peel, respectively, and the maximum Cr(VI) sorption capacity calculated for banana peel was 3 mg/g. The influence of biosorbent size, pH, solid-liquid ratio, and competing ions were examined for Cr(III) biosorption by S. quadricauda and orange peel and for Cr(VI) sorption by banana peel. The solution pH was found to be the most influential parameter affecting the biosorption process: whereas pH 5 was found to be optimum for maximum removal of Cr(III), Cr(VI) was best removed at a pH as low as 3. Interference to chromium sorption by various ions revealed that Cr(III) binding onto orange peel occurs through electrostatic forces, whereas Cr(VI) binding onto banana peel through non-electrostatic forces. PMID:23553106

Pakshirajan, Kannan; Worku, Alemayehu Netsanet; Acheampong, Mike A; Lubberding, Henk J; Lens, Piet N L

2013-06-01

332

Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais.This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

2011-10-01

333

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3?±?1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5?±?6.5; 94.6?±?6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3?±?14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

2014-12-01

334

Extraction of naringin from pomelo peels as dihydrochalcone's precursor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method for the separation of naringin from pomelo peels was investigated by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction and macroporous resin purification technology. The ultrasonic extraction efficiency was dependent on agent's concentration, ratio of sample and solvent and ultrasonic time. Several parameters of macroporous resin-purified process, including resin selection, initial concentration, concentration of eluted agent and pH, were optimized. The experimental results showed that the naringin content in the mature pomelo peels was 2.20% and purification rate of naringin was 77.26% under optimum conditions of purification. The structure of synthetic naringin dihydrochalcone was determined by a series of spectroscopic methods, such as UV, NMR and MS. PMID:21171184

Tang, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Chun-Feng; Zhong, Shi-An; Zhou, Ming-Da

2011-01-01

335

Optical coherence tomography guided peeling of macular epiretinal membrane  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoshio Hirano, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Yuichiro OguraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT has emerged as a powerful diagnostic aid in disorders of the vitreoretinal juncture. The purpose of this study is to determine whether OCT can be used as an additional tool for evaluating an architecture including the thickened area, and the identifiable edge of a macular epiretinal membrane (ERM, and helping us to dissect the ERM from the retinal surface more easily and safely. In two cases with ERM, the edges of the membranes were detected by OCT, and the peeling of the membrane was started at the area easily. OCT guided ERM peeling might be useful for dissecting ERM membranes without any hesitation.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, epiretinal membrane, vitrectomy

Yoshio Hirano

2010-12-01

336

Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g-1, which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

337

Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

2012-01-01

338

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

339

AGE STRUCTURE AND SEX RATIO OF THRIPS Scirtothrips dorsalis HOOD (Thysanoptera : Thripidae ASSOCIATE WITH MANGO AGROECOSYSTEM IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A research aimed to investigate the age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis Hood in mango agroecosystem was conducted at PT. Trigatra Rajasa farm, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia. The research was started from April to May 2013. A Completely Randomized Design, Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were used to design, knew the variance and significantly different among the treatment, respectively. Thirteen mango trees set in cross section were sampled and observed for the presence of S. dorsalis including weeds under the mango canopy and four cardinal directions of border. A weekly sample was done for four weeks. The result showed that instar one and adult were preferred to associate with weeds under the mango canopy and borders compare to mango leaves except second instar. Further, observation was presented that all the age structures were given equal male female sex ratio. Based on total population numbers, there wasn't significantly difference of age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis associate with weeds inside the orchard including mango leaves and borders. Twenty seven species of weeds were discovered associate with mango agroecosystem and comprehensively discused based on the most dominance and preferred by S. dorsalis.

Affandi

2013-10-01

340

Tag: Waste and recycling | EurActiv  

SCPinfonet

... Perhaps only if you can imagine wearing stilettos made from pistachio nuts and coffee beans, and clothes from orange peel, fungi and mould. MEPs approve tougher rules on electronic waste - 20 January 2012 - News The European Parliament yesterday (19 January) approved legislation to strengthen the recovery of computers and other electronic and electrical waste while tightening exports of used goods to developing countries, ending months of hard-fought negotiations. EU set to miss targets for battery collection, recycling - 14 October 2011 - News ...

341

Utilization of Juice Wastes as Corn Replacement in the Broiler Diet  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted with 80 unsexed broilers of the Arbor Acress strain to determine the capability of a carrot and fruit juice wastes mixture (carrot, apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree tomato) in the same proportion for replacing corn in broiler diet. This study involved a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of juice wastes mixture in diets) and 4 replicates per treatment. Diets were isonitrogenous (22% crude protein) and isocaloric ...

Mira Andriani; Maria Endo Mahata; Yose Rizal; Guoyao Wu

2010-01-01

342

Investigation of Heat Stablity of Pomegranate Peel Extract  

OpenAIRE

Antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract (PPE), extracted by either methanol or ethanol solvent, was studied by phosphomolybdenum method. Antioxidant activity of methanolic PPE was higher than the other. To evaluate heat stability of PPE in sunflower oil, the rancidity rate of the oil was compared at 90, 120, and 150ºC with those containing ?-tocopherol and synthetic BHT, using rancimat method. A sample including 1000 ppm PPE had the highest induction period at 90,...

Mohanadi Jafari, M.; Arjmand, P.; Porazarang, H.; Yazdanpanah, S.

2009-01-01

343

Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin). In addition FRAP...

Branka Levaj; Verica Dragovi?-Uzelac; Danijela Bursa? Kova?evi?; Nesrete Krasni?i

2009-01-01

344

Peeling from a biomimetically patterned thin elastic film  

OpenAIRE

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as texturedthin films, we consider the displacement-controlled peeling of a ?exible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and pr...

Ghatak, Animangsu; Mahadevan, L.; Chung, Jun Young; Chaudhury, Manoj K.; Shenoy, Vijay

2004-01-01

345

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Peni...

Rodri?guez, Ana; Andre?s, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alque?zar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose?; Rodrigo, Mari?a; Zacari?as, Lorenzo; Palou, Llui?s; Lo?pez, Mari?a M.; Castan?era, Pedro; Pen?a, Leandro

2011-01-01

346

Protein Peeling 3D: new tools for analyzing protein structures.  

OpenAIRE

We present an improved version of our Protein Peeling web server dedicated to the analysis of protein structure architecture through the identification of protein units produced by an iterative splitting algorithm. New features include identification of structural domains, detection of unstructured terminal elements and evaluation of the stability of protein unit structures. AVAILABILITY: The website is free and open to all users with no login requirements at http://www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb-...

Gelly, Jean-christophe; Brevern, Alexandre

2011-01-01

347

Convergence and performances of the peeling wavelet denoising algorithm  

OpenAIRE

This note is devoted to an analysis of the so-called peeling algorithm in wavelet denoising. Assuming that the wavelet coefficients of the signal can be modeled by generalized Gaussian random variables, we compute a critical thresholding constant for the algorithm, which depends on the shape parameter of the generalized Gaussian distribution. We also quantify the optimal number of steps which have to be performed, and analyze the convergence of the algorithm. Several version...

Lacaux, Ce?line; Muller, Aure?lie; Ranta, Radu; Tindel, Samy

2009-01-01

348

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

2011-10-01

349

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a análise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR, 5 °C (75,4% UR e 12 °C (76,4% UR, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia.This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH, 5 °C (75,4% RH and 12 °C (76,4% RH for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

2011-10-01

350

Internalization of Salmonella typhimurium into mango pulp and prevention of fruit pulp contamination by chlorine and copper ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with fresh mango consumption have occurred in recent years. The study's objective was to assess the effectiveness of chlorine and copper ions to reduce Salmonella typhimurium from hydro-cooling water and prevent fruit pulp contamination of heat-treated mangos. Mature green Tommy Atkins' mangos were immersed in water at 46.1 degrees C for 100 min. Heat-treated mangos were then introduced, during 30 min, in 25 degrees C water containing 6 Log(10) CFU/ml of Salmonella with or without disinfectants (5 and 8 mg/l of either chlorine or copper ions). Chlorine at 5 and 8 mg/l reduced 6 Log(10) CFU/ml of Salmonella. Copper ions at 5 and 8 mg/l reduced 3.26 and 4.3 Log(10) CFU/ml, respectively. 2 Log(10) of Salmonella penetrated into mango pulp when disinfectants were not applied to 25 degrees C water. Both chlorine and copper ions were effective in preventing fruit pulp contamination by Salmonella typhimurium. Of residual chlorine, 2.37 and 3.54 mg/kg were detected in mango pulp after the treatment of 5 and 8 mg/l, respectively. Copper ions at 5 and 8 mg/l showed a residual content of 0.1 and 0.6 mg/kg on mango pulp, respectively. The chloride and copper residual levels in the pulp did not exceed the daily ingestion rates recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Salmonella entered mango pulp by vascular elements and lenticels, both natural structures measuring an average diameter of 21 and 112 microm, respectively. The results illustrate the potential for pathogen penetration if heat-treated mangos are cooled in non-disinfected water. Also, appropriate chlorine or copper ion concentration prevents fruit pulp contamination. PMID:18027198

Soto, Marcela; Chavez, Gladys; Baez, Manuel; Martinez, Celida; Chaidez, Cristobal

2007-12-01

351

Effect of Ethy-Gen II® Ripening Concentrate on Ripening and Sensory Properties of Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates whether the use of ethy-gen II® ripening concentrate (150-300ppm of ethylene as an alternative to the traditional method of off vine ripening would support ripening of locally cultivated mangoes. Mangoes, Keith variety, were treated with the ripening concentrate for 15 h in Graff® standard reefer of 66.5 m3. Humidity was sustained by knapsack spraying of 20 litres of water inside the reefer. Fruits were stored for 6 days after treatment at ambient temperature 23±2oC, vented 30 min per day (1000 hGMT in an air tight room to further ripe the mangoes. Total Soluble Solids (TSS and sensory quality were studied at an interval of 2 days during the storage period. Sensory quality was assessed specifically on day 2 of storage. Results showed that ethy-gen II® treated mangoes ripened uniformly and faster than untreated mangoes Treated mangoes had higher average TSS, attaining an average brix (14.8o at day 2 of storage. The control had brix of 12.18o at the end of the storage period. Treated mangoes had the highest percentage (100% while the control had 34.81% at day 6 of storage. The fruity odour of the ripening concentrate had an impact on the taste of treated mangoes, however sensory evaluation revealed no significant difference (p<0.05 among treatments. Ethylene produced from ethy-gen II® supports uniform ripening of locally cultivated mangoes and increased period of ventilation during storage helps to remove the fruity odour.

William Ofori Appaw

2009-01-01

352

Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coating stacks of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO{sub 2}) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO{sub 2} or Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiO{sub x}) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

Cui, Yun, E-mail: coating@siom.ac.cn; Yi, Kui; Guohang, Hu; Shao, Jianda

2014-01-30

353

Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

354

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

355

Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating stacks of HfO2/SiO2 and Ta2O5/SiO2 were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO2) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO2 or Ta2O5). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiOx) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

356

Assessing the biosynthetic capabilities of secretory glands in Citrus peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the secretory cavities of Citrus peel have been hypothesized to be responsible for the synthesis of essential oil, but direct evidence for such a role is currently sparse. We used laser-capture microdissection and pressure catapulting to isolate ECs and parenchyma cells (as controls not synthesizing oil) from the peel of young grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi 'Duncan'), isolated RNA, and evaluated transcript patterns based on oligonucleotide microarrays. A Gene Ontology analysis of these data sets indicated an enrichment of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids and nonvolatile phenylpropanoids in ECs (when compared with parenchyma cells), thus indicating a significant metabolic specialization in this cell type. The gene expression patterns in ECs were consistent with the accumulation of the major essential oil constituents (monoterpenes, prenylated coumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids). Morphometric analyses demonstrated that secretory cavities are formed early during fruit development, whereas the expansion of cavities, and thus oil accumulation, correlates with later stages of fruit expansion. Our studies have laid the methodological and experimental groundwork for a vastly improved knowledge of the as yet poorly understood processes controlling essential oil biosynthesis in Citrus peel. PMID:22452856

Voo, Siau Sie; Grimes, Howard D; Lange, B Markus

2012-05-01

357

Evaluación de trampas de colores para trips del mango Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas / Evaluation of color traps for the mango Ataulfo thrips in the Soconusco, Chiapas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se evaluaron trampas de colores para capturar trips en árboles de mango cv. Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México. Se compararon trampas pegajosas de color azul, amarillo y violeta. Se colocó una trampa de cada color por árbol y se evaluaron en 5 árboles. Los resultados mostraron [...] que se capturaron significativamente más trips en las trampas de color violeta. Abstract in english In this paper colored traps were evaluated to capture thrips in mango cv. Ataulfo trees in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Sticky traps were compared in different colors: blue, yellow and violet. It was placed a trap of each color per tree and they were evaluated in five trees. The results showed that s [...] ignificantly more thrips were caught in violet traps.

Armando, Virgen Sánchez; Antonio, Santiesteban Hernández; Leopoldo, Cruz-López.

2011-08-01

358

Evaluación de trampas de colores para trips del mango Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas Evaluation of color traps for the mango Ataulfo thrips in the Soconusco, Chiapas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron trampas de colores para capturar trips en árboles de mango cv. Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México. Se compararon trampas pegajosas de color azul, amarillo y violeta. Se colocó una trampa de cada color por árbol y se evaluaron en 5 árboles. Los resultados mostraron que se capturaron significativamente más trips en las trampas de color violeta.In this paper colored traps were evaluated to capture thrips in mango cv. Ataulfo trees in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Sticky traps were compared in different colors: blue, yellow and violet. It was placed a trap of each color per tree and they were evaluated in five trees. The results showed that significantly more thrips were caught in violet traps.

Armando Virgen Sánchez

2011-08-01

359

Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay), which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, in the range of 100-1000 micromol L(-1) were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. PMID:18819648

Hajimahmoodi, M; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Hadjibabaie, M; Farahani, E; Akrami, M R; Namdar, R

2008-06-15

360

Antioxidant Properties of Peel and Pulp Hydro Extract in Ten Persian Pomegranate Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay, which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, in the range of 100-1000 ?mol L-1 were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars.

M. Hajimahmoodi

2008-01-01

361

Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexposed side. It is concluded that sunlight increases red colour development of the mango exocarp by inducing PAL activity. Exposure to sunlight also enhances endogenous sugar accumulation in mango fruit.

Kobkiat Saengnil

2011-11-01

362

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

363

Tolerance and safety of superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Chemical peeling is a skin-wounding procedure that may have some potentially undesirable side-effects. AIMS: The present study is directed towards safety concerns associated with superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in various facial dermatoses. METHODS: The study was a non-comparative and a prospective one. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients of either sex, aged between 10 to 60 years, undergoing superficial chemical peeling for various facial dermatoses (melasma, ac...

Iqbal Zafar; Rahman Simeen; Bari Arfan

2005-01-01

364

Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

2004-07-01

365

Does Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling in Macular Hole Surgery Improve Reading Vision?  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: To document the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in macular hole closure and reading vision. Method: Fifty-four patients with idiopathic and traumatic macular hole underwent standard vitreous surgery and received either ILM peeling (n= 25) or no ILM peeling (n= 29). The hole closure, and Snellen acuity (distant and near) were recorded 12 weeks after surgery and statistically analysed. Results: The macular hole closure rate was 96% (24...

Das Taraprasad; Parida Subhabrata; Majji Ajit

2003-01-01

366

A Thermomechanical Preprocessing For Pectin Extraction From Orange Peel. Optimisation by Response Surface Methodology.  

OpenAIRE

The instantaneous controlled pressure drop process (or D.I.C process: “Détente Instantanée Contrôlée”) was used as pre-treatment prior to pectin acid extraction from orange peel. This process involves subjecting the orange peel for a short time to steam pressure varying from 100 to 700 kPa, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 5 kPa. Effects of processing pressure, moisture content of peels before the thermomechanical treatment and processing time were examined with...

Rezzoug, Sid-ahmed; Maache-rezzoug, Zoulikha; Sannier, Frederic; Allaf, Karim

2008-01-01

367

Peeling and aspiration of elschnig pearls! An effective alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy!  

OpenAIRE

To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 year...

Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv K.; Sharma, Sumat; Mehra, Namrata; Mishra, Anuraag

2013-01-01

368

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peels  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME) of peels had higher yield (45.4%) and total phenolics (27.4%) than water (WE) or ether extracts (EE). The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05) than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

Al-zoreky, Najeeb S.; Al-otaibi, Mutlag M.; Shiban, Mutahar S.

2012-01-01

369

Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (? and ?') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (?) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

2014-11-26

370

Degradation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A supervised field trial was conducted at four different agroclimatic locations in India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits following foliar application of mixed formulation of carbendazim 12% and mancozeb 63% fungicide (SAAF-75WP) at recommended dose (90?+?472.5) and double the recommended dose (180?+?945 g a.i.?ha(-1)). Average initial deposition of carbendazim was in the range of 1.12 to 2.7 and 1.95 to 4.09 mg kg(-1) and for mancozeb in the range of 2.25 to 2.71 and 4.17 to 5.96 mg kg(-1), given at respective doses. Residues of carbendazim and mancozeb were dissipated to the below detectable limit 7 days after spray at recommended dosage in all the locations. The fungicide degradation followed a first order kinetics with half-lives of 1-5 and 1-3 days, for carbendazim and mancozeb, respectively. The TMRC values, calculated from residue data generated from all four locations, were found to be below the MPI in mango fruit, and hence, the fungicide will not cause any adverse effect after consumption of mango fruits. This data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this fungicide mixture for managing disease incidence in mango in India. PMID:25407993

Devi, P Ahila; Paramasivam, M; Prakasam, V

2015-01-01

371

Effect of gamma ray treatment on alternative respiration during ripening in mango fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Respiratory climacteric is one of the most important metabolic events occurring at an early stage of fruit ripening. Since gamma irradiation is known to delay ripening and ethylene evolution in fruits, ripening mango fruit provided a suitable system to study the component of respiration most affected by irradiation. 5 refs., 2 tabs

372

Aplicación de la ingeniería de matrices en la fortificación de mango (var. Tommy atkins con calcio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La presente investigación analiza la respuesta a la impregnación a vacío en la estructura del mango var. Tommy Atkin y cuantifica los niveles de Ca+2 alcanzados en el producto enriquecido. Se diseñó una disolución de impregnación a partir de Sacarosa y Ca+2 con las cantidades adecuadas de CaCl2 que permitieran teóricamente incorporar un 20% de la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR/200 g de mango fresco. Los parámetros de impregnación obtenidos estuvieron afectados por las interacciones del Ca+2 con el material péctico del mango, mientras que los niveles de Ca+2 en el producto impregnado fueron superiores (44 %IDR/200 g de mango fresco al criterio de enriquecimiento teórico. Este fenómeno podría ser atribuido a que la valoración teórica del Ca+2 se realizó por diferencia de pesos antes y después del proceso de impregnación, además el vació aplicado al sistema contribuyó a la salida de líquido nativo del interior de la matriz de la fruta

MISAEL CORT\\u00C9S RODR\\u00CDGUEZ

2007-01-01

373

Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

2014-01-01

374

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant content of 'Ataulfo' mango during postharvest maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min [...] . Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.

Viviana Guadalupe, Ortega; José Alberto, Ramírez; Gonzalo, Velázquez; Beatriz, Tovar; Miguel, Mata; Efigenia, Montalvo.

2013-09-01

375

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiology of Manila mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manila mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) have sensory characteristics that make them attractive for consumption as a fresh fruit. A large portion of the annual yield of this fruit is infested by the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), adversely impacting the quality of the crop. Hence, it is necessary to develop economically viable postharvest treatments to reduce the damage caused by this insect. Currently, high hydrostatic pressures are used to guarantee the safety of many processed foods. The objective of this work was to assess the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on mangoes at their physiological maturity. High hydrostatic pressures were applied to mangoes at three levels: 50, 100 and 200 megapascals applied for four different time periods (0, 5, 10 and 20 min). Physiologically mature mangoes were more resistant to changes in response to the pressure of 50 MPa. Reduction of physiological activity by application of high hydrostatic pressure opens a new avenue for the research on treatments intended to enhance preservation of whole fresh fruit. PMID:23504511

Vargas-Ortiz, M A; De la Cruz-Medina, J; de Los Monteros, J J Espinosa; Oliart-Ros, R M; Rebolledo-Martinez, A; Ramírez, J A; García, H S

2013-06-01

376

Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

377

Selection of Yeasts Antagonists as Biocontrol Agent of Mango Fruit Rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important post harvest disease of mango in Indonesia. Study on biological control on the disease is required to develop environmentally-sound control technology. The research objectives were to study the potency of yeasts in controlling post harvest mango disease i.e. fruit rot caused by B. theobromae and mechanism involve in the biocontrol. Total yeast isolates used for screening were twenty one, four from collection of Plant Clinic of Institut Pertanian Bogor, and twenty one isolated from healthy mango skin. All of yeast isolates were characterized and identified using BIOLOG. Bioassay on antagonistic activity of yeasts against fruit rot, in-vitro dual culture test and chitinolytic activity were carried out. Cryptococcus albidus var. aerius WSW1, Pichia guilliermondii K1, and Debaryomyces hansenii K12 were the three most effective antagonistic yeasts against B. theobromae with effectiveness of 70.83%, 45.83%, 37.50% respectively. In vitro bio-assay showed that C. albidus var. aerius WSW1, C. albidus WSW2, C. albidus K6, C. terreus YSW1, Candida edax OSW1, Candida edax K13, and Cryptococcus luteolus K2 had high antibiosis activity. Biocontrol activity of tested yeasts against fruit rot of mango did not correlate to its antibiosis and chitinolytic activity

DWI SUGIPRIHATINI

2011-12-01

378

Growth Performance and Some Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw or Boiled Mango Kennel Meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180 day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK or boiled mango kernel (BMK meal as a replacement for maize. Boiling reduced the toxic factor (tannin content of mango kernel by up to 75.00%. During the starter phase (0-28 days birds fed the RMK- based diet ate significantly less feed, gained less weight and recorded a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR than the control and the BMK - based diets, but there were no significant dietary effects on these parameters during the finisher period (28-63 days. There were no significant dietary effects on the haematological values but serum total protein and globin were markedly reduced on the RMK fed group. From these results it is concluded that 20% of the maize can be replaced with boiled mango kernel meal in the diet of broilers without adverse effects on growth and blood parameters.

S.S. Diarra

2008-01-01

379

Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Majumder DAN, Hassan L, Rahim MA, Kabir MA. 2011. Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 105-111. A simple and efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from woody fruit crops containing high polysaccharide levels has been described here. In the present study, three kinds of plant DNA extraction protocols were studied and the target was to establish the water-saturated ether (WSE with 1.25 M NaCl method as the most efficient protocol for removing the highly concentrated polysaccharides from genomic DNA of woody fruit crops. This method involves the modified CTAB or SDS procedure employing a purification step to remove polysaccharides using the WSE method. Precipitation with an equal volume of isopropanol caused a DNA pellet to form. After being washed with 70% ethyl alcohol, the pellet became easily dissolved in TE buffer. Using these three methods, DNA was extracted from samples of 60 mango genotypes, including young, mature, old, frosted old and withered old leaves. Compared with the three studied DNA extraction protocols of mango, it was found that the WSE method with NaCl had the highest value of average percentage (85.44% in DNA content of the mango genotypes. The average yield of DNA ranged from 5.05 µg/µL to11.28 µg/µL. DNA was suitable for PCR and RAPD analyses and long-term storage for further use.

MOHAMMAD AHSANUL KABIR

2011-11-01

380

Interaction of Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examines the role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying Fusarium mangiferae’s conidia, vectoring them into the penetration sites and assisting fungal penetration and dissemination. Conidia that were exposed to a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-marked isolate of F. mangifer...

381

Utilización de microondas en el tratamiento de jugo de mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. En los últimos años, el uso del horno de microondas dentro de la industria agro-alimentaria ha ganado popularidad. Esta tecnología se utiliza para calentar, cocinar, descongelar, secar y últimamente se han reportados estudios en los que se ha empleado para reducir e inhibir microorganismos de acción patógena y degradantes sobre los alimentos. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia del sistema del procesado por microondas para inactivar la carga microbiana presente en el jugo de mango preparado a partir de fruta fresca, verificandoel efecto sobre el potencial de hidrógeno, pH, y la concentración de sólidos solubles, ºBrix, fijados desde el comienzo. Todo esto con miras a generar información basada en esta realidad para el diseño de procesos en los que se utilice la microonda para la conservación de jugos de fruta. Materiales y métodos. El sistema de procesado por microondas utilizado incluye: dos microondas marca Samsung 2450 MHz y potencia 1.5 kW, dos espirales de vidrio refractario, un tanque con el fluido a tratar, una bomba, un condensador, dos sensores de temperatura y un data logger I.T.P. La concentración de sólidos solubles se determinó con un refractómetro Bausch & Lomb escala 0 - 32 °Brix, el pH con un pHmetro Schott CG 842 y las unidades formadoras de colonia en el cuenta colonias Indulab. Resultados. Se obtuvieron reducciones importantes, de hasta el 89%, con tratamiento suaves, en la carga microbiana Conclusión. La reducción significativa de la población microbiana inicial, pone de manifiesto que la energía electromagnética de microondas funciona favorablemente en el proceso de destrucción del hongo Aspergillus sp.

\\u00C1ngela Mar\\u00EDa Vel\\u00E1squez Valderrama

2008-01-01

382

Detachment behavior of mushroom-shaped fibrillar adhesive surfaces in peel testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic dry adhesive surfaces with mushroom-shaped pillars have been the subject of recent research investigation. This study is the first to systematically investigate the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1 mm and 400 ?m and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the critical decohesion energy of a patterned surface changes as a function of angle and cannot be treated as a constant. Variability in the critical decohesion energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis (FEA). Experimental results showed that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, and contact mechanics combined with optical observations were used to explain this phenomenon. Finally, unlike results from normal adhesion studies, aspect ratio was shown to play little role in peeling adhesive behavior due to the mechanics of peel testing. The results and conclusions from this study uncover the detachment mechanisms of mushroom-shape tipped dry adhesives under peel loading and serve as an outline for the design of these surfaces in peeling applications. PMID:24199989

Hossfeld, Craig K; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Frick, Carl P

2013-12-10

383

Design and Development of an Apparatus for Grating and Peeling Fruits and Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit grater and peeler are needed in the processing of fruits in order to reduce the time required for fruits grating and peeling. Grating is important especially to make salad and for decoration purpose. A suitable grater is needed for specific decoration process. It is crucial for food (processing industry to operate at minimal operating cost. Peeling using hands is time consuming and may require several workers to perform the operation and thus may increase the operating cost. Therefore in this study, a machine was designed to combine the process of grating and peeling in one device. This new designed machine is suitable to be used domestically. The machine is small-sized and lightweight and is convenient to carry and store. It is comprised of a clamping mechanism, grater, peeling blade, movable arm and also a pair of end-cutting blade. The prototype was tested for automatic grating and peeling process and manual peeling was also performed to peel the skin of selected fruits and vegetable. The prototype was able to grate several fruits and vegetables and also reduce the peeling time by 94% when compared to manual peeling.

W.H. Wan Zuha

2010-01-01

384

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels  

SCPinfonet

... Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time ...t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max.... Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction ...time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. ...

385

Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realiz [...] adas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta. Abstract in english Mango is one of the most consumed fruit in the world and the most exported by Peru. At present, Peru is the sixth largest exporter in the world. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of mango exports by Peru by making more focus to the main target markets, namely the [...] United States and the European Union for the period from 2000-2011. For this end, we used the model of Vector Error Correction. The choice of model is discussed in the methodology. The variables used to explain the determinants of mango exports are domestic prices, wholesale prices in the United States and the European Union, the internal income of the United States and the European Union and the exchange rate euro / dollar. The results show that international prices and income in the United States are determinant to explain exports of this fruit. The results show that the international prices and the income of importers markets are determinant to explain the export of this fruit.

Jorge Luis Sánchez, Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de, Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de, Araújo.

386

Presencia de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) en inflorescencias de mango ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México / Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) presence on "Ataulfo" mango inflorescences in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english The pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Say) was found for the first time in the inflorescences of mango cultivar Ataúlfo in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. [...

Antonio, SANTIESTEBAN-HERNÁNDEZ; Armando, VIRGEN-SÁNCHEZ; Yann, HENAUT; Leopoldo, CRUZ-LÓPEZ.

2011-08-01

387

The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

388

Effects of ionizing energy on fruit flies and seed weevil in Australian mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was evaluated as a quarantine measure for the disinfestation of Australian mangoes against two species of fruit fly, Bactrocera (=Dacus) tryoni (Froggatt) and B, jarvisi (Tryon), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius). For the fruit flies, the third instar stage was determined as the most tolerant of irradiation, but disinfestation trials were also undertaken against mature eggs as the stage most likely to be present in any infested fruit at the time of treatment. A dose range of 74-101 Gy on the ''Kensington'' variety of mango prevented the emergence of adult flies, but large numbers of treated larvae and some eggs developed to the pupal stage. This places important emphasis on the field control of fruit flies if detection of still living larvae in fruit at inspection is to be avoided. Disinfestation trials on the mango seed weevil were complicated by the inability to culture this insect in the laboratory. This necessitated the use of naturally infested fruit of the ''common'' variety and precluded trial work on specific stages of known age. A dose range of 298-339 Gy (nominally a minimum of 300 Gy) prevented adult emergence and ensured 100% mortality by 8 months on the samples treated. The slow life cycle of the seed weevil requires that assessment of mortality be delayed by a minimum of 1 month, and for full mortality up to 6-8 months. The presence of live insects in irradiated fruit causes problems if detected at inspection unlses problems if detected at inspection unless export fruit is obtained from weevil free orchards. No significant fruit damage would be expected at a fruit fly treatment range of 100-200 Gy, but the maximum/minimum ratio for weevil treated fruit would need to be minimized as the treatment level is near the threshold for damage to the ''Kensington'' variety of mango. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

389

The efficiency of ionizing radiation on the disinfestation of fresh mangoes (Carabao variety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, Carabao variety, were irradiated with doses found effective for fruit fly disinfestation, namely 60, 70 and 80 krad and stored at either 30deg C or 7deg C until subjection to various analyses. Parts of the fruit of varying sizes and maturity, both irradiated and non-irradiated, were exposed to varying ages and numbers of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) to study the degree of infestation. Analyses of physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of irradiated mangoes were carried out at appropriate intervals. Extension of shelf-life of mangoes irradiated with doses mentioned above could not be achieved when the fruits were stored at 30deg C. A study of factors considered important in measuring the effectiveness of radiation disinfestation showed that the degree of fruit fly infestation was significantly influenced by size and maturity of the fruits, and by the number of age of the infesting flies. Direct irradiation of different developmental stages of the fly showed that the low dose of 5 krad applied to eggs, larvae, and pupae prevented adult emergence and produced sterility in adults. A dose of 15 krad shortened survival time of adult fruit flies to 10 days. The 60 - 80 krad doses applied were found effective to extend the shelf-life of mangoes and could be used for insect disinfestation also. No significant changes in pH, texture, carotine, sugar, pectin and ascorbic acid contents were found in mangoes exposed at these dose levels. They were also found generally acceptable to judges. No significant differences between appearance, texture, odour, and flavour were found between controls and the irradiated samples by 8-10 trained judges using the Hedonic Scale

390

APLICACIÓN DE LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES EN LA FORTIFICACIÓN DE MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) CON CALCIO / APLICATION OF MATRIX ENGINEERING IN THE FORTIFICATION OF MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) WITH CALCIUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN: La presente investigación analiza la respuesta a la impregnación a vacío en la estructura del mango var. Tommy Atkin y cuantifica los niveles de Ca+2 alcanzados en el producto enriquecido. Se diseñó una disolución de impregnación a partir de Sacarosa y Ca+2 con las cantidades adecuadas de C [...] aCl2 que permitieran teóricamente incorporar un 20% de la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR)/200 g de mango fresco. Los parámetros de impregnación obtenidos estuvieron afectados por las interacciones del Ca+2 con el material péctico del mango, mientras que los niveles de Ca+2 en el producto impregnado fueron superiores (44 %IDR/200 g de mango fresco) al criterio de enriquecimiento teórico. Este fenómeno podría ser atribuido a que la valoración teórica del Ca+2 se realizó por diferencia de pesos antes y después del proceso de impregnación, además el vació aplicado al sistema contribuyó a la salida de líquido nativo del interior de la matriz de la fruta. Abstract in english The present investigation analyzes the vacuum impregnation response of mango (var. Tommy Atkins) structure, and shows the Ca+2 concentration reached at the enrichment product. In order to allow an adequate Ca+2 incorporation, according to the 20 % Daily Recommended Intake (IDR)/200 g of fresh mango, [...] an impregnation solution was designed with the appropriate amounts of sucrose and CaCl2. The impregnation parameters are affected by the interaction between Ca+2 and mango pectic material, whereas, Ca+2 levels are remarkable higher than the expected enrichment criterion (44% IDR /200 g fresh mango). This phenomenon could be due to Ca+2 theoretical quantification obtained after and before weights differences in vacuum impregnation process, furthermore the native liquid flows from the fruit structural matrix to the dissolution as a vacuum pulse effect.

MISAEL, CORTÉS RODRÍGUEZ; LUÍS FERNANDO, GUARDIOLA; ROGER, PACHECO.

2007-11-01

391

Control químico de la antracnosis del mango (Mangifera indica L.) en pre y postcosecha en el municipio cedeño, estado monagas, venezuela Chemical control of anthracnose during pre and postharvest in mango, in Cedeño County, Monagas State, Venezuela  

OpenAIRE

En la actualidad las patologías más importantes del mango en las zonas productoras del oriente venezolano son las manchas en el follaje, flores y frutos causadas por la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz). Se ha visualizado que la implementación de un programa de aspersión de las plantas con fungicidas es la práctica más viable en el manejo de la enfermedad, ya que la mayoría de las fincas están establecidas con variedades de mango susceptibles a este hongo. El estudio se...

Berto Arias Rivas; Luis Carrizales

2007-01-01

392

Hongos endofitos en plantaciones de mango `Haden' de la planicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela Endophytes fungi in mango Haden' orchards of Maracaibo plain, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia y distribución de hongos endofitos (asintomáticos en cuatro plantaciones de mango `Haden' sometidos a diferentes prácticas agronómicas y ubicados en la Planicie de Maracaibo (condiciones semi-áridas. Los hongos se recuperaron empleando la técnica de la triple esterilización (método específico para hongos endofitos. Todos los hongos identificados son conocidos fitopatógenos del mango. En todas las plantaciones se registró la presencia de Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. y Cladosporium sp. La mayoría de los hongos estaban presentes tanto en órganos vegetativos como reproductivos, con excepción de P. mangiferae y Pestalotiopsis sp. que solo se recuperaron a partir de órganos vegetativos. Conidios de L. theobromae y Cladosporium sp. fueron detectados dentro de las anteras junto con los granos de polen. En general, se encontró que la distribución de los hongos en los órganos de las plantas hospedantes fue continua y sistemática, sin registrarse variaciones temporales. Estos resultados podrían indicar que la colonización endofítica es una importante ruta para el desarrollo de enfermedades en el mango `Haden' cultivado en la Planicie de Maracaibo.The presence and distribution of endophytic fungi (asymptomatic in four `Haden' mango orchards located in the Maracaibo Plain were evaluated. The orchards were under different agronomic cultural practices where arid conditions prevail. The fungi were isolated employing triple sterilization specific method for endophytes fungi. In all orchards were recorded the presence of: Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. and Cladosporium sp. Most fungi were present in vegetative and reproductive organs, except P. mangiferae and Pestalotiopsis sp. which were detected in vegetative organs only. Conidia of L. theobromae and Cladosporium sp. were detected within anthers along with pollen grains. In general, it was found that the fungi distribution in the organs of the hosts' plants was continuous and systematic, without any temporal colonization. These results could indicate that the endophytic colonization is an important way for the development of diseases in mango `Haden' orchards of Maracaibo Plain.

V Morales-Rondón

2006-07-01

393

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to increase with increasing temperature and could be well adjusted by an exponential relationship. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to sorption isotherms and plots of deltaH versus deltaS provided the isokinetic temperatures, indicating an enthalpy controlled sorption process.Dados de equilíbrio da umidade da polpa de manga foram determinados utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico. As isotermas de adsorção e dessorção foram obtidas na faixa de 30-70 ºC e as atividades de água (a w de 0,02 a 0,97. A utilização do modelo de GAB nos resultados experimentais, através da análise de regressão não linear, proporcionou um bom ajuste entre os dados experimentais e os valores calculados. O calor isostérico de sorção foi estimado a partir dos dados de equilíbrio de sorção, utilizando-se a equação de Clausius-Clayperon. Notou-se que os calores isostéricos de sorção crescem com o aumento da temperatura e pode ser bem ajustado através de uma relação exponencial. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas de sorção e gráficos deltaH versus deltaS forneceram as temperaturas isocinéticas, indicando um processo de sorção entalpicamente controlado.

Javier Telis-Romero

2005-06-01

394

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango / Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dados de equilíbrio da umidade da polpa de manga foram determinados utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico. As isotermas de adsorção e dessorção foram obtidas na faixa de 30-70 ºC e as atividades de água (a w) de 0,02 a 0,97. A utilização do modelo de GAB nos resultados experimentais, através [...] da análise de regressão não linear, proporcionou um bom ajuste entre os dados experimentais e os valores calculados. O calor isostérico de sorção foi estimado a partir dos dados de equilíbrio de sorção, utilizando-se a equação de Clausius-Clayperon. Notou-se que os calores isostéricos de sorção crescem com o aumento da temperatura e pode ser bem ajustado através de uma relação exponencial. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas de sorção e gráficos deltaH versus deltaS forneceram as temperaturas isocinéticas, indicando um processo de sorção entalpicamente controlado. Abstract in english Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w) from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear r [...] egression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to increase with increasing temperature and could be well adjusted by an exponential relationship. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to sorption isotherms and plots of deltaH versus deltaS provided the isokinetic temperatures, indicating an enthalpy controlled sorption process.

Javier, Telis-Romero; Márcio N., Kohayakawa; Vivaldo, Silveira Jr; Maria A. M., Pedro; Ana L., Gabas.

2005-06-01

395

Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

Omotioma M

2014-10-01

396

Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.), is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response studies with larvae, pupae, and adult weevils. To validate an irradiation treatment, large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted with adults (the most radiation-tolerant stage) in mangoes at 100 and 150 Gy. After treatment, adults were removed from fruit, sexed, and mated in pairs to observe any reproduction. At 100 Gy, adults laid a small number of eggs but none of the eggs hatched. At 150 Gy (measured doses 96.7-164.1 Gy),4,559 treated weevils laid no eggs, indicating that this dose caused complete sterility. Irradiation treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 165 Gy will therefore provide quarantine security for S. frigidus in exported Philippine mangoes. PMID:24665698

Obra, Glenda B; Resilva, S S; Follett, P A; Lorenzana, L R J

2014-02-01

397

Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expe [...] ctations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV), transparent without vacuum (TWV), transparent under vacuum (TV), and laminated under vacuum (LV); they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues, Mendes; Cristiane Rodrigues, Gomes-Ruffi; Moacir Evandro, Lage; Fernanda Salamoni, Becker; Adriane Alexandre Machado de, Melo; Flávio Alves da, Silva; Clarissa, Damiani.

2013-12-01

398

Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

399

Effect of Time of Operation and Age of Rootstock on the Success of Inserted Contact Grafting in Mango  

OpenAIRE

An experiment on the inserted contact grafting in mango (Mangifera indica L.) was conducted to find out the best time and age of rootstock for grafting in best varieties of mango under Bangladesh condition. The experiment indicated that inserted contact grafting could be more successful in 16 May operations. The highest percentage of survived grafts (56.82%) was recorded in 16 May operation 120 days after the detachment of the grafts from the mother plant requiring less time (70....

Islam, M. N.; Rahim, M. A.; Naher, M. N. A.; Azad, M. I.; Shahjahan, M.

2004-01-01

400

Effect of Hot Water Treatment on Quality and Incidence of Postharvest Disease of Mango (Mangifera indicia L. Fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an evergreen tree grown throughout subtropical and tropical regions. The mango fruit is one of the highly consumed and popular fruits throughout the world. As a fruit, it is liable to postharvest losses as a result of physiological deterioration and pathogen infection. In order to minimize the postharvest losses and extend shelf life, postharvest treatments are given to the fruit after harvest. Among the postharvest treatments, hot water treatment is the one and should be applied at the beginning of the packing or packing process for improved quality and shelf life of mango. Mango anthracnose, a major postharvest disease, induces huge losses in mangoes and threatens mango export and consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatment on the quality and control of postharvest fungal disease. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of postharvest physiology, Jimma University from April to May 2014, using CRD factorial arrangement of treatments replicated three times. Two factors were considered as a treatment; temperature and time (duration of treatment. There were three levels of temperature (48, 50 and 52°C and two levels of time (5 and 10 min. Accordingly, the experiment had six factorial and one control treatments with three replications making a total of 21 experimental units. Mango fruits of local variety were used for the study that was brought from Sarboo district, Jimma zone. The result of the study showed that hot water treatment highly significantly (p<0.001 affected weight loss and disease incidence (anthracnose during storage time. In addition, hot water treatment significantly (p<0.05 affected the pH and TA value of mango fruit but had no significant effect on the total soluble solids and sugar acidity ratio of the fruits.

Obsa Neme Angasu

2014-01-01

401

Effect of cultural practices and selected chemicals on flowering and fruit production in some mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Although mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been studied for many years, numerous problems still elude researchers. The objectives of the current trials were to study the effects of some cultural practices (fruit thinning, panicle/ bud/ renewal/ post-harvest pruning) and chemicals (Corasil.E, potassium nitrate/urea, paclobutrazol) on various vegetative, floral, yield and quality parameters. The study meant to address problems of both South African and Ethiopian mango growers. The thinning (on ?...

Yeshitela, Teferi Belayneh

2005-01-01

402

KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of...

Safrani; Cahyawan; Ansar

2012-01-01

403

Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud  

OpenAIRE

Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extr...

Omotioma M; Ejikeme P. C. N

2014-01-01

404

Anticipation of 'ubá' mango ripening with preharvest ethephon application Antecipação do amadurecimento de manga 'ubá' com a aplicação pré-colheita de ethephon  

OpenAIRE

Preharvest application of ethephon, a compound that releases ethylene when hydrolyzed, can anticipate and standardize mango harvesting. In this study, the effects of different doses of ethephon, applied at preharvest, on harvest anticipation of 'Ubá' mango were evaluated. On the 17th week after anthesis, 25 mango trees, five per treatment, were sprayed with ethephon at 0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000mg L-1, plus 0.5% of mineral oil. Five fruits from each plant were harvested daily until full ripen...

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva; Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão; Paulo Roberto Cecon; Dalmo Lopes Siqueira; Aline Rocha

2011-01-01

405

Composição centesimal e de minerais em cascas de frutas / Centesimal composition and minerals in peels of fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Informações sobre a composição de alimentos de origem agrícola cultivados em solos brasileiros são escassas, e mais ainda de alimentos provenientes do Nordeste. O desconhecimento dos princípios nutritivos dos alimentos induz ao mau aproveitamento, o que ocasiona o desperdício de toneladas de recurso [...] s alimentares. Com o objetivo de incentivar o reaproveitamento de alimentos e oferecer uma alternativa nutritiva de dieta a baixo custo, foram analisadas as cascas de algumas frutas que normalmente são desprezadas. No presente trabalho, foi determinada a composição centesimal de 7 elementos minerais com importância nutricional (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn) em 7 tipos diferentes de cascas de frutas: abacate, abacaxi, banana, mamão, maracujá, melão e tangerina, cultivadas no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. As análises químicas mostraram que as cascas das frutas apresentam, em geral, teores de nutrientes maiores do que os das suas respectivas partes comestíveis, conforme verificado na literatura. Desta forma, pode-se considerar que as cascas das frutas analisadas podem ser úteis como fontes alternativas de alimento ou como ingredientes para obtenção de preparações processadas. Abstract in english Information on the composition of Brazilian foods is scant, mainly of Northeastern origin. Still, the ignorance of the nutritious principles of the foods, as well as improper use, cause the waste of tons of alimentary resources. With the objective of motivating the reuse of foods and offering a nutr [...] itious alternative of diet at a low cost, the peels of some fruits were analyzed, which are usually discarded. In the present work, it was determined the centesimal composition and 7 mineral elements with nutritious importance (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn) in 7 different types from peels of fruits: avocado, pineapple, banana, papaya, passion fruit, melon and tangerine, cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State. The chemical analyses showed that the peels of the fruits present, in general, larger content of nutrients than the respective edible parts verified in the literature. This way, it can be considered that the peels of the analyzed fruits can be used as alternative source of food or as ingredients as to obtain processed preparations.

Jussara A. Melo, Gondim; Maria de Fátima V., Moura; Aécia S., Dantas; Rina Lourena S., Medeiros; Klécia M., Santos.

2005-12-01

406

Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by ?-Pinene (1.5%), ?-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (PFenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Da?, Gürbüz

2012-08-13

407

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

408

Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium-adsorbing abilities of seven plant wastes were investigated. High abilities to adsorb uranium from non-saline water containing 10 mg dm-3 of uranium were observed with a number of plant wastes tested. However, with seawater supplemented with 10 mg dm -3 of uranium, similar results were found only with chestnut residues. When the plant wastes were immobilized with formaldehyde, their ability to adsorb uranium was increased. Uranium and copper ions were more readily adsorbed by all plant wastes tested than other metal ions from a solution containing a mixture of seven different heavy metals. The selective adsorption of heavy metal ions differs with different species of plant wastes. The immobilization of peanut inner skin, orange peel and grapefruit peel increased the selectivity for uranium. (author)

409

Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The uranium-adsorbing abilities of seven plant wastes were investigated. High abilities to adsorb uranium from non-saline water containing 10 mg dm{sup -3} of uranium were observed with a number of plant wastes tested. However, with seawater supplemented with 10 mg dm {sup -3} of uranium, similar results were found only with chestnut residues. When the plant wastes were immobilized with formaldehyde, their ability to adsorb uranium was increased. Uranium and copper ions were more readily adsorbed by all plant wastes tested than other metal ions from a solution containing a mixture of seven different heavy metals. The selective adsorption of heavy metal ions differs with different species of plant wastes. The immobilization of peanut inner skin, orange peel and grapefruit peel increased the selectivity for uranium. (author).

Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi (Miyazaki Medical Coll. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry)

1990-01-01

410

Investigation of Heat Stablity of Pomegranate Peel Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum peel extract (PPE, extracted by either methanol or ethanol solvent, was studied by phosphomolybdenum method. Antioxidant activity of methanolic PPE was higher than the other. To evaluate heat stability of PPE in sunflower oil, the rancidity rate of the oil was compared at 90, 120, and 150ºC with those containing ?-tocopherol and synthetic BHT, using rancimat method. A sample including 1000 ppm PPE had the highest induction period at 90,120 ,150ºC. The use of PPE had no adverse effect on sensory characteristics of potato chips as judged by the taste panel.

M Mohanadi Jafari

2009-04-01

411