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Sample records for mango peel waste

  1. Uses for mango wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A.M.

    1981-03-01

    The potential use of chemically modified mango waste is investigated in this article. Observations suggest that mango seed and peel are important raw materials for a number of industrial applications:- confectionery and chocolate industries, soft drink manufacturers, food processing, and textile and paper industries. Studies indicate that a high quality mango pectin can be obtained from mango peel. The wide availability, ease of collection and storage, will facilitate the establishment of small and medium size industries near mango processing plants. (Refs. 14).

  2. Chemical Profiling of Different Mango Peel Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Imran; Masood Sadiq Butt; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Javed Iqbal Sultan

    2013-01-01

    The present exploration was an attempt to investigate the therapeutic potential of mango peel extract. For the purpose, five different mango peels namely chaunsa, anwar ratol, langra, dusahri and desi were nutritionally characterized. The nutritional analysis indicated that mango peel is a good source of moisture, protein and minerals. The means elucidated highest moisture in the peel of desi mango 71.38±2.05 followed by anwar ratol, chaunsa, langra and dusahri ...

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectic polysaccharide from waste mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Swathi, K; Jeevitha, P; Jayalakshmi, J; Ashvini, G

    2015-06-01

    This present study investigates the extraction characteristics and optimal parameters of the microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from waste mango peel (WMP). Microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio were selected as the extraction parameters and was studied by using Box-Behnken response surface design. The experimental data was analyzed by least square regression analysis method and a second order polynomial model was constructed for response from the experimental data. The constructed model was adequate to explain the relationships between independent variables and response. All studied factors had great influence on the yield of pectin by individually and interactively. The optimum microwave assisted extraction conditions for the highest pectin yield (28.86%) from WMP was found to be: microwave power of 413W, pH of 2.7, time of 134s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:18g/ml. The experimental value was well correlated with predicted value at the optimal condition. PMID:25843835

  4. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Aarumugam; P. Saravana Bhavan; T. Muralisankar; Manickam, N; V. Srinevasan; Radhakrishnan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL) was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-...

  5. Comparative studies on conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) procedures for extraction and chemical characterization of pectin from peel waste of mango cultivar chaunsa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin, a naturally occurring heteropolysaccharide, is widely used as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industries due to its gelling and stabilizing properties. During the present study pectin was extracted from peel of mango (cultivar Chaunsa) using conventional (water-hot acid) and non-conventional (ultrasonication) methods. In conventional method, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, or HCl was used under variable conditions of pH (2.0, 2.5, 3.0), temperature (70, 80, 90, 100 degree C), duration of extraction (30, 60, 90, 120 min), and solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone, isopropyl alcohol). Maximum yield of 16.6 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained with HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5, 90 degree C, 90 min extraction, and ethanol. Whereas in non-conventional method, ultrasonication was used for different time intervals (10, 20, 40 min) using HNO/sub 3/ at pH 2.5 and 90 degree C. Maximum yield of 15.8 g pectin 100 g/sup -1/ peel was obtained by this method in 20 min. Pectin extracted by the above two methods was found to be of high quality as was determined in respect of methoxyl and galacturonic acid contents, degree of esterification, equivalent weight, and FTIR spectra. Extraction of pectin from mango peel by employing non-conventional method (ultrasonication) was observed to be an energy efficient method due to its less extraction time (20 min as compared to 90 min in conventional method) suggesting its suitability on commercial scale for the extraction of pectin from mango and other available fruit peel wastes. (author)

  6. Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susy Mary Souto de, Oliveira; Vivyanne S., Falcão-Silva; José P., Siqueira-Junior; Maria José de Carvalho, Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo, Diniz.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance t [...] o norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

  7. Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL, it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL, a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

  8. Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

    2013-12-01

    Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 ?mol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties. PMID:23871007

  9. Sanitizers Effect in Mango Pulp and Peel Antioxidant Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila de Almeida Monaco; Sergio Marques Costa; Maíra Rodrigues Uliana; Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2014-01-01

    Effects of ozonated water as sanitizer method on mango was studied on total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin C of pulp or peel. Mango cultivar “Palmer” was harvested and subjected to sanitization treatments by immersion in water, chlorinated water (10 minutes sodium hypochlorite 100 mg°C °C and 85%

  10. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL, BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  11. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal by mango peel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd2+ and Pb2+ was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g-1, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and proton H+ from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution

  12. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) removal by mango peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Zafar, Saeed Iqbal

    2009-05-15

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) was found to be 68.92 and 99.05mgg(-1), respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+). Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+)) and proton H(+) from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. PMID:18799258

  13. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186

  14. GROWTH OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII FED WITH MANGO SEED KERNEL,BANANA PEEL AND PAPAYA PEEL INCORPORATED FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Aarumugam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth promoting potential of fruits wastes, mango seed kernel, banana peel and papaya peel on the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL was evaluated. Basal diet equated to 35% protein was prepared by using soybean meal, groundnut oilcake, horse gram and wheat flour. Each fruit waste powder was separately incorporated with basal diet at a proportion of 10%. Sunflower oil was used as lipid source. Egg albumin and tapioca flour were used as binding agents. Vitamin B-complex with Vitamin-C was also mixed. Feed without any fruit waste was served as control. M. rosenbergii PL (length: 1.2-1.4 cm; weight: 0.09- 0.13 g was fed with these feeds for a period of 90 days. Significant improvements in the nutritional indices (survival rate, weight gain, biomass index, specific growth rate and condition factor, concentrations of biochemical constituents (total protein, carbohydrate and lipid, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin-C and E, content of minerals (Na+ and K+, activities of digestive enzymes (protease, amylase and lipase, and profiles of essential amino acids and fatty acids were recorded in fruits wastes incorporated feeds fed PL when compared with control (P< 0.003 – 0.878. The overall results indicated the fact that mango seed kernel incorporated feed was produced the best performance, followed by better performance of banana peel and good performance of papaya peel. These fruits wastes incorporated feeds enhance digestive enzymes activities and act as appetizer, which in turn enhances food utilization and ultimately yielded better survival and growth of M. rosenbergii PL. Therefore, these fruits wastes have considerable potentials in sustainable development of Macrobrachium culture.

  15. Production and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulase from Paenibacillus polymyxa using mango peel as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Ashfaque, Mohd; Muthukumar, M; Singh, Munna; Garg, Neelima

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel, a solid mango processing waste, comprises 15-20% of total fruit weight. This, being a rich source of lignocelluloses, was used as substrate for carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) production using Paenibacillus polymyxa. Maximum CMCase production (7.814 U mg(-1)) was observed in a medium containing 7% mango peel (w/v) with 1.5% ammonium sulphate (w/v) at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Purification to an extent of 28.24 fold was achieved by affinity column chromatography. Bands corresponding to 26.5 and 34.0 kDa molecular sizes were observed on 12% denaturing Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while of 72 kDa on 10% non-denaturing Native-PAGE, proving its heteromeric multienzyme nature. The enzyme was stable over a range of 20-60 degrees C and pH of 4.0-7.5. Michaelis-Menten equation constant (Km and Vmax) values of purified CMCase were 8.73 mg ml(-1) and 17.805 mM ml(-1) min(-1), respectively. PMID:23033647

  16. Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Amid Mehrnoush; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1), tie line length (?3.42–35.27%), NaCl (?2.5–11.5%) and...

  17. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2009-05-15

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

  18. Potencial agroindustrial de cáscaras de mango (Mangifera indica) variedades Keitt y Tommy Atkins / Agro industrial potential of peels of mango (Mangifera indica) Keitt and Tommy Atkins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Serna Cock; Cristian, Torres León.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de las cáscaras de mango de las variedades Keitt y Tommy Atkins, por sus características de rendimientos, contenidos en compuestos fenólicos totales y composición proximal (materia seca, proteína, extracto etéreo, cenizas, fibras dietéticas y energ [...] ía bruta). Las cáscaras se liofilizaron con el fin de preservar sus compuestos antioxidantes. Se utilizó un diseño unifactorial con dos niveles (variedades) y los datos se presentan como media ± desviación estándar (P = 0.05). Con el procesamiento artesanal se produjeron 13.5 ± 0.48% de cáscaras para la variedad Tommy Atkins y 16.1 ± 0.5% para la variedad Keitt, con materia seca de 18 y 17%, respectivamente. Por sus contenidos de materia seca, estos residuos agroindustriales tienen un alto potencial para desarrollar productos de valor agregado. Ambas variedades presentaron cáscara con alto contenido de fibras soluble e insoluble (Keitt 22.1%bs y Tommy Atkins19.9% bs). Se concluye que las cáscaras de mango de estas variedades tienen potencial como ingrediente o suplemento alimentario y en la formulación de alimentos funcionales prebióticos, ya que son una excelente fuente de fibra dietética y de compuestos fenólicos (> 3000 mg/100 g de MS). Abstract in english According to yield contents of total phenols and their proximate composition (dry matter, protein, ether extract, ash, dietary fiber, and gross energy) the agro-industrial potential of the peels from the mango varieties Keitt and Tommy Atkins was evaluated. The peels were lyophilized in order to pre [...] serve its antioxidant compounds. A univariate design with two levels was used, data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (p = 0.05). The artisanal processing generated 13.5 ± 0.48% of peels for variety Tommy Atkins and 16.1 ± 0.5% for the Keitt variety, dry matter of 18 and 17% respectively. The contents of dry matter make these agro-industrial wastes are potential to develop value-added products. The contents of soluble and insoluble fiber coincided with the classification of high fiber content (22.1% db Keitt and Tommy Atkins 19.9% bs., It was concluded that the mango peels and Tommy Atkins variety Keitt have potential as a food ingredient, dietary supplement, and the formulation of functional foods prebiotics, because they are excellent source of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds (> 3000 mg.100g-1 D.M.).

  19. Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals. PMID:22699857

  20. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Mehmood Abbasi; Xinbo Guo; Xiong Fu; Lin Zhou; Youngsheng Chen; Yong Zhu; Huaifeng Yan; Rui Hai Liu

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Ta...

  1. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Viruthagiri, T.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Saravanan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The comp...

  2. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii

    OpenAIRE

    Tivkaa Amande; Bukola Adebayo-Tayo; Uduak Ndubuisi-Nnaji; Benjamin Ado

    2013-01-01

    Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase produc...

  3. Induction of apoptosis by ethanolic extract of mango peel and comparative analysis of the chemical constitutes of mango peel and flesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonji; Kim, Hana; Mosaddik, Ashik; Gyawali, Rajendra; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim

    2012-07-15

    The underlying mechanisms of the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of mango peel (EEMP) and its constituents were investigated. EEMP induced death of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells through apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased cell population in the sub-G1 phase and the appearance of fragmented nuclei. Treatment of the cells with EEMP also downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression, resulting in the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, 7, 8, and 9 and the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein. The major components of mango peel were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that EEMP is an excellent source of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, mangiferin gallate, isomangiferin gallate, quercetin-3-O-arabinopyranoside, and mangiferin along with unsaturated fatty acids oleic acid, linoleic acid, and ethyl linoleate, which may help to prevent cervical cancer and may be a useful agent for the treatment of some other malignancies. PMID:25683414

  4. Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, Eva; Lobo, M Gloria; González, Mónica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. PMID:23666412

  5. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Amid Mehrnoush

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4...

  6. Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

    2008-11-26

    Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc mango peel pectins less valuable than commercial apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements. PMID:18980323

  7. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  8. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  9. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

  10. Ethanol extract of mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel inhibits ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities, and ameliorates diabetes related biochemical parameters in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Mahendranath; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2015-12-01

    Peel is a major by-product during processing of mango fruit into pulp. Recent report indicates that the whole peel powder ameliorated diabetes. In the present study, ethanolic extract of mango peel was analysed for its bioactive compounds, evaluated for ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory properties, oral glucose tolerance test, antioxidant properties, plasma insulin level and biochemical parameters related to diabetes. In addition to gallic and protocatechuic acids, the extract also had chlorogenic and ferulic acids, which were not reported earlier in mango peel extracts. The peel extract inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activities, with IC50 values of 4.0 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Ethanolic extract of peel showed better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with the extract decreased fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and glycated hemoglobin levels, and increased plasma insulin level. Peel extract treatment decreased malondialdehyde level, but increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes significantly in liver and kidney compared to diabetic rats. These beneficial effects were comparable to metformin, but better than gallic acid treated diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of peel extract may be through different mechanism like increased plasma insulin levels, decreased oxidative stress and inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activities by its bioactive compounds. Thus, results suggest that the peel extract can be a potential source of nutraceutical or can be used in functional foods and this is the first report on antidiabetic properties of mango peel extract. PMID:26604360

  11. Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, P; Muthuvelayudham, R; Viruthagiri, T

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH(2)PO(4), and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30?g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53?g/L, KH(2)PO(4): 4.90?g/L, and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O: 0.95?g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8?IU/mL. PMID:23304453

  12. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour. PMID:26868561

  13. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tivkaa Amande

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P?0.05. The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P?0.05. Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

  14. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peels could be used to produce higher value produ...

  15. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

  16. Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

  17. Aqueous extracts of mango and orange peel as green inhibitors for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaina Cardozo da, Rocha; José Antônio da Cunha Ponciano, Gomes; Eliane, D& #39; Elia.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aqueous extracts of mango and orange peels were shown to be good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in a 1 mol L- 1 HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased as the extract concentration increased over a concentration range of 200-600 mg L- 1, varying from 79 to 96% (mango) [...] and 84 to 91% (orange) using Tafel plots and from 69 to 94% (mango) and 76 to 90% (orange) using electrochemical impedance. In the presence of 400 mg L- 1 of mango and orange peel extracts, the weight loss measurements showed an increase in the inhibition efficiency with immersion time, where the best results after 24 h of immersion were 97% and 95%, respectively. The adsorption of the extract components on the surface of the carbon steel follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. With the extraction procedure used in this work, it can be surmised that it is likely that the more polar heterosides in the extracts are responsible for the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in an acid solution.

  18. Optimization of serine protease purification from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel in polyethylene glycol/dextran aqueous two phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing. PMID:22489172

  19. Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1, tie line length (?3.42–35.27%, NaCl (?2.5–11.5% and pH (4.5–10.5 on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2 purification factor (14.37 and yield (97.3% of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol?1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

  20. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called "the king of fruits", is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  1. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mehmood Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L., also called “the king of fruits”, is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health.

  2. Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

  3. Quantitative determination of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel, pulp, and fruit products by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödler, Matthias; Reisenhauer, Katharina; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2009-05-13

    Despite a number of serious case reports of mango dermatitis, no attempts at the identification and quantification of allergenic 5-alk(en)ylresorcinols in mango fruits have so far been made. Therefore, total alk(en)ylresorcinol content and relative homologue composition in 13 mango peel samples and 7 samples of mango pulp were determined by HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Furthermore, mango puree and nectar prepared on pilot plant scale were also analyzed and compared with commercially available thermally preserved products. Depending on cultivar, alk(en)ylresorcinol contents ranged from 79.3 to 1850.5 mg/kg of dry matter (DM) in mango peels and from 4.9 to 187.3 mg/kg of DM in samples of mango pulp. The profile of alk(en)ylresorcinols was found to be highly characteristic, with an average homologue composition of C15:0 (6.1%), C15:1 (1.7%), C17:0 (1.1%), C17:1 (52.5%), C17:2 (33.4%), C17:3 (2.4%), C19:1 (2.1%), and C19:2 (0.8%). Mango puree samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits revealed contents of 3.8 and 12.3 mg/kg of fresh weight, respectively. Content and homologue composition were not significantly affected during puree processing and thermal preservation. In nectar samples prepared from peeled and unpeeled fruits, contents of 1.4 and 4.6 mg/L, respectively, were found. PMID:19338352

  4. The impact of extraction with a chelating agent under acidic conditions on the cell wall polymers of mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Kyomugasho, Clare; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Ramezani, Mohsen; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2014-10-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate whether mango peel is a potential source of functional cell wall polymers. To reach this objective, the native pectin polymers (NPP) extracted as alcohol insoluble residue from mango peel, were characterised in terms of uronic acid content, degree of methoxylation, neutral sugar content, and molar mass and compared to citric acid (pH 2.5, 2h at 80°C) extracted polymers, mimicking industrial pectin extraction conditions. Water-solubilised NPP were highly methoxylated having two populations with a Mw of 904 and 83kDa and a degree of methoxylation of 66%. Citric acid extraction with a yield higher than H2SO4 extraction resulted in a very branched pectin with an extremely high DM (83%) and a high molar mass. Comparing the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy of extracted and native WSF showed that citric acid remained partially associated to the extracted pectin due to its chelating properties. PMID:24837941

  5. Evaluación de Polvos Alimentarios obtenidos de Cáscaras de Mango (Mangifera indica) como fuente de Ingredientes Funcionales / Evaluation of food powders obtained from peels of mango (Mangifera indica) as sources of functional ingredients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Serna-Cock; Cristian, Torres-León; Alfredo, Ayala-Aponte.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de partícula (250 pm y 180 pm) sobre la humectabilidad, solubilidad, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA), capacidad de retención de aceite (CRAC) e hinchazón en polvos liofilizados obtenidos de cáscaras de mango de las variedades criollo, Keitt, y Tommy Atkins. Además [...] , se evaluó el contenido de antocianinas, carotenoides, licopeno y ácido ascórbico. El tamaño y la variedad influyeron significativamente (p Abstract in english The effects of particle size (250 microns and 180 microns) on wettability, solubility, water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), and swelling in freeze drying powders, obtained from three varieties of mango peels (Creole, Keitt and Tommy Atkins), were analyzed. In addition, the conte [...] nt of carotenoids, antioxianinas, and ascorbic acid, were evaluated. The particle diameter and the variety of mango affected the functional properties of the powders (p

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Bioaccessibility of Synergic Mango (cv. Ataulfo) Peel Phenolic Compounds in Edible Coatings Applied to Fresh-Cut Papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Rubén Velderrain-Rodríguez; Maribel Ovando-Martínez; Mónica Villegas-Ochoa; Jesús Fernando Ayala-Zavala; Abraham Wall-Medrano; Emilio Álvarez-Parrilla; Tomás Jesús Madera-Santana; Humberto Astiazarán-García; Orlando Tortoledo-Ortiz; Gustavo Adolfo González-Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Edible coatings (EC) applied to fresh-cut fruits are used to increase their shelf-life and to deliver antioxidant bioactives such as phenolic compounds (PC) that reduce their oxidative damage while enhance their functional value. However, the combination of different PC may have synergetic, additive or antagonic effects on the final antioxidant capacity (AOXC). The aim of this study was to examine the AOXC of binary combinations of selected PC from mango peel and their bioaccessibility from 6...

  7. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? [PPAR?] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities. PMID:21535682

  8. Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000, potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w, system pH (6–9, and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%. Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

  9. Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2011-01-01

    An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel. PMID:21986520

  10. Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jacqueline C; Trevisan, Maria T S; Hull, William E; Erben, Gerhard; de Brito, Edy S; Pfundstein, Beate; Würtele, Gerd; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Owen, Robert W

    2008-07-23

    The contents of secondary plant substances in solvent extracts of various byproducts (barks, kernels, peels, and old and young leaves) in a range of Brazilian mango cultivars were identified and quantitated. The results show that the profiles of secondary plant substances such as xanthone C-glycosides, gallotannins, and benzophenones in different byproducts vary greatly but are fairly consistent across cultivars. The free radical scavenging activity of the solvent extracts was evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay and revealed dose-dependent antioxidant capacity in all extracts. Four (mangiferin, penta- O-galloyl-glucoside gallic acid, and methyl gallate) of the major phenolic compounds detected were also evaluated in additional in vitro bioassay systems such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and ferric reducing ability of plasma. Mangiferin in particular, detected at high concentrations in young leaves (Coite = 172 g/kg), in bark (Momika = 107 g/kg), and in old leaves (Itamaraka = 94 g/kg), shows an exceptionally strong antioxidant capacity. PMID:18558692

  11. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730

  12. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities. PMID:21534889

  13. Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma Wikandari; Huong Nguyen; Ria Millati; Claes Niklasson,; Mohammad J Taherzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1?:?2 to 1?:?12 for 10 to 300?min. The pretreated peels were then dige...

  14. Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Amid Mehrnoush

    2011-01-01

    An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w), system pH (6–9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of th...

  15. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. PMID:25863626

  16. Technical and economic assessments of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5-5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value p...

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

  18. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC and kernel (FA extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC. In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

  19. Characterization of gallotannins and benzophenone derivatives from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins') peels, pulp and kernels by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardini, Nicolai; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Polyphenolics were extracted from peels, pulp and kernels of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Tommy Atkins') and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the peel 18 gallotannins and five benzophenone derivatives were detected which were tentatively identified as galloylated maclurin and iriflophenone glucosides. Twenty-one and eight gallotannins were found in the kernels and pulp, respectively, whereas no evidence for the presence of benzophenone derivatives was obtained. Gallotannins quantified by the rhodanine assay amounted to 1.4 mg/g dm in the peels (expressed as gallic acid), while only small amounts (0.2 mg/g dm) were found in the pulp. In contrast, mango kernels contained 15.5 mg/g dm and thus proved to be a rich source of gallotannins. PMID:15384138

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37 C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process combined with fla...

  1. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (ppeel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

  2. Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga / Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz dos Santos, Siqueira; Letícia Dias, Alves; Pollyanna Novato, Vasconcelos; Clarissa, Damiani; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de áci [...] do cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperatur [...] e and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

  3. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  4. Extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy as a potential tool for green and sustainable recovery of nutritionally valuable compounds from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniakov, Oleksii; Barba, Francisco J; Grimi, Nabil; Lebovka, Nikolai; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The study compares the efficiency of conventional aqueous extraction at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and pH (2.5-11) and extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy (pulsed electric fields, PEF or high voltage electrical discharges, HVED) of nutritionally valuable compounds found in mango peels. Exponential decay pulses with initial electric field strengths of ? 13.3 kV/cm and ? 40 kV/cm for PEF and HVED treatments were used, respectively. The impact of temperature on aqueous extraction of proteins and carbohydrates was not significant. The highest values of nutritionally valuable and antioxidant compounds (7.5mM TE) were obtained for aqueous extraction (T = 60 °C, pH 6) but extracts were unstable and cloudy. The application of two-stage procedure PEF+supplementary aqueous extraction (+SE) that include PEF-assisted extraction as the first step, and +SE at 50 °C, pH 6 during 3h as the second step, allowed a noticeable enhancement of the yields of TPC (+400%) even at normal pH. PMID:26304419

  5. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three times daily (10% of live weight, in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29, with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05. The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  6. Purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan) waste using an aqueous organic phase system: a potential low cost source of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2013-07-15

    As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%. PMID:23770734

  7. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa / Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L) jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarissa, Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros, Vilas Boas; Manoel Soares, Soares Junior; Marcio, Caliari; Maria do Livramento de, Paula; Eduardo Ramirez, Asquier.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos tot [...] ais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vit [...] amin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

  8. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

  9. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

  10. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes. PMID:24426016

  11. Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, N D; Dandi, B N; Chaudhari, A B

    2013-04-01

    The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ?92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. PMID:23180376

  12. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Ridoutt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  13. Sub-critical water as a green solvent for production of valuable materials from agricultural waste biomass: A review of recent work

    OpenAIRE

    A. Shitu; S. Izhar; T. M. Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural waste biomass generated from agricultural production and food processing industry are abundant, such as durian  peel, mango peel, corn straw, rice bran, corn shell, potato peel and many more. Due to low commercial value, these wastes are disposed in landfill, which if not managed properly may cause environmental problems. Currently, environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the pollution from agricultural waste streams by regulatory agencies are stringent and hence the app...

  14. PROPIEDADES TÉCNICO-FUNCIONALES DE LA FIBRA DIETARIA DE CÁSCARAS DE MANGO VARIEDADHILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFECTO DEL SECADO POR CONVECCIÓN / TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DIETARY FIBER FROM MANGO PEEL VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFFECT OF CONVECTION DRYING / PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS DA FIBRA DIETÉTICA DA CASCA DE MANGA VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFEITO DA SECAGEM POR CONVECÇÃO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUSTAVO ADOLFO, HINCAPIÉ LL.; DIANA CAROLINA, VÁSQUEZ O; VALERIA SOFÍA, GALICIA M; CARLOS AUGUSTO, HINCAPIÉ LL..

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available Um subproduto da produção de sumo de manga é a sua casca, que contém níveis significativos de fibra dietética que pode ser utilizado no processamento de alimentos, no entanto, não é actualmente utilizada. O processo de secagem prolonga-se a vida útil da casca e permite que seja adicionada a outros a [...] limentos. Neste estudo, CMH foi caracterizado quimicamente e avaliado o efeito da temperatura de secagem nas propriedades funcionais da fibra dietética; Capacidade inchaço (CI), capacidade de Reter Água (CRA) e Capacidade de Adsorção de Lipídeos (CAL), características determinam em grande parte a qualidade da fibra dietética (FD). Os resultados mostraram que o HMP é semelhante a outras variedades de manga, porque tem um conteúdo similar de fibra dietética total, proteína, extrato etéreo, carboidratos e fibra bruta. A casca seca da manga Hilacha (CSMH) obtido, é uma fonte promissora de DF porque a sua qualidade não afetou de forma significativa para o processo de secagem utilizado neste trabalho. Abstract in spanish Un subproducto de la obtención del jugo de mango es su cáscara; la cual contiene niveles considerables de fibra dietaria que podrían ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos alimenticios, sin embargo, actualmente no es muy aprovechado. El proceso de secado prolonga la vida útil de la cascara y [...] permite que pueda ser adicionada a otros alimentos. En este estudio, se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente la Cáscara de Mango Hilacha (CMH) y se evaluó el efecto de cinco temperaturas de secado sobre las propiedades técnico-funcionales de la fibra dietaria; Capacidad de Hinchamiento (CH), Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) y Capacidad de Adsorción de Lípidos (CAL), características que determinan en gran medida la calidad de la fibra dietaria (FD). Los resultados obtenidos indican que la CMH tiene un contenido de fibra dietaria total, proteína, extracto etéreo, carbohidratos y fibra cruda similar al de otras variedades de mango. La cáscara de mango hilacha seca y molida (CSMH) obtenida, es una promisoria fuente de FD, ya que su calidad no se vio afectada significativamente por el proceso de secado empleado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A byproduct from juice extraction of mango is the peel, which contains significant levels of dietary fiber that could be used in food processing, however, is not currently utilized. The drying process extends the useful life of the peel and allows it to be added to other foods. In This work, we made [...] a chemical characterization of HMP and evaluated the drying temperature effect over functional properties of dietary fiber; Swelling Capacity (SC), Water Retention Capacity (WRC) and Lipid Adsorption Capacity (LAC), features that define, in high degree, dietary fiber (DF) quality. Results showed that the HMP is similar to other mangoes varieties, because have a similar content of total dietary fiber, protein, ether extract, carbohydrates and crude fiber. The dry peel of Hilacha mango (MDPHM) obtained, is a promising source of DF because their quality didn’t affected significantly for the drying process used in this work.

  15. New insulating particleboards prepared from mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing and corn peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsutthiwong, Pranee; Khunthon, Srichalai; Siralertmukul, Krisana; Noomun, Khanittha; Chandrkrachang, Suwalee

    2008-07-01

    New composite boards with low-thermal conductivity produced from a mixture of solid wastes from tissue paper manufacturing (solid waste TPM) and corn peel have been developed. The effects of solid waste TPM/corn peel ratio on the properties of the boards were investigated and the possibility of using recycled polystyrene packaging foam as a laminating agent to improve the quality of the boards was also evaluated. Our results show that the density of the particleboards decrease with increasing the amount of corn peel added in the mixture, leading to a decrease in thermal conductivity of the final product. In contrary, larger amount of solid waste TPM added in the mixture produced stronger boards. The lamination of recycled polystyrene on the surface of particleboards improves the mechanical properties and reduces the thickness swelling of the boards. The best improvement in mechanical properties and swelling resistance could be achieved when 15% polystyrene (w/v) was coated on the surface of the boards. PMID:17977719

  16. Macroscopic modelling of bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures supplemented with inorganic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, A; Ben Tahar, I; Hassouna, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic nitrogen supplementation is commonly used to boost fermentation metabolism in yeast cultures. However, an excessive addition can induce an opposite effect. Hence, it is important to ensure that the ammonia supplemented to the culture leads to an improvement of the ethanol production while avoiding undesirable inhibition effects. To this end, a macroscopic model describing the influence of ammonia addition on Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism during bioethanol production from potato peel wastes has been developed. The model parameters are obtained by a simplified identification methodology in five steps. It is validated with experimental data and successfully predicts the dynamics of growth, substrate consumption (ammonia and fermentable sugar sources) and bioethanol production, even in cross validation. The model is used to determine the optimal quantity of supplemented ammonia required for maximizing bioethanol production from potato peel wastes in batch cultures. PMID:26059818

  17. Functional properties and dietary fiber characterization of mango processing by-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Magaña, María de Lourdes; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

    2013-09-01

    Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42%, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content. PMID:23715790

  18. Application of orange peel waste in the production of solid biofuels and biosorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carolina Monteiro; Dweck, Jo; Viotto, Renata Silva; Rosa, André Henrique; de Morais, Leandro Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed to study the potential use of pyrolyzed orange peels as solid biofuels and biosorption of heavy metals. The dry biomass and the biofuel showed moderate levels of carbon (44-62%), high levels of oxygen (30-47%), lower levels of hydrogen (3-6%), nitrogen (1-2.6%), sulfur (0.4-0.8%) and ash with a maximum of 7.8%. The activation energy was calculated using Kissinger method, involving a 3 step process: volatilization of water, biomass degradation and volatilization of the degradation products. The calorific value obtained was 19.3MJ/kg. The studies of metal biosorption based on the Langmuir model obtained the best possible data fits. The results obtained in this work indicated that the potential use of waste orange peel as a biosorbent and as a solid biofuel are feasible, this product could be used in industrial processes, favoring the world economy. PMID:26280099

  19. Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds

  20. Influence of Modified Cassava Peel Waste (CPW) Loading on Tensile Properties of Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) Products

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Hamidah; Hadinatan, Kelvin; Hartanto, Adrian; Surya, Elmer; Surya, Indra; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    Cassava peel is one of agricultural waste that abundantly found in environment. One approach to manage this waste is to apply it as filler in natural rubber latex. In this work, the cassava peel waste (CPW) was powdered and dispersed in alkanolamide-water dispersion system to modify its surface. The amount of fillers used was 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 phr (part per hundred rubber) and loaded in natural rubber latex (NRL) formulation system. The products then were formed by dipping method aft...

  1. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Mr. Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. Howev...

  2. Saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from new isolated Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Jun; Xia, Jin-Lan; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Shan, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from Aspergillus japonicus PJ01. Pretreated orange peel powder was hydrolyzed by submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) crude enzymes, the results showed that 4 % (w/v) of solid loading, undiluted crude enzymes, and 45 °C were suitable saccharification conditions. The hydrolysis kinetics showed that the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant [Formula: see text] and maximal reaction rate [Formula: see text] were 73.32 g/L and 0.118 g/(L min) for SmF enzyme, and 41.45 g/L and 0.116 g/(L min) for SSF enzyme, respectively. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the saccharification yields were 58.5 and 78.7 %, the reducing sugar concentrations were 14.9 and 20.1 mg/mL by SmF and SSF enzymes. Material balance showed that the SmF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > arabinose > galactose > xylose, and the SSF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > xylose > galactose > arabinose. PMID:26718204

  3. Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

  4. Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of pre-fermented potato peel wastes for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of anaerobic digestion (AD) of potato peel waste (PPW) and its lactic acid fermentation residue (PPW-FR) for methane (CH4) production. The experimental results showed that about 60-70% CH4 content was obtained. The digester using PPW-FR as feedstock exhibited better performance and produced a highest cumulative CH4 production of 273 L/kg VS fed, followed by 239 L/kg VS fed using PPW under the same conditions. However, with increasing solid loadings of PPW-FR feedstock from 6.4% to 9.1%, the CH4 production was inhibited. The generation, accumulation, and degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in digesters were also investigated in this research. PMID:26421481

  6. Modification of potato peel waste with base hydrolysis and subsequent cationization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Joensuu, Päivi; Lajunen, Marja

    2015-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PW) is a starch containing biomaterial produced in large amounts by food processing industry. In this work, the treatment of PW by alkaline hydrolysis and cationization in the water phase is reported. In order to improve the cationization of starch, PW was hydrolyzed by heating with alkaline (NaOH) ethanol solution (80%) in a water bath. The impact of variable molar ratios of anhydroglucose unit (AGU):NaOH, heating temperatures and times was studied on the degradation of starch and the molecular size distribution of the product. The hydrolyzed PW was cationized subsequently in water by using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and catalyzed by NaOH under microwave irradiation or in an oil bath. The impact of the various reaction conditions on the cationization and degree of substitution of starch was studied. The degree of substitution of the cationized starch varied in the range of 0-0.35. PMID:26256329

  7. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

  8. Anaerobic digestion of peel waste and wastewater for on site energy generation in a citrus processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A citrus processing facility produces significant quantities of both peel waste and wastewater. A leach – bed batch anaerobic digester was operated successfully at thermophilic (55 °C) temperature for biogasification of citrus peel waste. The retention time in the digester was 25 days. The citrus processing wastewater was digested in a thermophilic DSFF (down flow stationary fixed film) anaerobic reactor fed continuously and operated for 76 days. At an average organic loading rate of 0.51 kg sCOD m?3 d?1 the hydraulic retention time was 16 days. No long term toxicity issues due to limonene were observed during digestion of both citrus waste feedstocks. Biogasification yielded, 0.116 m3 methane at STP kg?1 peel waste received and 2.1 m3 at STP m?3 wastewater received. An energy analysis showed that in a citrus processing plant handling 600 tons per day of fruits, the biogas produced from the waste streams is more than sufficient to meet all the electricity and fuel demands. Excess electricity generated from biogas may be sold generating estimated revenues of more than a $1 million annually (at electricity sale price of $0.04/kWhe). - Highlights: • Citrus peel waste digestion yields 0.116 m3 of methane at STP per kg as received. • Citrus processing wastewater digestion yields 2.1 m3 of methane at STP per m3. • 600 ton/day citrus factory can produce 3.2 MWe on site, using biogas from wastes. • Biogas can supply all the energy (electricity and fuel) needs of the plant

  9. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ridoutt, B.G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t...

  10. Conversion of orange peel waste biomass to bioelectricity using a mediator-less microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, Waheed; Nawaz, Mohsin; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-03-15

    Microorganisms have the potential to become a game-changer in sustainable energy production in the coming generations. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as an alternative renewable technology can capture bioenergy (electricity) from carbon-based sources by utilizing microorganisms as biocatalysts. This study demonstrated that MFC technology can be explored for bioelectricity production from orange peel waste (OPW), an agricultural byproduct and an organic substrate, without any chemical pretreatment or the addition of extra mediators. A maximum voltage generation of 0.59±0.02V (at 500Ω) was achieved in a dual chamber MFC during stable voltage generation stages. The maximum power density and current density obtained were 358.8±15.6mW/m(2) and 847±18.4mA/m(2), respectively. Key components of OPW, namely pectin and cellulose, were also tested in their pure form, with pectin giving a stable current, while no significant current generation was achieved using cellulose alone as the substrate, thus demonstrating the absence of cellulose-degrading bacteria. Maximum pectinase and polygalacturonase enzyme activities of 18.55U/g and 9.04U/g (per gram of substrate), respectively were achieved during orange peel degradation in MFCs. Bacterial identification using 16S rRNA analysis of the initial inoculum fed to the MFC, the biofilm attached to the anode, and the anode suspension, showed significant diversity in community composition. A well-known exoelectrogen, Pseudomonas, was present among the predominant genera in the anode biofilm. PMID:26780146

  11. Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

    2011-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was tre...

  12. MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING

    OpenAIRE

    SAEED AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID; ISLAM-UD-DIN; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; MUHAMMAD AMIN

    2008-01-01

    Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fr...

  13. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM, ash, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, ether extract (EE, nitrogen-free extract (NFE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively. However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively, probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1 ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10; 2 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5; 3 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10; and 4 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15. Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively, probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy (DE showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

  14. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  16. Residues of 14C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 ?g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 ?g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

  17. Effect of the concentration of essential oil on orange peel waste biomethanization: Preliminary batch results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Pontoni, L; Porqueddu, I; Greco, R; Pirozzi, F; Malpei, F

    2016-02-01

    The cultivation of orange (Citrus×sinensis) and its transformation is a major industry in many countries in the world, it leads to the production of about 25-30Mt of orange peel waste (OPW) per year. Until now many options have been proposed for the management of OPW but although they are technically feasible, in many cases their economic/environmental sustainability is questionable. This paper analyse at lab scale the possibility of using OPW as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. Specific objectives are testing the possible codigestion with municipal biowaste, verifying the effect on methane production of increasingly high concentration of orange essential oil (EO, that is well known to have antioxidant properties that can slower or either inhibit biomass activity) and obtaining information on the behaviour of d-limonene, the main EO component, during anaerobic digestion. The results indicate that OPW can produce up to about 370LnCH4/kgVS in mesophilic conditions and up to about 300LnCH4/kgVS in thermophilic conditions. The presence of increasingly high concentrations of EO temporary inhibits methanogenesis, but according to the results of batch tests, methane production restarts while d-limonene is partially degraded through a pathway that requires its conversion into p-cymene as the main intermediate. PMID:26584555

  18. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. PMID:25708409

  19. A low-energy, cost-effective approach to fruit and citrus peel waste processing for bioethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Simple bioprocess of bioethanol production from fruit wastes containing D-limonene. • Two in-house enzymatic bioconversion rates were approximately 90%. • Limonene recovery column (LRC) was designed for absorption of D-limonene. • Ethanol production by immobilized yeast fermentation and LRC was 12-fold greater. - Abstract: Large quantities of fruit waste are generated from agricultural processes worldwide. This waste is often simply dumped into landfills or the ocean. Fruit waste has high levels of sugars, including sucrose, glucose, and fructose, that can be fermented for bioethanol production. However, some fruit wastes, such as citrus peel waste (CPW), contain compounds that can inhibit fermentation and should be removed for efficient bioethanol production. We developed a novel approach for converting single-source CPW (i.e., orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, or lime) or CPW in combination with other fruit waste (i.e., banana peel, apple pomace, and pear waste) to produce bioethanol. Two in-house enzymes were produced from Avicel and CPW and were tested with fruit waste at 12–15% (w/v) solid loading. The rates of enzymatic conversion of fruit waste to fermentable sugars were approximately 90% for all feedstocks after 48 h. We also designed a D-limonene removal column (LRC) that successfully removed this inhibitor from the fruit waste. When the LRC was coupled with an immobilized cell reactor (ICR), yeast fermentation resulted in ethanol concentrations (14.4–29.5 g/L) and yields (90.2–93.1%) that were 12-fold greater than products from ICR fermentation alone

  20. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  1. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, Torrado; Sandra, Cortés; José Manuel, Salgado; Belén, Max; Noelia, Rodríguez; Belinda P, Bibbins; Attilio, Converti; José Manuel, Domínguez.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculu [...] m concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  2. BIOSORPTION OF Fe (II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TAMARIND BARK AND POTATO PEEL WASTE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMED ABDULSALAM ABDULLAH; Devi Prasad, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    The sorptive potential of tamarind bark (Tamarindus indica) and potato peel waste (Solanum tuberosum) for Fe(II) ions has been investigated in a batch system. These two biosorbents have been examined for their capacity to sequester Fe(II) from aqueous solution under varying range of pH, biomass dosage, initial concentration of Fe(II) and contact time. The adsorbents used in this study exhibited a good adsorption potential with increase pH from 1 to 2.5. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redush...

  3. Response Surface Modeling and Optimization of Chromium (VI Removal from Waste Water using Custard Apple Peel Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darapureddi KRISHNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of custard apple peel powder for the removal of chromium (VI from waste water has been investigated in batch mode experiments. Influences of parameters like initial chromium (VI concentration (5 - 30 mg/l, pH (2 - 4, and biomass dosage (8 - 12 g/l on chromium (VI adsorption were examined using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental design in response surface methodology was used for designing the experiments as well as for full response surface estimation and 15 trials per the model were run. The optimum conditions for maximum removal of chromium (VI from the waste water are as follows: adsorbent dosage (10.3613 g/l, pH (2.78459 and initial chromium (VI concentration (9.03197 mg/l. The maximum percentage removal of chromium at optimum conditions was 92.82 % (with metal uptake of 2.3045 mg/g. The high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.997 between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to predict efficiently the percentage removal of chromium (VI from waste water using custard apple peel powder.

  4. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with H-NMR based metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-05-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of (1)H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

  5. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  6. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

  7. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803

  8. MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAEED AHMAD

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fruits were harvested at three different times of the day: morning (7 a.m., noon (12 p.m. and evening (5 p.m. and subjected to lime (@ 0.5% and Mango Wash (@ 0.4% treatments. No sap injury (0 score was observed in the fruits harvested and de-sapped during morning whereas maximum sap injury was observed at noon in both the cases (0.5 score for lime, 0.75 score for Mango Wash. Both lime and Mango Wash showed significantly less sap injury as compared to control for all the three times of treatment application. Almost all of the physico-chemical attributes (except fruit peel colour and non-reducing sugar contents were non-significantly affected by the desapping treatments. Fruit peel colour was slightly suppressed by Mango Wash. Lime was found to impart attractive appearance to the fruits; however the skin colour was not significantly improved as compared to control. The time of fruit harvest also exerted non significant effects on most of the fruit quality attributes. Significantly higher TSS value was measured in the fruit harvested at noon as compared to other times of the day. Minimum sapburn injury in the fruits harvested and desapped in the morning hours led to the conclusion that morning is the best time of harvest and desapping for the mangoes. Moreover, the potential of lime for controlling sapburn injury in mangoes was also confirmed and it was concluded that lime can be successfully used for mango fruit desapping as a substitute of highly expensive Mango Wash.

  9. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-01-01

    Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

  10. Isolation and purification of bromelain from waste peel of pineapple for therapeutic application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iara Rocha Antunes Pereira, Bresolin; Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto, Bresolin; Edgar, Silveira; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Priscila Gava, Mazzola.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%), followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able [...] to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.

  11. A dye sensitized solar cell using natural counter electrode and natural dye derived from mangosteen peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiaugree, Wasan; Lowpa, Seksan; Towannang, Madsakorn; Rutphonsan, Phikun; Tangtrakarn, Apishok; Pimanpang, Samuk; Maiaugree, Prapen; Ratchapolthavisin, Nattawat; Sang-Aroon, Wichien; Jarernboon, Wirat; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya

    2015-10-01

    Mangosteen peel is an inedible portion of a fruit. We are interested in using these residues as components of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Carbonized mangosteen peel was used with mangosteen peel dye as a natural counter electrode and a natural photosensitizer, respectively. A distinctive mesoporous honeycomb-like carbon structure with a rough nanoscale surface was found in carbonized mangosteen peels. The efficiency of a dye sensitized solar cell using carbonized mangosteen peel was compared to that of DSSCs with Pt and PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes. The highest solar conversion efficiency (2.63%) was obtained when using carbonized mangosteen peel and an organic disulfide/thiolate (T2/T-) electrolyte.

  12. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  13. Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Kunsong Chen; Xian Li; Chongde Sun; Jiukai Zhang; Guodi Huang; Guibing Hu; Yuqin Zhao; Qiang Lv; Fenglei Luo

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-...

  14. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p peel (CAP)+50% Cashew Apple Waste (CAW) which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals. PMID:24506052

  15. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Gas Production of Silage from Guinea Grass, Cassava Peel and Cashew Apple Waste at Different Periods of Ensilage

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Amole; V.O.A. Ojo; Arigbede, O.M.; A.O. Jolaosho; P.A. Dele; O.A. Okukenu; B.T. Akinyemi

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results show...

  16. Antioxidant Properties and Hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS Profiling of Chilean Pica Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Javier; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dim...

  17. Understanding the changes in Sri Lankan mango fruits during postharvest ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaraj, Thiruchelvam

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to be carried out which describes changes in biochemical profile of both pre- and post-climacteric Sri Lankan mango fruits. Chemometric analysis revealed that spatial distribution of biochemical compounds between peel and pulp was the major discriminatory factor during maturation; whereas fully mature mango fruit contained the highest concentration of starch and lowest concentration of acids. Since these combined variables also responsible for the final ...

  18. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  19. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Verma; Mukesh C.Bansal; Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundan...

  20. Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2010-04-28

    This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels. PMID:20349963

  1. Production and characterization of alpha-amylase from mango kernel by Fusarium solani NAIMCC-F-02956 using submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; Yadav, Kaushlesh K; Muthukumar, M; Garg, Neelima

    2013-11-01

    Microbial production of enzymes using low valued agro industrial wastes is gaining importance globally. Mango is one of the major fruit processed into a variety of products. During processing 40-50% of solid waste is generated in form of peel and stones. After decortications of mango stone, kernel is obtained which is a rich source of starch (upto 60%). It was utilized as a substrate for alpha-amylase production using Fusarium soloni. Maximum alpha-amylase production (0.889 U g(-1)) was recorded using a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v), pH-4 and temperature 30 degrees C on 9th day of incubation. Supplementation of production medium with micronutrients viz., Ca2+, Fe2+ or Mg2+ improved the enzyme production while, Zn2+, B3+ or Mn2+ ions exhibited inhibitory effect. The extracellular protein was precipitated by ammonium sulphate up to 70% saturation, dialyzed and purified (27.84 fold) by gel-exclusion (Sephadex G-75) chromatography. Protein profiling on 12% SDS-PAGE revealed three bands corresponding to 26, 27 and 30 kDa molecular sizes. The optimum amylase activity was achieved at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The Michaelis constant (KM), Vmax and activation energy (-Ea) were found to be 3.7 mg ml(-1), 0.24 U mg(-1) and 42.39 kJ mole(-1), respectively. PMID:24555336

  2. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri) / Efeito do farelo residual da manga na relação proteína:carboidrato sobre o desempenho e a composição corporal do pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; E.M.S., Moreira; E.M., Souza.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão do farelo residual de manga sem casca como fonte de carboidrato na relação proteína:carboidrato (PB:CHO) sobre o desempenho e a composição química da carcaça em juvenis de pacamãs. Foram utilizados 150 peixes (11,31±0,96g) estocados em 16 caixas de 500L, alimentados três vezes [...] ao dia (10% peso vivo), em um sistema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro dietas experimentais com níveis decrescentes da relação entre proteína bruta e carboidrato (1,40; 0,94; 0,56 e 0,29), com quatro repetições cada tratamento. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo total de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e a composição físico-química da carcaça. As relações de proteína:carboidrato afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho (P0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados, com exceção da matéria mineral, do pH e da umidade. A farinha de manga pode ser utilizada na proporção de até 15% na ração de pacamã, estabelecendo uma relação 1,40 PB:CHO, sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH) on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri) juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g) were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three t [...] imes daily (10% of live weight), in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29), with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival) and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05). The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  3. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Makawy Aida I. El; Ashoush Ihab S.; Abd-Elmoneim Omaima M.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg) were used to evaluate their...

  4. Phytochemical extraction, characterisation and comparative distribution across four mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Jean T; Monteith, Gregory R; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Shaw, Paul N

    2014-04-15

    In this study we determined the qualitative composition and distribution of phytochemicals in peel and flesh of fruits from four different varieties of mango using mass spectrometry profiling following fractionation of methanol extracts by preparative HPLC. Gallic acid substituted compounds, of diverse core structure, were characteristic of the phytochemicals extracted using this approach. Other principal compounds identified were from the quercetin family, the hydrolysable tannins and fatty acids and their derivatives. This work provides additional information regarding mango fruit phytochemical composition and its potential contribution to human health and nutrition. Compounds present in mango peel and flesh are likely subject to genetic control and this will be the subject of future studies. PMID:24295704

  5. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    OpenAIRE

    Jedman Dantas Motta; Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz; Rossana Maria Feitosa de Figueirêdo

    2015-01-01

    It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel ...

  6. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedman Dantas Motta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel color index and soluble solids content expressed in terms of the third degree equation. Nevertheless for the guava and mango there is not a relation between the peel color indexes and soluble solids content. There is not a relation between color indexes of the guava, papaya and mango pulps with soluble solids content. For all fruits studied there was not relation between color indexes of the peel or pulp with pH.

  7. Antioxidant Properties and Hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS Profiling of Chilean Pica Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu, 13 in Pica peel (ppe 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe. Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10, seven acid derivatives (peaks 1–4, 11, 20 and 21 and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12 and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7, which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13 was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14 was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively. The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products.

  8. Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products. PMID:24384924

  9. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Gas Production of Silage from Guinea Grass, Cassava Peel and Cashew Apple Waste at Different Periods of Ensilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Amole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27 treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p0.05 different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p<0.05 from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  10. Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, A K

    2013-02-01

    Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. PMID:23196371

  11. Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

  12. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha?¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg?¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹. PMID:21107525

  13. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  14. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel

    OpenAIRE

    Tumbas Vesna T.; Ćetković Gordana S.; Đilas Sonja M.; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna M.; Vulić Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

  15. Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  16. Comparative Effect of Gamma Irradiation, UV-C and Hot Water on Antioxidant Potential of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zia Ahmad Chatha; Asif Ahmad; Tahir Zahoor; Ali Raza

    2013-01-01

    Use of gamma irradiation and UV-C was compared over conventional used hot water treatment on mango pulp and peel. The storage study was also carried out to explore the potential of these techniques for the retention of total polyphenolic substances and antioxidants activity. Results indicated that polyphenolic substances decreased during storage. This decline in polyphenolic substances can be controlled by using gamma irradiation and UV-C treatment in mango...

  17. Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W.G., van

    2004-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars (`Kaew', `Rad', `Okrong', `Tongdum', `Nam Dok Mai' and `Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C (85–90?H) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed by a color change in the pulp and the endocarp (seed coat). The seed tissue of most cultivars became brittle during storage at 4 and 8 °C for as little as 5 days, and the seeds did not germinate. In all c...

  18. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the mediu...

  19. Conversion of tomato-peel waste into solid fuel by hydrothermal carbonization: Influence of the processing variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabio, E; Álvarez-Murillo, A; Román, S; Ledesma, B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the influence of the variables temperature, residence time, and biomass/water ratio on the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of tomato peel was investigated. The implementation of a Design of Experiments - Response Surface Methodology approach allowed to identify the importance of each variable, as well as their interactions, in both the reactivity (solid yield) and energy densification (increase in higher heating value). The HTC residence time and specially temperature had a major effect on the process, increasing the solid yield and promoting energy densification. Ratio had a minor effect although under certain temperature and time conditions, it was a decisive parameter. Solid yields in the range 27.6% and 87.7% with corresponding high heating values 23.6-34.6MJkg(-1) were obtained. From the statistical processing of the experimental data obtained pseudo-second order models were developed. It was proven that these approaches envisaged the hydrochar final characteristics successfully. From the elemental analysis and the FTIR spectra, it was possible to investigate the HTC pathway, which was defined as a combination of several processes; considering dehydration and decarboxylation reactions and especially lignin depolimerization reactions, which lead to the formation of monomeric radicals. Moreover, the surface morphology of selected hydrochars by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the original structure scaffold, with minor changes between hydrochars prepared under different conditions. PMID:25981156

  20. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  1. Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

  2. Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

  3. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  4. ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    E.JESMINE MELBA

    2012-01-01

    Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

  5. Determination of avocado and mango fruit properties by ultrasonic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrach, A

    2000-03-01

    A nondestructive ultrasonic measurement system was developed for the assessment of some transmission parameters which might have quantitative relations with the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties of avocado and mango fruits. The system utilizes a set of low-frequency probes arranged to measure the ultrasonic signal transmitted and received over a short distance across the peel. The attenuation of the ultrasonic waves, transmitted through the peel and the attached fruit tissue, changes as a result of the progressive ripening and softening of the fruit during the fruiting season and in the course of storage. The present study quantitatively addressed the linkage between the ultrasonic attenuation and the physiological parameters of the flesh of the fruits. Results were obtained in the time and frequency domain, and the data set was analyzed statistically to identify the relations between the major physiological indices and the ultrasonic parameters. Quantitative relations were developed to describe the linkage between ultrasonic parameters and the maturity, firmness and other quality-related properties in mango and avocado fruits. PMID:10829759

  6. Physico chemical characterization and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics of Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayanand, P; Deepu, E; Kulkarni, S G

    2015-02-01

    Mango (Magnifera indica L) is grown in the tropical and sub tropical regions of India. The fruit has a high commercial value depending on the color, flavor and pulp characteristics of the cultivar. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri cultivars grown in southern Karnataka were investigated for the physical chemical characteristics and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars had significantly different physico chemical and compositional characteristics. Sindura cultivar had a characteristic red color in the peel with high carotenoid content and slightly lower pulp content. Mallika contained higher pulp content with a pale yellow color in the peel and higher total soluble solids. Totapuri contained slightly lower pulp content than Mallika, lower total soluble solids and lower carotenoids among the cultivars. Sindura and Mallika pulps had significantly higher viscosity than Totapuri. Processing of the pulps resulted in significant decrease of carotenoids irrespective of the cultivar. Sensory quality of canned mango slices showed higher acceptability for Mallika followed by Sindura and Totapuri. Mango nectar prepared from Sindura was highly acceptable followed by Totapuri and Mallika. Processing of these underutilized mango cultivars into puree, nectar, juice beverages and slices, can result in value addition and popularization. PMID:25694717

  7. Orange peel methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, T.; Kuno, H.

    1977-11-11

    Orange peels are treated to remove peel oils (mainly limonene) which are antibiotics; the residue is chemically hydrolyzed and subjected to CH/sub 4/ fermentation; the removal of peel oil increased the efficiency of CH/sub 4/ fermentation. Thus, 1 kg orange peels was homogenized with water. The homogenate was steam distilled to yield 20 mL peel oil. The residue (95% water) was hydrolyzed with 0.5% HCI. The hydrolyzate was adjusted to organic matter: N:P = 100:5:1 and subjected to CH/sub 4/ fermentation. The yield of CH/sub 4/ was 420 mL/g organic matter, whereas that of the control was 250 mL/g organic matter.

  8. Application of an aqueous two-phase micellar system to extract bromelain from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel waste and analysis of bromelain stability in cosmetic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spir, Lívia Genovez; Ataide, Janaína Artem; De Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Moriel, Patrícia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; De Borba Gurpilhares, Daniela; Silveira, Edgar; Pessoa, Adalberto; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2015-01-01

    Bromelain is a set of proteolytic enzymes found in pineapple (Ananas comosus) tissues such as stem, fruit and leaves. Because of its proteolytic activity, bromelain has potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The present study focused on the recovery of bromelain from pineapple peel by liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase micellar systems (ATPMS), using Triton X-114 (TX-114) and McIlvaine buffer, in the absence and presence of electrolytes CaCl2 and KI; the cloud points of the generated extraction systems were studied by plotting binodal curves. Based on the cloud points, three temperatures were selected for extraction: 30, 33, and 36°C for systems in the absence of salts; 40, 43, and 46°C in the presence of KI; 24, 27, and 30°C in the presence of CaCl2 . Total protein and enzymatic activities were analyzed to monitor bromelain. Employing the ATPMS chosen for extraction (0.5 M KI with 3% TX-114, at pH 6.0, at 40°C), the bromelain extract stability was assessed after incorporation into three cosmetic bases: an anhydrous gel, a cream, and a cream-gel formulation. The cream-gel formulation presented as the most appropriate base to convey bromelain, and its optimal storage conditions were found to be 4.0?±?0.5°C. The selected ATPMS enabled the extraction of a biomolecule with high added value from waste lined-up in a cosmetic formulation, allowing for exploration of further cosmetic potential. PMID:25919128

  9. Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ≤1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (≤1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

  10. In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

    2014-12-01

    The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

  11. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  12. A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that consumption of fruits and cut fruits in Greater Accra is relatively low. The knowledge of food irradiation is very low as food irradiation has been associated with food radioactivity. It was observed that irradiation did not have significant (p>0.05) effect on the physicochemical parameters measured however, there were significant varietal difference (p0.05) on sensory attributes evaluated. (au)

  13. Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  15. Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

  16. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, S.A.; Zuñiga-Arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of producer association, multinational, independent exporter or retailer. The game is an operationalisation of a conceptual model of a netchain build upon theories from multiple disciplines, including tran...

  17. Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100,000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. however, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031% was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 12 tabs

  19. ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.JESMINE MELBA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

  20. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. PMID:26475070

  1. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  2. / Chemical composition of different fruit peel Composigao centesimal de diferentes cascas de frutas / Composición aproximada de las cáscaras de diferentes frutas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia L, Stefanello; Claudia. S, Rosa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento integral dos alimentos é de suma importancia, pois permite que partes nao convencionais dos alimentos, como cascas, talos, sementes e folhas sejam aproveitadas, visando a agregacao de valor nutricional as preparacóes, além de reduzir custos e evitar o desperdicio. Desta forma, o pre [...] sente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a composicao química de 9 cascas de frutas. Os maiores teores de umidade foram para o mamao e a uva, e as frutas cítricas apresentaram menor umidade, o mamao destaca-se por ter maior teor de proteina. As frutas com maiores percentuais de carboidratos sao: a maca, bergamota, ameixa, manga e pera. A partir da composicao centesimal das cascas foi possivel perceber que elas apresentam elevados teores de nutrientes, podendo ser utilizadas em preparacóes. Além disso, com a composicao centesimal das cascas passa a ser possivel a colocacao desses alimentos nos cálculos de planos alimentares e dietas. Abstract in spanish El aprovechamiento de la comida es muy importante porque permite que las acciones de los alimentos no convencionales tales como la corteza, tallos, semillas y hojas se utilicen con el fin de agregar valor a las preparaciones nutritivas y también reducir los costos y evitar el derroche. Asi, este est [...] udio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición quimica de nueve cáscaras de fruta. Los más altos niveles de humedad eran de la papaya y las uvas y los citricos tuvieron una menor humedad. La papaya se destaca por tener un mayor contenido proteico. Las frutas con mayor porcentaje de hidratos de carbono son: manzana, bergamota, ciruela, mango y pera. De la composición de las cáscaras fue posible percibir que tienen altos niveles de nutrientes y se puede utilizar en preparaciones. Además, con la composición de las cáscaras se hace posible colocar estos alimentos en los cálculos de planes de alimentación y las dietas. Abstract in english The integral use of food is very important because it allows the use of non-conventional foods such as bark, stems, seeds and leaves being used in order to add value to nutritional preparations and also reduce costs and avoid wasting. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of nin [...] e fruit peels. The highest levels of humidity found were for papaya and grapes, while citrus fruits had lower moisture. Papaya stands out for having a higher protein content. The fruits with the highest percentage of carbohydrates are: apple, bergamot, plum, mango and pear. The composition of the peels made it possible to perceive they have high levels of nutrients and can be used in preparations. Moreover, the composition of the peels makes it possible to place these foods in the calculations of eating plans and diets.

  3. Sub-critical water as a green solvent for production of valuable materials from agricultural waste biomass: A review of recent work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shitu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste biomass generated from agricultural production and food processing industry are abundant, such as durian  peel, mango peel, corn straw, rice bran, corn shell, potato peel and many more. Due to low commercial value, these wastes are disposed in landfill, which if not managed properly may cause environmental problems. Currently, environmental laws and regulations pertaining to the pollution from agricultural waste streams by regulatory agencies are stringent and hence the application of toxic solvents during processing has become public concern. Recent development in valuable materials extraction from the decomposition of agricultural waste by sub-critical water treatment from the published literature was review. Physico-chemical characteristic (reaction temperature, reaction time and solid to liquid ratio of the sub-critical water affecting its yield were also reviewed. The utilization of biomass residue from agriculture, forest wood production and from food and feed processing industry may be an important alternative renewable energy supply. The paper also presents future research on sub-critical water.

  4. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sengar, S. H.; Khandetod, Y. P.

    2012-01-01

    Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  5. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  6. Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

    Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

  7. Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

  8. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

  9. Opciones agroforestales para productores de mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montiel-Aguirre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó durante el año 2002 con la meta de contribuir con opciones agroforestales mejoradas para plantaciones de mango (Mangifera indica en el estado de Michoacán, con la metodología de diagnosis y diseño desarrollada por el Centro Internacional de Investigación en Agroforestería. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron diagnosticar el problema de uso de la tierra de los productores de mango y caracterizar las opciones agroforestales promisorias, practicadas, en la actualidad, por campesinos innovadores. El estudio incluye los sistemas agroforestales existentes: mango-limón, mangoguayaba, mango-ovino-guayaba y mango-bovino. Se analizaron, por su composición de especies, organización temporal y espacial, diversificación de productos, régimen de manejo, requerimientos de mano de obra, productividad y rentabilidad económica. Los resultados indican que todos los sistemas agroforestales son más productivos y económicamente más rentables que los sistemas de monocultivo. Los valores de uso equivalente de la tierra en sistemas agrosilvícolas fueron 2.21 y 1.76, para los sistemas mango + limón y mango + guayaba, respectivamente. Los valores de la relación beneficio/ costo, máximo 2.80 y mínimo 1.72, se obtuvieron para los sistemas de mango + limón y mango + ovino + guayaba, respectivamente. Además de los sistemas existentes, hay oportunidades para diseñar mejores tecnologías agroforestales con la incorporación de varias especies vegetales y animales promisorias, acordes conlas condiciones biofísicas y posibilidades socioeconómicas de los productores del estado de Michoacán, para contribuir al desarrollo de la agricultura sostenible.

  10. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene and hot water quarantine treatment on quality of "Keitt" mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamchuachit, Panita; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-04-01

    The optimal 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment to slow ripening of whole "Keitt" mangos, either alone or in combination with hot water treatment (HWT) (prior to or post 1-MCP) was identified. USDA-APHIS mandates that HWT can be used for control of fruit flies, but this may affect fruit response to 1-MCP. Mangos were evaluated by repeated measurement of nondestructive firmness, peel color, and ethylene production on the same mango fruits during 2 wk of ripening at 20 °C after treatment. The magnitude of ethylene production increased as a result of both 1-MCP and HWT. With softer mangos (65 N), treatment with 1-MCP alone delayed fruit softening and extended the number of days to full-ripeness (25 N) from 5 d in untreated fruit to 11 d. For these riper fruit, application of 1-MCP prior to HWT extended the days to full-ripeness to 9 d compared with 7 d when 1-MCP was applied after HWT. With firmer mangos (80 N), 1-MCP treatments alone prolonged the days to full-ripeness to 13 d as compared to 11 d for the untreated fruit. There was no significant concentration effect on firmness retention among 1-MCP treatments (0.5, 1.0, or 10.0 ?L/L). HWT resulted in a faster rate of fruit softening, taking only 7 d to reach full-ripeness. Combining 1-MCP with HWT reduced the rate of softening compared to HWT alone, resulting in 9 to 11 d to full-ripeness. Application of 1-MCP before HWT showed a greater ability to reduce the rate of fruit softening compared with 1-MCP treatment after HWT. PMID:24592887

  11. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  12. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits. PMID:25608953

  13. [Chemical peel treatments in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, L G; Habig, J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical peel treatments, which utilize a number of chemical peeling solutions subject to patient indication, are an easy to learn therapeutic technique suited for, in particular, various types of acne, acne scars, actinic keratosis and "sun-damaged skin". Especially the positive and long-lasting results of deep peels in the area of skin rejuvenation are deemed the gold standard against which other techniques, including lasers, must compare themselves. Other benefits of chemical peels include the flexibility to mix and match chemical solutions to custom design the treatment best suited for the desired degree of skin penetration, as well as the relatively low cost. PMID:26373295

  14. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  16. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

  17. Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarmenWacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens, were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P<0.05 among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

  18. Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive. PMID:23761788

  19. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad J

    2013-01-01

    Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, posti...

  20. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  1. Thermodynamic properties of water adsorption from orange peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Alexander Villa-Vélez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peels are a promising agroindustry-waste that can be implemented in the extraction and production of pectin, as dietary fiber in food formulations, and as a biopolymer for metal adsorption in water treatment. The present work, therefore, aims to study the adsorption isotherms and the thermodynamic properties of the water adsorbed from orange peels (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians at six different temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C in the water activity range of 0.020 to 0.853. The GAB model was applied in modeling the experimental adsorption isotherms of orange peels, obtaining statistical values of R2 = 0.996. Differential and integral thermodynamic properties of water sorption for orange peels were determined by the analytical derivation of the water activity with respect to the temperature from GAB model. Results of the differential thermodynamic properties showed an energetic interaction zone of water molecules with the material. Furthermore, integral thermodynamic properties showed an equilibrium zone controlled by the orange peel enthalpy and entropy. Finally, the orange peel power adsorption information can be used as a point of reference for the controlled process in the different application areas.

  2. Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa. PMID:18502231

  3. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg?l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg?l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  4. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  5. Synthesis of silicon containing materials from the rise peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that the rice peel - an agroindustrial waste can be used as the raw material, containing dioxide of silicon, in technology of reception of silicon containing materials as amorphous and crystal dioxide of silicon SiO2, water-soluble sodium silicate Na2SiO3 - liquid glass. (author)

  6. Study of mango endogenous pectinases as a tool to engineer mango purée consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Houben, Ken; ten Geuzendam, Belinda; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using mango endogenous pectinases to change the viscosity of mango purée. Hereto, the structure of pectic polysaccharide and the presence of sufficiently active endogenous enzymes of ripe mango were determined. Pectin of mango flesh had a high molecular weight and was highly methoxylated. Pectin methylesterase showed a negligible activity which is related to the confirmed presence of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor. Pectin contained relatively high amounts of galactose and considerable ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) activity was observed. The possibility of stimulating ?-Gal activity during processing (temperature/pressure, time) was investigated. ?-Gal of mango was rather temperature labile but pressure stable relatively to the temperature and pressure levels used to inactivate destructive enzymes in industry. Creating processing conditions allowing endogenous ?-Gal activity did not substantially change the consistency of mango purée. PMID:25442554

  7. Nutrient cycling in mango trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Xavier de Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of nutrient amounts both shedding and demanding replacement in the maintenance of productivity of fruit trees require studies on element dynamics within the many ecosystem components generally made up of nutrient cycling. Thus, it was the objective of this study to evaluate the nutrient biochemical cycling in a mango tree (Mangifera indica L. orchard, Palmer variety. Macronutrients [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and sulfur (S] had their contents evaluated in leaves at different stages: new, mature, senescent, and litter. First exploratory analysis was performed for main components which preserve the multivariate structure shown by the data. It was possible to observe the association of new leaves with N, P, K, Mg, and S; senescent leaves and the leaves from the litter were associated to Ca, while mature leaves, to K. As a complement, taking the independent variables into consideration, Tukey test (p?0.01 showed that the averages of N, P, and Ca differ between the new and the mature leaves; average of Mg in new leaves differs from the others, and S does not differ along the stages. Also observed was the re-translocation of 41%, 63% and 57% of N, P, and K, respectively, when comparison was made among the contents of the elements in mature leaves as well as in litter, which indicates that the biochemical cycling is important for the mango tree cultivation.

  8. Decay control of carabao mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

  9. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  10. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mafra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

  11. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. R., Mafra; L., Igarashi-Mafra; D. R., Zuim; É. C., Vasques; M. A., Ferreira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. T [...] he time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated. Abstract in english [...

  12. Analysis of rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced through submerged fermentation using orange fruit peelings as sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Seba; Jayachandran, K

    2009-09-01

    The fermentative production of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was carried out by submerged fermentation using various cost-effective waste materials such as orange peelings, carrot peel waste, lime peelings, coconut oil cake, and banana waste. The orange peel was found to be the best substrate generating 9.18 g/l of rhamnolipid biosurfactant with a surface tension reduction up to 31.3 mN/m. The production was growth independent, and optimum conditions were standardized. The emulsifying activity was highest against kerosene (73.3%). Rhamnolipid components were purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. The major rhamnolipid components were characterized, by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. PMID:18716921

  13. Phytochemicals Screening and Activities of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant of Some Fruit Peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to screen the secondary metabolites compounds including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids as well as to determine the antioxidant activities of four types of fruit peels namely Psidium guajava (guava), Mangifera indica (Chakonan mango), Citrus sinensis (Navel orange) and Malus sylvestris (Granny Smith apple). The hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were investigated using three different assays such as Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) were also conducted and the correlations between the antioxidant assays with TPC and TFC were evaluated. The TPC in the peels extract ranged between 204.90 to 517.00 mg GAE/ g extract weight while TFC ranged between 97.48 to 177.86 mg QE/ g extract weight. The FRAP, EC50 scavenging activity and ORAC values were 18.78 to 45.36 mM TE/ 100 g extract weight, 0.146 to 0.717 mg/ ml scavenging effect and 37.54 to 60.59 ?M TE/ g extract weight respectively. The extract of M. indica peels appeared to be as potent as ascorbic acid with maximum inhibition of 74 % at 200 ppm. M. indica peels showed highest value in all antioxidant assays and in TPC while the highest in TFC was found in M. sylvestris peels. There were strong correlations between all antioxidant assays with TPC but very weak correlations with TFC. This study suggested that the extracts of fruit peels are convenient to be use as functional ingredients in food product development as they are rich in antioxidant activities. (author)

  14. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  15. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation (60Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H1) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H1 indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  16. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  17. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...members with direct customer sales experience. The Board has...nationally coordinated program of promotion, research, and information...Marketing agreements, Mango Promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping...follows: PART 1206--MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  18. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...members with direct customer sales experience. The Board has...nationally coordinated program of promotion, research, and information...Marketing agreements, Mango Promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping...follows: PART 1206--MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  19. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) Fungi Cytosphaera mangiferae Fusarium spp. complex (associated with mango malformation disease) Lasioddiplodia pseudotheobraomae Neofusicoccum mangiferae... mitigation measures for the fungus Cytosphaera mangiferae and would have to be inspected prior to...

  20. Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46... from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions: (a) The mangoes must be treated in India with irradiation...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56-33... § 319.56-33 Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica...imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

  4. Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible

  5. Effect of mango weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage on mango seed viability in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, P A; Gabbard, Z

    2000-08-01

    The mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus (= Sternochetus) mangiferae (F.), is a federally quarantined pest that prevents shipment of mangos from Hawaii into the continental United States. Although this monophagous weevil allegedly causes reduced seed germination, damage to the fruit pulp, and premature fruit drop in mangos, there are few studies examining these potential sources of crop loss. We conducted studies to assess the effect of mango weevil infestation on seed viability while making observations on the frequency of pulp feeding. Naturally infested seeds from mature fruit were planted in pots and scored for successful germination. Germination rates for infested seeds were equal to those of uninfested control seeds in a polyembryonic cultivar ('Common'), whereas germination was significantly reduced for infested seeds of a monoembryonic cultivar ('Haden') compared with uninfested control seeds but germination of infested seeds was still > 70%. To assess seed tolerance of damage, seeds were artificially damaged by cutting away 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting and scored for germination. None of the damage treatments was significantly different from the undamaged controls, indicating that mango seeds can withstand substantial damage and still germinate successfully. Over the 2-yr period we conducted experiments, only four of 3,602 mango fruits (0.11%) showed evidence of direct feeding damage to the pulp. Results suggest that C. mangiferae is a less serious pest of mangos than previously thought. PMID:10985036

  6. Bleb Nucleation through Membrane Peeling

    CERN Document Server

    Alert, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    We study the nucleation of blebs, i.e., protrusions arising from a local detachment of the membrane from the cortex of a cell. Based on a simple model of elastic linkers with force-dependent kinetics, we show that bleb nucleation is governed by membrane peeling. By this mechanism, the growth or shrinkage of a detached membrane patch is completely determined by the linker kinetics, regardless of the energetic cost of the detachment. We predict the critical nucleation radius for membrane peeling and the corresponding effective energy barrier. These may be typically smaller than those predicted by classical nucleation theory, implying a much faster nucleation. We also perform simulations of a continuum stochastic model of membrane-cortex adhesion to obtain the statistics of bleb nucleation times as a function of the stress on the membrane. The determinant role of membrane peeling changes our understanding of bleb nucleation and opens new directions in the study of blebs.

  7. Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Das Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage studies were carried out in foil laminate packs at three different temperatures i.e. 4°C, RT (20-33°C and 37°C and evaluated for chemical parameters, Hunter colour values as well as microbiological and organoleptic characteristics. Studies showed that HT preserved texturized mango gel could be kept in acceptable condition up to 12 months at RT and 6 months at 37°C. During storage a considerable reduction in sulphur dioxide, carotenoids and an increase in acidity were observed. Decrease in L, a, b values was also observed in all the samples stored under different temperatures. The product was also found to be microbiologically stable and safe up to 12 m.

  8. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    OpenAIRE

    M Ravindrakullai reddy; Kopparam Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulatio...

  9. Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunsong Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  10. Quantification and purification of mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars and its protective effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cells under H(2)O(2)-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:23109851

  11. Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

  13. Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Sales, Trevisan; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; André Luís da, Cunha; Ana Lúcia Fernandes, Pereira; Virgínia Kelly, Abreu; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento i [...] nteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle); ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS); e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR). A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a complete [...] ly randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control); diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT); diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS); and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR). The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

  14. Irradiation of carabao mangoes for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of postharvest diseases of carabao mangoes by gamma radiation has been the subject of several local studies, notably that of Herrera and Valencia (1964) and Pablo et al (1971) which showed dose levels of 16.6 Kr. and 60 Kr. respectively, to be effective in extending the market life. The wide range of resorted effective dose levels for mangoes prompted this investigation which aimed to establish the pre-dominant spoilage-causing micro-organisms and the effectivity of irradiation in controlling or delaying the growth of these micro-organisms. (author)

  15. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  16. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J P; Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g). PMID:15553152

  17. [Preparation and optimum process of walnut peel activated carbon by zinc chloride as activating agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Wang, Xing-wei; Zhao, Bo; Lü, Jun-fang; Kang, Ni-na; Zhang, Yao-jun

    2014-12-01

    Walnut peel as raw material, zinc chloride was used as activating agent for preparation walnut peel activated carbon in the muffle furnace in this experiment, using orthogonal design. Yield, the specific surface area and iodine number of walnut peel activated carbon were determined at all designed experimental conditions and the optimum technological condition of preparation was obtained. By analysis of aperture, infrared spectra and the content of acidic group in surface with Boehm, walnut peel activated carbon of prepared at the optimum condition was characterized. The results showed the optimum technological parameters of preparation: activation temperature (600 °C), activation time (1 h), the concentration of zinc chloride (50%), the particle size (60 mesh). The specific surface area of walnut peel activated carbon obtained at optimum condition was mounting to 1258.05 m2 · g(-1), the ratio of medium porous 32.18%. Therefore, walnut peel can be used in the preparation of the high-quality activated carbon of large surface area. Agricultural wastes, as walnut peel, not only were implemented recycle, but also didn't make any pollution. Meanwhile, a cheap adsorbent was provided and it was of great significance to open a new source of activated carbon. PMID:25881437

  18. Irradiation of 'carabao' (Manila 'super') mangoes II. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation and the vapor heat treatment on fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Carabao' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to the vapor heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose a low but significant incidence of pulp discoloration was found, albeit in only one trial. Both the vapor heat treatment and gamma radiation need to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on peel color development. The results of this study indicate that irradiation might be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the 'Carabao' mango. (Auth.). 7 tabs., 3 figs

  19. The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pKa values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

  20. The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: iqbalmdr@brain.net.pk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK{sub a} values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

  1. Pectinase production by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 by solid state fermentation using agricultural wastes and agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Dênis; Martins Eduardo da Silva; Silva Roberto da; Gomes Eleni

    2002-01-01

    Pectin lyase and polygalacturonase production by newly isolated Penicillium viridicatum strain Rfc3 was carried out by means of solid state fermentation using orange bagasse, corn tegument, wheat bran and mango and banana peels as carbon sources. The maximal activity value of polygalacturonase (Pg) (30U.g-1) was obtained using wheat bran as carbon source while maximal pectin lyase (Pl) (2000 U.g-1) activity value was obtained in medium composed of orange bagasse. Mixtures of banana or mango p...

  2. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

  3. Focused ion beam analysis of banana peel and its application for arsenate ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste, has been investigated for its ability to remove arsenate ions from ground water as a function of pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration. Focused ion beam (FIB) analysis revealed the internal morphology of the banana peels. Arsenate ions were entered into micropores of banana peel. pH was seen to have no effect on the sorption process. Retained species were eluted using 5 mL of 2 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The kinetics of sorption were observed to follow the pseudo first order rate equation. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The energy value obtained from the D-R isotherms indicated that the sorption was physical in nature for arsenate species. Our study has shown that banana peel has the ability to remove arsenate species from ground water samples. (author)

  4. Natural, Culinary Fruit Peels as a Potential substr ate for Pectinolytic Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN KUMAR. G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pectinases or Pectinolytic enzymes are the one which have broadest applications in the food processing, alcoholic beverages and textiles industries. These enzymes are chiefly produced from the plants and microorganisms. The fruit peels are regarded as waste by most of the industries. And the disposal of them becomes the serious problem, as it leads to the environmental pollution. On the other hand, it is of low-cost and it contains pectin, a natural substrate that contains selective chemical compound which is suitable for the production of pectinase enzyme. This review mainly concerned about the selection ofsubstrate as peels and the production of pectinolytic enzymes using different fruit peels, comparison of fermentation method that is suitable for enzyme production using peels as substrates, different enzyme assay methods, computer software controller for fermentation used and also applications of pectinase.

  5. Shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement for rapid identification and detection of pesticide residues at fruit peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bianhua; Han, Guangmei; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Renyong; Jiang, Changlong; Wang, Suhua; Han, Ming-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report the shell thickness-dependent Raman enhancement of silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) for the identification and detection of pesticide residues at various fruit peels. The Raman enhancement of Au@Ag NPs to a large family of sulfur-containing pesticides is ~2 orders of magnitude stronger than those of bare Au and Ag NPs, and there is a strong dependence of the Raman enhancement on the Ag shell thickness. It has been shown for the first time that the huge Raman enhancement is contributed by individual Au@Ag NPs rather than aggregated Au@Ag NPs with "hot spots" among the neighboring NPs. Therefore, the Au@Ag NPs with excellent individual-particle enhancement can be exploited as stand-alone-particle Raman amplifiers for the surface identification and detection of pesticide residues at various peels of fruits, such as apple, grape, mango, pear, and peach. By casting the particle sensors onto fruit peels, several types of pesticide residues (e.g., thiocarbamate and organophosphorous compounds) have been reliably/rapidly detected, for example, 1.5 nanograms of thiram per square centimeter at apple peel under the current unoptimized condition. The surface-lifting spectroscopic technique offers great practical potentials for the on-site assessment and identification of pesticide residues in agricultural products. PMID:22122589

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Mango Kernel Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Mirghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is emphasized specifically on the potential of the mango Mangifera Indica seed kernel by discovering the prospective usage of mango seed kernels as a source of antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. For this study, three types of mango were used; Blackgold, Lemak and Waterlily from Malaysia and Thiland. The approach adopted for this purpose was by implementing agar well diffusion method. The results were expressed as the average diameter of bacterial inhibition zones surrounding the wells. The required solvents for the extraction were ethanol, methanol, acetone and phosphate buffer solutions were prepared in a different concentration; 0.10M, 0.05M and 0.01M. The results showed that Lemak gave relatively high antibacterial activity among other types of mango ranging between 1.40 and 2.23 cm. For the known antibiotic, which was Tetracycline, under the same conditions the diameter of inhibition zones were between 2.30 to 3.30. Then, the minimum inhibition concentration tests were conducted for Lemak for two solvents extract that gave the highest inhibition zones which were methanol and acetone. The results showed that the minimum inhibition concentration of extracts that inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was after 10X dilution (1 mM. The results obtained confirmed the antibacterial potential of mango kernels extracts and this would probably become an alternative source of new and natural antibacterial agents.

  7. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling configuration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent finding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  8. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  9. Dressing wounds with potato peel

    OpenAIRE

    Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

    1996-01-01

    The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete...

  10. Irradiation and storage effects on sensorial and physical characteristics of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), quality of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation was used to determine its effect on the quality of U.S. mangoes irradiated in Canada with 60Co at a minimum dose of 0.60 and a maximum of 0.90 kGy. The sensory evaluation, the texture, the colour and total soluble solids content were assessed during 15 days storage period. Initially, the appearance of irradiated whole mangoes was preferred, but at the end of the storage period the reverse was observed. Although, the irradiation did not extend the shelf-life of mangoes, the pulp of irradiated mangoes was perferred for its colour, odour, taste and texture until day 9. The panelists preferred darker orange colour, fragrant, sweeter and soften mangoes

  11. Hit-peeling device for oxide scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When processing radioactive metal wastes discharged from a nuclear power plant or radioactive material-handling facility, there is a method of dissolving to remove surface layers by using acidic solution or by colliding particles of ice or dry ice for separating to remove those materials deposited on the surface. However, oil contaminations or rubber and plastic materials can not always be removed. In view of the above, a hitting finger is constituted such that it can move vertically by driving means and a second hitting finger is disposed to the circumferential surface of a rotating drum. A guide wall having a slit extending vertically is formed in front of the hitting finger and the hitting finger is protruded through each of the slits into the processing chamber. Since deposited matters peeled off upon hitting are discharged through a sieve to a scale hopper, there is no external scattering and metal wastes and deposited matters can be separated easily and reliably. (K.M.)

  12. Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irshad,; Zahid Anwar,; Amber Afroz

    2012-01-01

    Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture) under optimized fermentation conditions ...

  13. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  14. Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

  15. Integrated studies on irradiated Philippine mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of the fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, has restricted export of Philippine mangoes to Japan and other countries with strict quarantine requirements. The anticipated banning of the ethylene dibromide (EDB) as fumigant necessitated studies to find a suitable replacement. Based on the encouraging results of previous disinfestation experiments further studies utilizing irradiation and its combination with a hot water dip were undertaken. The objective of the studies was to interrelate the effects of the disinfestation method to fruit maturity, storage temperature, and some related processes, including shipping, on the shelf-life, chemical, and sensory attributes of the carabao mango. Results show that the combination treatment of 0.65 kGy and a hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes can be a good alternative for ethylene dibromide with the added benefit of shelf life extension. The chemical, nutritive and sensory characteristics of the fruit also are retained. 32 refs, 19 tabs

  16. Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Pharmaceutical Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ravindrakullai reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative pharmaceutical excipient. The pectin was subjected to phytochemical and physicochemical characterization of its safety and suitability to use as binding and suspending agent. FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC studies were performed for drug, orange peel pectin powder, prepared tablet and suspension formulations. Aceclofenac tablets were prepared by wet granulation method containing mannitol as diluent; using 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 %w/w of orange peel pectin powder and 7.5 %w/w of PVP (reference as binding agents in the tablet formulation. Aceclofenac suspensions were prepared with orange peel pectin powder at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 %w/v as suspending agent and 1.5 %w/v of sodium CMC as reference suspending agent. Pharmaceutical properties of granules and tablets such as carr’s index, Haunser’s ratio and angle of repose and post compression parameters like friability, hardness, and disintegration time studies were determine and found satisfactory. The evaluation test of suspension like sedimentation volume, redispersibility, pH, degree of flocculation were found satisfactory. In vitro release studies shows that release rate of drug is decreased with increase in the orange peel pectin powder percentage in the formulation. Orange peel pectin powder showed good binding and suspending properties at 10 %w/w and 2 %w/v, respectively.

  17. Inhibitory effect of Citrus unshu peel on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, E.; Akao, T.; Saruwatari, T. (Fukushima Industrial Research Int. of Fukuoka Prefecture (JP))

    1990-01-01

    A significant inhibition of methane fermentation was observed in anaerobic digestion of Citrus unshu peel at loadings above 2g/litre per day. This inhibitory effect was mainly due to peel oil, but in part to other substances present in the peel. The limiting load of peel oil to anaerobic digestion was about 65 {mu}l/litre per day. Addition of peel oil below this limit load resulted in a change in the microbial flora and in gas production greater than that of digestion with no peel oil. Citrus unshu peel did not inhibit methane fermentation after removal of peel oil by steam distillation or aeration. (author).

  18. Spray drying of mango juice - buttermilk blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra H.G. Rao,; H. Kumar, Arun

    2005-01-01

    In India both dairy and fruit sectors face problems of lack of basic infrastructure for handling peaks in production. Mango is considered as king of the fruits, but its production is highly seasonal. Lack of adequate infrastructure in many places results in huge losses due to low keeping quality. In the dairy industry, buttermilk, a by-product of butter production, is mostly left unutilized. Buttermilk is a good source of valuable milk proteins and lactose; its high phospholipids content make...

  19. Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Q.; Siles, JA; Thompson, IP

    2010-01-01

    Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonen...

  20. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1206 Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to... of two non-voting wholesaler/retailer positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion,...

  1. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme. PMID:21651339

  2. Biohydrogen generation from jackfruit peel using anaerobic contact filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Khairil Bin Ibrahim, Mohd [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-04-15

    A novel method of anaerobic digestion using contact filter was adopted for treating solid waste generated from the fruit processing industry, namely jackfruit, with the intention of generating energy free from greenhouse gases. A new source of microflora was isolated from cow dung by subjecting it to pH adjustment at 5+/-0.2 coupled with heat treatment at 105 deg C for 1h, and not less than three consecutive periods of heat treatment. The isolated microflora exhibited their capability to generate hydrogen while treating solid waste consisting of jackfruit peel. The biogas generation was found to be 0.72l/g VS (jackfruit peel) destroyed. The hydrogen content in the biogas was found to be consistent resulting in 55+/-2%, while the biogas was free from methane content. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on volatile solids destruction efficiency was investigated for an influent volatile solids content of 33g/l at an HRT of 7 and 12d. The results showed a volatile solids destruction efficiency of 22% and 50%, respectively, for the above said conditions. The efficiency of anaerobic digestion was also investigated for varying influent volatile solids content viz: 22.5, 17.1 and 11.3g/d at 12d HRT. The anaerobically digested jackfruit peel waste having an initial volatile solid content of 22.5g/d was subjected to filtration test at 15psi for a period of 1.3h. The sludge resulting from the filtration test had a solids content of 12%, whereas the filtrate had the following characteristics viz: pH 5.3+/-0.2, COD 1700mg/l, BOD 1175mg/l and TKN 120mg/l. (author)

  3. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

  4. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  5. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract...

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Rakholiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

  7. Mango seed weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and premature fruit drop in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A

    2002-04-01

    The effect of infestations of mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), on premature fruit drop of mangoes was investigated. Mango fruits ('Haden') of equal size were collected both off the ground and from the tree at four times during the season (June-August). If weevil-infested fruit were more prone to dropping than uninfested fruit, the prediction was that a higher infestation rate would be found in fruit on the ground compared with fruit on the tree. Average fruit weight was used as an indicator of fruit maturity. The seed infestation rate was significantly higher in fruit collected off the ground compared with fruit collected from the tree in 38 g and 79 g (early-season) fruit but not significantly different in 207 g (midseason) and 281 g (late season) fruit. The age distribution of weevils and the number of insects in infested fruits were similar for ground and tree fruits on all dates. Results suggest that mango seed weevil infestation can increase fruit drop during early fruit development. PMID:12020010

  8. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians? qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for Indian skin. It is essential to do prepeel priming of the patient?s skin with sunscreens, hydroquinone and tretinoin for 2-4 weeks. Endpoints in peels: For glycolic acid peels: The peel is neutralized after a predetermined duration of time (usually three minutes. However, if erythema or epidermolysis occurs, seen as grayish white appearance of the epidermis or as small blisters, the peel must be immediately neutralized with 10-15% sodium bicarbonate solution, regardless of the duration of application of the peel. The end-point is frosting for TCA peels, which are neutralized either with a neutralizing agent or cold water, starting from the eyelids and then the entire face. For salicylic acid peels, the end point is the pseudofrost formed when the salicylic acid crystallizes. Generally, 1-3 coats are applied to get an even frost; it is then washed with water after 3-5 minutes, after the burning has subsided. Jessner?s solution is applied in 1-3 coats until even frosting is achieved or erythema is seen. Postoperative care includes sunscreens and moisturizers Peels may be repeated weekly, fortnightly or monthly, depending on the type and depth of the peel.

  9. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  10. Storage ability of gamma irradiated mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extension of shelf-life have been achieved by many methods. the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for the developing nations. The aim of this investigation is to study the effects of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with Alar or Benlate on 'Hindi Be Senara' mature green fruits and also to determine the optimum treatment and maximum extension in shelf - life. Mature-green 'Hindi be sinara' mango fruits were taken from trees planted in commercial orchard in 'kerdasa'Giza

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ?, ethanol 80?: methanol 50?, methanol 80? and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2',-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-Carotene?linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50? peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g-1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g-1,106.78 mg QE 100 g-1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50? extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

  12. Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraporn Sodchit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

  13. Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

  14. Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for Cr(III) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5 ml of 2 M HNO/sub 3/. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III) on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. (author)

  15. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the ?-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  16. Advances in research and development of mango industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian S. E. Bally

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World mango production is spread over 100 countries that produce over 34.3 million tons of fruit annually. Eighty percent of this production is based in the top nine producing nations that also consume upward of 90% of their production domestically. One to 2 percent of fruit is traded internationally in to markets in the European Community, USA, Arabian Peninsula and Asia. This paper outlines some of the recent research and development advances in mango breeding and genomics, rootstock development, disease management and harvest technologies that are influencing the production and quality of mango fruit traded domestically and internationally.

  17. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    OpenAIRE

    Khunger Niti

    2008-01-01

    Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral...

  18. Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Itelima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD, followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD, while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD. The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05 than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

  19. Dermatology procedures: microdermabrasion and chemical peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam

    2014-11-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peels are exfoliation procedures used to treat various cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Microdermabrasion involves mechanical abrasion of the skin with a handheld motorized device. Chemical peels involve applying acids directly to the skin. After partial destruction of the skin, these modalities rejuvenate the skin by stimulating production of new skin as well as inducing changes such as increasing production of collagen. Patients planning to undergo one of these procedures should be screened for absolute or relative contraindications, including recent use of retinoids, active skin infection, and immunosuppression. In addition, patients with histories of herpes simplex virus infection in or near the area to be treated should receive antiviral prophylaxis. Microdermabrasion is performed by passing a handheld abrasion device over the skin. Chemical peels are performed by applying liquid acid to the skin. After a chemical peel, patients treated with strong acids may require acid neutralization to protect the skin from sun exposure and reduce pain. Patients should receive aftercare instructions about application of topical agents to reduce pain, erythema, and itching. Patients undergoing chemical peels should be instructed specifically not to remove peeling skin but to let it shed spontaneously. PMID:25373032

  20. Current Scenario of Production, Area and some Important Post Harvest Disease of Mango and their Management in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bijendra Kumar Singh; Saurabh Singh,; S. M. Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfort...

  1. Extratos etanólicos de manga como antioxidantes na alimentação de poedeiras / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for laying hens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Salles, Trevisan; André Luís da, Cunha; Nádia de Melo, Braz; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos do caroço e da casca de manga, sobre o desempenho de poedeiras e sobre a qualidade e estabilidade lipídica dos ovos. Um total de 180 poedeiras comerciais Hisex White foi distribuído ao acaso em seis tratamentos, com cinco repetiçõ [...] es de seis aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante; ração com 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca de manga (Ecas); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato de caroço de manga (Ecar). Foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo produzida (grama por ave por dia), a conversão alimentar e características de qualidade dos ovos. A oxidação lipídica da gema durante o armazenamento foi determinada pela quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. As aves alimentadas com a ração sem adição de antioxidantes produziram ovos com os piores valores de unidade Haugh e maior oxidação lipídica da gema. Os teores de 400 ppm de Ecas e 200 ou 400 ppm de Ecar foram efetivos na prevenção de danos oxidativos aos ovos durante o armazenamento e podem ser utilizados na alimentação das poedeiras como substituto ao antioxidante sintético. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extracts of mango seeds and peel on laying hen performance, egg quality, and egg lipid stability. A total of 180 Hisex White hens were randomly distributed in six treatments, with five replicates of six birds. The treatments consisted [...] of: ration without antioxidant; ration with 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango peel extract (Ecas); and ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango seed extract (Ecar). Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, produced egg mass (gram by bird per day), feed conversion, and egg quality were evaluated. Yolk lipid oxidation during storage was determined by quantification of thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances. Birds fed diet without antioxidants produced eggs with the lowest Haugh unit values and the highest lipid oxidation of yolk. Ecas at 400 ppm and Ecar at 200 or 400 ppm were effective to prevent oxidative damage of eggs during storage and may be used in the diet of laying hens as a replacement for synthetic antioxidant.

  2. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

  4. Diversidad isoenzimática de mangos criollos de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gálvez-López

    2007-01-01

    enzimático, por si solo, permitió diferenciar a cada uno de los mangos estudiados; sin embargo, la unión de los sistemas enzimáticos GPI-1 y GPI-2, generó patrones únicos que permitieron caracterizar a los diferentes mangos. El dendrograma indicó la existencia de 83 % de similitud entre las variedades analizadas, formando tres grupos: uno incluyó al mango Pomarrosa, diferente al resto de los individuos; otro grupo incluyó a los individuos criollos con características similares del fruto, así como alta cantidad de fibra y de azúcares y no comercializables. El tercer grupo incluyó mangos comerciales y algunos criollos que son comercializados localmente y que comparten similitudes en algunas características del fruto, como ausencia de fibra en la pulpa, alta cantidad de azúcares, entre otras.

  5. Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

  6. Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

  7. Heat treatment effects on ACC oxidase activity of 'Keitt' mangoes

    OpenAIRE

    Bender Renar João; Seibert Eduardo; Brecht Jeffrey K.

    2003-01-01

    With the use of ethylene dibromide for mango disinfestation being ruled out, vapor heat or hot water treatments are the only alternatives for quarantine treatments of mangoes. Physical treatments such as heat treatments have been implicated in higher incidence of physiological disorders and enhancement of ripening processes. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to determine the effects of hot water treatments on ethylene production and on the in vitro activity of ACC oxidase. Cv. ...

  8. Sensory evaluation of irradiated mangoes for insect disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes 'Num Dok Mai' Variety at the dose of 0, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 kGy (Dose uniformity = 1.55) stored at 18 ± 1 degree C and 27 ± 1 degree C for 3, 7, 9 and 15 days after irradiation. Nine point hedonic scale method was applied. No significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes in colour, o dour, flavour and texture was found at 3, 7 and 9 days after irradiation, and the means were rather high. Fifteen days after irradiation, both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes that stored at 27 ± 1 degree C were too rot to eat, on the other hand, only irradiated mangoes that stored at 18 ± 1 degree C were non significant difference in colour, o dour, flavour and texture, however the means were rather high also. This experiment could be summarized that the panel list accepted the irradiated mangoes at the dose of 1.16 - 1.79 kGy, stored at 18 ± 1 degree C, 15 days after irradiation. This dosage could kill the adult mango seed weevil (L D99 = 1.39 kGy)

  9. An analysis of elastic and plastic fruit growth of mango in response to various assimilate supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechaudel, Mathieu; Vercambre, Gilles; Lescourret, Françoise; Normand, Frederic; Génard, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Changes in elastic and plastic components of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv 'Cogshall') fruit growth were analyzed with a model of fruit growth over time and in response to various assimilate supplies. The model is based on water relations (water potential and osmotic and turgor pressures) at the fruit level. Variation in elastic fruit growth was modeled as a function of the elastic modulus and variation in turgor pressure. Variation in plastic fruit growth was modeled using the Lockhart (1965) equation. In this model, plastic growth parameters (yield threshold pressure and cell wall extensibility) varied during fruit growth. Outputs of the model were diurnal and seasonal fruit growth, and fruit turgor pressure. These variables were simulated with good accuracy by the model, particularly the observed increase in fruit size with increasing availability of assimilate supply. Shrinkage was sensitive to the surface conductance of fruit peel, the elasticity modulus and the hydraulic conductivity of fruit, whereas fruit growth rate was highly sensitive to parameters linked to changes in wall extensibility and yield threshold pressure, regardless of the assimilate supply. According to the model, plastic growth was generally zero during the day and shrinkage and swelling were linked to the elastic behavior of the fruit. During the night, plastic and elastic growths were positive, resulting in fruit expansion. PMID:17241964

  10. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

    1991-06-15

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  11. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ?PSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (?PSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  12. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  13. Development of an ingredient containing apple peel, as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez, Carolina; Speisky, Hernán; Chiffelle, Italo; Valenzuela, Tania; Araya, Manuel; Simpson, Ricardo; Almonacid, Sergio

    2010-08-01

    Apple peel is a waste product from dried apple manufacture. The content of phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and mineral are higher in apple peel, compared to other edible parts of this fruits. The objective of this study was to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel, using a pilot scale double drum-dryer, as drying technology. The control of all steps to maximize the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber was considered. Operational conditions, such as drying temperature and time were determined, as well as important preprocessing steps like grinding and PPO inhibition. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics, mineral and sugar content, and technological functional properties such as water retention capacity, solubility index, and dispersability among others, were analyzed. A simple, economical, and suitable pilot scale process, to produce a powder ingredient from apple peel by-product, was obtained. The drying process includes the application of ascorbic acid at 0.5% in the fresh apple peel slurry, drum-dryer operational conditions were 110 degrees C, 0.15 rpm and 0.2 mm drum clearance. The ingredient developed could be considered as a source of phenolic compounds (38.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry base) and dietary fiber (39.7% dry base) in the formulation of foods. Practical Application: A method to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel using a pilot scale double drum-dryer as drying technology was developed. The method is simple, economical, feasible, and suitable and maximizes the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber present in the raw matter. The ingredient could be used in the formulation of foods. PMID:20722929

  14. The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md.

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found...

  15. Distribution of Pu and Am in different parts of mango trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of plutonium and americium in the mango leaves and the distribution of their concentration in different parts of the mango fruit were performed. The generally observed trend is leaves>cotyledon>shell>flesh. These results suggest that the contamination of mango fruits by Pu an Am will not pose any radiation risk because the edible portion of the mango has the lowest activity. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  16. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Koni TNI

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight  and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented...

  17. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  18. Irradiation quarantine treatments for mango seed weevil and Cryptophlebia spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was explored as a method to prevent adult emergence in, or to sterilize, mango seed weevil. Mixed-age mango seed weevils in mangoes were irradiated with target doses of 50, 100, or 300 Gy and held for adult emergence. The 300 Gy treatment (dose range 180-310 Gy) did not prevent adult emergence. Emerging adults from the 100 and 300 Gy treatments were lethargic and short-lived, and laid no eggs indicating sterility. An irradiation quarantine treatment (300 Gy) to sterilize mango seed weevil in mangoes has been approved. This treatment opens U.S. mainland markets to mango exports from Hawaii. Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) and C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests that attack lychee, longan, rambutan, mangoes and other fruits in Hawaii. Studies were undertaken to determine whether irradiation treatment at 250 Gy, an accepted treatment for disinfestation of fruit flies in tropical fruits from Hawaii, would also control the two Cryptophlebia species (Follett and Lower 2000). C. illepida was determined to be more tolerant of irradiation than C. ombrodelta and so C. illepida was used in detailed tests. Using the criterion of success in developing to the adult stage, the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in C. illepida was generally eggs< early instars< late instars< pupae. The most tolerant stage that could potentially occur in harvested fruits is the late (fourth and fifth) instar. No C. illepida larvae receiving an irradiation dose ≥125 Gy and emerging as adults produced viable eggs, indicating sterility can be achieved at doses <250 Gy. Large-scale tests in which 11,256 late instars were irradiated with a target dose of 250 Gy resulted in a pupation rate of only 8.4% and no adult eclosion. Therefore, the irradiation quarantine treatment of a minimum absorbed dose of 250 Gy approved for Hawaii's fruit flies will effectively disinfest fruits of any Cryptophlebia in addition to fruit flies. (author)

  19. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...conduct promotion and consumer marketing activities...Order. Business decisions on how to manage...relations between consumers and the mango industry...the number of restaurants offering mango...industry has a united consumer marketing message...declines in mango purchases. One...

  20. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... time 2 (minutes) Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, or West Indies (excluding Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21... Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a: (a)...

  1. Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol / Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Valéria Robles, Velasco; Fernanda Rumi, Okubo; Maria Elizette, Ribeiro; Denise, Steiner; Valcenir, Bedin.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacé [...] tico e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulações, desencadeiam o peeling superficial, médio e profundo. O fenol tem sido utilizado como peeling profundo tanto isoladamente como em associação com outros componentes da fórmula que atuam como promotores de penetração e permeação. A utilização desses produtos resulta no processo de renovação celular intenso, normalizando a pigmentação da pele, atenuando marcas e minimizando as rugas. Devido a sua toxicidade e contra-indicações, o fenol deve ser aplicado cuidadosamente segundo a técnica recomendada, e o paciente deve ser monitorado para se obter a máxima eficácia do peeling e também minimizar os efeitos sistêmicos. Abstract in english The natural aging of facial skin is a source of preoccupation for many, who seek out the aid of a specialized physician to minimize its signs. The skin's youthfulness can be obtained using chemical peeling made from various active substances such as glycolic, retinoic, and trichloroacetic acids and [...] phenol. These substances proportion cutaneous exfoliation with subsequent cellular renovation. Depending on the formula concentration and pH value, peelings may be superficial, medium or deep. Phenol has been used in deep peeling. It is the main component of the Baker/Gordon formula, as well as other formula substances acting as penetration and permeation promoters. The use of these active substances results in an intensive process of cellular renovation. It decreases wrinkles, softens the presence of dark spots and gives the skin a youthful appearance. Due to its toxicity and side effects, phenol should be used carefully. Technical steps must be followed. The patient should be monitored in order to obtain maximum effectiveness from the peeling, thereby minimizing effects on the systemic functions.

  2. Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the p...

  3. Primary and secondary metabolism in the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2013-05-01

    The metabolism of carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolics was compared between the sun-exposed peel and the shaded peel of apple fruit. Contents of sorbitol and glucose were higher in the sun-exposed peel, whereas those of sucrose and fructose were almost the same in the two peel types. This was related to lower sorbitol dehydrogenase activity and higher activities of sorbitol oxidase, neutral invertase and acid invertase in the sun-exposed peel. The lower starch content in the sun-exposed peel was related to lower sucrose synthase activity early in fruit development. Dark respiratory metabolism in the sun-exposed peel was enhanced by the high peel temperature due to high light exposure. Activities of most enzymes in respiratory metabolism were higher in the sun-exposed peel, but the concentrations of most organic acids were relatively stable, except pyruvate and oxaloacetate. Due to the different availability of carbon skeletons from dark respiration in the two peel types, amino acids with higher C/N ratios are accumulated in the sun-exposed peel whereas those with lower C/N ratios are accumulated in the shaded peel. Contents of anthocyanins and flavonols and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, UDP-galactose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase and several other enzymes were higher in the sun-exposed peel than in the shaded peel, indicating the entire phenylpropanoid pathway is upregulated in the sun-exposed peel. Comprehensive analyses of the metabolites and activities of enzymes involved in primary metabolism and secondary metabolism have allowed us to gain a full picture of the metabolic network in the two peel types under natural light exposure. PMID:22989296

  4. Competitividad de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Michoacán / Mango (Mangifera indica L.) production competitiveness at Michoacan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. V., Ayala-Garay; G., Almaguer-Vargas; N. K., De la Trinidad-Pérez; I., Caamal-Cauich; R., Rendón.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que a [...] porta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos. Abstract in english Mexico has been the leading import supplier of mango with an import market share of 56 percent for mangoes to USA. Since 2000, however, other countries, such as Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Belize, have also increased their share of the growing U.S. import market for this fruit. Michoacán is one of th [...] e more important Mexican producers. Due to the importance of this product, the research objective was to analyze the competitiveness of Mexican mango in front of its main competitors and to analyze the profitability in the region. The Mexican competitiveness at international level was estimated with the Indices of Revealed Competitive Advantage. At regional level, the profitability was estimating in 214 farms. Mexico has competitiveness with a negative tendency in relationship to Brazil and India. Mangoes are profitable for the region; nevertheless, the utilities are low due to the high costs per tons and low productivity.

  5. The Application of Tamarind Kernel Powder in the Mango Sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    koosamart Wayu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed has been well-known as a perfect source of xyloglucan that has functional properties that can be applied in food products. In this research, the tamarind seeds were processed to be tamarind kernel powder (TKP and then it was added into the mango sauce as the stabilizer. The aim was to study the effects of using TKP as the stabilizer on the quality of mango sauce in comparison with the application of xanthan gum that is the common stabilizer of sauce. The mango sauce samples were determined their water activity, consistency, viscosity, color and sensorial quality. The result indicated that the addition of either TKP or xanthan gum at 0.25-0.5 %w/w could raise the viscosity and diminish consistency of mango sauce significantly whereas the water activity values were insignificantly different among samples. Furthermore, it appeared that the samples added with xanthan gum obtained less consistency values but more viscosity and sensorial scores than that of TKP. The color values of samples with TKP were significantly different from those with xanthan gum. The samples added xanthan gum became darker than the addition of TKP. Although the TKP caused the less preference in characteristics of mango sauce when comparing with xanthan gum, the better result might be achieved if TKP was processed to be more purified xyloglucan. The outcome of this work showed the possibility of utilizing the tamarind seed that is commonly by-product to be a valuable food additive for food industry.

  6. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-?-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsola...

  7. The Production of Itaconic Acid from Sweet Potato Peel Using Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus

    OpenAIRE

    OMOJASOLA PATRICIA FOLAKEMI; ADENIRAN EUNICE ADERONKE

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of large quantities of agricultural residues results in deterioration of the environment and biomass loss which could be processed to yield value-added products like fuels and a variety of acids. The quest for a solution led to the fermentation of Ipomoea batatas using fungi. Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) and Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) were used to ferment sweet potato peel (SPP), an agro-based waste. The physico-chemical analysis of the SPP was carried out. SPP was dried...

  8. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS

    OpenAIRE

    Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the pe...

  9. Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

  10. Efectos de la concentracion de solud y la relacion fruta/jarabe sobre sobre la deshidratacion osmotica de mango en cilindros¹

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anne, Valera; Judith, Zambrano; Willian, Materano; Ibis, Quintero.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en estudiar el efecto de la concentración del agente osmótico (glucosa en el jarabe a 50, 60 y 70% p/p) y la relación fruta/jarabe (1:2, 1:3 y 1:4) sobre la deshidratación osmótica de frutos de mango, Mangifera indica L., en cilindros. Para el estudio, se o [...] btuvieron los mangos tipo bocado del mercado local, se seleccionaron, pelaron, cortaron en forma de cilindros y se introdujeron en un recipiente de vidrio de 500 ml de capacidad conteniendo 300 ml de la solución osmótica. Los trozos fueron sacados después de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min para realizar determinaciones de ganancia de soluto (GS), pérdida de agua (PA) y °Brix. Determinaciones de actividad de agua (aw) fueron realizadas en la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todas las concentraciones del agente osmótico (50, 60 y 70% p/p) la ganancia de sólidos fue más notable en el caso de la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todos los casos se observó que la PA es más importante que la GS. Se alcanzó el máximo de grados Brix en menor tiempo en los trozos de mango tratados con el jarabe a 50 °Brix comparado con los jarabes a 60 y 70 °Brix. Las observaciones del presente trabajo en términos de GS y PA permiten concluir que la concentración del jarabe y particularmente la relación jarabe/fruta influyen de una manera directa en el proceso de osmodeshidratación de mango. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of the concentration of the osmotic agent (glucose in the syrup to 50, 60 and 70 % p/p) and the ratio fruit/syrup (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the osmotic dehydration of mango fruits in cylinders. For the study, mangoes type "Bocado" were obtained from the [...] local market, selected, peeled, cut in form of cylinders and introduced in a 500 cc container of glass with 300 cc of osmotic solution. The pieces were removed after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min to make determinations of gain of solute (GS), loss of water (PA) and °Brix. Determinations of water activity (aw) were made in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the concentrations of the osmotic agent evaluated the solid gain was more important in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the cases, it was found that the PA was more important than GS. The highest degree Brix was reached in less time in the mango pieces treated with 50 °Brix syrup than with 60 and 70 °Brix syrup. The observations of the present work about GS and PA allow to conclude that the concentration of the syrup, and particularly the ratio fruit/syrup influences the process of osmotic dehydration of mango

  11. Pomelo peel modified with acetic anhydride and styrene as new sorbents for removal of oil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Junchen; Zhang, Xinying; Li, Beibei; Yin, Tiantian

    2015-11-01

    Pomelo peel (PP), as one of the well-known agricultural wastes, is cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Based on PP, two new kinds of oil sorbents were prepared by using acetic anhydride and styrene. The structures of raw pomelo peel (RP), acetic anhydride-treated pomelo peel (AP) and styrene-treated pomelo peel (SP) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact-angle (CA) measurements. The optimum reaction conditions for preparation of AP and SP were also investigated. The resulting products exhibited better oil sorption capacity than that of RP for diesel and lubricating oil, also SP had better oil sorption capacity than AP, while the oil sorption capacities of SP for diesel and lubricating oil reached 18.91 and 26.36 g/g, respectively. Adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicated that AP and SP, especially SP could be used as the substitute for non-biodegradable oil sorption materials. PMID:26256347

  12. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  13. Peel resistance of adhesive bonds accurately measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Strength of adhesive bond between layers of laminated material is tested by peel force to the facing with a tensile testing machine. Testing jig has stainless steel rollers which constrain material to move horizontally while maintaining free end of facing at constant 90 deg angle.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Acral peeling skin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to heat, humidity and other forms of moisture, and friction. The underlying skin may be temporarily red and itchy, but it ... those areas tend to be heavily exposed to moisture and friction. Read more about the ... inherit acral peeling skin syndrome? This condition is inherited in an autosomal ...

  15. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus a...

  16. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  17. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. Papaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  18. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Effects on storage life and quality of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the effect of irradiation at 50 Krad, hot water treatment at 55 degC 5 min and hot water treatment followed by irradiation were carried out on the mature green Keaw mango to eradicate anthracnose disease development and delay ripening. Before introducing all treatments, mangoes were inoculated by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. All samples were determined after stored at 10 +- 2 degC and at 85% RH for 3 weeks. No difference in disease control between untreated and irradiated batches, but fruits treated with hot water followed by irradiation were significantly different from untreated ones. All treatments were effective in delaying ripening. Higher dosage of irradiation with a combination of hot water treatment was studied on colour break Pimsen Prure mango and 75 Krad after hot water treatment proved to be promising. Further study is being conducted

  20. Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. H. Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.

  1. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ?-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following ?-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T2. (author)

  2. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  3. Research on Using Natural Coating Materials on the Storage Life of Mango Fruit cv. Nam Dok Mai and Technology Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiradee MUANGDECH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the suitable type and concentration of 3 natural coating materials, namely, Aloe vera gel, chitosan and carnaubar wax, on postharvest storage life of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Nam Dok Mai. The experiment was divided into 3 treatments to compare the 3 types of coating materials and each appropriate concentration, to find the appropriate combination treatment, and to evaluate the benefit of this technology. The objectives of this research were to compare different concentrations and study the type of natural coating materials. At 20 % Aloe vera jelly, 1 % chitosan and 4 % carnaubar wax gave the longest storage life with good quality at 12 days at a storage temperature of 25 °C and 75±5 % relative humidity (p ? 0.05. Further investigation was done by using these optimal concentrations alone or in combination under 2 different conditions, 25 °C with 75±5 % relative humidity and 13 °C with 90±5 % relative humidity. It was found that coating with combination of 20 % Aloe vera jelly and 1 % chitosan gave the best result in alleviating the formation of brown spot and extended the storage life up to 12 days as well as slowing down the weight loss, changes in peel and pulp color, firmness, texture, quality such as concentrate by titratable acidity, total soluble solids and respiratory rate significantly compared to control and other treatment (p ? 0.05. The use of the coating materials did not alter the quality of the fruit when ripe. Technology dissemination to farmers and exporters was performed by using the training manuals created by the author. The results of the pre-test and after training post-test showed that farmers and exporters increased their knowledge, attitudes, awareness and skills in the use of the natural coating materials for prolonging storage life of mangos.

  4. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while f...... transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system...

  5. Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente / Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murillo, Freire Júnior; Adimilson Bosco, Chitarra.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.). Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva ent [...] re o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.). The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the [...] fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

  6. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes. PMID:14995134

  7. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Mendes dos Santos; Celeste Maria Patto Abreu; Juliana Mesquita Freire; Estela de Rezende Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. Papaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorpor...

  8. Addition of Tomato Peel and Seed to Tomato Ketchup for Improving Its Nutritional Value and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abasi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, tomato peel and waste seed obtained from tomato paste processing were dried and milled. The obtained powder was added to tomato ketchup sauce in different proportions (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10%. To study the effect of tomato peel and seed powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the tomato ketchup samples, the parameters including lycopen, total solid, brix, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein, fat, ash, fiber, vitamin C, pH, color (L, a/b were evaluated. Rheological properties of the ketchup samples (consistency and viscosity were determined and compared with control samples. Sensory evaluation of the ketchup samples was carried out after 1, 2 and 5 months of storage by a group of panelists. Addition of tomato peel and seed powder resulted in an increase in total solid, brix, ash, fiber, protein, fat, consistency and viscosity of the ketchup samples. Sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant difference between the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the control and samples containing 1 or 2 % of tomato peel and seed powder. In addition, sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant changes in the ketchup samples during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that nutritional and rheological properties of tomato ketchup can be improved by addition of tomato peel and seed powder.

  9. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy the orchestrated properties above. Consequent on the foregoing Aluminum – steel (Galvanized foil laminate bonds were prepared using Araldite Rapid (an Epoxy Adhesive as the bonding agent. The specimens were subjected to Peel Test on the Mosanto Tensometer. Outcome of investigation revealed that a mode of failure was by the Steel foil simply peeling off the Aluminum piece along the bond film; much strength was needed to initiate the peel, after which little strength was needed per elongation and that the ends of the laminate carried 63.8% of the total load.

  11. Polysaccharides from Korean Citrus hallabong peels inhibit angiogenesis and breast cancer cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J Y; Shin, M S; Kim, S N; Kim, H Y; Kim, K H; Shin, K S; Kang, K S

    2016-04-01

    Although the peel of the hallabong (Citrus sphaerocarpa) fruit is rich in polysaccharides, which are valuable dietary ingredients for human health, it is normally wasted. The present study aimed to utilize the peel waste and identify properties it may have against breast cancer metastasis. Hallabong peel extract containing crude polysaccharides was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography to produce four different polysaccharide fractions (HBE-I, -II, -III, and -IV). The HBE polysaccharides significantly blocked tube formation of human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), at a concentration of 12.5 or 25μg/mL. Tube formation appeared to be more sensitive to HBE-II than to other HBE polysaccharides. HBE-II also inhibited breast cancer cell migration, through downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. Therefore, inhibition of tube formation and MMP-9-mediated migration observed in HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively, are likely to be important therapeutic targets in triple-negative breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26778161

  12. Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Valéria Robles Velasco; Fernanda Rumi Okubo; Maria Elizette Ribeiro; Denise Steiner; Valcenir Bedin

    2004-01-01

    O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulações, desencadeiam o ...

  13. Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo / Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Altafin, Galli; Marcos Doniseti, Michelotto; Luis Cláudio Paterno, Silveira; Antônio Lúcio Melo, Martins.

    Full Text Available A manga (Mangifera indica L.) é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância par [...] a o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill) da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g), maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %), menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 %) e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix). Abstract in english The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance [...] for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill) from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST) and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g), larger pulp percentage (85,7%), smaller pit percentage (6,3%) and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix), adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

  14. Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A manga (Mangifera indica L. é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância para o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g, maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %, menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 % e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix.The mango (Mangifera indica L. is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g, larger pulp percentage (85,7%, smaller pit percentage (6,3% and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix, adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

  15. Optimisation of freeze drying conditions for purified serine protease from mango (Mangifera indicaCv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Tan, Chin Ping; Hamed, Mirhosseini; Aziz, Norashikin Ab; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between the encapsulation variables, namely serine protease content (9-50mg/ml, X1), Arabic gum (0.2-10%(w/w), X2), maltodextrin (2-5%(w/w), X3) and calcium chloride (1.3-5.5%(w/w), X4) on the enzymatic properties of encapsulated serine protease. The study demonstrated that Arabic gum, maltodextrin and calcium chloride, as coating agents, protected serine protease from activity loss during freeze-drying. The overall optimum region resulted in a suitable freeze drying condition with a yield of 92% for the encapsulated serine protease, were obtained using 29.5mg/ml serine protease content, 5.1%(w/w) Arabic gum, 3.5%(w/w) maltodextrin and 3.4%(w/w) calcium chloride. It was found that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and calcium chloride improved the serine protease activity, and Arabic gum was the most effective amongst the examined coating agents. Thus, Arabic gum should be considered as potential protection in freeze drying of serine protease. PMID:25214343

  16. Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

  17. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  18. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner?s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  19. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Maruti J. Dhanavade; Chidamber B. Jalkute; Jai S. Ghosh; Kailash D. Sonawane

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich s...

  20. Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarrin...

  1. Isolation and Characterisation of Flavonoids From Citrus Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Makovšek, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Citrus flavonoids are very interesting for food and pharmaceutical industry since they possess many antioxidant properties and biological activities. Mandarin peels represent an important source of hesperidin and polymethoxy flavones nobiletin and tangeretin. Pommelo peels represent an important source of naringin that can be used as precursor for naringin dihdydro-2,3-chalcone artificial sweetener. Since pommelo peels possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, their extracts are ...

  2. Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

  3. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence supports ILM peeling as the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH.

  4. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  5. Commercially suitable pectin methylesterase from Valencia orange peels

    OpenAIRE

    ??M?EK, ?ebnem; YEMEN?C?O?LU, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure was developed to extract pectin methylesterase (PME) from Valencia orange peels. Orange peels contain 25-34 mmol of COOH min-1 g-1 of peel PME activity. The enzyme was ionically bound to cell walls and could not be extracted with water. This enables removal of water soluble pectic substances and oils from peels via homogenization and washing with water before enzyme extraction. Enzyme extraction can be conducted simply by addition of suitable amounts of NaCl (...

  6. Occurrence of alk(en)ylresorcinols in the fruits of two mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars during on-tree maturation and postharvest storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, Stefanie; Carle, Reinhold; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Tosta, Carola; Neidhart, Sybille

    2014-01-01

    Regarding their relevance for the fungal resistance of mangoes in long supply chains, the alk(en)ylresorcinols (AR) were quantitated in peel and mesocarp throughout storage (27 days, 14 °C, ethylene absorption). The 12 'Chok Anan' and 11 'Nam Dokmai #4' lots picked between 83 and 115 days after full bloom (DAFB) had different harvest maturity indices. The development of dry matter and fruit growth indicated physiological maturity ?100 DAFB. During storage, all fruits ripened slowly, mostly until over-ripeness and visible decay. The total AR contents always ranged at 73 ± 4.5 and 6.4 ± 0.7 mg hg(-1) of 'Chok Anan' and 'Nam Dokmai #4' peel dry weight, respectively, but only at 6.7 ± 0.7 and 0.9 ± 0.1 mg hg(-1) for the corresponding mesocarp (P ? 0.05). These narrow concentration ranges were contradictory to the decreasing fungal resistance. Accordingly, the alk(en)ylresorcinols have not been a deciding factor for the fungal resistance. PMID:24350757

  7. Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivanen, Joosu; Dantas, Hugo; Mojzita, Dominik; Mallmann, Edgar; Biz, Alessandra; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David; Richard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of citrus peel for growth. We used engineered A. niger strains that were not able to catabolise D-galacturonic acid, but instead converted it to L-galactonic acid. These strains also produced pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and were used for the conversion of pectin in orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process. The D-galacturonic acid in the orange peel was converted to L-galactonic acid with a yield close to 90%. Submerged and solid-state fermentation processes were compared. PMID:24949267

  8. Evaluation of mango cultivars for resistance to infection by ceratocystis manginecans

    OpenAIRE

    Al Adawi, A.O.; Al Sadi, B.A.; Al Jabri, M.H.; Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Brenda D; Deadman, M.L.; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Ceratocystis manginecans has been reported to cause a serious wilt disease of mango in Oman and Pakistan. To identify plants resistant to this disease, 30 mango cultivars were artificially inoculated with isolates of C. manginecans in three trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.0001) in lesion lengths among mango cultivars. Similarly, there were significant differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates used for inoculations. However, in trials...

  9. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation: a malady of stress ethylene origin

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Mohammad W.; Rani, Varsha; Shukla, Alok; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh C.; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Mango malformation is a major constrain in mango production worldwide causing heavy economic losses depending on cultivar type and susceptibility. The malady has variously been ascribed to be acarological, viral, fungal and physiological in nature. Here, we discuss the ethylene origin nature of malady. There are indications that most of the symptoms of mango malformation resemble with those of caused by ethylene effects. Multiple evidence reports of putative causal agents including Fusarium m...

  10. Extraction and Characteristics of Seed Kernel Oil from Mango (Mangifera indica)

    OpenAIRE

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Congo mango seeds w ere collected and the kernels were separated and dried. This study was carriedout on mango seed kernels to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oilincluding unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Mango seed kernels contained a considerableunsaponifiable matter, and a low amount of crude protein. Stearic acid w as the m ain saturated fatty acid, w hileoleic acid w as the m ajor unsaturated fatty acid in all lipid classes. M...

  11. Disinfection and conservation of mangoes, Mangifera indica L., haden and keitt varieties by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses of disinfestation and conservation for mangoes of Haden and Keitt varieties are described, including experimental data with different doses and different time of irradiation. (author)

  12. Microwave extraction of citrus peel to release pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    After removal of soluble sugars and other compounds by washing, citrus peel is largely composed of pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose. In order to utilize the greatest amount of citrus peel product, it would appear reasonable that one or all three of these polysaccharides be converted to a useful m...

  13. Cystic fibrosis as a rare cause of apple peel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekaert, I J; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, S; Rietschel, E

    2014-01-01

    Apple peel atresia is a special form of intestinal atresia with absence of mesentery. It is most likely due to an intrauterine intestinal vascular accident and has been described with other anomalies. Meconium ileus can compromise blood supply causing intestinal atresia. Therefore, cystic fibrosis needs to be ruled out in apple peel syndrome. PMID:24435787

  14. Banana Peel: A Green and Economical Sorbent for Cr(III Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil R. Memon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5mL of 2 M HNO3. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III from industrial wastewater.

  15. Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

  16. Volatile components from mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Jorge A; Mesa, Judith; Muñoz, Yamilie; Martí, M Pilar; Marbot, Rolando

    2005-03-23

    The volatile components of 20 mango cultivars were investigated by means of simultaneous distillation-extraction, GC, and GC-MS. Three hundred and seventy-two compounds were identified, of which 180 were found for the first time in mango fruit. The total concentration of volatiles was approximately 18-123 mg/kg of fresh fruit. Terpene hydrocarbons were the major volatiles of all cultivars, the dominant terpenes being delta-3-carene (cvs. Haden, Manga amarilla, Macho, Manga blanca, San Diego, Manzano, Smith, Florida, Keitt, and Kent), limonene (cvs. Delicioso, Super Haden, Ordonez, Filipino, and La Paz), both terpenes (cv. Delicia), terpinolene (cvs. Obispo, Corazon, and Huevo de toro), and alpha-phellandrene (cv. Minin). Other qualitative and quantitative differences among the cultivars could be demonstrated. PMID:15769159

  17. Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

  18. Mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica), variedad de Colombia: características antioxidantes, nutricionales y sensoriales / Sugar mango (Mangifera indica), variety from Colombia: antioxidant, nutritional and sensorial characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Corrales-Bernal; Maria Elena, Maldonado; Luz Amparo, Urango; Maria Camila, Franco; Benjamín Alberto, Rojano.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El mango de azúcar es una variedad colombiana pequeña, de escasa fibra, buen aroma y sabor. Esta investigación evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del fruto en diferentes estados de maduración por FRAP y DPPH clasificados por inspección visual y escala CIELab. Las características nutricionales y el val [...] or ORAC se determinaron en el mango maduro. Las características sensoriales de dos formulaciones (sacarosa y sucralosa) con mango maduro se determinaron por prueba afectiva de aceptación y escala Hedónica. Resultados: la clasificación por inspección visual coincidió con la escala CIELab. El mango verde tiene 45% más flavonoides que el maduro. El contenido de carotenoides, valores DPPH y FRAP fueron similares en los diferentes estados de maduración. El 94% de los panelistas aceptaron el néctar con sucralosa comparado con el endulzado con sacarosa (89,1%). Los resultados indican que el mango de azúcar y un producto tipo néctar poseen capacidad antioxidante, compuestos bioactivos y nutricionales beneficiosos para la salud. Abstract in english The sugar mango is a small Colombian cultivar with low fiber content, good aroma and flavor. This research evaluated antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH) of the fruit at different ripening stages classified by visual inspection and CIELab scale. Nutritional and sensory characteristics and ORAC value we [...] re measured in the ripe fruit. Sensorial characteristics of two mango nectars sweetened with sucrose and sucralose using ripe fruit were determined by affective acceptance test and Hedonic scale. Results showed that classification by visual inspection coincided with the CIELab scale for all ripening stages. The green mango has 45% more flavonoids than the mature one. The carotenoid content, DPPH and FRAP values were similar in the different ripening stages. Sucralose sweetened nectar was accepted by 94.9% compared with that sweetened with sucrose (89.1%). Results indicate that mango sugar fruit and nectar present antioxidant capacity, bioactive and nutritional compounds with potential health benefits.

  19. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  20. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  1. Experimental analysis and modeling of mangoes drying kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Heilporn, Caroline; Wylock, Christophe; Spreutels, Laurent; Haut, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the drying rate of mango slices is experimentally studied and modeled. The developed model takes into account the physical transformations occurring during the drying process. The simulated drying rates, computed with the proposed model are compared with a set of experimental drying rates obtained by analyzing several drying trials. The model is also used to analyze the sensitivity of the drying rate with respect to its physico-chemical parameters. The results show a good fit be...

  2. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  3. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper pres...

  4. Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris PV. magniferaeindicae in mango plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Gina Mercia

    1993-01-01

    The yearly losses incurred by bacterial blackspot disease are high. Often trees are asymptomatic, with the pathogen either in the resident phase or latent stage of infection. Detection of the pathogen in these asymptomatic trees is one of the most important means of controlling the disease. Isolates which consistently differed in virulence were isolated from symptomatic mango plants. These isolates could be categorised into four groups based upon differences in virulence. Monoc...

  5. Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments

  6. Biosorption Studies for the Removal of Malachite Green from its Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Cassava Peel

    OpenAIRE

    C. Parvathi; T. Maruthavanan; Sivamani, S.; Prakash, C.

    2011-01-01

    The association of dyes with health related problems is not a new phenomenon. The effectiveness of carbon adsorption for dye removal from textile effluent has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and reduce pollution. Cassava peel has been used as a raw material to produce activated carbon. The study investigates the removal of malachite green dye from its aqueous solution....

  7. Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Telis-Romero; Márcio N. Kohayakawa; Vivaldo Silveira Jr.; Maria A. M. Pedro; Ana L. Gabas

    2005-01-01

    Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w) from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equa...

  8. Development and application of a quantitative method for determination of flavonoids in orange peel: Influence of sample pretreatment on composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Calle, María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2015-11-01

    Peel, a part of the citrus rich in compounds with high-added value, constitutes the bulk of the waste generated in citrus juice industries. Flavonoids are a class of these high-added value compounds characterized by their bioactivity. In this research, a method for analysis of flavonoids, based on LC-MS/MS by using a triple quadrupole detector, has been developed and applied to the quantitative analysis of 16 flavonoids in extracts obtained by maceration of citrus peel. The parameters involved in the ionization and fragmentation of the target analytes were optimized to develop a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method, which reported detection and quantitation limits ranging from 0.005 to 5 ng/mL and from 0.01 to 10 ng/mL, respectively. The raw materials for flavonoids extraction were fresh, oven-dried and lyophilized peel of 8 different orange varieties, and the proposed quantitation method was applied to the analysis of the obtained extracts. Evaluation of the two methods of water removal showed that lyophilization preserves the concentration of the flavonoids, while oven-dried peel presented a decrease of glycosylated flavonoids and an increase of aglycone forms. PMID:26452832

  9. 78 FR 8441 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... after the effective date of an order, provision, or obligation subject to challenge in the petition. The... to increase the pool of nominees from the major countries that export mangos to the United States by... in the mango industry. This challenge has caused the Board to hold its first meeting of the...

  10. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

  11. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... FR 65988-65991, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0040) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations concerning the... seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) for mangoes from specific areas of Australia. The commenter... the mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) and fruit flies of the family Tephritidae...

  12. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaga, Thomas Happi; Bindelle, Jérôme; Agneesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence of rumen fluid. Kinetics of gas production were modelled, ME content was calculated using prediction equation and short-chain fatty acids production and molar ratio were measured after 72 h of fermentation. Final gas production was higher in plantain (269-339 ml g(-1)) compared to banana (237-328 ml g(-1)) and plantain exhibited higher ME contents (8.9-9.7 MJ/kg of dry matter, DM) compared to banana (7.7-8.8 MJ/kg of DM). Butyrate molar ratio decreased with maturity of the peels. The main influence of the variety and the stage of maturation on all fermentation parameters as well as ME contents of the peels was correlated to changes in the carbohydrate fraction of the peels, including starch and fibre. PMID:20725857

  13. Economic evaluation of extending shelf-life of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the status of cultivation, annual production, local consumption and export volume of mangoes in Egypt. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual losses due to fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of mangoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of mangoes in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of mangoes for extending shelf-life has been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Studies have been carried out in Egypt since 1970 to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated mangoes. Nevertheless not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. In this study the 'Egypt's Mega Gamma I' Irradiator (with cobalt-60 source) was used. (author)

  14. In vitro fermentation of chewed mango and banana: particle size, starch and vascular fibre effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dorrain Y; Williams, Barbara A; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Fruits (and vegetables) contain cellular structures that are not degraded by human digestive enzymes. Therefore, the structure of the insoluble fraction of swallowed fruits is mostly retained until intestinal microbial fermentation. In vitro fermentation of mango and banana cell structures, which survived in vivo mastication and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, were incubated with porcine faecal inoculum and showed intensive metabolic activity. This included degradation of cell walls, leading to the release of encapsulated cell contents for further microbial metabolism. Production of cumulative gas, short chain fatty acids and ammonia were greater for mango than for banana. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses showed this was due to a major fermentation-resistant starch fraction present in banana, that was absent in mango. This study demonstrated distinctive differences in the fermentability of banana and mango, reflecting a preferential degradation of (parenchyma) fleshy cell walls over resistant starch in banana, and the thick cellulosic vascular fibres in mango. PMID:26215214

  15. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S N; Narsaiah, K; Sharma, A D; Singh, M; Bansal, S; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits "Mango" (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. PMID:23572595

  16. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

  17. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) – A promising spice for phytochemicals and biological activities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Policegoudra; S M Aradhya; L Singh

    2011-09-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The main use of mango ginger rhizome is in the manufacture of pickles and culinary preparations. Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems have given much importance to mango ginger as an appetizer, alexteric, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, emollient, expectorant and laxative and to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, hiccough and inflammation due to injuries. The biological activities of mango ginger include antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, platelet aggregation inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity, antiallergic activity, hypotriglyceridemic activity, brine-shrimp lethal activity, enterokinase inhibitory activity, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. This article brings to light the major active components present in C. amada along with their biological activities that may be important from the pharmacological point of view.

  18. Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

  19. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amoun...

  20. Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant

    OpenAIRE

    K.V. Harivaindaran; O.P.S. Rebecca; Chandran, S.

    2008-01-01

    The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100°C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 1...

  1. Complications of medium depth and deep chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanma Nikalji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarring. In very rare cases, complications can be life-threatening.

  2. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stephane; Vanel, Loic; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-03-01

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling an adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  3. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  4. Seasonal Abundance of Mango Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Ecological Implications for Their Management in Mango and Cashew Orchards in Benin (Centre & North).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssières, J-F; De Meyer, M; Ouagoussounon, I; Sinzogan, A; Adandonon, A; Korie, S; Wargui, R; Anato, F; Houngbo, H; Didier, C; De Bon, H; Goergen, G

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a large-scale (six orchards) and long-term (5-yr) study on seasonal population fluctuations of fruit flies (Diptera Tephritidae) in mango (2005-2009) and cashew (2007-2009) orchards in the Borgou Department, Benin.During the five consecutive years of mango fruit fly monitoring, 25 tephritid species were captured including three species of Bactrocera, 11 of Ceratitis, and 11 of Dacus, which is represented by 2,138,150 specimens in mango orchards. We observed significant differences in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) counts between "high" and "low" mango production years from 2005 to 2008 but not in Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) counts. The native species, C. cosyra, the most abundant species during the dry season, peaked beginning of May, while the exotic species, B. dorsalis, the most abundant species during the rainy season, peaked in June. Preliminary results underlined the role of nine species of wild hosts and seven species of cultivated ones around mango orchards that played an important role in maintaining B. dorsalis in this Sudan zone all year round. The presence of C. cosyra stretched over 9 mo.During the first 14 wk of tephritid monitoring on cashew orchards situated near mango orchards, most flies (62%) were captured in traps positioned in cashew orchards, showing the strong interest of an early fly control on cashew before the mango season. According to these results, in the Sudan zone, effective and compatible control methods as proposed by the IPM package validated by the West African Fruit Fly Initiative project against mango fruit flies are proposed for a large regional tephritid control program in same zones of West Africa. PMID:26453710

  5. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okojie L. O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

  6. Estimativa da composição gasosa em embalagem de atmosfera modificada contendo mangas (mangifera indica l.) Cv. Keitt / Gaseous composition estimation in modified atmosphere packaging of mangos (mangifera indica l.) Cv. Keitt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio, Yamashita; Javier, Telis Romero; Theo Guenter, Kieckbusch.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinadas as taxas de respiração e a perda de peso e composição gasosa no interior da embalagem, de mangas embaladas individualmente em filme de polietileno de baixa densidade com espessura de 24,5 ?m, armazenadas a 7°C (80-90% UR); 12°C (75-85% UR); 17°C (70-80% UR); 22°C (65-75% UR) e 25° [...] C (65-75% UR). A partir dos resultados experimentais e equações de transferência de massa foram calculadas a permeabilidade da casca da manga ao vapor de água e a concentração de gás carbônico do espaço livre, após ter sido atingido um estado estacionário de transferência de massa. A concentração de gás carbônico calculada foi comparada com a obtida experimentalmente, tendo sido encontradas diferenças, dependendo da temperatura, entre -16% e 29%. A permeabilidade calculada da casca foi cerca de 600 vezes maior que a do filme plástico. Abstract in english Respiration and weight loss rate, and gaseous composition inside the packaging of mangos cv. Keitt individually sealed in a low-density polyethylene film, 24.5 _m thick, stored at 7°C (80-90% RH); 12°C (75-85% RH); 17°C (70-80% RH); 22°C (65-75% RH) e 25°C (65-75% RH) were determinated. After mass t [...] ransfer had reached a steady state, mango peel permeability to water vapor and concentration of carbon dioxide inside the packaging were calculated using experimental results and mass transfer equations. Calculated peel permeability was 600 times greater than plastic film. Experimental and calculated carbon dioxide concentration were compared and, according temperature, were founded differences between -16% and 29%.

  7. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220 μm wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ∼100 m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  8. Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha / The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Bittencourt, Pfaffenbach; Josalba Vidigal de, Castro; Cássia Regina Limonta, Carvalho; Carlos Jorge, Rossetto.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (25µm) com sachê absorv [...] edor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax) e controle (sem filme plástico). Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix), porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico) e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga. Abstract in english The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (2 [...] 5µm) with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax) and control (without film). The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

  9. Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bittencourt Pfaffenbach

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax e controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix, porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga.The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax and control (without film. The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

  10. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  11. Calidad del mango ataulfo producido en Nayarit, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Osuna García

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en la región de Atonalisco, Municipio de Tepic, Nayarit durante la temporada 1998, con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad de frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L. variedad ?Ataulfo?, así como determinar la influencia sobre ésta de la época de cosecha, manejo postcosecha y almacenamiento. Se evaluaron tres fechas de cosecha (7 y 19 de junio y 4 de julio; cuatro etapas en la cadena postcosecha (huerto, empaque, lavado e hidrotérmico y dos condiciones de almacenamiento (ambiente: 25 ± 3 °C; 65-75 % HR por nueve días y refrigeración: 14 días a 12 ± 1 °C; 85 % HR y posterior exposición a temperatura ambiente por seis días. Se encontró que la calidad del fruto de mango Ataulfo producido en la región cumple satisfactoriamente los requisitos de la Norma Mexicana de calidad de mango fresco para exportación; sin embargo, ésta fue afectada significativamente por los factores en estudio. En madurez de consumo, los frutos de la primera y segunda cosecha presentaron valores superiores de la relación sólidos solubles totales/acidez, firmeza, color y apariencia externa, respecto a la tercera fecha. El tratamiento hidrotérmico cuarentenario fue la forma de manejo postcosecha que más influyó en la calidad, ya que afectó negativamente firmeza y agudizó el daño por látex, pero uniformizó el color interno y externo. Las condiciones de almacenamiento también influyeron significativamente en la mayoría de las variables. Los frutos almacenados bajo refrigeración y posterior simulación de mercadeo a temperatura ambiente por seis días, mostraron menor firmeza, pobre desarrollo de color interno y mayor daño por látex.

  12. Adsorption/desorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) using chemically modified orange peel: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ammar, Nabila S.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.

    2012-02-01

    Waste materials from industries such as food processing may act as cost effective and efficient biosorbents to remove toxic contaminants from wastewater. This study aimed to establish an optimized condition and closed loop application of processed orange peel for metals removal. A comparative study of the adsorption capacity of the chemically modified orange peel was performed against environmentally problematic metal ions, namely, Cd 2+, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+, from aqueous solutions. Chemically modified orange peel (MOP) showed a significantly higher metal uptake capacity compared to original orange peel (OP). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectra of peel showed that the carboxylic group peak shifted from 1637 to 1644 cm -1 after Pb (II) ions binding, indicated the involvement of carboxyl groups in Pb(II) ions binding. The metals uptake by MOP was rapid and the equilibrium time was 30 min at constant temperature and pH. Sorption kinetics followed a second-order model. The mechanism of metal sorption by MOP gave good fits for Freundlich and Langmuir models. Desorption of metals and regeneration of the biosorbent was attained simultaneously by acid elution. Even after four cycles of adsorption-elution, the adsorption capacity was regained completely and adsorption efficiency of metal was maintained at around 90%.

  13. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) peel

    OpenAIRE

    El Zawane Kamarudin; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Abul Bashar Mohammed Helaluddin; Zuvairea Nazren Mohd Sirajudin; Ahmad Jalal Khan Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ) ( C. moschata ) against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM ) , methanol ( MEOH ) and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aur...

  14. SORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE ONTO ORANGE AND LEMON PEEL

    OpenAIRE

    Kučić, Dajana; Miljanić, Snežana; Rožić, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the sorption of methylene blue on the cheap unconventional bio sorbents, citrus fruits: oranges and lemons. Bio sorbents which was used was: orange and lemon peel, seeds and pulp. The results are compared with results of sorption to mineral sorbents, zeolite clinoptilolite, Pyrolox and Birm. Sorption kinetics and the influence of pH on the sorption of methylene blue on orange and lemon peel was examined. Sorption isotherm of methylene blue onto the orange end l...

  15. The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Grover C; Reddu B

    2003-01-01

    Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%), melasma (36.5%), post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12%) and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%). A final evaluation done at 16 weeks rev...

  16. Reduced peeling losses in Mexican pine, after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Centro de Estudios Nucleares UNAM, a wood-chip irradiation method was developed on the hypothesis that gamma irradiation would result in higher Kraft pulp yields. The effects of irradiation on the susceptibility of wood hemicellulose to alkaline peeling degradation were investigated by peeling loss test. Maximum pulp yields were obtained at 0.025 Mrad for irradiated air-dried wood meal, and at 0.012 Mrad for saturated humidity wood meal

  17. Farelo de resíduo de manga para tilápia do Nilo = Mango residues for Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misleni Ricarte de Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial do resíduo do farelo de manga nas dietas de tilápia do Nilo, sobre a digestibilidade aparente, desempenho produtivo, rendimento de carcaça, índice hepatossomático, índice de gordura víscero-somática e peso dos órgãos. No ensaio de digestibilidade utilizou-se 48 animais com peso médio de 53,9 g, e no de desempenho utilizou-se 300 juvenis, com peso médio de 44,3. O delineamento experimental utilizado em ambos os experimentos foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, sendo o de desempenho com cinco repetições e o de digestibilidade com três. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro rações isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, com diferentes níveis de inclusão do farelo de resíduo de manga (0, 5, 10 e 15%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das rações foram respectivamente: matéria seca (79,6; 76,9; 76,5 e 78,0%, proteína bruta (88,8; 87,4; 87,2 e 87,8%, energia bruta (77,8; 75,9; 76,4 e 77,5%. A energia digestível das rações (3304, 3320, 3395 e 3484 kcal kg-1 e proteína digestível (29,3; 30,3; 29,8 e 29,8%. Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis analisadas no desempenho, o que possibilita a inclusão de até 15,0% do farelo de resíduo de manga nas rações de tilápia do Nilo. To evaluate the potential of mango residues in the diets Nile tilapia on apparent digestibility, productive performance, body yield (with and without head, hepatosomatic index, somatic and visceral indexes, fat and organs weight in Nile tilapia. In the digestibility experiment were used 48 animals with average weight of 53.9 ± (1.04 g and for the performance experiment 300 juveniles were used with the average weight of 44.3 ± (2.7 g. The experimental design for both was randomized with four treatments and the performance experiment with five replicates, and digestibility with three replications. The treatments consisted of four isoproteic- andisoenergetic diets with different levels of inclusion of mango waste bran (0, 5, 10 and 15%. The digestibility coefficients were: dry matter (79.6, 76.9, 76.5 and 78.0%, crude protein (88.8, 87.4, 87.2 and 87.8%, crude energy (77.8, 75.9, 76.4 and 77.5%. Digestible energy (3304, 3320, 3395 and 3484 kcal kg-1 and digestible protein (29.3, 30.3, 29.8 and 29.8%. There are no visible treatment effects on the variables analyzed. It is recommended the inclusion of about to 15,0% of mango wastes on Nile tilapia feeding.

  18. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Tasleem

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I-III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. PMID:26347269

  19. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tasleem Arif Postgraduate Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, Government Medical College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Salicylic acid has been used to treat various skin disorders for more than 2,000 years. The ability of salicylic acid to exfoliate the stratum corneum makes it a good agent for peeling. In particular, the comedolytic property of salicylic acid makes it a useful peeling agent for patients with acne. Once considered as a keratolytic agent, the role of salicylic acid as a desmolytic agent, because of its ability to disrupt cellular junctions rather than breaking or lysing intercellular keratin filaments, is now recognized and is discussed here. Salicylic acid as a peeling agent has a number of indications, including acne vulgaris, melasma, photodamage, freckles, and lentigines. The efficacy and safety of salicylic acid peeling in Fitzpatrick skin types I–III as well as in skin types V and VI have been well documented in the literature. This paper reviews the available data and literature on salicylic acid as a peeling agent and its possible indications. Its properties, efficacy and safety, the peeling procedure, and possible side effects are discussed in detail. An account of salicylism is also included. Keywords: acne vulgaris, desmolytic agent, melasma, photodamage, salicylic acid 

  20. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ? 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ? 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink. (paper)

  1. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin. In addition FRAP method was used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The results of colorimetric method showed that there was high concentration of flavonoids in all investigated samples, especially in peels (1156 mg/100 g in Satsuma peel and 804 mg/100 g in Clementine peel. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin, was determined in the highest concentration in both investigated pulps. In peels flavanon glycosides were present in decreasing sequence as follow: narirutin>hesperidin>naringin. According to FRAP method, all samples possess an evident antioxidant capacity especially peels. Correlation between total flavonoids, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin and antioxidant capacity was very high with correlation coefficiants between 0.81 and 0.98.

  2. Potential contribution of mangoes to reduction of vitamin A deficiency in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muoki, Penina N; Makokha, Anselimo O; Onyango, Christine A; Ojijo, Nelson K O

    2009-01-01

    The ?-carotene content of fresh and dried mangoes commonly consumed in Kenya was evaluated and converted to retinol equivalent (RE). Mango fruits of varieties Ngowe, Apple, and Tommy Atkins were harvested at mature green, partially ripe, and ripe stages and their ?-carotene content analyzed. The stability of ?-carotene in sun dried mangoes was also studied over 6 months under usual marketing conditions used in Kenya. The effect of using simple pretreatment methods prior to drying of mango slices on retention of ?-carotene was as well evaluated. In amounts acceptable to children and women, fresh and dried mangoes can supply 50% or more of the daily required retinol equivalent for children and women. Stage of ripeness, variety, postharvest holding temperature, method of drying, and storage time of dried mango slices affected ?-carotene content and consequently vitamin A value of the fruits. Apple variety grown in Machakos had the highest ?-carotene. It exceeded the daily RE requirements by 11.8% and 21.5% for women and children respectively. Fresh or dried mangoes are a significant provitamin A source and should be included in food-based approaches aiming to reduce vitamin A deficiency. PMID:21883054

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

  4. Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos / Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da, Silva; Dalmo Lopes de, Siqueira; Aline, Rocha; Luiz Carlos Chamhum, Salomão; Rosana Gonçalves Pires, Matias; Tiago Barbosa, Struiving.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo [...] deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA). Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa. Abstract in english The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective [...] of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA), produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

  5. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi; Scott, Neil; Burr, Jennifer; Cook, Jonathan; Boachie, Charles; Tadayoni, Ramin; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Christensen, Ulrik Correll; Kwok, Alvin

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. 

  6. Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Sánchez Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de Araújo

    2013-01-01

    El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realizadas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de ...

  7. Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

  8. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  9. Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

  10. Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

  11. Metabolic discrimination of mango juice from various cultivars by band-selective NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masanori; Furihata, Kazuo; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    NMR-based metabolic analysis of foods has been widely applied in food science. In this study, we performed discrimination of five different mango cultivars, Awin, Carabao, Keitt, Kent, and Nam Dok Mai, using metabolic analysis with band-selective excitation NMR spectra. A combination of unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) with low-field region (1)H NMR spectra obtained by band-selective excitation provided a good discriminant model of the five mango cultivars. Using F(2)-selective 2D NMR spectra, we also identified various minor components in the mango juice. Signal assignment of the minor components facilitated the interpretation of the loading plot, and it was found that arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, glutamine, shikimic acid, and trigonelline were important for classification of the five mango cultivars. PMID:22242555

  12. Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

  13. Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhavna; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Kumar, J

    2014-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most dangerous disease to mango worldwide. There are hints that Fusarium mangiferae might be one of the probable casual agents of disease. Recently, we reported on Fusarium isolates obtained from the mango tarai region of Uttarakhand acquiring morphological features of F. mangiferae. Here, further confirmation of Fusarium isolates were made by PCR amplification using primers specific to the translation elongation factors 1? and ?-tubulin gene of F. mangiferae. Further, SDS-PAGE and RAPD profiles showed genetic variability among isolates of F. mangiferae. This study provides further direct evidence of involvement of different strains of F. mangiferae in malformation diseases of mango in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state. PMID:24691131

  14. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  15. TCA PEEL IN THE TREATMENT OF MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Macular amyloidosis (MA represents a common variant of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis with a characteristic female preponderance. Hyperpigmentation associated with MA poses a significant aesthetic problem for patients and there are no effective treatment modalities proven for the same. The present study was done to know the safety and efficacy of TCA (trichloroacetic acid peel in the treatment of MA. MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 25 patients with clinical diagnosis of macular amyloidosis were included in the study. TCA peel was done at an interval of 6 weeks between sessions. First session was done with 10% TCA and further sessions with 20 % TCA. Clinical response to treatment after each session was graded according to quarentile grading and any adverse effects were noted. RESULTS: A total of 25 patient. were included of which 22 were females and 3 males. Clinical improvement was more than 51% in 50% of patients after 3 sessions. Mean improvement scores increased proportionately with each session. Side effects included burning sensation during the procedure, peeling for almost 2 weeks and hyperpigmentation/ hypopigmentation. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: TCA peel is an effective and also cost effective treatment for the hyperpigmentation of macular amyloidosis. Disadvantages being long peeling time and possibility of hyper and hypopigmentation.

  16. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti J. Dhanavade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

  17. Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2005-01-01

    In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective...

  18. First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ...

  19. Molecular Biodiversity of Selected Mango Cultivars Based on DNA Sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Abd. Samad; Shahkila Mohd. Arif; Topik Hidayat

    2013-01-01

    The mango (Mangifer indica L.) is an important species of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the most important crops cultivated commercially in many parts of the world. Hence, a better understanding of the phylogeny in this species is crucial as it is the basis knowledge of improving its genetic resources which is beneficial for breeding programs. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 mango cultivars from Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan were carried out by comparing DNA sequence data ...

  20. Analysis of volatile aroma constituents of wine produced from Indian mango (Mangifera indica L.) by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    L.V.A. Reddy; Sudheer Kumar, Y.; Reddy, O. V. S.

    2010-01-01

    Volatile aroma compounds are synthesized by wine yeast during wine fermentation. In this study the volatile aroma composition of two varieties of mango wine were determined to differentiate and characterize the wines. The wine was produced from the fruits of two varieties of mango cultivars namely Banginapalli and Alphonso. The volatile compounds formed in mango wine were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-two volatile compounds in wines were determi...

  1. Chromoplast morphology and beta-carotene accumulation during postharvest ripening of Mango Cv. 'Tommy Atkins'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Caicedo, Ana Lucía; Heller, Annerose; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-08-01

    Accumulation of beta-carotene and trans-cis isomerization of ripening mango mesocarp were investigated as to concomitant ultrastructural changes. Proceeding postharvest ripening was shown by relevant starch degradation, tissue softening, and a rising sugar/acid ratio, resulting in a linear decrease (R (2) = 0.89) of a ripening index (RPI(KS)) with increasing ripening time. A modest accumulation of all-trans-beta-carotene and its cis isomers resulted in a slight pigmentation of the mango chromoplasts, because ambient temperatures of 18.2-19.5 degrees C provided suboptimal ripening conditions, affecting color development and beta-carotene biosynthesis. The ultrastructures of chromoplasts from mango mesocarp and carrot roots were comparatively studied by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. Irrespective of the ripening stage, mango chromoplasts showed numerous plastoglobuli varying in size and electron density. They comprised the main part of carotenoids, thus supporting the partial solubilization of the pigments in lipid droplets. However, because different pigment-carrying tubular membrane structures were also observed, mango chromoplasts were assigned to the globular and reticulotubular types, whereas the crystalline type was confirmed for carrot chromoplasts. The large portions of naturally occurring cis-beta-carotene in mango fruits contrasted with the predominance of the all-trans isomer characteristic of carrots, indicating that the nature of the structure where carotenoids are deposited and the physical state of the pigments are crucial for the stability of the all-trans configuration. PMID:16881676

  2. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  3. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha-1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha-1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  4. PARÂMETROS TERMODINÂMICOS DA CASCA DE LARANJA DESIDRATADA / THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF DEHYDRATED ORANGE PEEL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina M., Santos; Leandro Cardoso de, Morais.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The global energy scenario is currently a widely discussed topic, with growing concern about the future supplies. Thus, much attention has been dedicated to the utilization of biomass as an energy resource. In this respect, orange peel has become a material of great interest, especially to Brazil, w [...] hich generates around 9.5 million tons of this waste per year. To this end, the authors studied the kinetics of the thermal processing of dried orange peel in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. The thermodynamic parameters were determined by the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method for the global process observed during heating from the 25°C up to 800°C. The thermal analysis in air and nitrogen showed 3-2 stages of mass loss, respectively, with approximately 20% residual mass under a nitrogen atmosphere. The increase in the values of activation energy for the conversion points between 20% and 60% for thermal effects in air and nitrogen atmosphere was observed. The activation energy obtained in an oxidizing atmosphere was higher than that obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere. The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the material has a high level of complexity with the presence of alkali and alkaline earth groups as well as phosphate, plus substances such as pectin, cellulose and lignin.

  5. Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

    2004-08-01

    The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2,714-11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. Kinetic analyses made with Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ritchie second-order and modified Ritchie second-order models showed better fits with modified Ritchie second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich (Sips equation) model best defined the experimental equilibrium data among the three isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) tested. Taking a particular metal concentration, the optimum dose and pH required for the maximum metal removal was established. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl. PMID:15081486

  6. Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

    2013-04-01

    Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study. PMID:23579603

  7. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The memorandum DGS/SD-7-D/DHOSE/E4-2001-323 of the 9. July 2001 recommends medical establishments to put into operation a plan dedicated to the management of effluents and wastes of medical activities that have been contaminated by radio-nuclides. (A.C.)

  8. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen produced from potato steam peels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Dagnija Blumberga [Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, 1 Kronvalda Boulevard, Riga LV-1010 (Latvia); Humbert, Sebastien [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 407 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Hydrogen from renewable energy is considered a promising alternative to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Potato steam peels can be used as feedstock to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool to evaluate the main environmental benefits and burdens of using potato steam peals to produce hydrogen rather than to feed animals. Inventory data are derived from the literature and ecoinvent. Impacts are evaluated using IMPACT 2002+. The results show that producing hydrogen from potato steam peels offers clear advantages over a direct use of peels to feed animals. A factor of two to three is observed in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in the savings of non-renewable resources and in the reduction of human health impacts. The two-stage bioreactor is observed to consume around 25 MJ and to emit between 1000 and 1500 g of CO{sub 2} per kilogram of hydrogen produced. (author)

  9. Pomegranate peel pectin films as affected by montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Zea-Redondo, Luna; Moates, Graham K; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2016-05-01

    The industrial production of pomegranate juice has been favored by its alleged health benefits derived from its antioxidant properties. The processing of pomegranate juice involves squeezing juice from the fruit with the seeds and the peels together, leaving a pomace consisting of approximately 73wt% peels. In this study, pectin was extracted from pomegranate peels, and used to produce films with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) as a nanoreinforcement material. The nanoreinforcement improved the tensile strength and modulus of films when added at up to 6wt%, while the further addition of MMT (to 8wt%) reduced the reinforcement effect, probably because of dispersion problems. The elongation was decreased with increasing MMT concentrations. The water vapor permeability decreased with increasing MMT contents up to 8wt% MMT, indicating that the increased tortuosity of the permeant path was effective on barrier properties of the film. PMID:26769511

  10. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

  12. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Peel Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%-46.8%), ultrasonic time (33.2-66.8 min), and temperature (43.2-76.8 °C) for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R² = 0.9524, p < 0.0001), FRAP (R² = 0.9743, p < 0.0001), and TEAC (R² = 0.9610, p < 0.0001) values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g) of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW). The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods. PMID:26593890

  13. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  14. Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2013-05-22

    The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants. PMID:23635477

  15. Superficial chemical peels and microdermabrasion for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempiak, Stephan John; Uebelhoer, Nathan

    2008-09-01

    Superficial chemical peels and microdermabrasion are used for many dermatologic conditions. A common condition treated with these modalities is acne vulgaris. In this review, we discuss the theory behind the technique of these procedures and describe the application and complications of each of these procedures in the office setting. The evaluation of patients before proceeding with the procedure and discuss pre- and postpeel regimens used for patients is discussed. We also analyze studies on both of these in-office procedures and comparative studies between the 2 most commonly used superficial chemical peeling agents, glycolic and salicylic acid. PMID:18786500

  16. Production of intracellular β-xylosidase from the submerged fermentation of citrus wastes by Penicillium janthinellum MTCC 10889

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Aditi; Ray, Rina Rani

    2012-01-01

    Production of intracellular β-xylosidase was studied in cultures of Penicillium janthinellum grown on citrus fruit waste supplemented cultivation media. Both dried orange peel and sweet lime peel could induce the production of this enzyme. The working strain showed a pronounced optimum pH and temperature for β-xylosidase production at 6.0 and 27 °C, respectively. The enzyme production was found to remain stable for a long period of 120 h. Orange peel and sweet lime peel showed different respo...

  17. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: ? Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ ? Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. ? Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. ? Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. ? Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  18. PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindha Chelliappan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized conditions showed that the invertase activity was high in the SSF using papaya peel as substrate, incubated for 6 days at temperature of 35°C, pH 7, with 2.25gms/100ml of Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source and 10gms/100ml of sucrose as carbon source. Hence the agro wastes from industries can be recycled by using it as substrate in SSF for high invertase enzyme production which finds applications in many fields.

  19. Quantification of aroma constituents of mango sap from different Pakistan mango cultivars using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Uddin, Jalal; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Akram, Muhammad Irfan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a quantitative method was developed based on gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS) for the analysis of aroma component of mango sap (latex) in nine Pakistani varieties that are Anmol, Began pali, Badami, Caroba, Chaunsa, Lal patra, Neelum, Sohnara and Tota pari. The non-aqueous phase of sap was studied and a total seven selected terpenes that are ?-pinene, ?-phellandrene, (+)-3-carene, sabinene, ?-terpinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene and ?-humulene were quantified using GC-QQQ-MS in MRM (multiple reaction mode) mode. Calibration curves were generated and R(2)>0.99 was found for all analytes. Intra-day and inter-day precision (% R.S.D.) of the developed method was less than 4% while % accuracy was in the range of 95.3-105.1 for all analytes. Among all the varieties, Neelum contains the highest amount of four terpenes out of seven quantified terpenes. PMID:26593627

  20. Actividad antioxidante de lámina flexible de mango (Mangifera indica) / Antioxidant activity in mango fruit leather (Mangifera indica)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josué, Hernández-Varela; Arturo, Moncayo; Viluzca, Fernández; Betzabé, Sulbarán.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Una forma de concentrar las propiedades nutricionales de la fruta es mediante la elaboración de láminas flexibles, las cuales se realizan al secar una capa muy delgada de puré de fruta para obtener un producto con una textura blanda. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido [...] de polifenoles totales en láminas flexibles de mango cv. Tommy Atkins cultivados en el municipio Mara del estado Zulia. La actividad antioxidante de la lámina fue 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamina C/100g. El contenido de polifenoles totales en la lámina fue 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. Las láminas flexibles aportan una mayor cantidad de compuestos polifenólicos totales por lo que es una manera alternativa de consumir compuestos antioxidantes y nutritivos en la dieta. Abstract in english A way to concentrate the nutritional properties of the fruit is through the development of fruit leathers, which are made by drying a very thin layer of mashed fruit to obtain a product with a soft texture. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in fruit leathers [...] of mango cv. Tommy Atkints grown in Mara municipality, Zulia state. The antioxidant activity of the fruit leathers was 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamin C/100g. The total polyphenol content in the leathers was 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. The fruit leathers provide a greater amount of total polyphenolic compounds which is an alternative way of consuming antioxidant compounds and nutritious diet.

  1. Betel-nut Peel as an Adsorbent in the Removal of Cd, Cr and Pb from Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nur-E-Alam Siddique; Abdus Salam; Md Abdus Salam; Md. Abu Hasan; Mohammad Arifur Rahman; A. M. Shafiqul Alam

    2012-01-01

    The ability of Betel-nut Peel BP, an agricultural waste material, for the removal of chromium (Cr3+), cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) from aqueous solution has been investigated. In the batch tests experimental parameters were studied, including solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial solution volume of metal ions and initial metal ions concentration. The adsorbent exhibited good sorption potential at pH 4.0. Maximum removal of Cr, Cd and Pb (96-98.0) % with (60 mg/ mL) of sorbent w...

  2. Bioactive compounds and acceptance of cookies made with Guava peel flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana Maria Michelin, Bertagnolli; Márcia Liliane Rippel, Silveira; Aline de Oliveira, Fogaça; Liziane, Umann; Neidi Garcia, Penna.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compou [...] nd, lycopene, and ?-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and ?-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality.

  3. Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from pomegranate peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Surya, S Muneeswari; Naganyashree, S; Shivamathi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste pomegranate peel was investigated and optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (solid-liquid ratio, pH, extraction time and temperature) on the pectin yield was studied. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value. The optimal extraction condition was found to be 1:17.52 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio, 1.27 of pH, 28.31 min of extraction time and 61.90 °C of extraction temperature respectively. Under the optimal conditions, experimental yield was very close to the predicted values. PMID:25450551

  4. The methane fermentation of Citrus unshu peel pretreated with fungus enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akao, T.; Mizuki, E.; Saito, H.; Okumura, S. (Material Research Inst. (JP). Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center); Murao, S. (Kumamoto Inst. of Technology (JP). Dept. of Applied Microbial Technology)

    1992-01-01

    Of five fungi isolated from Citrus unshu peels, an Aspergillus sp. strain designated A-1 had the highest activity in macerating peels. When C. unshu peel slurry was treated with Aspergillus sp. A-1 crude enzymes for 48 h, the 200-mesh filter passing rate reached 89.8%. Most of the peel oil (95.8%) was removed by 48-h enzyme treatment with agitation. Pretreatment of peels with fungus enzymes resulted in 50% increase in the amount of limit load for anaerobic digestion. (author).

  5. Pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of Citrus unshiu peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Sik; Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Watanabe, Chuichi; Kim, Seungdo; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-10-01

    Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of Citrus unshiu (C. unshiu) peel was performed using a tandem ?-reactor-GC/MS consisting of two sequential furnaces. The pyrolyzates of C. unshiu peel, composed mainly of alcohols, ketones and furans produced in the 1st furnace of the reactor, were upgraded to aromatics by the use of catalysts in the 2nd furnace. Compared to wood powder, C. unshiu peel produced larger amounts of aromatics over HZSM-5(23). Among the various catalysts, HZSM-5(23) and HBETA(25) showed high aromatic yields, 6.78 C% and 9.69 C%, respectively. HBETA(25) produced large amounts of undesirable PAHs (3.59 C%). During the sequential catalytic upgrading test, the yield of BTEXs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) over HZSM-5(23) was reduced more slowly than that over HBETA(25) because of the slower deactivation of HZSM-5(23), which suggests that HZSM-5(23) is a more stable catalyst than the other catalysts used in this study during the sequential catalytic upgrading of C. unshiu peel pyrolyzates. PMID:26210145

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Pectin Extracted from Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Kabir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus juice and concentrate are among the major industrial products in Iran. Large quantities of citrus peels with considerable amounts of pectin are also produced. Pectin could be extracted from the peels to be used as a gelling agent in some food products. Unfortunately, all pectin used in the food industry is imported. This study was carried out to find the best conditions of pectin extraction from orange peels. Samples of orange peels were collected from a concentrated orange juice factory. Pectin was extracted by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. Certain qualitative and quantitative tests, such as yield of extraction and cost of extraction were determined. Also, food safety aspects as a result of using the above acids were considered. Hydrochloric acid was found to be the most suitable acid. In the second part of the research, the effects of temperature (85 and 90?C, time (40, 50 and 60 minutes and pH (1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 on the yield of extraction, purity, gelling ability, percentage of methoxylation and degree of esterification of the extracted pectins were measured. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best conditions for the extraction of pectin include a pH level of 1.6, a temperature of 90?C and a period of 50 minutes.

  7. Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Wen; Lou, Shyi-Neng; Chiu, E-Mean; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-02-15

    The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity. PMID:23194504

  8. Chemical Constituents from the Fruit Peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemicals investigation on the fruit peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii (Selayar Raja Ubat) obtained from Gunung Stong, Kelantan has resulted in the isolation of five compounds namely pinocembrine, altholactone, goniofufurone, goniotriol and goniopypyrone. Their structures were determined extensive ultra violet (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GCMS) analysis. (author)

  9. Efficacy of modified Jessner?s peel and 20% TCA versus 20% TCA peel alone for the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA and Jessner?s combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner?s solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner?s peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner?s peel and 20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA, mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05.

  10. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  11. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U C; Krøyer, K; Sander, B; Larsen, M; Henning, V; Villumsen, J; la Cour, M

    2009-01-01

    than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure...... after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB...

  12. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Moreno Bermúdez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios estandarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139. En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%.In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango, is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139. This research article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  13. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Moreno Bermúdez; Deimer, Ballesteros Padilla; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  14. Optimization and kinetic studies of sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil for biodiesel production via supercritical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Sea mango oil as feedstock for biodiesel via non-catalytic supercritical reaction. • Extracted sea mango oil with high FFA could produce high yield of FAME. • Employment of Response Surface Methodology for optimization of FAME. • Kinetic study for reversible transesterification and esterification reactions. - Abstract: Sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil, which is rich in free fatty acids, was utilized to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via supercritical transesterification reaction. Sea mango oil was extracted from seeds and was subsequently reacted with methanol in a batch-type supercritical reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was used to optimize important parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time and the molar ratio of methanol to oil. The optimum conditions were found as 380 °C, 40 min and 45:1 mol/mol, respectively, to achieve 78% biodiesel content. The first kinetic modelling of FAME production from sea mango oil incorporating reversible transesterification and reversible esterification was verified simultaneously. The kinetic parameters, including reaction rate constants, k, the pre-exponential constant, A, and the activation energy, Ea, for transesterification and esterification were determined using an ordinary differential equation (ODE45) solver. The highest activation energy of 40 kJ/mol and the lowest reaction rate constant of 2.50 × 10?5 dm3/mol s verified that the first stepwise reaction of TG to produce DG was the rate-limiting step

  15. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

  16. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U C; KrØyer, K

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB peeling 89%, non-peeling 36%, p

  17. Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

  18. Especies de trips (Thysanoptera) en mango, fluctuación y abundancia / Thrips species (Thysanoptera) in mango, fluctuation and abundance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alberto, Aguirre U; Mario Alberto, Miranda S.; Mario Alfonso, Urías L.; Fermín, Orona C.; Isidro Humberto, Almeyda L.; ROBERTO, JOHANSEN N.; Martin, Tucuch C..

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En Campeche, se desconocen las especies de trips presentes en mango y su fluctuación poblacional, lo que dificulta su combate y ocasiona pérdidas en producción y calidad de la fruta. Debido a esto, el objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las especies de trips asociadas al cultivo, la fluctuación de s [...] u población y el nivel de daño. El trabajo se efectuó entre 2009 y 2010 en Castamay, Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos de las poblaciones de adultos y ninfas cada 15 días en follaje e inflorescencias y se determinó el nivel de daño a la fruta. Las poblaciones se correlacionaron con variables de precipitación y temperatura mediante el coeficiente de Pearson y, a través de chi-cuadrada, se establecieron variaciones entre las poblaciones de trips y fechas de muestreo. En 2009, la población más baja fue de 0,00 y la más alta 0,13 por hoja tanto en ninfas como en adultos. En 2010, la población más baja fue de 0,00 individuos por hoja tanto para ninfas como para adultos y las más altas de 0,15 adultos por hoja y 0,35 ninfas por hoja. Los niveles de daño observados fueron bajos y no mostraron influencia significativa en la producción de fruta. Se registraron Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae y S. hectorgonzalazi asociadas al cultivo, todas ellas fitófagas. La fluctuación de sus poblaciones no mostró correlación significativa con las variables climáticas. Abstract in english In the Campeche state, México, thrips species in mango and their population fluctuations are unknown which difficult their control causing losses in production and fruit quality; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the thrips associated with the crop, their population fluctuation and [...] the level of damage. Research was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Castamay, Campeche, Mexico. Samples were taken of the adults and nymph's population every 15 days in foliage and inflorescences and the level of damage to the fruit was determined. Thrips population was correlated with precipitation and temperature variables using the Pearson coefficient and ?2 tests were performed between thrips population and sampling dates. In 2009, the lowest population was 0.00 and 0.13, the highest per leave in both nymphs and adults. In 2010, the lowest populations were 0.00 individuals per leaf for both nymphs and adults and the highest of 0.15 adults per leaf and 0.35 nymphs per leaf. The observed damage levels were low and showed no significant influence on fruit production. Four thrips species associated with mango, all phytophagous were found Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae and S. hectorgonzalazi. The population fluctuation was not significantly correlated with climatic variables.

  19. Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L.) var. rosa com açúcares / Mango (Mangifera indica l.) cv. rosa saturation with sugars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Sabino, RIBEIRO; Armando U.O., SABAA-SRUR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangas (Mangifera indica L.) var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm) e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após [...] resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose), sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR) na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada. Abstract in english Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm), treated in hot w [...] ater in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose) and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

  20. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  1. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  2. Improvement of shelf-life and quality of mangoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the studies on low dose gamma irradiation of mangoes in the dose range 10 to 200 krad alone or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments (i.e. hot water dipping and skin coating with 9 percent emulsion of acetylated monoglyceride) show that physiological, pathological and entomological factors can be controlled to extend the shelf-life of mangoes by one to two weeks. Organoleptic qualities of treated fruits are found to be comparable to those of unirradiated control mangoes. Texture qualities of the treated fruits are also retained at the end of 15 days after their transport over long distance. Irradiated fruits have the added advantage of disinfestation and reduction of stem end rot and anthracnose during ripening. Doses exceeding 75 krad are, however, found to be injurious to the fruits. (M.G.B.)

  3. COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN MICHOACÁN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ayala-Garay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos.

  4. Evaluation of electron spin resonance technique for the detection of irradiated mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was examined as a method for the detection of irradiated mango fruits. A symmetric ESR signal at g = 1.988 was detected in the hard seed cover (endocarp), the dry epidermal layer (testa) surrounding the kernel, and the soft kernel portions of the seed from four mango cultivars. the amplitude of the signal in the epidermal layer and seed cover showed a dose-dependent increase over control values. Qualitatively, however, no new signal was observed following irradiation, except that line width increased by 50%. Methyl cellosolve washing greatly reduced the intensity of the endogenous and radiation (1.0 kGy)-induced ESR signals in the seed cover; results suggest phenolic substances as the source of free radicals. the similarity of naturally occurring ESR signals to that induced by irradiation seems to restrict the practical utility of this method in irradiated mangoes

  5. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  6. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Mexican mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments involved the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina, A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata, over a range of doses between 10 and 250 Gy. Irradiation was carried out using a Co-60 AECL irradiator model JS-7400. The experiments were designed to achieve a dose distribution equal to or less than 1.025. Fricke dosimeters were used. Fertility tests were carried out on emerged adults of A. ludens and C. capitata; a larval dose of 40 Gy or more resulted in zero fertility in the case of A. ludens, while the corresponding figure for C. capitata was 60 Gy. The adults that emerged of A. serpentina died before reaching sexual maturity. It was concluded that i) irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy totally inhibits the emergence of A. serpentina and A. ludens adults; and ii) the dose of 150 Gy inhibits the emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults from 99.9% of irradiated larvae, and those which survive are sterile. The doses of 60 and 150 Gy exceed the mortality probit 9 threshold, and are within the tolerance limit of fresh fruit (approximately 1000 Gy). (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  8. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica Almond Seed Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Solis-Fuentes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8?C and 10.9 min at 12?C. The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8?C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12?C, respectively and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  9. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' / Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laerte, Scanavaca Júnior; Nelson, Fonseca; Mácio Eduardo Canto, Pereira.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, s [...] ecos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo). Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%), a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha. Abstract in english The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air [...] and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time). The loss of fresh mass (%), the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA), the total soluble solids (TSS), the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  10. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  11. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  12. Comparison of cross inoculation potential of South African avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G M; Korsten, L

    2003-01-01

    Three hundred and eighteen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. Isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. Cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. All isolates produced lesions on all hosts except citrus. Factors such as area of origin and symptom type from which original isolations were made, could not be correlated with lesion development on these hosts. PMID:12906387

  13. Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

  14. Detection and characterization of mango malformation and its causal agent in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Palomo, María

    2014-01-01

    El mango (Mangifera indica L.) es un árbol originario de la región indobirmana, laderas del Himalaya y Sri Lanka, donde aún existen poblaciones silvestres y ha sido cultivado desde la antigüedad en la India como atestiguan las sagradas escrituras hindúes, los libros de los Vedas, redactadas entre el 1500 y el 1000 a. C. (Galán-Saúco, 2009). La dispersión del mango fue muy rápida por el subcontinente de la India y el archipiélago malayo con la apertura del comercio entre Asia y Europa. El mang...

  15. Optimisation of gellan gum edible coating for ready-to-eat mango (Mangifera indica L.) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danalache, Florina; Carvalho, Claudia Y; Alves, Vitor D; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Mata, Paulina

    2016-03-01

    The optimisation of an edible coating based on low acyl (L)/high acyl (H) gellan gum for ready-to-eat mango bars was performed through a central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The independent variables were the concentration of gellan (L/H90/10) and the concentration of Ca(2+) in the coating solution, as well as the storage time after coating application. The response variables studied were the coating thickness, mango bars firmness, syneresis, and colour alterations. Gellan concentration was the independent variable that most influenced the thickness of the coating. Syneresis was quite low for the conditions tested (product. PMID:26657585

  16. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Md Wasim Siddiqui; Pallab Dutta; Rabi Shankar Dhua; Arup Dey

    2014-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1) delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated frui...

  17. An oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R; Chidley, H.; Deshpande, A.; Schmidt, A; Pujari, K.; Giri, A.; Gershenzon, J.; Gupta, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (...

  18. Gamma irradiation: an answer to the mango grower's prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, A.C.

    1975-11-01

    Problems of shipping and marketing mangoes grown in South Africa are described. Severe losses are caused by the mango weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae, and the fungus diseases, anthracnose and soft brown rot. Effects of 50 to 200 krad of gamma radiation on the weevils and fungal diseases were studied. Synergistic effects of hot water on the fungi were also studied. Organoleptic properties of the fruit were not affected by radiation treatment. Shipping studies indicated that irradiated fruit was in a marketable condition up to four days, as compared to only one day for unirradiated fruit. Cost estimation studies showed that the radiation treatment is commercially feasible. (HLW)

  19. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

  20. Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g-1, which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

  1. Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alain

    2000-06-01

    The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

  2. Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer / Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado; Ramon Felipe De Oliveira, Gomes.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de [...] injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS) e de acidez titulável (AT), e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated w [...] ith fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS) and titratable acidity (TA) and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

  3. Laser and face peel procedures in non-Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Mark J; Mangat, Devinder S

    2014-08-01

    Facial resurfacing procedures are becoming increasingly popular. The percentage of non-Caucasian individuals seeking these treatments continues to rise. Patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI) face unique challenges for successful facial skin resurfacing. Common issues encountered by non-Caucasian patients include dyschromias, acne scars, photoaging, keloid and hypertrophic scars, benign cutaneous tumors, and hair-related disorders. This article discusses the most frequently used lasers and chemical peels used to address these problems. PMID:25049128

  4. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Branka Levaj; Verica Dragovi?-Uzelac; Danijela Bursa? Kova?evi?; Nesrete Krasni?i

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin). In addition FRAP...

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.

    OpenAIRE

    In Young Bae; Hyun Jae Rha; Suyong Lee; Hyeon Gyu Lee

    2011-01-01

    Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu) peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%). The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%), galactose (35%), glucose (5%), rhamnose (5%), and fructo...

  6. Fruit peels support higher yield and superior quality bacterial cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Jyoti Vasant; Rajwade, Jyutika Milind; Paknikar, Kishore Madhukar

    2015-08-01

    Fruit peels, also known as rinds or skins, are wastes readily available in large quantities. Here, we have used pineapple (PA) and watermelon (WM) peels as substrates in the culture media (containing 5 % sucrose and 0.7 % ammonium sulfate) for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). The bacterial culture used in the study, Komagataeibacter hansenii produced BC under static conditions as a pellicle at the air-liquid interface in standard Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium. The yield obtained was ~3.0 g/100 ml (on a wet weight basis). The cellulosic nature of the pellicle was confirmed by CO2, H2O, N2, and SO2 (CHNS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the pellicle revealed the presence of flat twisted ribbonlike fibrils (70-130 nm wide). X-ray diffraction analysis proved its crystalline nature (matching cellulose I) with a crystallinity index of 67 %. When K. hansenii was grown in PA and WM media, BC yields were threefolds or fourfolds higher than those obtained in HS medium. Interestingly, textural characterization tests (viz., SEM, crystallinity index, resilience, hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness, shear energy and stress, and energy required for puncturing the pellicle) proved that the quality of BC produced in PA and WM media was superior to the BC produced in HS medium. These findings demonstrate the utility of the newly designed media for getting higher yields and better quality of BC, which could make fermentative production of BC more attractive on a commercial scale. PMID:25957154

  7. Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

    2013-11-01

    The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

  8. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

  9. Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato...... peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, was found to be very effective in retarding lipid and protein oxidation...... as it resulted in low levels of peroxide value, volatiles, carbonyl compounds and protected against the loss of α-tocopherol and tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Water extracts was less efficient especially at higher concentrations, which might be due to lower phenolic content or due to the pro-oxidative...

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Peel and Pulp Hydro Extract in Ten Persian Pomegranate Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay, which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, in the range of 100-1000 ?mol L-1 were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars.

  11. Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (?3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (papple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to ?-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. PMID:23578632

  12. Effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Mark R. [Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 111 Agricultural Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was investigated. Orange peel oil was added in various amounts to determine its effects on ethanol production. Fermentation of model sugar solutions was conducted at 30 and 37 C. The minimum orange peel oil concentration that inhibited ethanol production by Z. mobilis was determined after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for both temperatures. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 30 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, 0.15% after 72 h, and 0.20% after 96 h. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 37 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, and 0.20% after 72 h. Orange peel oil did not inhibit ethanol production after 96 h at a temperature of 37 C. (author)

  13. Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

  14. Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Freire Júnior

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.. Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.. The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

  15. Evaluación de trampas de colores para trips del mango Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas Evaluation of color traps for the mango Ataulfo thrips in the Soconusco, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Virgen Sánchez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron trampas de colores para capturar trips en árboles de mango cv. Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México. Se compararon trampas pegajosas de color azul, amarillo y violeta. Se colocó una trampa de cada color por árbol y se evaluaron en 5 árboles. Los resultados mostraron que se capturaron significativamente más trips en las trampas de color violeta.In this paper colored traps were evaluated to capture thrips in mango cv. Ataulfo trees in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Sticky traps were compared in different colors: blue, yellow and violet. It was placed a trap of each color per tree and they were evaluated in five trees. The results showed that significantly more thrips were caught in violet traps.

  16. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of ?-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and ?-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (?30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-?-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-?-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango. PMID:25922150

  17. Simulated Nanoscale Peeling Process of Monolayer Graphene Sheet - Effect of Edge Structure and Lifting Position

    OpenAIRE

    Naruo Sasaki; Hideaki Okamoto; Shingen Masuda; Kouji Miura; Noriaki Itamura

    2011-01-01

    The nanoscale peeling of the graphene sheet on the graphite surface is numerically studied by molecular mechanics simulation. For center-lifting case, the successive partial peelings of the graphene around the lifting center appear as discrete jumps in the force curve, which induce the arched deformation of the graphene sheet. For edge-lifting case, marked atomic-scale friction of the graphene sheet during the nanoscale peeling process is found. During the surface contact, the graphene sheet ...

  18. Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

  19. Hypercarotenodermia in Zambia: which children turned orange during mango season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanumihardjo, S A; Gannon, B M; Kaliwile, C; Chileshe, J

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a public health problem in many countries. The World Health Organization recommends high-dose VA supplements to children aged 6-59 months based on unequivocal evidence that supplements decreased mortality risk. VA supplements were meant as a temporary intervention until more sustainable approaches could be implemented. Fortification of processed foods with preformed VA is a means to improve VA status. The most recent addition of retinyl palmitate to cooking oil in countries that may also fortify margarine and milk will undoubtedly have a positive impact on VA status. However, quantitative measures have not been used to assess the underlying VA status of the groups who have adopted widespread fortification. The addition of preformed VA to otherwise adequate diets in VA may cause excessive total body stores. Monitoring population status will require accurate VA assessment to ensure that hypervitaminosis does not prevail. This perspective describes a cohort of rural Zambian children who have adequate diets in VA, mostly as provitamin A carotenoids; who were given high-dose VA supplements till the age of 5 years; who have access to VA-fortified sugar; and whose mothers had access to VA-fortified sugar throughout pregnancy and lactation. Many of these children turned orange during mango season, and this phenomenon occurred at estimated liver reserve concentrations >1 ?mol retinol equivalents/g liver. It will be necessary to continue to monitor VA status, including all sectors of the population that have access to successful interventions, to optimize health with the intent to lower retinol content of fortified foods or better target VA supplementation to areas of most need. PMID:26330146

  20. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M.; Bernard, L.; Jobin, M.; Milot, S.; Gagnon, M. (Centre d' Irradiation du Canada, Laval, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p{le}0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author).

  1. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  2. Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobkiat Saengnil

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexposed side. It is concluded that sunlight increases red colour development of the mango exocarp by inducing PAL activity. Exposure to sunlight also enhances endogenous sugar accumulation in mango fruit.

  3. Design and Development of an Apparatus for Grating and Peeling Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Wan Zuha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit grater and peeler are needed in the processing of fruits in order to reduce the time required for fruits grating and peeling. Grating is important especially to make salad and for decoration purpose. A suitable grater is needed for specific decoration process. It is crucial for food (processing industry to operate at minimal operating cost. Peeling using hands is time consuming and may require several workers to perform the operation and thus may increase the operating cost. Therefore in this study, a machine was designed to combine the process of grating and peeling in one device. This new designed machine is suitable to be used domestically. The machine is small-sized and lightweight and is convenient to carry and store. It is comprised of a clamping mechanism, grater, peeling blade, movable arm and also a pair of end-cutting blade. The prototype was tested for automatic grating and peeling process and manual peeling was also performed to peel the skin of selected fruits and vegetable. The prototype was able to grate several fruits and vegetables and also reduce the peeling time by 94% when compared to manual peeling.

  4. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation. PMID:25796713

  5. Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Sánchez Arévalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realizadas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta.

  6. Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

  7. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m2/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50?mg/L, natural pH, 0.1?g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes

  8. Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

  9. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah [School of Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ali, Umi Fazara Md [School of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kompleks Pusat Pengajian Jejawi 3, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50?mg/L, natural pH, 0.1?g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  10. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Increase AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order) to increase the assessment rate on first... increase is permitted under the Order, which is authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research,...

  11. 76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Information Order; Assessment Increase AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... increase the assessment rate on first handlers and importers of mangos from one half cent per pound to three quarters of a cent per pound. The increase is permitted under the Order, which is authorized...

  12. Optimization and production of antifungal hydrolysis enzymes by streptomyces aureofaciens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango

    OpenAIRE

    Ahamed Mohamed El Azzazy; Enas Mostafa Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

    2011-01-01

    We isolated naturally occurring actinomycetes with an ability to produce metabolites having antifungal property against, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of mango anthracnose. One promising strain was strong antifungal activity, was selected for further studies. Based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial strain was identical to Streptomyces aureofaciens. Culture filtrate collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of...

  13. The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2012-05-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

  14. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  15. MACROFAUNA EDÁFICA ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES DE MANGO Y CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Paul Lang-Ovalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la calidad del suelo en términos de macrofauna edáfica en agroecosistemas de mango y caña de azúcar (reciente y persistente en la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Se realizaron muestreos no destructivos, mediante conteos por observación directa. Los parámetros medidos fueron: abundancia y riqueza de invertebrados, índices de diversidad de Simpson y Shannon y características físico y químicas del suelo. La mayor frecuencia de invertebrados se presentó en mango (40% y en caña persistente (37% fue menor en caña reciente (24%. Existió una correlación positiva entre riqueza de invertebrados con materia orgánica del horizonte A (r = 0.60, P ³ 0.031. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre diversidad y abundancia (de hormigas y anélidos debido a que la macrofauna fue tolerante a condiciones de manejo de la caña. Se concluye, que el tipo de agroecosistema (mango o caña de azúcar no tuvo efecto significativo en la incidencia y abundancia de macrofauna edáfica, especialmente en lombrices, termitas y miriápodos. Además, las lombrices en mango constituyen la principal referencia de calidad del suelo, explicado principalmente por su contenido de materia orgánica (3.98%.

  16. Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

  17. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant content of 'Ataulfo' mango during postharvest maturation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviana Guadalupe, Ortega; José Alberto, Ramírez; Gonzalo, Velázquez; Beatriz, Tovar; Miguel, Mata; Efigenia, Montalvo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min [...] . Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.

  18. Degradation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, P Ahila; Paramasivam, M; Prakasam, V

    2015-01-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted at four different agroclimatic locations in India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits following foliar application of mixed formulation of carbendazim 12% and mancozeb 63% fungicide (SAAF-75WP) at recommended dose (90?+?472.5) and double the recommended dose (180?+?945 g a.i.?ha(-1)). Average initial deposition of carbendazim was in the range of 1.12 to 2.7 and 1.95 to 4.09 mg kg(-1) and for mancozeb in the range of 2.25 to 2.71 and 4.17 to 5.96 mg kg(-1), given at respective doses. Residues of carbendazim and mancozeb were dissipated to the below detectable limit 7 days after spray at recommended dosage in all the locations. The fungicide degradation followed a first order kinetics with half-lives of 1-5 and 1-3 days, for carbendazim and mancozeb, respectively. The TMRC values, calculated from residue data generated from all four locations, were found to be below the MPI in mango fruit, and hence, the fungicide will not cause any adverse effect after consumption of mango fruits. This data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this fungicide mixture for managing disease incidence in mango in India. PMID:25407993

  19. Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

  20. Influence of Phosphorus and Manganese Rats in Nutrient Solution on Mn-54 Uptake by Mango Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greenhouse experiment was designed using solution culture and Mn-54 to study the effect of P and Mn rates on absorption of Mn-54, its translocation and percentage using six month old mango seedlings (Hindi Bi-Sinara cv.). Rates of P in nutrient solution were zero, half, one and two strength i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 4 m M whereas Mn rates were 1, 2 and 3 strength i.e. 2, 4 and 6 ?M. The prepared nutrient solutions were labelled with carrier free Mn-54. Total absorption of Mn-54 by mango roots from nutrient solution was highly increased by increasing Mn rates, moreover, increasing P rates in media tended to enhance Mn-54 absorption. Translocation and distribution pattern of absorbed Mn-54 followed, to a great extent, the same trend of total absorption of it but with different magnitude. In this concern, more than 90% (about 94%) of total absorption of Mn-54 was retained in root system, whereas about 4% and 2% was translocated in stems and leaves, respectively. Retained Mn in mango roots is considered a good source of Mn for supplying mango plants with it for long term during growing season.