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Uses for mango wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential use of chemically modified mango waste is investigated in this article. Observations suggest that mango seed and peel are important raw materials for a number of industrial applications:- confectionery and chocolate industries, soft drink manufacturers, food processing, and textile and paper industries. Studies indicate that a high quality mango pectin can be obtained from mango peel. The wide availability, ease of collection and storage, will facilitate the establishment of small and medium size industries near mango processing plants. (Refs. 14).

Rahman, A.M.

1981-03-01

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Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Mango Peels Using Green Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango peels, wastes generated from fruit can processing, are a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds that has potential antioxidant properties. This study investigated the extraction of phenolic compounds from mango peels using subcritical water extraction (SCW). Experiments were performed in a batch laboratory-built equipment (50 ml volume of vessel) immersed in oil bath and temperatures ranging from 160 to 220 °C, extraction time of 30 to 120 min., material particle sizes of 30 to 70 mesh, solid to water ratio of 1:10 to 1:50 and pH of solution 2 to 8. The highest phenolic content was obtained 50.25 mg GAE / g DW at the condition as follows: 180 °C, 90 min, solid to water ratio as 1:40 and pH 4. The amount of phenolic compounds from mango peels using SCW extraction was higher than that using soxhlet extraction at extraction time 60 min as 1.5 times. SCW extraction might be an alternative green technology for phenolic compounds extraction from agricultural wastes which substitute conventional method using organic solvents.

S. Tunchaiyaphum; M. N. Eshtiaghi; N. Yoswathana

2013-01-01

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Mango peels as a new tropical fibre: preparation and characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, preparation and characterization of mango peel dietary fibre were investigated. Fresh mango peels, obtained as a byproduct of syrup production, were successively wet-milled, washed with water and dried. A peel particle size of 15 mm in wet milling and a washing time of 5 min were found to remove soluble sugars and to increase total polyphenols and soluble dietary fibre content. Mango peel dietary fibre contained high amounts of total extractable polyphenols (70 g/kg) and soluble dietary fibre (281 g/kg) and had a high water-holding capacity (11.4 g/g dry matter). These characteristics indicated that mango peel is a good source of tropical fruit fibre.

Larrauri JA; Ruperez P; Borroto B; Saura-Calixto F

1996-01-01

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira; Vivyanne S. Falcão-Silva; José P. Siqueira-Junior; Maria José de Carvalho Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo Diniz

2011-01-01

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in t (more) he presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Oliveira, Susy Mary Souto de; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S.; Siqueira-Junior, José P.; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo

2011-02-01

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Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 ?mol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties.

Sogi DS; Siddiq M; Greiby I; Dolan KD

2013-12-01

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Total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and functional properties of 'Tommy Atkins' mango peel and kernel as affected by drying methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango processing produces significant amount of waste (peels and kernels) that can be utilized for the production of value-added ingredients for various food applications. Mango peel and kernel were dried using different techniques, such as freeze drying, hot air, vacuum and infrared. Freeze dried mango waste had higher antioxidant properties than those from other techniques. The ORAC values of peel and kernel varied from 418-776 and 1547-1819 ?mol TE/g db. The solubility of freeze dried peel and kernel powder was the highest. The water and oil absorption index of mango waste powders ranged between 1.83-6.05 and 1.66-3.10, respectively. Freeze dried powders had the lowest bulk density values among different techniques tried. The cabinet dried waste powders can be potentially used in food products to enhance their nutritional and antioxidant properties. PMID:23871007

Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Siddiq, Muhammad; Greiby, Ibrahim; Dolan, Kirk D

2013-05-24

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Production and optimization of polygalacturonase from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel using Fusarium moniliforme in solid state fermentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango peel is one of the major wastes from fruit processing industries, which poses considerable disposal problems and ultimately leads to environmental pollution. The objective of the current research was to determine the significant parameters on the production of polygalacturonase from mango peel which is a major industrial waste. Solid state culture conditions for polygalacturonase production by Fusarium moniliforme from dried mango peel powder were optimized by Taguchi's L-18 orthogonal array experimental design methodology. Eight fungal metabolic influencing variables, viz. temperature, mango peel, inoculum, peptone, ammonium nitrate (NH?NO??, magnesium sulphate (MgSO?), zinc sulphate (ZnSO?) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH?PO?) were selected to optimize polygalacturonase production. The optimized parameters composed of temperature (30°C), mango peel (6.5%, g, w/v), inoculum (8%, ml, v/v), peptone (1%, g, w/v), NH?NO? (0.60%, g, w/v), MgSO? (0.05%, g, w/v), ZnSO? (0.06%, g, w/v) and KH?PO? (0.4%, g, w/v). Based on the influence of interaction of fermentation components of fermentation, these could be classified as the least significant and the most significant at individual and interaction levels. The temperature, inoculum level, mango peel substrate and KH?PO? showed maximum production impact at optimized conditions. From the optimized conditions the polygalacturonase activity was maximized to 43.2 U g?¹.

Sudheer Kumar Y; Varakumar S; Reddy OVS

2010-11-01

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Extraction and characterization of mango peel pectin as pharmaceutical excipient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM OF STUDY: Present study includes extraction and characterization the mango peel derived pectin as a pharmaceutical excipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pectin was obtained using acidified water based extraction in soxhlet apparatus. To characterize the extracted pectin phytochemical screening was done and micromeritic properties, flow behavior, surface tension, viscosity and swelling index were calculated. RESULTS: Using water based extraction method 25.26% yield of pectin was obtained. The result revealed the fact that extracted mango peel pectin exhibited good flow properties (angle of repose 28.01), 41.90 +/- 2.62 dynes/cm2 surface tension, 0.46% w/w total ash, 0.76% loss on drying and pH was found 4.15, showed that this can be used in dosage form, without any irritation. Extracted pectin was soluble in warm water while insoluble in organic solvents. CONCLUSIONS: Results of evaluated parameters showed that mango peel derived pectin can be used as pharmaceutical excipient to prepare solid oral dosage form.

Malviya R; Kulkarni GT

2012-01-01

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Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals.

Taing MW; Pierson JT; Hoang VL; Shaw PN; Dietzgen RG; Gidley MJ; Roberts-Thomson SJ; Monteith GR

2012-08-01

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Mango fruit peel and flesh extracts affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is associated with many chronic disease states, such as diabetes mellitus, coronary disease and certain cancers, including those of the breast and colon. There is a growing body of evidence that links phytochemicals with the inhibition of adipogenesis and protection against obesity. Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) are tropical fruits that are rich in a diverse array of bioactive phytochemicals. In this study, methanol extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars; Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride, were assessed for their effects on a 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell line model of adipogenesis. High content imaging was used to assess: lipid droplets per cell, lipid droplet area per cell, lipid droplet integrated intensity, nuclei count and nuclear area per cell. Mango flesh extracts from the three cultivars did not inhibit adipogenesis; peel extracts from both Irwin and Nam Doc Mai, however, did so with the Nam Doc Mai extract most potent at inhibiting adipogenesis. Peel extract from Kensington Pride promoted adipogenesis. The inhibition of adipogenesis by Irwin (100 ?g mL(-1)) and Nam Doc Mai peel extracts (50 and 100 ?g mL(-1)) was associated with an increase in the average nuclear area per cell; similar effects were seen with resveratrol, suggesting that these extracts may act through pathways similar to resveratrol. These results suggest that differences in the phytochemical composition between mango cultivars may influence their effectiveness in inhibiting adipogenesis, and points to mango fruit peel as a potential source of nutraceuticals. PMID:22699857

Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hoang, Van L T; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Gidley, Michael J; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

2012-06-15

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Biomethanization of orange peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741

Martín, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

2010-07-23

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Improving the efficiency of antioxidant extraction from mango peel by using microwave-assisted extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE.

Dorta E; Lobo MG; González M

2013-06-01

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

Amid Mehrnoush; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

Mehrnoush A; Mustafa S; Yazid AM

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-03-06

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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

2013-02-26

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Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation.

Taing MW; Pierson JT; Shaw PN; Dietzgen RG; Roberts-Thomson SJ; Gidley MJ; Monteith GR

2013-02-01

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Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH(2)PO(4), and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30?g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53?g/L, KH(2)PO(4): 4.90?g/L, and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O: 0.95?g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8?IU/mL.

Saravanan P; Muthuvelayudham R; Viruthagiri T

2012-01-01

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Influence of Apple and Citrus Pectins, Processed Mango Peels, a Phenolic Mango Peel Extract, and Gallic Acid as Potential Feed Supplements on in vitro Total Gas Production and Rumen Methanogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several food processing by-products were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing by-product used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all by-products exhibited e.g. high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all by-products, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements.

Geerkens CH; Schweiggert RM; Steingass H; Boguhn J; Rodehutscord M; Carle R

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

Mehrnoush A; Mustafa S; Sarker MZ; Yazid AM

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1), tie line length (?3.42–35.27%), NaCl (?2.5–11.5%) and pH (4.5–10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol?1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

Amid Mehrnoush; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000-12,000 g·mol(-1)), tie line length (-3.42-35.27%), NaCl (-2.5-11.5%) and pH (4.5-10.5) on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2) purification factor (14.37) and yield (97.3%) of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol(-1) of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing. PMID:22489172

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-03-19

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Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production.

Arapoglou D; Varzakas T; Vlyssides A; Israilides C

2010-10-01

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HYDROLYSIS OF GRAPEFRUIT PEEL WASTE WITH CELLULASE AND PECTINASE ENZYMES  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 1 million Mg of grapefruit were processed in 2003/04 resulting in 500 thousand Mg of peel waste. Grapefruit peel waste is usually dried, pelletized, and sold as a low-value cattle feed. This study tested different loadings of commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes and pH levels t...

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Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

Mehrnoush A; Sarker MZ; Mustafa S; Yazid AM

2011-01-01

27

Direct purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel using a PEG/salt-based Aqueous Two Phase System.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000-10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12-20%, w/w), system pH (6-9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0-8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w) NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%). Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel. PMID:21986520

Mehrnoush, Amid; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2011-10-10

28

Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg GAE/g DW and 45.56 to 90.89 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122.60 mg GAE/g DW and 48.43 to 92.55 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and linoleic inhibition capacity in segments of langra ranged from 53.30% to 61.10% and 40.0% to 47.20%, respectively, whereas for chonsa; 56.40% to 66.0% and 48.1% to 49.0%, respectively. The reducing potentials of different segments of langra and chonsa at concentration of 10 mg/mL were 0.512 to 0.850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial.

Sultana B; Hussain Z; Asif M; Munir A

2012-08-01

29

Investigation on the antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stems bark, and kernel of mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive polyphenols, cartenoids, and anthocyanins present in fruits and vegetables are receiving much attention because of their potential antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of leaves, peels, stem bark, and kernel of mango varieties langra and chonsa. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs) in segments of langra ranged from 63.89 to 116.80 mg GAE/g DW and 45.56 to 90.89 mg CE/g DW, respectively, and that of chonsa were 69.24 to 122.60 mg GAE/g DW and 48.43 to 92.55 mg CE/g DW, respectively. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and linoleic inhibition capacity in segments of langra ranged from 53.30% to 61.10% and 40.0% to 47.20%, respectively, whereas for chonsa; 56.40% to 66.0% and 48.1% to 49.0%, respectively. The reducing potentials of different segments of langra and chonsa at concentration of 10 mg/mL were 0.512 to 0.850 and 0.595 to 0.665 mV, respectively. Comparison between both varieties showed chonsa exhibited better antioxidant activity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomised design (CRD) under factorial. PMID:22860576

Sultana, Bushra; Hussain, Zaib; Asif, Muhammad; Munir, Adil

2012-08-01

30

Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities. PMID:21534889

Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

2011-05-03

31

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO(3). Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4h at room temperature (25°C) and 60°C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35±5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

Kumar R; Roopan SM; Prabhakarn A; Khanna VG; Chakroborty S

2012-05-01

32

Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements.

Boluda-Aguilar M; García-Vidal L; González-Castañeda Fdel P; López-Gómez A

2010-05-01

33

Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga/ Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de ácido cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina c? (more) ?trica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperature and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation (more) jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Siqueira, Beatriz dos Santos; Alves, Letícia Dias; Vasconcelos, Pollyanna Novato; Damiani, Clarissa; Soares Júnior, Manoel Soares

2012-06-01

34

Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de ácido cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga.Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperature and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira; Letícia Dias Alves; Pollyanna Novato Vasconcelos; Clarissa Damiani; Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

2012-01-01

35

Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga/ Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de (more) compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from m (more) ango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Arbos, Kettelin Aparecida; Stevani, Pamela Caroline; Castanha, Raquel de Fátima

2013-04-01

36

The hypocholesterolemic effect of lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of lemon peels in hybrid F1B hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We found in preliminary studies with hamsters that citrus peels have a cholesterol lowering effect comparable to that of pectin extracted from these peels. AIM OF THE STUDY: We wanted to examine whether the cholesterol lowering effect of the peels could be completely accounted for by the pectin in the peels. METHODS: We fed cholesterol enriched (0.1 %,w/w) semipurified diets containing 3% (w/w) of cellulose, lemon peels, lemon pectin, and the waste stream material of the lemon peels to hybrid F1B hamsters for a period of 8 weeks. The waste stream of the lemon peels is the left over after extraction of the lemon pectin. RESULTS: Feeding the semipurified diets resulted in an increase of plasma cholesterol levels in all the dietary groups after 2 and 4 weeks on the diets. Cholesterol concentrations in the cellulose fed hamsters continued to increase after 4 weeks on the diet, whereas cholesterol levels in the other groups had reached a plateau. As a consequence, the plasma cholesterol levels in the hamsters fed the peels (5.59 +/- 0.74 mmol/L, mean +/- SD, n = 14), pectin (5.19 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), or waste stream (5.53 +/- 0.94 mmol/L) were lower than those in the hamsters fed cellulose (6.71 +/- 1.52 mmol/L) after 8 weeks on the diets. Differences in total plasma cholesterol were reflected in differences in both VLDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, but this effect was more distinct for the VLDL. There was no effect of the type of fiber on HDL cholesterol levels. Liver cholesterol concentrations paralleled. the concentrations of plasma cholesterol and the liver cholesterol concentrations in the hamsters fed the peels (3.57+/- 1.01 micromol/g liver, mean +/- SD, n = 14), pectin (4.86 +/- 1.42), and the waste stream (4.96 +/- 1.89) were lower than those in the cellulose group (7.19 +/- 2.32). The hamsters fed the peels, pectin, or waste stream tended to have a higher excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols then the cellulose fed hamsters. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that lemon peels and the waste stream of the lemon peels are as effective in lowering plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters as the pectin extracted from the peels and that also compounds other than pectin are probably responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of the citrus peels.

Terpstra AH; Lapré JA; de Vries HT; Beynen AC

2002-02-01

37

Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L) jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

Clarissa Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Manoel Soares Soares Junior; Marcio Caliari; Maria do Livramento de Paula; Eduardo Ramirez Asquier

2009-01-01

38

Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa/ Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L) jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e n (more) os diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the tre (more) atments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

Damiani, Clarissa; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Soares Junior, Manoel Soares; Caliari, Marcio; Paula, Maria do Livramento de; Asquier, Eduardo Ramirez

2009-02-01

39

Purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan) waste using an aqueous organic phase system: a potential low cost source of the enzyme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%.

Amid M; Abdul Manap MY; Mustafa S

2013-07-01

40

Purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Chokanan) waste using an aqueous organic phase system: a potential low cost source of the enzyme.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a novel method of purification, an aqueous organic phase system (AOPS) was employed to purify pectinase from mango waste. The effect of different parameters, such as the alcohol concentration (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol), the salt type and concentration (ammonium sulfate, potassium phosphate and sodium citrate), the feed stock crude load, the aqueous phase pH and NaCl concentration, were investigated in the recovery of pectinase from mango peel. The partition coefficient (K), selectivity (S), purification factor (PF) and yield (Y, %) were investigated in this study as important parameters for the evaluation of enzyme recovery. The desirable partition efficiency for pectinase purification was achieved in an AOPS of 19% (w/w) ethanol and 22% (w/w) potassium phosphate in the presence of 5% (w/w) NaCl at pH 7.0. Based on the system, the purification factor of pectinase was enhanced 11.7, with a high yield of 97.1%. PMID:23770734

Amid, Mehrnoush; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

2013-05-22

 
 
 
 
41

Production of bioethanol by fermentation of lemon (Citrus limon L.) peel wastes pretreated with steam explosion  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The application of steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatments on lemon (Citrus limon L.) citrus peel wastes was studied to obtain bioethanol, galacturonic acid and other co-products, such as d-limonene and citrus pulp pellets. Steam explosion pretreatment and recovery of lemon citrus essential oils was carried out at pilot plant scale. The effect of steam explosion on lignocellulosic composition of lemon peel wastes was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial activity of lemon essential oil on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its influence on ethanol production during fermentation were also studied. The steam-exploded lemon peel wastes were processed by sequential and simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation. Concentrations of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol were analyzed to measure the efficiency of these processes. Significant antimicrobial activity of lemon essential oils has been observed on S. cerevisiae at concentrations above 0.025%. The steam explosion pretreatment has shown an interesting effect on lemon peel wastes processing for obtaining ethanol and galacturonic acid. This pretreatment reduces the residual content of essential oils below 0.025% and significantly decreases the hydrolytic enzyme requirements. Ethanol production in excess of 60L/1000kg fresh lemon peel biomass can be obtained.

Boluda-Aguilar M; López-Gómez A

2013-01-01

42

Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ?92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. PMID:23180376

Dandi, N D; Dandi, B N; Chaudhari, A B

2012-11-21

43

Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ?92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation.

Dandi ND; Dandi BN; Chaudhari AB

2013-04-01

44

Pectic-oligosacharides from lemon peel wastes: production, purification and chemical characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lemon peel wastes were extracted with water to remove free sugars and other soluble compounds, and the insoluble solid was employed as a substrate for the manufacture of pectin-derived oligosaccharides by processing with hot, compressed water. When water-extracted lemon peel wastes were treated with water at 160°C, the oligomer concentration reached the maximum value (31 g/L). Autohydrolysis liquors were subjected to two membrane filtration stages (diafiltration followed by concentration), yielding a refined product containing about 98 wt% of oligomers at a global yield of 14 kg/100 kg oven-dry lemon peel. The concentrate contained oligogalacturonides (with DP in the range 2-18) and arabinooligosaccharides (with DP in the range 2-8).

Gómez B; Gullón B; Yañez R; Parajo JC; Alonso JL

2013-09-01

45

Análise física, sensorial e microbiológica de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Physical, sensory and microbiological analysis of mango jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de casca em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Haden"). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: a cor, a consistência, a aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma e sabor) e as características microbiológicas dos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que todos os tratamentos obtiveram, por meio de análise consumidores, escores médios entre sete (gostei moderadamente) e oito (gostei muito). As características físicas e microbiológicas mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de geléias de frutas estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas na formulação de geléia de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável nas áreas física, sensorial e microbiológica, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with levels of zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of peels in substitution of pulp of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Haden'). The quality criterion were color, consistency, sensory acceptability and microbiological characteristics. It was observed that all treatments obtained with the consumers mean scores between seven (liked moderated) and eight (liked a lot). Physical and microbiological characteristics were maintained inside of the fruit jams patterns established for Brazilian legislation. For the gotten results, the partial or total substitution of pulp for peels Haden mango in the jams formulation is viable on the physical, sensory and microbiological areas, with economic and environmental advantages.

Clarissa Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Manoel Soares Soares Junior; Marcio Caliari; Maria do Livramento de Paula; Douglas Endrigo Perez Pereira; Aline Gomes Moura Silva

2008-01-01

46

Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant. PMID:23542530

Henrique, Mariana Alves; Silvério, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Pasquini, Daniel

2013-03-29

47

Valorization of an agro-industrial waste, mango seed, by the extraction and characterization of its cellulose nanocrystals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango seeds are lignocellulosic agro-industrial residues available in large quantities in tropical countries and are simply discarded or used as animal feed. They are a natural and renewable resource, and were used to generate new polymeric materials in this work. This new materials can be used as alternatives to fossil resources such as petroleum. This work aimed to extract and characterize cellulose nanocrystals (CN) from mango seed by acid hydrolysis to obtain a material suitable as a reinforcing agent in the manufacturing of nanocomposites. The fibers of mango seeds were ground in mills and purified mainly to remove lignin. The raw mango seed (MS) and the purified mango seed (PMS) were analyzed for chemical composition and characterized by infrared and X-rays. Cellulose nanocrystals from the mango seed (CNM) were isolated by acid hydrolysis at 40 °C for 10 min, with 20 ml of H2SO4 (11.21 M) used for every gram of cellulose. The yield at this step was 22.8%. CNM were needle-shaped, with high crystallinity (90.6%), good thermal stability (around 248 °C), a medium length (L) of 123.4 ± 22.1 nm and a diameter (D) of 4.59 ± 2.22 nm, giving an aspect ratio (L/D) of about 34.1 ± 18.6. The diameter measurements of CNM were also confirmed by Scherrer's equation. This work also aimed to reuse mango seed produced as industrial waste, giving it a useful application and preventing its role as an environmental pollutant.

Henrique MA; Silvério HA; Flauzino Neto WP; Pasquini D

2013-05-01

48

Análise física, sensorial e microbiológica de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa/ Physical, sensory and microbiological analysis of mango jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de casca em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Haden"). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: a cor, a consistência, a aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma e sabor) e as características microbiológicas dos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que todos os tratamentos obtiveram, por meio de análise consumidores, escores méd (more) ios entre sete (gostei moderadamente) e oito (gostei muito). As características físicas e microbiológicas mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de geléias de frutas estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas na formulação de geléia de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável nas áreas física, sensorial e microbiológica, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with levels of zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of peels in substitution of pulp of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Haden'). The quality criterion were color, consistency, sensory acceptability and microbiological characteristics. It was observed that all treatments obtained with the consumers mean scores between seven (liked moderated) and eight (liked a lot). Physical and microbiological characteristics (more) were maintained inside of the fruit jams patterns established for Brazilian legislation. For the gotten results, the partial or total substitution of pulp for peels Haden mango in the jams formulation is viable on the physical, sensory and microbiological areas, with economic and environmental advantages.

Damiani, Clarissa; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros; Soares Junior, Manoel Soares; Caliari, Marcio; Paula, Maria do Livramento de; Pereira, Douglas Endrigo Perez; Silva, Aline Gomes Moura

2008-08-01

49

Functional Properties and Dietary Fiber Characterization of Mango Processing By-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).  

Science.gov (United States)

Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42 %, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content. PMID:23715790

de Lourdes García-Magaña, María; García, Hugo S; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; de Oca, Miguel Mata-Montes

2013-09-01

50

Functional Properties and Dietary Fiber Characterization of Mango Processing By-products (Mangifera indica L., cv Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several reports have focused on utilization of post-harvest residues of crops, while neglecting those residues produced by mango processing. These residues represent a waste of nutrients and a source of environmental contaminants. Such by-products could be valuable sources of dietary fiber (DF), antioxidant compounds, and single carbohydrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate some functional properties (FP), and the content of DF and polyphenols (PP) of the peel and coarse material obtained from residues during the industrial processing of Ataulfo and Tommy Atkins mangoes. The total dietary fiber (TDF) content was about 225 mg/g and 387 mg/g (dry weight) for the coarse material and the peel, respectively, from which soluble dietary fiber represented 23 and 42 %, respectively. The main neutral sugar identified was rhamnose, especially in peels; the klason lignin (KL) content was 92 mg/g, which highlights the Ataulfo peel (Ataulfo-P) and the Tommy Atkins peel (Tommy Atkins-P). The extractable PP content in Ataulfo-P was higher than in Tommy-Atkins-P, and interesting data for non-extractable PP were obtained in the residues. FP as swelling, water holding, oil holding, and glucose absorption in the residues was studied, obtaining better functional properties when compared to cellulose fiber. The results show that mango industrial by-products, mainly from the Ataulfo-P variety, could be used as ingredients in food products because of their functional properties as well as their DF and PP content.

de Lourdes García-Magaña M; García HS; Bello-Pérez LA; Sáyago-Ayerdi SG; de Oca MM

2013-09-01

51

Environmentally friendly lycopene purification from tomato peel waste: enzymatic assisted aqueous extraction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant and anticancer properties of lycopene make it an ideal component for daily food supplements. For this reason this study investigated the possibility of extracting lycopene from tomato waste peels using a green chemistry protocol devoid of organic solvent. Cells are lysed thanks to a combination of pH changes and hydrolytic enzyme treatments. The lycopene-containing chromoplasts are then precipitated by lowering the pH and isolated through a centrifugation step. At this stage the lycopene content of the isolated chromoplasts shows a 10-fold increase (3-5% w/w, dry basis) with respect to untreated tomato peels. A further improvement in lycopene concentration is obtained by a second enzymatic treatment using a protease cocktail. This catalytic step eliminates unwanted proteins, bound to the chromoplasts, but not essential for their stability. The final product shows a lycopene content around 8-10% (w/w, dry basis), which represents a 30-fold increase with respect to the lycopene concentration of the untreated peels.

Cuccolini S; Aldini A; Visai L; Daglia M; Ferrari D

2013-02-01

52

Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds.

1998-01-01

53

BIOSORPTION OF Fe (II) FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TAMARIND BARK AND POTATO PEEL WASTE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sorptive potential of tamarind bark (Tamarindus indica) and potato peel waste (Solanum tuberosum) for Fe(II) ions has been investigated in a batch system. These two biosorbents have been examined for their capacity to sequester Fe(II) from aqueous solution under varying range of pH, biomass dosage, initial concentration of Fe(II) and contact time. The adsorbents used in this study exhibited a good adsorption potential with increase pH from 1 to 2.5. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Experimental data of Fe(II) biosorption onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste fitted well to Langmuir model in comparison to model of Freundlich. The maximum adsorption capacity of tamarind bark and potato peel waste was 11.75 mg.g-1 and 7.87 mg.g-1 respectively as calculated from Langmuir model. The mean free energies calculated from Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R) model for the adsorption process of Fe(II) onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste were found to be 12.86 and 10.78 kJ.mol-1 respectively, indicating that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. Results show that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.

A.G. DEVI PRASAD; MOHAMMED ABDULSALAM ABDULLAH

2009-01-01

54

Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccha...

Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K. L.; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

55

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 56.5; 10, 53.5; 20, 43.5 and 30, 33.5% respectively. Each animal received each diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake was determined. Urine and faecal samples were taken and analyzed. The dry matter intake, nitrogen intake, N-balance and absorbed -N increased as the percentage of dried poultry waste in the diets increased. The faecal -N values differed significantly (p<0.05). The digestibility coefficients of crude fibre, nitrogen-free-extract and energy were significantly (p<0.05) different among experimental animals. All the diets promoted positive N-balance.

A.I. Ukanwoko; J.A. Ibeawuchi

2009-01-01

56

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de Folter; John Paul Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo Sánchez-García; Juan José Peña-Cabriales

2011-01-01

57

Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of orange peel waste and residual glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The manufacturing of orange juice generates high volumes of orange peel waste which should not be deposited in landfill according to current recommendations. Furthermore, glycerol is a compound co-generated in biodiesel manufacturing, but the volume generated is higher than the current demand for pure glycerol. The anaerobic co-digestion of orange peel waste with residual glycerol could reduce the inhibitory effect of some compounds and provide a correct nutrient balance. Under mesophilic temperature and semi-continuous conditions, a mixture of orange peel waste-residual glycerol of 1:1 (in COD) operated favorably for organic loads up to 2.10 g VS/L. At higher organic loads, the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and a decrease in the pH caused process destabilization. The methane yield coefficient was quite constant, with a mean value of 330±51 mL(STP)/g VSadded, while the organic loading rate (OLR) reached a mean value of 1.91±0.37 kgVS/m3 d (17.59±2.78 kgmixture/m3 d) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied in a range of 8.5-30.0 d.

Martín MA; Fernández R; Serrano A; Siles JA

2013-07-01

58

Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar; M. Narayani; A. Subanthini; M. Jayakumar

2011-01-01

59

Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively) and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively). However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively), probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR) and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1) ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10); 2) ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5); 3) ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10); and 4) ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15). Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively), probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively). Total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible energy (DE) showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

Sompong Sruamsiri

2009-01-01

60

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María Torrado; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Salgado; Belén Max; Noelia Rodríguez; Belinda P Bibbins; Attilio Converti; José Manuel Domínguez

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the (more) total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Salgado, José Manuel; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2011-03-01

62

Residues of 14C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 ?g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 ?g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

2000-01-01

63

Characterization of Saba Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally, this study aimed to characterize the peel wastes of Musa sapientum var. compressa or Saba inpreparation for recycling. Specifically, it aimed to identify the presence or absence of vitamin C, potassium, pectin,reducing sugars, tannins among others in the peels of Saba. It also aimed to determine the median lethal concentration ofSaba peel wastes. Further, to explore the formulation of preparations from Saba peel wastes withpharmacologic/medicinal, nutritive and energy values and determine consumer acceptability of the formulatedpreparations with nutritive value. By survey it was observed that peels of Saba from vendors along the streets inManila contribute to the solid waste burden of the city. Using phytochemical screening tests, it was shown that thesewastes contain reducing substances, tannins, mucins, proteins, alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids. By fermentationprocess, ethanol may be produced from the reducing sugars in Saba peels. By utilizing vitamin C assay procedure, thestudy showed that the Saba peel aqueous extract is acidic as it contain vitamin C with higher amounts in dried than freshpeels. Vitamin C supplements, powder enhancer in fruit juices and other similar products may be produced from it. Byqualitative chemical tests and use of spectrophotometer, it showed potassium and pectin components. Brewed peelpreparation of Saba may be supplemented during diarrhea especially that its taste, perceived nutritional value andpresentation were accepted as the same to better than similar products in the market by forty respondents. Both the50% aqueous and ethanolic Saba peel extracts showed minimal activity against E. coli from the obtained zones ofinhibition relative to the standard drug chloramphenicol. Saba peel aqueous and ethanolic extracts were both safe whenapplied to skin as observed from the dermal tests. Using the Brine Shrimp Assay results, mortality did not go beyond50% of the population with 100% concentration of the sample under study. It reached only 3.33% mortality. Theaqueous Saba peel preparations softened the calloused skin thus allowing its easy removal. The amount of skin removedincreased with increase in concentration of the preparation. Quantitative analysis and isolation of the importantphytochemicals in Saba peels must be initiated. Explore the other phytochemicals’ potential use. Detailed toxicologicprofiling of Saba peels is recommended in preparation for the products that may be formulated from it. Formulationsmust undergo stability tests and microbial growth analysis for safety. An increase in the number of microorganismsmust be used to better characterize the antimicrobial potential of Saba peels.

Solidum J. N.

2011-01-01

64

Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets  

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Full Text Available The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji) cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D) consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW) and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 56.5; 10, 53.5; 20, 43.5 and 30, 33.5 %, respectively. Each animal received each diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake (g/d), average daily gain (g/d), milk yield (g/d) and composition (%), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and fat – corrected milk (FCM) were determined for each cow per dietary regime. Results showed that feed intake and milk yield were not affected (P>0.05) by diets. FCM (kg) however, differed among treatments with diets A (0.21) and B (0.24) having similar (P>0.05) but higher FCM yields than diets C (0.07) or D (0.13). Milk protein (Nx6.38), butterfat (BF), total solids (TS), lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF), ash and energy contents of milk did not vary (P>0.05) significantly. Feed conversion ratio was 0.70 for diet B and this value was superior (P0.05) negative correlation existed between milk yield and TS (r = - 0.02), milk yield and BF (r = -0.04), and milk yield and milk protein (r = -0.23). Milk yield was generally poor probably due to low level of supplementation.

A.I. Ndubueze; S.N. Ukachukwu; F.O. Ahamefule; J.A. Ibeawuchi

2006-01-01

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Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L.) in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L.) en la obtención de azúcares fermentables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The common mango waste (Mangifera indica L.) is a vegetable material containing a high level of lignocelluloses tissue which can be used to obtain fermentable metabolites and fermentation products. In this study hydrolysis treatments were applied to the common mango in order to make the conversion of its polysaccharides to fermentable sugar units. Acid hydrolysis was applied to three different concentrations of dilute sulphuric acid. An enzymatic hydrolysis with two types of commercial enzymes to different concentrations in standard work conditions, was also applied. In addition, a thermic hydrolysis was applied at two different temperatures. At each treatment, the following tests were applied: total sugar concentration, reduced sugar concentration, and percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose residuals. Based on the data obtained from the tests, the best treatments were identified and so the best combinations of the best hydrolysis treatments were carried out. The most significant treatment for individual tests was acid hydrolysis at 0, 50% v/v sulphuric acid at 80?C for one hour. In the combined treatments the most relevant result was the treatment that combined the enzymatic hydrolysis (as pretreatment) plus a thermic hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis. For security reasons in the reagents use, as well as in the elimination of collateral adverse effects for further alcoholic fermentation, a procedure involving thermic hydrolysis as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, was chosen as the main treatment with the most appropriate application in the fermentable metabolites production from common mango waste in order to produce alcohol. Further studies have allowed approaching the hydrolysis via microbial with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride, as well as the alcoholic fermentation post-treatment hydrolytic using previous studies. The simultaneous hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation, and recently performing the simultaneity of the processes, adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L.) es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80?C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento) más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han permitido abordar la hidrólisis por vía microbiana con Aspergillus niger y Trichoder

L. F. Mejía Giraldo; H. A. Martínez Correa; J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez; C. E. Castrillón Castaño

2007-01-01

66

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP).

Middha SK; Usha T; Pande V

2013-01-01

67

Studies on the utilization of citrus peel wastes by microorganisms. Part I. Fermentative production of pyruvic acid from citrus peel extract by Debaryomyces coudertii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentative production of pyruvic acid by yeasts was studied using extracts from Citrus natsudaidai peel as a C source. Many yeasts showed good growth. Of these yeasts, Debaryomyces coudertii IFO 1381 produced pyruvic acid at high yield. Pretreatment of the peel extract with Amberlite IR-120B (Na+) led to increased production of pyruvic acid. Under optimum conditions, the accumulation of pyruvic acid reached a maximum of 970 mg/100 mL after 48 h fermentation.

Moriguchi, M.

1982-01-01

68

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with H-NMR based metabolic profiling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of (1)H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake.

Kim SH; K Cho S; Min TS; Kim Y; Yang SO; Kim HS; Hyun SH; Kim H; Kim YS; Choi HK

2011-05-01

69

Effect of fungicides and waxing on ripe-softening and postharvest diseases of “Zihua”Mango  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waxing treatment with SF wax delayed turning yellow and ripe-softening of postharvest “Zihua”mango fruits, increased the lustre of peel, decreased the rate of fruit weight lose and shrinkage of peel, improved the storage quality, and increased the effect of fungicides, TBZ or Prochloraz, on anthracnose and stem end rot. In various treatments with different concentrations of SF wax, 1:1 (wax:water) dilution of SF wax was more suitable for waxing of postharvest“Zihua” mango fruit.

Tang Youlin; Zhou Yuchan; Yang Qian

1996-01-01

70

Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Acid Blue 25, with a monolayer sorption capacity of ca. 200 mg g(-1). The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the present system of dye adsorption on lychee peel adsorbent could be described more favourably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, namely free energy (deltaG degrees), enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (deltaS degrees) changes, were determined for the process. The results of the present study suggest that lychee peel waste can be used beneficially as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes. PMID:20232683

Bhatnagar, Amit; Minocha, A K

2010-01-01

71

Assessment of the biosorption characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption potential of lychee (Litchi chinensis) peel waste for the removal of Acid Blue 25 dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorption was studied as a function of contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature by batch method. Equilibrium sorption isotherms showed that the lychee peel adsorbent possessed a high affinity and sorption capacity for Acid Blue 25, with a monolayer sorption capacity of ca. 200 mg g(-1). The equilibrium adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model. Kinetic studies revealed that the present system of dye adsorption on lychee peel adsorbent could be described more favourably by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, namely free energy (deltaG degrees), enthalpy (deltaH degrees) and entropy (deltaS degrees) changes, were determined for the process. The results of the present study suggest that lychee peel waste can be used beneficially as an adsorbent in treating industrial effluents containing dyes.

Bhatnagar A; Minocha AK

2010-01-01

72

MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING  

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Full Text Available Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fruits were harvested at three different times of the day: morning (7 a.m.), noon (12 p.m.) and evening (5 p.m.) and subjected to lime (@ 0.5%) and Mango Wash (@ 0.4%) treatments. No sap injury (0 score) was observed in the fruits harvested and de-sapped during morning whereas maximum sap injury was observed at noon in both the cases (0.5 score for lime, 0.75 score for Mango Wash). Both lime and Mango Wash showed significantly less sap injury as compared to control for all the three times of treatment application. Almost all of the physico-chemical attributes (except fruit peel colour and non-reducing sugar contents) were non-significantly affected by the desapping treatments. Fruit peel colour was slightly suppressed by Mango Wash. Lime was found to impart attractive appearance to the fruits; however the skin colour was not significantly improved as compared to control. The time of fruit harvest also exerted non significant effects on most of the fruit quality attributes. Significantly higher TSS value was measured in the fruit harvested at noon as compared to other times of the day. Minimum sapburn injury in the fruits harvested and desapped in the morning hours led to the conclusion that morning is the best time of harvest and desapping for the mangoes. Moreover, the potential of lime for controlling sapburn injury in mangoes was also confirmed and it was concluded that lime can be successfully used for mango fruit desapping as a substitute of highly expensive Mango Wash.

MUHAMMAD AMIN; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR; ISLAM-UD-DIN; MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID; SAEED AHMAD

2008-01-01

73

Peeling back the onion : Alberta company offers on-site treatment of SAGD wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 80 percent of Alberta's bitumen is buried too deeply to be surface-mined. When it comes to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), two of the biggest challenges associated with oilsands mines, tailings treatment and land reclamation, are primarily out of the picture since in-situ projects do not generate tailings nor scar the landscape the way surface mining operations do. This article discussed the use of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) by an Alberta company to treat wastes. Aspects of SAGD operations that concern the public and environmentalists were presented. This included the need for water to make steam for underground injection. Water recycling was discussed as a solution to this problem. The SAGD process was outlined and the treatment of produced water was also discussed. Several examples of companies using SAGD to treat wastes were presented, including Newalta and Suncor. A recent liquid waste survey by the Pembina Institute ranked Newalta's MacKay plant at the top in Alberta, beating 7 other SAGD plants on the topic of liquid waste generated per barrel of bitumen produced. The survey took into account various sources of liquid waste, including lime sludge, water from softeners, brine and produced water generated by Alberta's SAGD plants. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Mahony, J.

2010-06-15

74

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

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Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was treated with sodium metabisulphite solution 2000 p.p.m concentration and the third portion was left without any treatment (control). Mango slices of each treatment were speeded on aluminum trays with an equal distribution and dried at room temperature under moving fan for seven days and then the dried products were packed in (polythene) plastic socks then placed inside cartoons and stored at room temperature for nine months. The results showed that the treatment with sodiummetabisulphite solution was the best in keeping the nutritive value of mango slices (ascorbic acid). The results indicated that the best treatment which prevented browning was Gum Arabic addition. The study of the effect of storage periods at room temperature on some properties of mango slices (fingers) showed there was a marked loss of some nutrients (e.g. ascorbic acid, sugars).

Mamoun Omer Abdelgader; Inaam Awad Ismail

2011-01-01

75

Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process.

de Lencastre Novaes LC; de Carvalho Santos Ebinuma V; Mazzola PG; Júnior AP

2013-09-01

76

Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. PMID:24011234

de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; de Carvalho Santos Ebinuma, Valéria; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Júnior, Adalberto Pessoa

2013-09-06

77

Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries.

Mukhopadhyay A; Dutta N; Chattopadhyay D; Chakrabarti K

2013-06-01

78

Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2013-03-27

79

Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

80

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH r...

Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko

 
 
 
 
81

Skin Peeling Syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

Sharma Rajeev; Kumar Ashok

2000-01-01

82

Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. RESULTS: Bagging significantly (p?0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. CONCLUSION: Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well.

Chonhenchob V; Kamhangwong D; Kruenate J; Khongrat K; Tangchantra N; Wichai U; Singh SP

2011-03-01

83

Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control.RESULTS: Bagging significantly (p?0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness.CONCLUSION: Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Chonhenchob V; Kamhangwong D; Kruenate J; Khongrat K; Tangchantra N; Wichai U; Paul Singh S

2010-12-01

84

Use of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (Fam. Rutaceae) Peels Waste Material as a Biosorbent for Lead Contaminated WaterUse of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (Fam. Rutaceae) Peels Waste Material as a Biosorbent for Lead Contaminated Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ability of pomelo peels to remove lead (Pb2+) from contaminated water and how factors such as pH, contact time and initial lead concentration affect this phenomenon was investigated. Biosorption studies were carried out by batch process. Biomass was added to conical flasks containing a known amount of metal solution of desired concentration. The mixture was agitated for 3 hours, time more than sufficient to reach equilibrium. The pH of the solutions were adjusted by adding 0.1 N NaOH or 0.1N HNO3. The biomass was then removed by filtration using a vacuum filter (pore size of 45 ?m) and the filtrates were analyzed for residual lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that biosorption was found to be optimum at pH 4. Kinetics data exhibited that biosorption followed the pseudo-second order model. Biosorption was rapid within the first 30 minutes of contact, eventually reaching equilibrium after 90 minutes. Isotherm experiments were better described by the Freundlich model than the Langmuir model.The study indicates that pomelo peels are effective low cost biosorbent for lead-contaminated water and is of potential for remediation of heavy metal contamination.

Andres K. A. M.; Bawalan J. B.; Galang N. K. P.; Solidum J. N.

2012-01-01

85

Sugar cane peeling device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a sugarcane-peeling device which adopts a transversal leaf-peeling mechanism. A plurality of groups of transmission parts are driven by an engine, and a protective hood is arranged outside the transmission parts each group of transmission parts comprises a driving wheel and a driven wheel which are connected by a chain or a transmission belt, and a leaf-peeling element is connected with the transmission belt or the chain when each group of transmission parts is in transmission, the transmission parts and another group of matched transmission parts move in mutually opposite directions the main body of the leaf-peeling element is made of metal sheets, rubber, nylon or engineering plastics the number of the leaf-peeling element is one or more, the leaf-peeling element is arranged on the main body of the leaf-peeling element, and the main body of the leaf-peeling element is connected with the chain or the transmission belt by a connector. The sugarcane-peeling device has high sugarcane-peeling efficiency and high clean pealing rate and can peel green leaves on sugarcane stalks, and the leaf-peeling element has long service life without the additional arrangement of a broken-pin device.

ZHIANG TAN

86

Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides.

Bhattacherjee AK

2013-02-01

87

Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. PMID:23196371

Bhattacherjee, A K

2012-11-30

88

Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

1998-01-01

89

Automatic fruit peeling machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an automatic fruit peeling machine, belonging to an agricultural product machining machine. The automatic fruit peeling machine mainly solves the problem that no automatic fruit peeling machines exist in the prior art. The automatic fruit peeling machine mainly comprises a box body bracket, a control cabinet, a peeling device, a PLC automatic system, a variable frequency power supply and a vacuum pump, wherein, the control cabinet is provided with a control panel and a headpiece the peeling device comprises a variable frequency motor, an electromagnetism pneumatic reversing valve, a pneumatic reciprocating cylinder, a return spring, a peeling blade, a fruit sucking disk, a movable fruit groove and an induction device, wherein, the variable frequency motor and the electromagnetism pneumatic reversing valve are installed in the control cabinet the pneumatic reciprocating cylinder and the induction device are arranged below the headpiece the peeling blade is hinged with the lower end part of the pneumatic reciprocating cylinder via a hinge pin the fruit sucking disk is connected with a main shaft of the motor in the control cabinet at the same time, the fruit sucking disk is connected with the vacuum pump via a pipe line and the movable fruit groove is installed on the control cabinet, and can move back and forth. The invention is mainly used for peeling fruits.

SHAN SHEN

90

Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author).

1987-01-01

91

Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

1977-11-25

92

Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

1978-01-01

93

Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ?1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (?1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoeshese differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes.

1990-01-01

94

Preparation method of mango vinegar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for preparing mango vinegar, aiming at providing a method with simple process, no chemical agent adding, and short production period. The method can preserve the origin mango flavor. The invention is carried out by the following steps: a. choosing raw materials, b. decorticating, washing, c. pulping, d. filtrating, e. adding water, fermenting the alcohol and acetic acid, f. sterilizing, g. aging, h. sterilizing. In the process of the invention, no material which is bad for human health is added. Vinegar produced by the method is ecological anti-nuisance food. The method has short production time, can preserve the original mango color, and has little destroy to mango taste. The specific nourish components of the mango is not destroyed and the wine has good health maintenance to human body.

GUO XIANG

95

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

2010-01-01

96

Effect of enzymatic maceration on synthesis of higher alcohols during mango wine fermentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango is a popular and highly produced fruit in India. Wine from two mango cultivars Banginapalli and Totapuri was prepared and the mode of higher alcohols synthesis during wine fermentation was evaluated. Mangoes were peeled off and juice was extracted immediately after crushing (control) and also after 10 h of pectinase treatment. The recovered juice was allowed to ferment at 15 and 20C. During fermentation, higher alcohols and sugars were measured. Contents of all the higher alcohols analyzed increased during fermentation. More volatiles were observed in wine produced from Totapuri cultivar (358 ± 12.7 mg/L) than wine from Banginapalli cultivar (340 ± 10.5 mg/L). Pectinase treatment increased the synthesis of iso-amylalcohol, 2-phenyl ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol and methanol during fermentation. Sensory evaluation scores of wine correlated to the sum of higher alcohols. The results of the present study suggest that the pectinase treatment increases the mango juice yield and results in better wine sensory quality. Nowadays, the number of wine consumers is increasing rapidly all over the world. In order to meet the demand, researchers are developing alternative wine producing technologies. In the present study, we made an attempt to produce wine from mango, the king fruit of world. The main objectives of this study are to increase the quality and quantity of mango juice for wine production and evaluate the aroma compounds kinetic parameters during wine fermentation. This study also provides an adequate process for both juice and wine production from mango and other tropical fruits. The findings regarding pectinase treatment, formation of major volatile compounds and sensory evaluation can be valuable references to the wine industry.

Reddy LVA; Reddy OVS

2009-02-01

97

A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that consumption of fruits and cut fruits in Greater Accra is relatively low. The knowledge of food irradiation is very low as food irradiation has been associated with food radioactivity. It was observed that irradiation did not have significant (p>0.05) effect on the physicochemical parameters measured however, there were significant varietal difference (p0.05) on sensory attributes evaluated. (au)

2011-01-01

98

Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

1996-01-01

99

Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C f...

D.K. Das Gupta; N. Roopa; R.K. Leela

100

Skin peeling syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

Gharpuray Mohan; Mutalik Sharad

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Corncob peeling machine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A corncob peeling machine of the utility model belongs to the agricultural machinery. The relative position relationship of a machine frame, a hopper, an electric motor, a driving belt, a belt wheel and a husking roll in the existing corncob peeling machine is reserved. The improvement is that one of the two husking rolls of each group is a rubber husking roll with smooth circular column outer surface, while the other husking roll is a columnar husking roll made from steel products with ribs on the outer surface. The positive effect of using the utility model is that the ribs which affect the service life of the husking roll is cancelled. The husking roll with ribs is made from steel, so the abradability is stronger than that of the rubber material. The husking roll with ribs dose not need to be replaced. Besides, the smooth outer surface of the rubber husking roll receives uniform friction, which prolongs the service life. The improvement made to the corncob peeling machine reduces the producing cost and the use-cost of the corncob peeling machine obviously.

LIU JIANHUI; WANG HAOYU; XIAO JI

102

Peeling device for bean products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a peeling machine used for bean products. The peeling machine comprises a frame, as well as a guiding shaft, a peeling knife and a conveyer belt, which are horizontally arranged on the frame from the right side to the left side at intervals and a winding up roller driven by an electric motor is arranged under the guiding shaft on the frame. The peeling machine has the advantages that the automatization of the peeling process of the bean products and lined clothes is realized and especially the combined use with equipment used for the automatic production of the bean products can better demonstrate the advantages thereof. When the peeling machine works, the bean products with the lined clothes are positioned on the guiding shaft, cutting edges aiming at the peeling knife are formed between the lined clothes and the bean products, the winding up roller is wound by the lined clothes downwards bypassing the guiding shaft, and the bean products extend to the conveyer belt from the upper surface of the peeling knife, therefore the lined clothes adhered to the bean products are wound on the winding up roller after being peeled off from the bean products under the action of the peeling knife while the conveyer belt carries the bean products to a discharge end. A material receiving plate which does reciprocating motion is arranged under the discharge end of the conveyer belt, and the lined clothes after being peeled drop on a bearing plate and automatically fold.

MINGDAO LI

103

Carotenoid composition of mango (mangifera indica l.) wine and its antioxidant activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wine samples from seven mango cultivars were prepared and major carotenoids compounds were investigated by high?performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in order to follow carotenoid content from puree to wine during wine fermentation. Carotenoids were identified and quantified in puree and wine. Results showed that the percentage decrease in xanthophylls levels in wine were in the range of 69.3–89.7%, and >80% degradation was noted in Banginapalli, Neelam, Sindhura and Totapuri and 15.3–26.5% for ??carotene. However, significant degradation of ??carotene was observed in only Totapuri wine, indicating that lutein was more sensitive to degradation than ??carotene during fermentation. Antioxidant activity of mango wine was evaluated using in vitro models. The highest radical?scavenging activity was shown by Alphonso (91), Sindhura (90) and Banginapalli (88%), respectively, whereas Alphonso (71), Banginapalli (69) and Sindhura (68.5%) had shown higher inhibitory effect on low?density lipoprotein oxidation. The Hunter color values of the mango wines were also evaluated and the results are presented. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Mango fruit carotenoids in pulp and peel tend to increase with ripening. On the contrary contrary, carotenoids in grapes are abundant before veraison, falling dramatically after this period, hence absent in normal grape wine unlike fortified (port) wines. Mango wine samples were prepared and major carotenoids were evaluated in puree and in wine after fermentation to follow the changes during fermentation were presented in this paper. Antioxidant activities of mango wine were also evaluated in vitro because of their possible health promoting role in human health.

VARAKUMAR S; KUMAR YS; REDDY OVS

2011-10-01

104

Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects.

1990-01-01

105

ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

E.JESMINE MELBA

2012-01-01

106

Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

Costa, Maria Aparecida

1998-07-01

107

Concrete peeling off device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention concerns a device for peeling off activated concretes in processing for discarding a reactor of a nuclear reactor facility. The device comprises a gyrotron for generation microwaves, an irradiator for irradiating output microwaves, a reflection mirror for reflecting and converging the microwaves and irradiating them to a material to be irradiated and a first rotating means for rotating the irradiator and the reflection mirror in parallel with the axis of the gyrotron while maintaining the positional relation between the irradiator and the reflection mirror. When the position of the microwaves irradiated on concrete walls are moved in a circumferential direction and the central axes of the rotational axis and the material to be irradiated are aligned, then the intensity of the irradiation of the microwaves at each of the irradiation points can be maintained constant without changing the focal distance of the reflected microwaves thereby enabling to peel off concretes efficiently. If operation conditions are controlled based on information such as temperature at the periphery of the microwave irradiation positions, the shape and the color of the material to be irradiated and the distance to the material to be irradiated, a concrete peeling off device of high reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

Asano, Hiroyuki; Oi, Takeshi; Kikunaga, Toshiyuki

1997-11-28

108

Phenological Relationship Between Mango Hoppers Idioscopus spp. and Mango Inflorescence/Fruit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment on the phenological relationship between mango hoppers and mango inflorescence/fruit was conducted at Mir. Ghulam Rasool Talpur fruit farm, Tandojam, during 1999-2000. The results showed that mango hoppers were recorded during 30th December (0.06/shoot) on all the mango varieties. The population density increased gradually on the varieties up till second fortnight of February and thereafter populations of mango hopper increased rapidly. The peak populations of mango hopper on Almas (24.23/shoot) and Sindhri (25.66/shoot) were recorded on 23rd March and 30th March, respectively. However, peak population density in Neelum (22.52/shoot) was recorded on 16th March. Thereafter population of hoppers declined towards fruit maturation in all the varieties. Population density of mango hopper and positives significant correlation with the inflorescence phenology in all the mango varieties, however population of hoppers had negative correlation with fruit development. The population of mango hopper had positive significant correlation with temperature in Almas (r = 0.668) significant. The relative humidity had negative non-significant correlation with mango hoppers on all the mango varieties. It could therefore be inferred that Sindhri was more prone to the attack of mango hoppers and Neelum was least infested.

Muzaffar A. Talpur; Rab Kino Khuhro; Imtiaz A Nizaman

2002-01-01

109

Method for extracting essential oil from pomelo peel or orange peel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for extracting essential oil from shaddock ped or orange peels, which is characterized in that fresh shaddock ped or orange peels are cleaned, 100 mass portions of outer skins at the utmost surface layer of the shaddock ped or the orange peels are loaded onto a built-in sieve plate of a distillation tower, water is filled in the distillation tower, the heating temperature is between 95 and 100 DEG C, the distillation time is between 50 and 60 minutes, and essential water flows from a condenser tube, is kept stand for 8 to 12 minutes, and then is separated to obtain 8 to 10 mass portions of essential oil. The method utilizes discarded shaddock ped or orange peels as raw materials, changes waste into valuables, and has the characteristics of simple and convenient process, convenient operation, and safety and reliability and the oil yield is between 2.85 and 3.08 percent, and the produced pure natural essential oil has high medicinal value and is used to improve the quality and taste of the food, the medicine, the cosmetics, the beverage and so on.

SONGQIANG LI; SUIYUN LIN; FUPING WU

110

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality.

Léchaudel M; Lopez-Lauri F; Vidal V; Sallanon H; Joas J

2013-04-01

111

Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2012-12-23

112

Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

S. H. Sengar; Y. P. Khandetod

2012-01-01

113

Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E

1992-05-15

114

Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture) under optimized fermentation conditions and maximum activity of 412 ± 12 U/mL was recorded after 4th day of incubation at pH 5.5 and 30?. Exo 1, 4-? glucanase was 4.17-fold purified with specific activity of 642 U/mg in comparison to the crude extract. To confirm its purity and molecular weight, sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) was performed. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 60 kDa with an optimum pH and temperature of 5 and 50?, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plot revealed that the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of purified Exo 1, 4-? glucanase were 76 µM and 240 U/mL.

Muhammad Irshad; Zahid Anwar; Amber Afroz

2012-01-01

115

Glycolic acid peels versus amino fruit acid peels for acne.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Chemical exfoliation resulting in the reduction of keratotic plugs serves as a second-line treatment used as an adjunct to anti-acne agents. This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of glycolic acid (GA) peels and amino fruit acid (AFA) peels in patients with acne vulgaris. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized, right-left comparison study, 24 patients received 12 serial peels (GA and AFA, at concentrations from the lowest to the highest) on the two halves of the face at 2-week intervals for 6 months. In addition, cutaneous tolerability assessments during the applications and the patient preference test between both peeling methods at the end of the study were performed. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in the number of non-inflamed lesions with GA following the first month and with AFA following the second month (p < 0.05). The decrease in the number of inflamed lesions was statistically significant with GA at the end of the fifth and sixth months and with AFA only at the end of the fifth month (p < 0.05). When the two applications were compared with each other, there was not a statistically significant difference in terms of non-inflamed and inflamed lesions (p > 0.05). During the application, it was observed that AFA peels caused fewer problems than GA peels did. AFA concentrations were increased more rapidly and more sessions were performed at the highest concentration of AFA. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, we can state that both GA and AFA peels are efficacious for comedonal acne. And, compared to a GA peel, an AFA peel is less irritating and better tolerated.

Ilknur T; Demirta?o?lu M; Biçak MU; Ozkan S

2010-10-01

116

Synthesis of silicon containing materials from the rise peel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown, that the rice peel - an agroindustrial waste can be used as the raw material, containing dioxide of silicon, in technology of reception of silicon containing materials as amorphous and crystal dioxide of silicon SiO2, water-soluble sodium silicate Na2SiO3 - liquid glass. (author)

2005-01-01

117

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P < 0.05) among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

Fernández-Suárez R; Ramírez-Villatoro G; Díaz-Ruiz G; Eslava C; Calderón M; Navarro-Ocaña A; Trejo-Márquez A; Wacher C

2013-01-01

118

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P < 0.05) among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive. PMID:23761788

Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

2013-06-05

119

Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage.

Li P; Zheng X; Liu Y; Zhu Y

2014-01-01

120

Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

2013-07-06

 
 
 
 
121

Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa. PMID:18502231

Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

2008-06-01

122

Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa.

Rankins J; Sathe SK; Spicer MT

2008-06-01

123

Changes in the sensory characteristics of mango cultivars during the production of mango puree and sorbet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The effects of processing on the flavor and texture properties of 4 mango cultivars available in the U.S. were studied. Descriptive panelists evaluated fresh mango, mango purée, and mango sorbet prepared from each cultivar. Purées were made by pulverizing mango flesh, passing it through a china cap, and heating it to 85 °C for 15 s. To prepare the sorbets, purées were diluted with water (1:1), sucrose was added to increase the total soluble solids (TSS) to 32 ± 2 °Brix, and bases were frozen in a batch-type ice cream freezer. Processing fresh mangoes into mango purée generally decreased fruity character and mango identity and led to the appearance of a cooked note. Many of the flavor distinctions among cultivars carried over from fresh to purée samples, but much of the texture variation was lost. Thermal processing had differing effects on the flavor of the cultivars, and therefore, results suggest that mango cultivars for purées should be selected based on properties after thermal treatment. Processing purées into sorbets minimized flavor variation among cultivars, although Tommy Atkins sorbet was relatively high in green and green-viney character and low in caramelized flavor compared to the other cultivars in sorbet. Based on the current study only very distinct flavor properties of mango cultivars may carry over to sorbets. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Findings from the present study will help mango purée and sorbet manufacturers select appropriate cultivars for their products by understanding the transformation that mango undergoes as it is processed into mango purée and subsequently to mango sorbet.

Ledeker CN; Chambers DH; Chambers E 4th; Adhikari K

2012-10-01

124

Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

1992-01-01

125

Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

2007-10-05

126

Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

2007-07-01

127

Coleoborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae) associated to culture wastes in mango crops in José de Freitas county – Piauí/ Coleobrocas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae) associadas a restos culturais da cultura da manga (Mangifera indica L. – Anacardiaceae) no município de José de Freitas – Piauí  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coleoborers use the wood to complete part of their cycle of life. In search for food they can make galleries and cause damages in the structure of the plant, allowing the entrance of pathogenic individuals that will harm the development of the crop. This research was carried out from January to May 2005 aiming to get information on the species of coleoborers associated to crop wastes in the area of mango crop, in José de Freitas county - Piauí. The insects had been collected in areas of Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent and Palmer varieties, in 10 fallen branches, with approximately 50 cm long and 2.5 cm of diameter, that were taken to the plant health laboratory of Centro de Ciências Agrárias in Universidade Federal do Piauí. The coleoborers were removed from the wood, assembled in entomologic pins and sent to the Instituto Biológico in São Paulo SP for species identification. The coleoborers Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) were found.As coleobrocas usam a madeira para realizar o seu ciclo de vida, fazendo galerias e causando danos na estrutura da planta e em certas situações, permitindo a entrada de patógenos. Este trabalho foi realizado de janeiro a maio de 2005 objetivando identificar e obter informações sobre as espécies de coleobrocas associadas a restos de cultura em área de cultivo de manga, no município de José de Freitas-Piauí. Foram coletados em cada área das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, dez ramos caídos, com aproximadamente 50 cm de comprimento e 2,5 cm de diâmetro, que foram levados ao laboratório de Fitossanidade do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí. As coleobrocas adultas foram retiradas da madeira, montadas em alfinetes entomológicos e enviadas ao Instituto Biológico em São Paulo-SP para identificação das espécies. Foram coletadas as coleobrocas Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) e Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

Jean Kelson da Silva Paz; Paulo Roberto Ramalho Silva; Luiz Evaldo de Moura Pádua; Sergio Ide; Sávio Silveira Feitosa

2007-01-01

128

On the explanation of Peele`s Pertinent Puzzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigation of Peele`s Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) by analytical and numerical simulation shows that if covariations of experimental data are determined within frames of rigorous maximum likelihood method (MLM), then least-squares method (LSM) gives for PPP correct but unusually looking results. It is shown also that some restrictions and corrections outside rigorous MLM frame bring to incorrect results instead of improved ones.

Gai, E.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

129

Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. The time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at (more) 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated.

Mafra, M. R.; Igarashi-Mafra, L.; Zuim, D. R.; Vasques, É. C.; Ferreira, M. A.

2013-09-01

130

Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health.

Wu ZG; Xu HY; Ma Q; Cao Y; Ma JN; Ma CM

2012-12-01

131

Histological Changes in Mango Seedlings Following Infection with Ceratocystis manginecans, the Cause of Mango Decline  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ceratocystis manginecans?induced wilt and decline of mango has devastated the mango industry in Oman during the last decade. The histological changes in mango seedlings following inoculation with the fungus were investigated. Twelve?month?old mango seedlings were artificially inoculated with C. manginecans, and development of the disease was recorded weekly for up to six weeks. Inoculated mango seedlings developed typical wilt symptoms within one week and produced gummosis in the inoculated areas. Weekly assessment of upward and downward movement of C. manginecans in the wood showed that the pathogen moved at 6.3 and 6.1?mm per day, respectively, with no significant differences in the rate of tissue colonization in opposite directions. Internal woody tissues of inoculated mango seedlings developed brown to dark brown discolouration. Discolouration of mango tissues was congruent or just behind the advancing hyphae of C. manginecans. Although there were no significant differences in the rate of internal discolouration in opposite directions from the point of inoculation, severity of wood discolouration was significantly higher above the area of inoculation compared to the area below inoculation. Tissues above and below the inoculation point were also examined microscopically. Tissues of inoculated mango seedlings were darkened, implying excessive production of phenolic compounds and gums as a defence mechanism following infection. In addition, tyloses and fungal mycelium were observed in the xylem of sections of the inoculated seedlings. This implies tyloses, mycelium movement in the vascular system and tissue discolouration as mechanisms responsible for wilt and death of infected mango trees.

Al?Sadi AM; Al?Ouweisi FA; Al?Shariani NK; Al?Adawi AO; Kaplan EJ; Deadman ML

2010-12-01

132

Decay control of carabao mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

1978-01-01

133

Method for using pineapple peel and slag to prepare high activity dried yeast and ferment feed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a method for using pineapple peel and slag to prepare high activity dried yeast and ferment feed. The technique has the implementing steps of: crushing pineapple peel, extruding juice, separating pineapple peel juice and slag, adding the substances of molasses, ammonium sulfate and the like into pineapple peel juice, adding saccharomyces cerevisiae or candida utilis strain for liquid fermentation, carrying out separation on the yeast thallus after the fermentation is completed, drying under low temperature and obtaining active dried yeast which can be used as additives of food or feed. In addition, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, lactobacillus plantarum and complex enzyme are added into the separated pineapple slag for fermentation, and the fermented products are used as feed which is directly fed or dried, thus being capable of reducing feed cost. The invention not only solves the environmental pollution of processing waste, changes waste into valuables, and expands the space of the feed materials and feed additives.

LINCHUN CHENG; HUI YUN; ZHONGLI YU; DONGMING ZHOU

134

Influence of steam-peeled potato-processing waste inclusion level in beef finishing diets: effects on digestion, feedlot performance, and meat quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusion of potato-processing waste (PW) from the frozen potato products industry in high-grain beef cattle finishing diets was evaluated in two studies. In a randomized complete block design, 125 crossbred yearling heifers (365 +/- 0.3 kg initial BW; five pens per treatment; five heifers per pen) were used to evaluate PW level on feedlot performance and meat quality. Heifers were fed for 85 (two blocks) or 104 d (three blocks). In a digestion study, four ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated Holstein steers (474.7 +/- 26.6 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate effects of PW level on ruminal fermentation, site of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis. The control diet for both studies contained 80% corn, 10% alfalfa hay, 5% concentrated separator by-product (CSB), and 5% supplement (DM basis). Potato waste replaced corn and separator by-product (DM basis) in the diet at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in the feedlot study, and at 0, 13, 27, and 40% in the digestion study. In the feedlot study, DMI decreased (linear; P = 0.007) with increasing inclusion of PW. Increasing PW decreased ADG and feed efficiency from 0 to 30% and then increased at 40% (quadratic; P 0.30). No difference (P > 0.20) was observed for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 0, 10, 20, and 30% PW levels; however, 40% PW resulted in lower (P = 0.05) shear force values. Taste panel scores for juiciness and flavor intensity did not differ with increasing PW (P > 0.30). Steaks from cattle fed 0% were scored less tender than 10 and 40% PW (cubic; P < 0.05). In the digestion study, DMI decreased (quadratic; P < 0.01) with increasing PW. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration increased (linear; P < 0.05) and true N disappearance from the stomach complex and apparent total-tract N disappearance decreased with increasing level of PW (linear; P < 0.01). Starch intake and ruminal disappearance decreased with increasing level of PW (quadratic; P < 0.05). Inclusion of PW decreased feedlot performance, with little effect on carcass characteristics or meat quality. Optimal inclusion of PW in finishing diets may depend on the cost of transportation and other dietary ingredients. PMID:14601870

Radunz, A E; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Marchello, M J; Loe, E R; Berg, P T

2003-11-01

135

Mango vinegar beverage and preparing process thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a preparation method of a mango vinegar beverage. The beverage is prepared from (wt%) mango vinegar 5-15, sweetener 5-15, calcium lactate 10-20, and water in balance. The preparation method comprises the steps of removing impurities and the pit of mango, crushing, pulping, performing enzymolysis, inoculating active dry yeast into the pulp with initial sugar degree 10-20 DEG Bx, temperature of 20-40 DEG C, pH of 3.0-4.5 and inoculum size of 5-15% in weight percentage, fermenting for 1 week to obtain mango wine, filtering, inoculating immobilized Acetobacter with sodium alginate content of 1-5% in weight percentage, CaCl2 content of 1-5% in weight percentage, initial alcohol content of 5-15%, temperature of 20-40 DEG C, pH of 3.0-7.0 and inoculum size of 5-20% in weight percentage, shaking for 2 days, fermenting for 18 days to obtain mango vinegar, adding the sweetener, the calcium lactate and the water in proportion, stirring, filtering, sterilizing and testing to obtain mango vinegar beverage. The sweetener can be one selected from honey-sucrose mixture, trehalose and isomaltulose.

ZHIMIN HUANG; FEIFEI SUN; YAN QIN; XINGMING WEI

136

Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sine...

Orzua, María C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro de la; Teixeira, J. A.

137

Influence of steam-peeled potato-processing waste inclusion level in beef finishing diets: effects on digestion, feedlot performance, and meat quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inclusion of potato-processing waste (PW) from the frozen potato products industry in high-grain beef cattle finishing diets was evaluated in two studies. In a randomized complete block design, 125 crossbred yearling heifers (365 +/- 0.3 kg initial BW; five pens per treatment; five heifers per pen) were used to evaluate PW level on feedlot performance and meat quality. Heifers were fed for 85 (two blocks) or 104 d (three blocks). In a digestion study, four ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated Holstein steers (474.7 +/- 26.6 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to evaluate effects of PW level on ruminal fermentation, site of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis. The control diet for both studies contained 80% corn, 10% alfalfa hay, 5% concentrated separator by-product (CSB), and 5% supplement (DM basis). Potato waste replaced corn and separator by-product (DM basis) in the diet at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in the feedlot study, and at 0, 13, 27, and 40% in the digestion study. In the feedlot study, DMI decreased (linear; P = 0.007) with increasing inclusion of PW. Increasing PW decreased ADG and feed efficiency from 0 to 30% and then increased at 40% (quadratic; P < 0.01). Calculated dietary NEg concentrations did not differ among treatments (P = 0.18). Hot carcass weight decreased as PW increased from 0 to 30% and then increased at 40% PW (cubic; P < 0.01). Fat thickness and longissimus muscle area decreased with increasing PW (linear; P < 0.05). Level of PW did not affect marbling or liver scores (P > 0.30). No difference (P > 0.20) was observed for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 0, 10, 20, and 30% PW levels; however, 40% PW resulted in lower (P = 0.05) shear force values. Taste panel scores for juiciness and flavor intensity did not differ with increasing PW (P > 0.30). Steaks from cattle fed 0% were scored less tender than 10 and 40% PW (cubic; P < 0.05). In the digestion study, DMI decreased (quadratic; P < 0.01) with increasing PW. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration increased (linear; P < 0.05) and true N disappearance from the stomach complex and apparent total-tract N disappearance decreased with increasing level of PW (linear; P < 0.01). Starch intake and ruminal disappearance decreased with increasing level of PW (quadratic; P < 0.05). Inclusion of PW decreased feedlot performance, with little effect on carcass characteristics or meat quality. Optimal inclusion of PW in finishing diets may depend on the cost of transportation and other dietary ingredients.

Radunz AE; Lardy GP; Bauer ML; Marchello MJ; Loe ER; Berg PT

2003-11-01

138

76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Doc No. AMS-FV-10-0092] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2011-03-14

139

76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0092] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2011-06-22

140

7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-33 Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica ) may be imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this section and other...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may be imported into the continental United States from India only under the following conditions:...

2009-01-01

142

76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

...mangiferae Fusarium spp. complex (associated with mango malformation disease) Lasioddiplodia pseudotheobraomae Neofusicoccum mangiferae Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae Phomopsis mangiferae Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae Bacterium...

2011-10-25

143

Dressing wounds with potato peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It wa...

Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

144

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2009-01-01

145

The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pKa values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

2010-05-15

146

The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK{sub a} values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: iqbalmdr@brain.net.pk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

2010-05-15

147

Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT) through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage studies were carried out in foil laminate packs at three different temperatures i.e. 4°C, RT (20-33°C) and 37°C and evaluated for chemical parameters, Hunter colour values as well as microbiological and organoleptic characteristics. Studies showed that HT preserved texturized mango gel could be kept in acceptable condition up to 12 months at RT and 6 months at 37°C. During storage a considerable reduction in sulphur dioxide, carotenoids and an increase in acidity were observed. Decrease in L, a, b values was also observed in all the samples stored under different temperatures. The product was also found to be microbiologically stable and safe up to 12 m.

D.K. Das Gupta; N. Roopa; R.K. Leela

2007-01-01

148

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H(2)O(2)-induced Stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Luo F; Lv Q; Zhao Y; Hu G; Huang G; Zhang J; Sun C; Li X; Chen K

2012-01-01

149

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-01-01

150

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H(2)O(2)-induced Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:23109851

Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-09-10

151

Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

2011-01-01

152

Composición aproximada de las cáscaras de diferentes frutas/ Chemical composition of different fruit peel Composigao centesimal de diferentes cascas de frutas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O aproveitamento integral dos alimentos é de suma importancia, pois permite que partes nao convencionais dos alimentos, como cascas, talos, sementes e folhas sejam aproveitadas, visando a agregacao de valor nutricional as preparacóes, além de reduzir custos e evitar o desperdicio. Desta forma, o presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a composicao química de 9 cascas de frutas. Os maiores teores de umidade foram para o mamao e a uva, e as frutas cítricas apresenta (more) ram menor umidade, o mamao destaca-se por ter maior teor de proteina. As frutas com maiores percentuais de carboidratos sao: a maca, bergamota, ameixa, manga e pera. A partir da composicao centesimal das cascas foi possivel perceber que elas apresentam elevados teores de nutrientes, podendo ser utilizadas em preparacóes. Além disso, com a composicao centesimal das cascas passa a ser possivel a colocacao desses alimentos nos cálculos de planos alimentares e dietas. Abstract in spanish El aprovechamiento de la comida es muy importante porque permite que las acciones de los alimentos no convencionales tales como la corteza, tallos, semillas y hojas se utilicen con el fin de agregar valor a las preparaciones nutritivas y también reducir los costos y evitar el derroche. Asi, este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición quimica de nueve cáscaras de fruta. Los más altos niveles de humedad eran de la papaya y las uvas y los citricos tuvieron un (more) a menor humedad. La papaya se destaca por tener un mayor contenido proteico. Las frutas con mayor porcentaje de hidratos de carbono son: manzana, bergamota, ciruela, mango y pera. De la composición de las cáscaras fue posible percibir que tienen altos niveles de nutrientes y se puede utilizar en preparaciones. Además, con la composición de las cáscaras se hace posible colocar estos alimentos en los cálculos de planes de alimentación y las dietas. Abstract in english The integral use of food is very important because it allows the use of non-conventional foods such as bark, stems, seeds and leaves being used in order to add value to nutritional preparations and also reduce costs and avoid wasting. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of nine fruit peels. The highest levels of humidity found were for papaya and grapes, while citrus fruits had lower moisture. Papaya stands out for having a higher protein content. T (more) he fruits with the highest percentage of carbohydrates are: apple, bergamot, plum, mango and pear. The composition of the peels made it possible to perceive they have high levels of nutrients and can be used in preparations. Moreover, the composition of the peels makes it possible to place these foods in the calculations of eating plans and diets.

Stefanello, Claudia L; Rosa, Claudia. S

2012-06-01

153

Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole?peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7?tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After imaging, the fruits were individually tagged and processed in a pilot peeling system. An expert grader then assessed the peeling outcome for each fruit; outcomes included “whole peel,”“some skin attached” and seven others. The multivariate analysis techniques of partial least squares?discriminant analysis (PLS?DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used to predict peeling outcome from the 28 MR images. The PLS?DA model for the “whole peel” (best) outcome correctly classified 81% of the fruit that were in this category. The SIMCA model performed well for rejecting non?“whole peel” fruit but did not perform as well for identification of “whole peel” fruit. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Fruit processors seek methods for predicting the quality of their finished products from measurements of their raw materials (individual fruit). Such predictions will ensure optimal allocation and processing of each fruit, which will result in raw material cost savings, improved product quality, wastewater reduction and energy efficiency. In the case of processing tomatoes, peeling outcome is the metric of interest. This study demonstrates the feasibility of predicting final product quality using MR imaging of raw food materials.

MILCZAREK RR; MCCARTHY MJ

2011-10-01

154

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle); ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS); e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR). A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control); diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT); diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS); and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR). The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas; Ângela da Silva Borges; Maria Teresa Sales Trevisan; Pedro Henrique Watanabe; André Luís da Cunha; Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira; Virgínia Kelly Abreu; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do Nascimento

2012-01-01

155

Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals  

CERN Document Server

There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

Bartholdi, Laurent

2012-01-01

156

Aesthetic problems in chemical peeling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Questionnaires were mailed to six physicians experienced in chemical peels regarding common problems encountered in the procedure. They are: Thomas H. Alt, M.D., Minneapolis, MN; Samuel J. Stegman, M.D., San Francisco, CA; James J. Stagnone, M.D., Albuquerque, NM; Robert Kotler, M.D., Los Angeles, CA; William H. Beeson, M.D., Indianapolis, IN; and Paul S. Collins, M.D., San Luis Obispo, CA. Their answers are presented in a panel format.

Goldman PM; Freed MI

1989-09-01

157

Powdery Mildew of Mango : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Powdery mildew is a serious disease of mango in the world caused by a fungus . Young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits are attacked by the fungus. Crop losses up to 100 percent have been reported in case of blossom infection when disease spreads in epidemic form. Conidia are dispersed by wind and germinate best at 20-25°C with moderate humidity. Pathogen survive from one season to the next as mycelia in dormant buds and as haustoria on old infected leaves. Telemorph of the fungus have not been reported in Pakistan or from the other mango growing regions of the world. No completely resistant cultivar of mango has been reported any where but they vary in their susceptibility to powdery mildew. Fungicides applied at 30-40 Percent flowering stage followed by two applications at 2-3 week intervals depending upon environmental conditions can effectively control the malady.

Khalid P. Akhtar; S. S. Alam

2000-01-01

158

Genetic diversity of Kensington mango in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genetic diversity of Kensington mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) was investigated using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA was extracted from leaves of 27 'Kensington Pride', 2 'R2E2' and 1 seedling. RAPD analysis with 10 oligonucleotide primers allowed the scoring of 107 markers. The R2E2 trees (20% dissimilarity) and the seedling (10% dissimilarity) were distinct from the Kensington Pride. However, there was very little evidence of significant genetic variation within Kensington Pride selections. Fifteen of the selections were identical in all 107 markers. Only 2 selections, WEAN2 and ML2N1, differed by more than 5%. These plants provide the best options for use in genetic improvement of the Kensington Pride mango. Many of the differences found in Kensington mango orchards may be due to environmental factors not genetic variations.

Bally ISE; Graham GC; Henry RJ

1996-01-01

159

An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

1999-01-01

160

Irradiation of 'carabao' (Manila 'super') mangoes II. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation and the vapor heat treatment on fruit quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to the vapor heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose a low but significant incidence of pulp discoloration was found, albeit in only one trial. Both the vapor heat treatment and gamma radiation need to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on peel color development. The results of this study indicate that irradiation might be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the 'Carabao' mango. (Auth.). 7 tabs., 3 figs.

1990-12-05

 
 
 
 
161

Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100°C;...

K.V. Harivaindaran; O.P.S. Rebecca; S. Chandran

162

Chemical components and antioxidant activity of the peels of commercial apple-shaped pear (fruit of Pyrus pyrifolia cv. pingguoli).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The apple-shaped pear, the fruit of the Pyrus pyrifolia cv. pingguoli (Rosaceae) tree, is one of the most popular fruits in the northern part of China. The current study is the 1st report of its bioactive components. We identified 10 metabolites from the peels (exocarp) of apple-shaped pear and assessed their toxicity. We then compared the anti-oxidant activity, amount of total phenolic compounds, and total condensed tannin content of the peels and flesh (mesocarp) of apple-shaped pear. The 6 major components in the peels and flesh of this fruit were quantified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Results revealed that the peels possessed stronger anti-oxidant activity and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results provide insights into the potential health benefits of this fruit and support the use of the fruit peels and products containing peels or peel components. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The present research provided evidences that the pulp and peel waste from the juice industry of apple-shaped pear may be a source of useful compounds.

Ma JN; Wang SL; Zhang K; Wu ZG; Hattori M; Chen GL; Ma CM

2012-10-01

163

Sorption isotherms of fortified mango bars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sorption isotherms of plain mango bar (86.9% total sugars, 2.7% protein and 0.54% fat, db), mango-coconut bar (81.8% total sugars, 3.0% protein and 50% fat, db) and mango-soya protein concentrate bar (75.2% total sugars, 13.1% protein and 0.40% fat, db) were of a sigmoid shape having long second local isotherms. Their colour and texture were adversely affected during storage at RH less than or equal to 54.1%, and mould growth was observed after 13-43 days storage at RH greater than or equal to 75.5%; the bars retained their quality best at RH 64.8%. The sorption data were fitted to five (BET, GAB, Henderson, Oswin and Smith) models of sorption isotherms. The BET and GAB models were found to predict well the moisture content only for the plain mango bar (R2 0.9067 and 0.9325, E% 5.59 and 10.76) whereas the Oswin model was applicable to all the three types of bars (R2 0.9201-0.9731, E% 22.65-31.44).

Mir MA; Nath N

1995-01-01

164

Manager of Next Generation Sequencing Orders - MANGO  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Genomics Center Zurich (FGCZ) is a joint state-of-the-art research and training facility of the ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich. With latest technologies and expert support in genomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, the FGCZ carries out research projects and technology development in collaboration with the Zurich Life Science research community. The FGCZ offers services for different applications on the Illumina HiSeq2000, Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent, Roche 454 and PACBIO RS. At the FGCZ, we handle hundreds of NGS projects a year. A working tool is necessary to monitor and document these sequencing projects. Because of our specialized need, we conceptualized, developed and implemented the MANGO to help manage, track, monitor and document our various and diverse NGS service orders. The MANGO works in multiple levels, first, it is a web accessible sample tracking system. It can be accessed and sample data can be added in real-time through a computer, an android tablet or an Ipad. Secondly, it manages multiplexing of sequencing runs because it can detect sub-optimal index combinations from various popular commericial kits and self made indices. Thirdly, the MANGO creates well-formatted sample sheets for the various sequencers available in the FGCZ. Lastly, it can accept data in .csv format from instruments used for QC during library preparation. The MANGO is a reliable and secure cross-platform manager of our NGS service orders.

Le Carrour, Tanguy; Opitz, Lennart; Georgijevic, Jelena Kuhn; Schlapbach, Ralph; Aquino, Catharine Fournier

2013-01-01

165

Manager of Next Generation Sequencing Orders – MANGO.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Functional Genomics Center Zurich (FGCZ) is a joint state-of-the-art research and training facility of the ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich. With latest technologies and expert support in genomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, the FGCZ carries out research projects and technology development in collaboration with the Zurich Life Science research community. The FGCZ offers services for different applications on the Illumina HiSeq2000, Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent, Roche 454 and PACBIO RS. At the FGCZ, we handle hundreds of NGS projects a year. A working tool is necessary to monitor and document these sequencing projects. Because of our specialized need, we conceptualized, developed and implemented the MANGO to help manage, track, monitor and document our various and diverse NGS service orders. The MANGO works in multiple levels, first, it is a web accessible sample tracking system. It can be accessed and sample data can be added in real-time through a computer, an android tablet or an Ipad. Secondly, it manages multiplexing of sequencing runs because it can detect sub-optimal index combinations from various popular commericial kits and self made indices. Thirdly, the MANGO creates well-formatted sample sheets for the various sequencers available in the FGCZ. Lastly, it can accept data in .csv format from instruments used for QC during library preparation. The MANGO is a reliable and secure cross-platform manager of our NGS service orders.

Le Carrour T; Opitz L; Georgijevic JK; Schlapbach R; Aquino CF

2013-05-01

166

RECOVERY PLANT OF FIBERS AND SUBSTANCES TO THE TOMATO-PEEL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant consists of an Archimedes screw (1) in where the water arrives and into which arrive the working waste such us tomato-peel, seeds, molds and impurities that then gravitationally arrive into a cyclone (6) with water where a first separation is actuated such as the tomato-peels float and stay on the surface whereas the other waster precipitate on the bottom. Actuated the peel/water separation, through a separation filter (22) said peels arrive to a second separation filter (27), to a slanting collecting line (38) and to a compacting device (40). Then the peels arrive to a collecting tank (43) where are mixed with the juice of the tomato to arrive then, peels and juice, to a first disintegrator device (56), to a second disintegrator device (58), to a collecting tank (59) to a transfering pump (61) and at the end to a de-aerator (68) that, eliminated air, sends the product to the homogenizer (81) and at the end to a concentrator.

BORCHINI Milser; ALFIERI Carla; BORCHINI David; BORCHINI Denis; BORCHINI Damarys

167

Recovery plant of fibres and substances to the tomato-peel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The plant consists of an Archimedes screw (1) in where the water arrives and into which arrive the working waste such us tomato-peel, seeds, molds and impurities that then gravitationally arrive into a cyclone (6) with water where a first separation is actuated such as the tomato-peels float and stay on the surface whereas the other waster precipitate on the bottom. Actuated the peel/water separation, through a separation filter (22) said peels arrive to a second separation filter (27), to a slanting collecting line (38) and to a compacting device (40). Then the peels arrive to a collecting tank (43) where are mixed with the juice of the tomato to arrive then, peels and juice, to a first disintegrator device (56), to a second disintegrator device (58), to a collecting tank (59) to a transfering pump (61) and at the end to a deaerator (68) that, eliminated air, sends the product to the homogenizer (81) and at the end to a concentrator.

Borchini Milser; Alfieri Carla; Borchini David; Borchini Denis; Borchini Damarys

168

Antibacterial Activity of Mango Kernel Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is emphasized specifically on the potential of the mango Mangifera Indica seed kernel by discovering the prospective usage of mango seed kernels as a source of antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial strains. For this study, three types of mango were used; Blackgold, Lemak and Waterlily from Malaysia and Thiland. The approach adopted for this purpose was by implementing agar well diffusion method. The results were expressed as the average diameter of bacterial inhibition zones surrounding the wells. The required solvents for the extraction were ethanol, methanol, acetone and phosphate buffer solutions were prepared in a different concentration; 0.10M, 0.05M and 0.01M. The results showed that Lemak gave relatively high antibacterial activity among other types of mango ranging between 1.40 and 2.23 cm. For the known antibiotic, which was Tetracycline, under the same conditions the diameter of inhibition zones were between 2.30 to 3.30. Then, the minimum inhibition concentration tests were conducted for Lemak for two solvents extract that gave the highest inhibition zones which were methanol and acetone. The results showed that the minimum inhibition concentration of extracts that inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was after 10X dilution (1 mM). The results obtained confirmed the antibacterial potential of mango kernels extracts and this would probably become an alternative source of new and natural antibacterial agents.

M.E.S. Mirghani; F. Yosuf; N.A. kabbashi; J. Vejayan; Z.B.M . Yosuf

2009-01-01

169

Inhibitory effect of Citrus unshu peel on anaerobic digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant inhibition of methane fermentation was observed in anaerobic digestion of Citrus unshu peel at loadings above 2g/litre per day. This inhibitory effect was mainly due to peel oil, but in part to other substances present in the peel. The limiting load of peel oil to anaerobic digestion was about 65 {mu}l/litre per day. Addition of peel oil below this limit load resulted in a change in the microbial flora and in gas production greater than that of digestion with no peel oil. Citrus unshu peel did not inhibit methane fermentation after removal of peel oil by steam distillation or aeration. (author).

Mizuki, E.; Akao, T.; Saruwatari, T. (Fukushima Industrial Research Int. of Fukuoka Prefecture (JP))

1990-01-01

170

Single cell protein from mandarin orange peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40 degrees C, 24 h) produced 0.59 g g-1 reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120 degrees C with 0.8 N H2S04), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (g g-1) were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30 degrees C using 100g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts. (Refs. 12).

Mishio, M.; Magai, J.

1981-01-01

171

Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the medium. The results showed that the bacterium was able to degrade all the carbohydrates with the highest and the lowest glucose concentrations of 5.52 mg/ml for lactose and 0.50 mg/ml for mannitol. The carbohydrate-catabolic-enzyme (CCE) activity ranged from 0.169 mg/ml to 1.346 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein. Mannitol exhibited the highest CCE activity while the lowest activity was observed in the presence of sucrose. The amount of extracellular protein synthesized was highest (9.803 mg/ml) in the presence of maltose and lowest (0.925 mg/ml) in mannitol. The mean polygalacturonase activity was 0.54 unit/ml when the bacterium was grown in pectin in contrast to 0.28 unit/ml when it was grown in mannitol. The bacterium showed ability to breakdown the peels of the Nigerian fruits with the highest capability in banana and pineapple (0.42 and 0.41 mg/ml glucose per mg/ml protein respectively). The fruit-peel-degrading enzyme activity was lowest in orange peel (0.75 unit/ml). PMID:23166567

Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

2012-11-02

172

Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

2007-01-01

173

Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused significant effect only in peeled form, ash reduced significantly during peeling and cooking except in tomato. Four minerals reduced significantly in both peeling and cooking especially in peeled cooking. Vitamins losses were highly significant in both peeling and cooking.

Shahnaz Alvi; K. M. Khan; Munir A. Sheikh; Muhammad Shahid

2003-01-01

174

Physico-chemical evaluation of the “Casturi” Mango  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangifera casturi “Casturi” mango is a tropical fruit tree about 10–30 m tall which is endemic to very small area around Banjarmasin in Southern Borneo (Indonesia). The casturi mango is believed to be first introduced to Florida by Richard Campbell in early 2000 as part of the germplasm conservat...

175

Vermicomposting of leaf litter ensuing from the trees of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Guava (Psidium guujuvu) leaves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The leaf wastes Mango (Mangifera indica) and Guava (Psidium guujuvu) collected from the Sri Parasakthi College campus of Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, premises was vermicomposted by using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae and Physico- Chemical features of leaf wastes before and after composting was analyzed, which showed that macro and micro nutrients as well as physico chemical features of leaf wastes compost before and after composting was analyzed, which showed that macro and micro nutrients as well as physico - chemical features increased after vermicomposting.

K.Vasanthi, and A.J.A.Ranjit Singh; Chairman.K

2013-01-01

176

Peeled capsicum and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to peeled capsicum and a preparation method thereof. The preparation method comprises the following steps of: washing fresh capsicum cleanly, selecting green capsicum, shearing off stalks, subpackaging by using a bamboo basket, then frying the selected fresh capsicum, peeling manually, soaking by using ice water of 2 to 6 DEG C and refrigerating for 40 to 50 hours and adding the raw materials of soy sauce, sugar, salt, glycine and the like into soup boiled with lentinus edodes, then filling the refrigerated peeled capsicum and the prepared soup bases, sterilizing at the temperature of 80 to 90 DEG C for 20 to 30 minutes, pickling for 5 to 8 days and packaging by an external package and the peeled capsicum produced by using the method is fragrant, crisp and delicious, is not added with any additive and is a purely natural healthy food.

WUFEN SONG

177

Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

2009-01-01

178

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

Science.gov (United States)

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonene found to inhibit succinate and acetate generation and bacterial growth were 0.01%, 0.1%, and 0.06% (v/v), respectively. Both pre-treated orange peel by steam distillation to remove D: -limonene and intact wheat straw were used as feedstocks. Increasing the substrate concentrations of both feedstocks, from 5 to 60 g/L, elevated succinate concentration and productivity but lowered the yield. In addition, pre-treated orange peel generated greater succinate productivities than wheat straw but had similar resultant titres. The greatest succinate titres were 1.9 and 2.0 g/L for pre-treated orange peel and wheat straw, respectively. This work demonstrated that agricultural waste such as wheat straw and orange peel can be biotransformed to succinic acid by a one-step consolidated bioprocessing. Measures to increase fermentation efficiency are also discussed. PMID:20645087

Li, Qiang; Siles, Jose A; Thompson, Ian P

2010-07-20

179

Suitability of banana peels for biogas production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Banana (Musa cavendishii) peel in the ripe state (yellow with sufficient spots) has the potential to produce by anaerobic fermentation 0.22 plus or minus 0.03 cubic m biogas/kg dry material. Inhibition of the process can be prevented if the peel is pretreated by oxidation or if the process is carried out at approximately 35 degrees. The inoculate used must be acclimated to the medium.

Meseguer, C.M.; Silesky, F.; Chacon, G.

1983-01-01

180

THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF VARIETY QUAIL EGG PEELED AND A MOLD OF QUAIL EGG TO USING THAT ONE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for manufacturing peeled quail egg and a quail egg mold for the same are provided to remove the shells of quail eggs easily and quickly and reduce the amount of waste resulting from the shells. A method for manufacturing peeled quail egg comprises the steps of: blowing hot air of 30~45 C to a quail egg to sterilize and dry it(6), immersing the quail egg in edible acetic acid and peeling the outer shell(1), putting the quail egg with inner shell left in a mold(2), putting the mold containing the quail egg in water of 90~100 C to heat(3), putting the heated mold in cold water to cool(4), and taking out the boiled quail egg from the mold and peeling the inner shell(5).

LIM KI MAN

 
 
 
 
181

Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance) to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD), followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD), while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD). The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05) than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

J. Itelima; F. Onwuliri; E. Onwuliri; Isaac Onyimba; S. Oforji

2013-01-01

182

Dressing wounds with potato peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective.

Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

1996-01-01

183

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

2004-01-01

184

Glycolic acid peels versus amino fruit acid peels in the treatment of melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chemical peels are becoming more popular as a treatment modality for melasma. OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of glycolic acid (GA) peels and amino fruit acid (AFA) peels in patients with melasma. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized right-left comparison study, patients received 12 serial peels on the two halves of the face at 2-week intervals for 6 months. Clinical evaluation based on the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores was performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: The modified MASI scores at 3 and 6 months in both application areas decreased significantly from baseline (p<.05). When the two applications were compared with each other, there was no statistically significant difference between GA and AFA in terms of regression of melasma (p>.05). During the application, it was observed that AFA peels caused fewer problems than GA peels did. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, GA and AFA peels for melasma therapy were efficacious, but the AFA peel was found to be less irritating and was better tolerated.

Ilknur T; Biçak MU; Demirta?o?lu M; Ozkan S

2010-04-01

185

Report of phenol peel for Asians.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the advancement of trichloroacetic acid peel technology and wound care, trichloroacetic acid peeling has become very successful in Korea. Its success has opened studies on the possibility of using phenol on Korean skin. Dr. Mee's phenol formula (molding mask technique) was chosen for experiments on Korean skin because of the presumed safety of use on non-Caucasian skin. Between January of 1996 and January of 1998, 30 cases of significant small pox scars were treated with phenol at the Korea University Anam Hospital. The age range was from 43 to 60 years, with a mean of 49 years. The average follow-up period was 13 months, ranging from 1 month to 2 years. All of the procedures were performed in the operating room while the patient was under deep i.v. sedation. After the entire face was peeled, it was covered with an occlusive tape mask. During the recovery period, the patients underwent a post-peel skin care program. All 30 patients showed significant improvement of the severe pox marks with a marked rejuvenation effect. There was no sign of hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation. As a complication, two patients developed hypertrophic scars on the perioral area, which responded well to steroid injections. Another pair of patients had herpetic infection, which left minimal scarring. Five patients developed cardiac arrhythmia with this rapid technique, but this was safely managed by an anesthesiologist during the procedure. Korean skin belongs to Fitzpatrick types IV and V and occasionally to type III or VI. It is common knowledge that performing chemical peeling on the latter types of skin is dangerous, but in this report, excellent results were obtained from all 30 patients, even though the peeling itself was very deep. With more knowledge and experience, phenol peel can be safely conducted on Asian skin. PMID:9915186

Yoon, E S; Ahn, D S

1999-01-01

186

Extraction method of orange peel essential oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an extraction method of essential oil from citrus peel, the extraction method is characterized in that hardening liquid is prepared by taking 99.04 percent to 99.26 percent of water, 0.1 percent to 0.2 percent of sodium benzoate, 0.5 percent to 0.8 percent of calcium chloride anhydrous and 0.04 percent to 0.06 percent of sodium bisulfite 1 part of fresh citrus peel and 4 parts of the hardening liquid are further taken according to the proportion by weight, the even mixing is carried out to allow the citrus peel to be fully submerged in the hardening liquid, the time is 2 to 3 hours, the citrus peel is fished out from the hardening liquid after the completion of the soaking and crushed by using a roller crusher, the obtained citrus peel residues are directly or indirectly used as animal feeds after the drying, the mixed liquid of citrus oil and water which is obtained by crushing is filtered by using a filter net with 80 to 120 meshes, then a pipeline type high-speed centrifuge is used for separation under the rotation speed of 18000 turns/min to 20000 turns/min, the obtained water enters a sedimentation tank, big scraps are carried out the sedimentation, supernatant liquid is returned to a soaking tank of the citrus peel as hardening water, the obtained citrus oil is stored for more than 7 days at 3 DEG C to 8 DEG C, and the essential oil from the citrus peel is obtained after the filtration.

XIUGUI FANG; XUEGEN SHI; SIBIAO LI; ZHENDONG HUANG

187

Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo/ Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um sistema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % (more) substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diets were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of t (more) he treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p

Souza, R.C.; Melo, J.F.B.; Nogueira Filho, R.M.; Campeche, D.F.B.; Figueiredo, R.A.C.R.

2013-06-01

188

Evaluation of the Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrus Microcarpa Bunge (Family Rutaceae) Fruit Peel Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Damage in Male BFAD- Sprague Dawley Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Philippine Department of Health stated that liver cancer is the third common forms of cancer for both males andfemales, hence the need for more hepatoprotective agents. Silymarin, from milk thistle is the most well knownhepatoprotective agent (Prahan and Girish, 2006) but due to availability and economic concerns with the use of milkthistle other sources were explored. Fruit peels constitute a bulk in Philippine wastes. If such wastes can be used ashepatoprotective agents, then wastes will be decreased and new sources of important products may be discovered.This study aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Citrus microcarpa Bunge fruit peel extract relative to thecommercially available Silymarin preparations. The chemical components of the fruit peels were analyzed to ascertainpharmacologic value.The study used an experimental research design using BFAD- Sprague Dawley rats as subjects. The hepatoprotectiveactivity was evaluated based on changes in the liver morphology- gross examination and differences in serum liverenzyme levels- bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase(AP) within and among the groups of rats. There was a significant decrease in ALT, AST and AP levels among ratsadministered with the fruit peel extract. Silymarin significantly decreased bilirubin levels. These suggest a comparablehepatoprotective activity between Silymarin and the fruit peel extract tested. Phytochemical analysis showed that thefruit peel extract contained flavonoids, tannins, and glycosides.Quantitative analysis on the chemical components of the fruit peel extract is suggested to facilitate the study of its exactmechanism of action. Research on the protective ability of the fruit peel extract on other organ systems is recommended.It is also suggested that other chemical liver toxicity inducers be used to observe the range of hepatoprotective activity ofthe fruit peel extract studied.

Casimiro,M. F.; Gutierrez M.; Leano D. R.; Solidum J. N.

2010-01-01

189

Adsorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from aqueous solution by mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present article describes the adsorption behaviors of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel. The prepared adsorbents were characterized using Malvern Zetasizer, infrared spectrophotometer and infrared C-S analyzer. The effect of various parameters like solution pH, contact time, and initial metal ion concentration on adsorption efficiencies of these two metals were studied systematically by batch experiments. Adsorption isotherms of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on orange peel and mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel were obtained and analyzed with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The rates of adsorption of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on both adsorbents were found to follow a pseudo-second order equation, indicating their chemical adsorption. Maximum adsorption capacities of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on the mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel were found to be 70.67 and 136.05 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption-desorption studies showed that the mercapto-acetic acid modified orange peel could be used more than five cycles. This study demonstrated that, the waste orange peel after simple chemical treatment could be used as a potential adsorbent for toxic metals such as Cu2+ and Cd2+.

Liang S; Guo X; Feng N; Tian Q

2009-10-01

190

Mineral Contents of Mango Seed Kernels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mineral analysis of four commercially grown mango varieties (Maldah, Anwar Retaul, Chounsa and Dusehri) included quantitative estimations of the macronutrients and micronutrients were carried out. These results showed that K range was I1.14-1.63g %), Ca (0.1075-1.11 25g %), Na (0.0575-0.1375g %). The contents (mgMOOg) of other minerals i.e., Zn, Bi, Sr, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ni were in range of (6.10-10.20), (5.50-6.65), (1.60-1.65), (1.30-1.70), (0.70-1.20), (0.70-1.00), (0.30-0.60), (0.35-0.70), (0.20-1.55), (0.05-0.65) and (0.05-0.35) respectively. The variations in the contents of different minerals may be due to the change in soil composition, climatic conditions and varietal differences in parent trees. However, present studies are helpful to assess the food value of mango seed kernels particularly with regard to mineral contents.

Muhammad Aslam Shad; Abdul-Rehman; Khalid Daud

2001-01-01

191

Seca da mangueira Mango-blight  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em Campinas, a Seca do mangueira (Mangifera indica L.) é causada pelo fungo Ceratostomella fimbriata, associado a Hypothenemus plumeriae, broca semelhante à do café, O inseto abre furos nos tecidos sadios e pode levor ou não o patógeno. Quando o potógeno é levado às partes mais verdes, suculentas de mangueira, a murcha ocorre cerca de 10-15 dias após, e os tecidos recentemente mortos são colonizados por Hypothenemus plumeriae. A moléstia parece ser idêntica ao "Mal do Recife".Mango-blight in Campinas is caused by Ceratostomella fimbriata. When green parts of branches of healthy mango plants were inoculated with cultures of the tungus, blight appeared after 10-15 days and the rotten tissues were colonized by Hypothenemus plumeriae, an insect closely related to the caffee-borer. The insect may or may not be a vector of the disease when opening galleries in healthy branches. The disease seems to be identical to the "mal do Recife" (4). Perithecia are produced in diseased tissues. Asei of the fungus are provided with a delicate, evanescent wall. There is no endogenous wall in the asci as claimed by Andrus and Harrer (2). Protoperithecia when crushed under a cover-slip in a drop of eosin show eosinophil asci with a clear cut wall, and four 2-septate ascospores.

A. P. Viégas

1960-01-01

192

Development of an ingredient containing apple peel, as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apple peel is a waste product from dried apple manufacture. The content of phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and mineral are higher in apple peel, compared to other edible parts of this fruits. The objective of this study was to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel, using a pilot scale double drum-dryer, as drying technology. The control of all steps to maximize the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber was considered. Operational conditions, such as drying temperature and time were determined, as well as important preprocessing steps like grinding and PPO inhibition. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics, mineral and sugar content, and technological functional properties such as water retention capacity, solubility index, and dispersability among others, were analyzed. A simple, economical, and suitable pilot scale process, to produce a powder ingredient from apple peel by-product, was obtained. The drying process includes the application of ascorbic acid at 0.5% in the fresh apple peel slurry, drum-dryer operational conditions were 110 degrees C, 0.15 rpm and 0.2 mm drum clearance. The ingredient developed could be considered as a source of phenolic compounds (38.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry base) and dietary fiber (39.7% dry base) in the formulation of foods. Practical Application: A method to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel using a pilot scale double drum-dryer as drying technology was developed. The method is simple, economical, feasible, and suitable and maximizes the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber present in the raw matter. The ingredient could be used in the formulation of foods. PMID:20722929

Henríquez, Carolina; Speisky, Hernán; Chiffelle, Italo; Valenzuela, Tania; Araya, Manuel; Simpson, Ricardo; Almonacid, Sergio

2010-08-01

193

Development of an ingredient containing apple peel, as a source of polyphenols and dietary fiber.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apple peel is a waste product from dried apple manufacture. The content of phenolic compounds, dietary fiber, and mineral are higher in apple peel, compared to other edible parts of this fruits. The objective of this study was to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel, using a pilot scale double drum-dryer, as drying technology. The control of all steps to maximize the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber was considered. Operational conditions, such as drying temperature and time were determined, as well as important preprocessing steps like grinding and PPO inhibition. In addition, the physical-chemical characteristics, mineral and sugar content, and technological functional properties such as water retention capacity, solubility index, and dispersability among others, were analyzed. A simple, economical, and suitable pilot scale process, to produce a powder ingredient from apple peel by-product, was obtained. The drying process includes the application of ascorbic acid at 0.5% in the fresh apple peel slurry, drum-dryer operational conditions were 110 degrees C, 0.15 rpm and 0.2 mm drum clearance. The ingredient developed could be considered as a source of phenolic compounds (38.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry base) and dietary fiber (39.7% dry base) in the formulation of foods. Practical Application: A method to develop an ingredient from Granny Smith apple peel using a pilot scale double drum-dryer as drying technology was developed. The method is simple, economical, feasible, and suitable and maximizes the retention of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber present in the raw matter. The ingredient could be used in the formulation of foods.

Henríquez C; Speisky H; Chiffelle I; Valenzuela T; Araya M; Simpson R; Almonacid S

2010-08-01

194

Peel strength in the Cu/Cr/polyimide system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the microelectronics industry, the adhesion strength of thin metal films to dielectric substrate is often measured by the peel test and the peel strength is directly related to the interfacial fracture resistance. In order to understand the effects of plastic deformation and the interfacial fracture energy on the peel strength, thickness of the metal layer and the pretreatment conditions of polyimide were varied in the Cu/Cr/polyimide system. The work expenditure during the peel test was estimated using the stress strain curves of metal films, X-ray measurements of the plastic strain in the peeled films, and the elastoplastic beam analysis. Results indicate that the peel strength is strongly affected by the film thickness and the pretreatment condition in a synergistic way, and that the measured peel strength is more a measure of the plastic deformation during the peel test than a measure of the true interfacial energy.

Park, I.S.; Yu, J.; Park, Y.B. [KAIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1997-05-01

195

Mango varieties “espada”, “rosa” and tommy atkins: bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentialMangas das variedades espada, rosa e tommy atkins: compostos bioativos e potencial antioxidante  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids and evaluate the antioxidant potential of mango varieties “Espada”, “Rosa” and Tommy Atkins. The fruits were ground to obtain the fresh pulp and waste resulting was dried, crushed to pass through sieve. Hydroacetone, hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts, obtained through sequential extraction procedure from pulp and dehydrated waste were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging. The “espada” and Tommy Atkins mango showed similar levels of total carotenoids, however less than Rosa mango. The Tommy Atkins mango exhibited the lowest content of ascorbic acid and the espada mango the highest level of phenolic compounds. The extract hydroacetone (pulp and dehydrated waste) exhibited a strong free radical scavenging capacity ( > 80%).O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de ácido ascórbico, carotenóides e fenólicos totais e avaliar o potencial antioxidante de mangas das variedades Espada, Rosa e Tommy Atkins. As frutas foram desintegradas para obtenção da polpa, os resíduos resultantes desidratados, triturados e tamisados. Extratos hidroacetônico, hidrometanólico e aquoso, obtidos por processo de extração sequencial a partir da polpa fresca e do resíduo desidratado foram submetidos à determinação da capacidade de seqüestro do radical DPPH. A manga Espada e a Tommy Atkins apresentaram teor de carotenóides totais semelhante entre si, porém inferior ao da manga Rosa. A manga Tommy Atkins exibiu o menor teor de ácido ascórbico e a Espada o maior teor de fenólicos totais. O extrato hidroacetônico da polpa e do resíduo exibiu uma forte capacidade de seqüestro (superior a 80%).

Enayde de Almeida Melo; Cristiane Rodrigues de Araújo

2011-01-01

196

Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulações, desencadeiam o peeling superficial, médio e profundo. O fenol tem sido utilizado como peeling profundo tanto isoladamente como em associação com outros componentes da fórmula que atuam como promotores de penetração e permeação. A utilização desses produtos resulta no processo de renovação celular intenso, normalizando a pigmentação da pele, atenuando marcas e minimizando as rugas. Devido a sua toxicidade e contra-indicações, o fenol deve ser aplicado cuidadosamente segundo a técnica recomendada, e o paciente deve ser monitorado para se obter a máxima eficácia do peeling e também minimizar os efeitos sistêmicos.The natural aging of facial skin is a source of preoccupation for many, who seek out the aid of a specialized physician to minimize its signs. The skin's youthfulness can be obtained using chemical peeling made from various active substances such as glycolic, retinoic, and trichloroacetic acids and phenol. These substances proportion cutaneous exfoliation with subsequent cellular renovation. Depending on the formula concentration and pH value, peelings may be superficial, medium or deep. Phenol has been used in deep peeling. It is the main component of the Baker/Gordon formula, as well as other formula substances acting as penetration and permeation promoters. The use of these active substances results in an intensive process of cellular renovation. It decreases wrinkles, softens the presence of dark spots and gives the skin a youthful appearance. Due to its toxicity and side effects, phenol should be used carefully. Technical steps must be followed. The patient should be monitored in order to obtain maximum effectiveness from the peeling, thereby minimizing effects on the systemic functions.

Maria Valéria Robles Velasco; Fernanda Rumi Okubo; Maria Elizette Ribeiro; Denise Steiner; Valcenir Bedin

2004-01-01

197

Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol/ Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são emp (more) regados nas formulações, desencadeiam o peeling superficial, médio e profundo. O fenol tem sido utilizado como peeling profundo tanto isoladamente como em associação com outros componentes da fórmula que atuam como promotores de penetração e permeação. A utilização desses produtos resulta no processo de renovação celular intenso, normalizando a pigmentação da pele, atenuando marcas e minimizando as rugas. Devido a sua toxicidade e contra-indicações, o fenol deve ser aplicado cuidadosamente segundo a técnica recomendada, e o paciente deve ser monitorado para se obter a máxima eficácia do peeling e também minimizar os efeitos sistêmicos. Abstract in english The natural aging of facial skin is a source of preoccupation for many, who seek out the aid of a specialized physician to minimize its signs. The skin's youthfulness can be obtained using chemical peeling made from various active substances such as glycolic, retinoic, and trichloroacetic acids and phenol. These substances proportion cutaneous exfoliation with subsequent cellular renovation. Depending on the formula concentration and pH value, peelings may be superficial, (more) medium or deep. Phenol has been used in deep peeling. It is the main component of the Baker/Gordon formula, as well as other formula substances acting as penetration and permeation promoters. The use of these active substances results in an intensive process of cellular renovation. It decreases wrinkles, softens the presence of dark spots and gives the skin a youthful appearance. Due to its toxicity and side effects, phenol should be used carefully. Technical steps must be followed. The patient should be monitored in order to obtain maximum effectiveness from the peeling, thereby minimizing effects on the systemic functions.

Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Okubo, Fernanda Rumi; Ribeiro, Maria Elizette; Steiner, Denise; Bedin, Valcenir

2004-02-01

198

Residual fate of the fungicide tetraconazole (4% EW) in mango.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field trial was carried out to understand the persistence behaviour of tetraconazole in mango and also in the soil of mango orchard following five applications @ 50 g a.i./ha (T(1)) and 100 g a.i./ha (T(2)). The initial deposits were found to be 0.23 and 0.38 ?g/g for T(1) and T(2) doses. The theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) of tetraconazole in dietary exposure appeared to be toxicologically safe for consumption as compared with maximum permissible intake (MPI). The half-life values of tetraconazole in mango were in the range of 4-5 days. The harvest samples of mango and soil were free from tetraconazole residues.

Alam S; Kole RK; Bhattacharyya A

2011-10-01

199

Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author).

1989-01-01

200

Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

1974-01-01

202

Sensory evaluation of irradiated mangoes for insect disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensory evaluation was conducted on irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes 'Num Dok Mai' Variety at the dose of 0, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 kGy (Dose uniformity = 1.55) stored at 18 ± 1 degree C and 27 ± 1 degree C for 3, 7, 9 and 15 days after irradiation. Nine point hedonic scale method was applied. No significant difference between irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes in colour, o dour, flavour and texture was found at 3, 7 and 9 days after irradiation, and the means were rather high. Fifteen days after irradiation, both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes that stored at 27 ± 1 degree C were too rot to eat, on the other hand, only irradiated mangoes that stored at 18 ± 1 degree C were non significant difference in colour, o dour, flavour and texture, however the means were rather high also. This experiment could be summarized that the panel list accepted the irradiated mangoes at the dose of 1.16 - 1.79 kGy, stored at 18 ± 1 degree C, 15 days after irradiation. This dosage could kill the adult mango seed weevil (L D99 = 1.39 kGy)

1996-01-01

203

Storage Studies of Jam Prepared from Different Mango Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Six mango varieties i.e. Chaunsa, Dusehri, Langra, Anwar Ratol, Malda and Fajri were subjected to physicochemical analysis to assess their suitability for jam preparation Storage stability of jam from selected mango varieties (Chaunsa, Dusehri and Anwar Ratol) was also investigated at ambient temperature (25±3°C) and relative humidity 60±6%. Fajri mango had the highest pulp content (77.62%) while Anwar Ratol pulp had the highest total soluble solids (21.9 °Brix), brix/acid ratio (43.80), reducing sugars (5.03%) and total sugars (18.20%). Mango jams were prepared and analyzed for physicochemical, microbial and sensory parameters at 30 days storage interval for 150 days. Anwar Ratol jam had the highest total soluble solids (68.20°Brix), brix/acid ratio (101.79), reducing sugars (19.88%) and total sugars (60.14%) whereas Chaunsa jam had the highest acidity (0.71%) and lowest pH (3.52). No detectable yeast and mold and negligible total viable count were observed in all mango jam samples during 150 days storage period. Sensory evaluation results revealed that Dusehri jam was ranked highest and more acceptable than others. However, all mango jams remained organoleptically acceptable after 150 days storage.

Muhammad Naeem Safdar; Amer Mumtaz; Tabassum Hameed; Nouman Siddiqui; Samina Khalil; Muhammad Amjad

2012-01-01

204

Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m2 for 1.5-1.7 ?m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: ? Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. ? Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. ? Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. ? Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. ? The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m2.

2012-03-30

205

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

206

78 FR 39564 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Document No. AMS-FV-12-0041] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...SUMMARY: This document amends the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...Jeanette Palmer, Marketing Specialist, Promotion and Economics Division, Fruit and...

2013-07-02

207

76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase  

Science.gov (United States)

...Document No. AMS-FV-11-0021] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...rule proposes amendment of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2011-05-10

208

78 FR 8441 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Nominations of Foreign Producers and Election...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Document No. AMS-FV-12-0041] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...accordance to the provisions of the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2013-02-06

209

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1). Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

S.T. Ubwa; B.A. Anhwange; J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

210

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

2010-01-01

211

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

1991-01-01

212

Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to < 5 cfu/g. Forty-seven percent of the 73 colonies, isolated as coliforms on the basis of their colony morphology on violet red bile agar, were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

O'Connor-Shaw RE; Guthrie JA; Dunlop KJ; Roberts

1995-03-01

213

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

1991-06-15

214

Chemical peels for melasma in dark-skinned patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a well-known modality of treatment for melasma, having shown promising results in many clinical trials. However, in darker races, the choice of the peeling agent becomes relatively limited; so, there is the need for priming agents and additional maintenance peels. Although a number of new agents have come up, there is little published evidence supporting their use in day-to -day practice. The traditional glycolic peels prove to be the best both in terms of safety as well as efficacy. Lactic acid peels being relatively inexpensive and having shown equally good results in a few studies, definitely need further experimentation. We also recommend the use of a new peeling agent, the easy phytic solution, which does not require neutralisation unlike the traditional alpha-hydroxy peels. The choice of peeling agent, the peel concentration as well as the frequency and duration of peels are all important to achieve optimum results.

Sarkar R; Bansal S; Garg VK

2012-10-01

215

THREE FERMENTED WINES IN SAME FORMULA - DON ROBERTO'S SWEET (YELLOW) MANGO WINE, (DRY) GREEN MANGO WINE AND BREWED COFFEE WINE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention and discovery relates to Alcoholic Beverages and more particularly to Fermented Fruit Wines & Fermented Coffee Bean Wine directly extracted form the Philippine sweet- yellow Carabao Mangos; green Carabao Mangos & Cavite Coffee Beans. This invention and discovery brings forth the birth of the first Mango wine & first Brewed Coffee Wine in the world ! With the use of only one (1) Procedure, Process and Formula three (3) Fermented Wines will be introduced in the global market namely : Don Roberto's sweet (yellow) Mango Wine ; Don Roberto's green (dry) Mango Wine; Don Roberto's brewed (dry) Coffee Wine. All of the above Fermented Wines were produced in the most natural way and likewise Fermented in Polycarbonate Plastic Containers to arrive at Zero Percent (0%) Methanol Alcohol, a very harmful Alcohol for human bodies which is produced by wooden barrels during Fermentation. Solely about 12.5% Ethanol (Ethyl) Alcohol is present in all of the above mentioned Fermented Wines which had been tested and verified by Standards testing Division of the Industrial technology Development Institute of the Department of Science and Technology of the Philippines. Series of boiling and filtration is done to ensure the most exquisite quality in all Wines. No distillation is done to preserve the raw, natural and authentic Mango and Coffee characteristics flavours. Careful selection of fruits and beans is done to ensure that only the best choices used in the production of the wine. It is therefore, the primary object of this invention and discovery to provide the finest and the most exquisite fermented Wine - the First Mango Wine & Brewed Coffee Wine in the world!

CASTAÑEDA Roberto R.

216

Competitividad de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Michoacán/ Mango (Mangifera indica L.) production competitiveness at Michoacan  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competido (more) res, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos. Abstract in english Mexico has been the leading import supplier of mango with an import market share of 56 percent for mangoes to USA. Since 2000, however, other countries, such as Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Belize, have also increased their share of the growing U.S. import market for this fruit. Michoacán is one of the more important Mexican producers. Due to the importance of this product, the research objective was to analyze the competitiveness of Mexican mango in front of its main comp (more) etitors and to analyze the profitability in the region. The Mexican competitiveness at international level was estimated with the Indices of Revealed Competitive Advantage. At regional level, the profitability was estimating in 214 farms. Mexico has competitiveness with a negative tendency in relationship to Brazil and India. Mangoes are profitable for the region; nevertheless, the utilities are low due to the high costs per tons and low productivity.

Ayala-Garay, A. V.; Almaguer-Vargas, G.; De la Trinidad-Pérez, N. K.; Caamal-Cauich, I.; Rendón, R.

2009-08-01

217

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil) Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy the orchestrated properties above. Consequent on the foregoing Aluminum – steel (Galvanized foil) laminate bonds were prepared using Araldite Rapid (an Epoxy Adhesive) as the bonding agent. The specimens were subjected to Peel Test on the Mosanto Tensometer. Outcome of investigation revealed that a mode of failure was by the Steel foil simply peeling off the Aluminum piece along the bond film; much strength was needed to initiate the peel, after which little strength was needed per elongation and that the ends of the laminate carried 63.8% of the total load.

Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

2010-01-01

218

Addition of Tomato Peel and Seed to Tomato Ketchup for Improving Its Nutritional Value and Rheological Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, tomato peel and waste seed obtained from tomato paste processing were dried and milled. The obtained powder was added to tomato ketchup sauce in different proportions (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10%). To study the effect of tomato peel and seed powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the tomato ketchup samples, the parameters including lycopen, total solid, brix, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein, fat, ash, fiber, vitamin C, pH, color (L, a/b) were evaluated. Rheological properties of the ketchup samples (consistency and viscosity) were determined and compared with control samples. Sensory evaluation of the ketchup samples was carried out after 1, 2 and 5 months of storage by a group of panelists. Addition of tomato peel and seed powder resulted in an increase in total solid, brix, ash, fiber, protein, fat, consistency and viscosity of the ketchup samples. Sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant difference between the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the control and samples containing 1 or 2 % of tomato peel and seed powder. In addition, sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant changes in the ketchup samples during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that nutritional and rheological properties of tomato ketchup can be improved by addition of tomato peel and seed powder.

GH Mesbahi; A Abasi; J Jalali; A Farahnaki

2009-01-01

219

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

Ketnawa S; Chaiwut P; Rawdkuen S

2011-08-01

220

Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ?28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries. PMID:21813595

Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

2011-08-03

 
 
 
 
221

Ensilage of pineapple processing waste for methane generation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pineapple peel wastes, which are seasonal, comprise of peels and rags. Their disposal poses a serious environmental pollution problem. Since pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates it was found to be a potential substrate for methane generation by anaerobic digestion. Ensilaging of pineapple peel resulted in the conversion of 55% carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids. The ensilage of pineapple processing wastes reduced the biological oxygen demand by 91%. Biogas digester fed with ensilaged pineapple peel resulted in the biogas yield of 0.67 m3/kg volatile solids (VS) added with methane content of 65% whereas fresh and dried pineapple peels gave biogas yields of 0.55% and 0.41 m3/kg VS added and methane content of 51% and 41% respectively.

Rani DS; Nand K

2004-01-01

222

Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).

Kanatt SR; Chander R; Radhakrishna P; Sharma A

2005-03-01

223

Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

2005-03-01

224

Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

Puri, Neerja

2012-01-01

225

Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner's armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. OBJECTIVES: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. RESULTS: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. CONCLUSIONS: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

Puri N

2012-05-01

226

MAGICdb - Mango Genetic stocks Identification and Characterisation database.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MAGICdb is a unique database that integrates the morphological, fruit quality and the marker data of most popular and widely cultivated commercially important mango cultivars. The main objective of MAGICdb is to provide the end users with an integrated dataset of each mango variety cultivated widely in Tamil Nadu. MAGICdb structure is categorized in to three domains namely Morphological Data Search, Fruit Quality Search and Marker Search which in further contains details on Tree Character, Bearing Habit, Season of fruiting, Number of inflorescence/Sq.m, Percentage of hermaphrodite flower(%), Fruit set percentage(%), Number of fruits/ tree, Fruit weight (g) and, Yield (Kg/ tree). This database is equipped with a user friendly interface enabling the users to retrieve the information with ease. Database is available at http://www.tnaugenomics.com/mango/index.php.

Asaithambi D; Natesan S; Venkatesan V; Muthuraja R; Muthusamy K; Vinayagam P

2013-01-01

227

Preservation of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica, L.) Slices in Darfur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sun drying of 'Kitchiner', 'Alphonse' and 'Dibsha' mango (Mangifera indica, L.) cultivars grown in Darfur, Sudan was conducted to enhance durability, utilization of mango fruits and to reduce the cost of transportation and storage. Slices were soaked in cane-sugar, lime-juice and sodium chloride. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were measured initially and every three months. After six months, sensory acceptance of dried slices was determined for the attributes of aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptance using a hedonic scale. Sugar and lime-juice were found good soaking solutions. Treated slices retained 53-78% of their original ascorbic acid after six months of storage. Panel test showed that dried slices of 'Kitchiner' were the most acceptable. Cane treated samples gave higher scores than lime or salt treated samples based on colour, flavour, taste and texture and is suggested as preservative material for mango slices.

Omer Khidir Ahmed; Soad El-Tayeb Ahmed

2012-01-01

228

Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper presents the core-centric programming model for establishing and using GS connections in MANGO. We show how OCP transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system

Bjerregaard, Tobias; SparsØ, Jens

2006-01-01

229

Effects on storage life and quality of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Investigations on the effect of irradiation at 50 Krad, hot water treatment at 55 degC 5 min and hot water treatment followed by irradiation were carried out on the mature green Keaw mango to eradicate anthracnose disease development and delay ripening. Before introducing all treatments, mangoes were inoculated by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. All samples were determined after stored at 10 +- 2 degC and at 85% RH for 3 weeks. No difference in disease control between untreated and irradiated batches, but fruits treated with hot water followed by irradiation were significantly different from untreated ones. All treatments were effective in delaying ripening. Higher dosage of irradiation with a combination of hot water treatment was studied on colour break Pimsen Prure mango and 75 Krad after hot water treatment proved to be promising. Further study is being conducted

1982-01-00

230

Molecular characterization of mango anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is an important fungal pathogen which causes mango anthracnose in subtropical countries. We have developed a rapid, sensitive and cost effective method for detection and management of mango diseases. We have isolated and identified 25 isolates of C. gloeosporioides sensu lato from different agro-ecological regions of India. A new set of primers were designed to target the conserved region of 5.8S+ITS2 and ?-tubulin (Tub2) for specific and rapid detection of C. gloeosporioides. The sensitivity of newly designed primers against 5.8S+ITS2 and Tub2 genes was 2 pg and 2 ng, respectively. ERIC-PCR was also used for fingerprinting of C. gloeosporioides that could be useful for discrimination at species and strain levels. These finding provide a new insight for molecular diagnostic and fingerprinting of C. gloeosporioides for better management of mango anthracnose.

Singh V; Mishra RK; Mathew AJ; Pandey BK

2013-05-01

231

Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.). Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.). The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

Murillo Freire Júnior; Adimilson Bosco Chitarra

1999-01-01

232

Low sugariness orange peel jam and its making method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses an orange peel sauce with low sweetness, wherein the raw materials comprise (by weight parts) fresh orange pulp 30-40 parts, fresh orange peel 4-8 parts, pure liquid sugar 55-65 parts, pectin 0.1-0.5 part, lemon acid 0.2-0.6 part. The preparing process comprises the steps of removing bitterness and balancing the sugar content in shredded orange peel.

LIU YINGNAN WANG

233

Moisture Desorption Isotherms for Fresh and Osmotically Treated Mangoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desorption isotherms of fresh and osmotically treated mangoes have been measured at 25, 35 and 45 ° C by the static method using a Novasina manometer. A non-linear regression program was used to fit three moisture sorption isotherm models, Modified-Halsey; Modified-Henderson and Modified-Oswin to the experimental data. The Modified-Henderson and the Modified-Oswin models gave the best fit for moisture desorption isotherms for fresh and osmotically treated mangoes, respectively. The osmotic pretreatment affected the graphical form of the desorption isotherms because of biopolymer binding at low aw values and dissolution of sucrose at high aw values.

Pheeraya Chottanom; Singhanant Phoungchandang

2005-01-01

234

Screening of antagonistic microorganisms of the pathogens in mango  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antagonistic effect of nineten strains of antagonistic microorganisms on the growth of Colletotrichum gloesporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae on mango were studied. The growth of these two pathogens was strongly suppressed by X-98-2 and the incidence of mango anthracnose and stem-end rot disease was reduced, which helpful in raising storage life and improving fruit quality. Based on preliminary identification, it belongs to Bacillus. Based on GC/MS analysis, it was found that aminoglycoside antibiotic is a key component that inhibits the growth of the two pathogens in the fermentation extact of Baiillus sp. X-98-2.

Yang Shengyuan; Chen Guiguang; Xiao Gongnian; Liang Zhiqun

2004-01-01

235

Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757.

Sankar Jagarlamudi; Rosaiah G; Rajasekhar Pinnamaneni; Ravi Kumar Kurapati

2011-01-01

236

Assessment Keys for Some Important Diseases of Mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangifera indica L., the most important tropical fruit is subjected to a number of disease at all stages of its development. Practical, efficient and accurate assessment of disease intensity is a major concern of plant pathologist. At present time there is no general up-to-date precise information`s available to asses the mango diseases. This paper provides over 9 key`s for the assessment of important mango diseases. All of which have been prepared from the literature used by different researchers and author for their research work. So this publication will be an indispensable guide line for the pathologist and other related persons.

Khalid P. Akhtar; S. S. Alam

2002-01-01

237

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles) acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combining the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm) at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC) during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1) was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos), todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm), a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC) durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem.

Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de Azeredo; Fátima Beatriz Silva de Araújo; Deborah dos Santos Garruti; Ana Amélia Martins Queiroz; Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra Pinto

2005-01-01

238

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology/ Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos), todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade d (more) e água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm), a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC) durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem. Abstract in english Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles) acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combining the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes o (more) f approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm) at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC) during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1) was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.

Azeredo, Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de; Araújo, Fátima Beatriz Silva de; Garruti, Deborah dos Santos; Queiroz, Ana Amélia Martins; Pinto, Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra

2005-04-01

239

Removal of peel oil from citrus peel press liquors before anaerobic digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aeration of the press liquors from citrus peel for periods up to 9 days permitted growth of limonene-degrading and other microorganisms present in the liquors. Reduction in oil levels to 0.01% (w/v) occurred within 6-8 hours, due to evaporation or stripping of the oil, rather than to microbial degradation. (Refs. 5).

Lane, A.G.

1983-02-01

240

MAPPING DEMETHYLATED BLOCK SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION IN PECTIN FROM CITRUS PROCESSING WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus processing waste stream is composed mainly of the fruit peel and any rag tissue (segment membranes, core tissue) remaining after juice extraction. Current practice is to convert this waste material to citrus peel pellets (CPP) which are marketed as a low priced animal feed. For the 2002...

 
 
 
 
241

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali), Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna), Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant) on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P.), its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide) for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrapali) followed by Rad, Mallika, BARI mango-1 and BARI mango-2 and the lowest infestation of 13.78 and 18.55% found in Langra and Gopalbhog followed by Kazla-01 and Khirsapath. The other three varieties sustained 27.49-30.64 % leaf damage. To control the mango leaf cutting weevil bagging with mosquito net and bagging with polythin bag had the best performance with 100% reduction of leaf infestation followed by spraying of Ripcord. Spraying of Decis caused 82.23 % reduction of leaf damage followed by Sevin, Azodrin and Diazinon with the least control efficiency of Sumithion.

M. A. Uddin; M. S. Islam; M. A. Rahman; M. M. Begum; A. T. M. Hasanuzzaman

2003-01-01

242

Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo/ Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A manga (Mangifera indica L.) é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância para o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, (more) Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill) da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g), maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %), menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 %) e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix). Abstract in english The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, (more) Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill) from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST) and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g), larger pulp percentage (85,7%), smaller pit percentage (6,3%) and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix), adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

Galli, Juliana Altafin; Michelotto, Marcos Doniseti; Silveira, Luis Cláudio Paterno; Martins, Antônio Lúcio Melo

2008-01-01

243

Lemon peel oil extract as mosquito larvicide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tests on lemon peel oil extract as a mosquito larvicide were carried out. The oil was found to be toxic on larvae, pupae and eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus. The oil also fulfilled other required specifications like suitable specific gravity, spreading pressure and viscosity. It was also toxic at a wide pH range, stable to heat and light in terms of chemical change which could alter larvicidal action. However, it was volatile and did not form a permanent film on water surfaces for long periods. This affected the larvicidal action.

Mwaiko GL; Savaeli ZX

1994-12-01

244

Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications.

Jayaprakasha GK; Negi PS; Sikder S; Rao LJ; Sakariah KK

2000-11-01

245

Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

246

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs.

1992-01-01

247

Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

248

Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

249

Control of mango anthracnose by hot water and fungicides treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following harvest, mango (cv. Dashehari) fruits were treated with hot water at 52

OM PRAKASH and B. K. PANDEY

250

Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

2007-01-01

251

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the inducti...

J.A. Solis-Fuentes; M.R. Hernandez-Medel; M.C. Duran-de-Bazua

252

Internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is effective and cost effective compared with no peeling in patients with idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness maculay hole (FTMH). METHODS: This was a pragmatic multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants from nine centers were randomized to ILM peeling or no peeling (1:1 ratio) in addition to phacovitrectomy, including detachment and removal of the posterior hyaloid and gas tamponade. The primary outcome was distance visual acuity (VA) at 6 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes included hole closure, distance VA at other time points, near VA, contrast sensitivity, reading speed, reoperations, complications, resource use, and participant-reported health status, visual function, and costs. RESULTS: Of 141 participants randomized in nine centers, 127 (90%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Nonstatistically significant differences in distance visual acuity at 6 months were found between groups (mean difference, 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.3 to 9.8; P = 0.063). There was a significantly higher rate of hole closure in the ILM-peel group (56 [84%] vs. 31 [48%]) at 1 month (odds ratio [OR], 6.23; 95% CI, 2.64-14.73; P < 0.001) with fewer reoperations (8 [12%] vs. 31 [48%]) performed by 6 months (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.05-0.34; P < 0.001). Peeling the ILM is likely to be cost effective. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of a difference in distance VA after the ILM peeling and no-ILM peeling techniques. An important benefit in favor of no ILM peeling was ruled out. Given the higher anatomic closure and lower reoperation rates in the ILM-peel group, ILM peeling seems to be the treatment of choice for idiopathic stage 2 to 3 FTMH. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00286507.).

Lois N; Burr J; Norrie J; Vale L; Cook J; McDonald A; Boachie C; Ternent L; McPherson G

2011-03-01

253

Single cell protein production from mandarin orange peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40/sup 0/C,24 h)produced 0.59 g g/sup -1/ reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120/sup 0/C with 0.8 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (gg/sup -1/)were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30/sup 0/C using 100 g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts.

Nishio, N.; Nagai, S.

1981-01-01

254

Guidelines for chemical peeling in Japan (3rd edition).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical peeling may be defined as the therapies, procedures and techniques used for the treatment of certain cutaneous diseases or conditions, and for aesthetic improvement. The procedures include the application of one or more chemical agents to the skin. Chemical peeling has been very popular in both medical and aesthetic fields. Because neither its scientific background is well understood nor a systematic approach established, medical and social problems have taken place. This prompted us to establish and distribute a standard guideline of care for chemical peeling. Previous guidelines such as the 2001 and 2004 versions included minimum standards of care such as indications, chemicals, applications, and any associated precautions, including post-peeling care. The principles in this updated version of chemical peeling are as follows: (i) chemical peeling should be performed under the strict technical control and responsibility of a physician; (ii) the physician should have sufficient knowledge of the structure and physiology of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and understand the mechanisms of wound-healing induced by chemical peeling; (iii) the physician should be board-certified in an appropriate specialty such as dermatology; and (iv) the ultimate judgment regarding the appropriateness of any specific chemical peeling procedure must be made by the physician while considering all standard therapeutic protocols, which should be presented to each individual patient. Keeping these concepts in mind, this new version of the guidelines includes a more scientific and detailed approach from the viewpoint of evidence-based medicine.

2012-04-01

255

Ethanol from orange processing waste  

Science.gov (United States)

Greater than 90 percent of the oranges produced in Florida are processed for juice production and produce approximately 3.5 billion pounds of waste annually consisting of peel, segment membranes and seeds. The bulk of this waste material is dried and sold as a cattlefeed by-product, often at a prod...

256

Transportation and storage studies on irradiated Alphonso mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Control as well as skin coated (6% ''Myvacet'') and/or irradiated (25 to 35 krad) mangoes were packed in baskets in dry paddy straw and shipped by rail. After a storage at a temperature of 25 to 320C for a period of 8 days, the baskets were shipped back. After receipt in the laboratory the fruits were kept under observation for 5 more days and then scored for ripening and marketability as assessed by appearance, skin gloss and typical flavour. 100 per cent of fruits skin-coated and irradiated were marketable at the end of the experiment. None of the unirradiated control fruits were saleable by this time, while 66%, of the irradiated fruits were in acceptable condition. In further experiments one dozen mangoes each from control, irradiated and skin-coated and irradiated groups were wrapped individually in tissue paper and packed tightly in a plyweed box. This consignment was air-lifted from Bombay to Budapest, a distance of about 5600 kilometers. The time interval between irradiation and their receipt in Hungary was 4 days. The mangoes were assessed for their storage characteristics by various parameters that included physiological loss in weight, puncture resistance of the skin, pulp texture, carotenoids, acidity and organoleptic attributes, at various periods during storage. It was found that ripening and senescence are strikingly delayed in mangoes by skin-coating and radiation treatment. The treated mangoes retained their skin-resistance while the disappearance of chlorophyl and formation of carotenoids were substantially delayed. Weight loss in storage was lower and reduction of acidity and formation of sugars in the fruit flesh took place later. Organoleptically, the fruits subjected to the combination treatment were good. These studies point to the feasibility of the combination treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fruits significantly to enable their transport to distant countries. (F.G.)

1972-01-01

257

Microstructure and vacuum impregnation response of citrus peels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vacuum impregnation (VI) technique represents a good choice for developing high quality peel products or food ingredients, taking advantage of their interesting composition, increasing their sweetness and improving their sensory acceptance. Vacuum impregnation response of citrus peels (orange, mandarin, lemon, grapefruit) were analysed using different isotonic solutions. Sample deformation and impregnation levels in line with pressure changes have been determined. Peel microstructure has also been analysed (by Cryo-SEM) before and after the VI process. Results reflect a high capacity of impregnation (45-70% of initial sample volume) and swelling (12-33% of initial sample volume) of the peels. The great porosity of the albedo zone is responsible for this behaviour. In this zone, the great intercellular spaces can be flooded by an external solution, and this makes the citrus peels highly suitable to obtain new products with improved functionality and sensory acceptance.

Chafer M; Gonzalez-Martinez C; Chiralt A; Fito P

2003-01-01

258

Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

2013-01-01

259

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

260

Molecular diversity and genetic relationships of mango germplasm from Chiapas, Mexico/ Diversidad molecular y relaciones genéticas de germoplasma de mango de Chiapas, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La mayor parte de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Chiapas, México, se localiza en la región Soconusco, donde se ha detectado una gran diversidad morfológica y genética, que se debe a la polinización libre entre plantas. La caracterización e identificación de plantas excepcionales puede ser útil para la conservación de la diversidad del mango, así como para su uso en el cultivo del mango. Se recolectaron 41 accesiones de mango en cinco localidade (more) s (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) en el estado de Chiapas, México, que se sometieron a análisis AFLP y después se compararon con 19 variedades cultivadas de mango. El análisis AFLP indicó altos niveles de polimorfismo entre las accesiones (> 84 %). El análisis AMOVA indicó una diferenciación genética significativa (F ST = 0.23743) entre y dentro las accesiones de mango. El análisis de agrupamiento arrojó dos grupos: las accesiones de Chiapas y los mangos Ataulfo se relacionan cercanamente a los cultivares Manila, Carabao, Amini y Cambodiana, nativas de Asia; y los mangos mexicanos y no mexicanos cultivados a partir del Banco de Germoplasma. Mangifera odorata fue distinta a todas las otras muestras de M. indica. La heterocigosidad más alta se encontró en mangos de Tuxtla Chico (0.260) y Escuintla (0.254). Las diferencias genéticas entre accesiones y cultivares se asociaron con su origen geográfico e indicaron nueva diversidad genética de los mangos de Chiapas debido a la polinización libre y el uso de plantas recombinantes. Abstract in english Most of mango (Mangifera indica L.) production in Chiapas, México is located at Soconusco region where a large morphological and genetic diversity have been detected due the free-pollination among plants. The characterization and identification of outstanding plants can be useful for mango diversity conservation as well as the use for mango breeding. Forty-one local mango accessions collected in five locations (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) (more) in the state of Chiapas, México, were subjected to AFLP analysis and then compared with 19 mango cultivars. AFLP analysis indicated high levels of polymorphisms among accessions (> 84 %). AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.23743) among and within mango accessions. Cluster analysis showed two groups: accessions from Chiapas and Ataulfo mangos closely related to Manila, Carabao, Amini and Cambodiana cultivars native from Asia; and Mexican and non-Mexican bred mangos from Germplasm Bank. Mangifera odorata was different than all other M. indica accessions. The highest heterozygosity were found in mangos from Tuxtla Chico (0.260) and Escuintla (0.254). Genetic differences among accessions and cultivars were associated with their geographical origin and indicated new genetic diversity of mangos from Chiapas due to free-pollination and the use of recombinant plants.

Gálvez-López, Didiana; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Becerra-Leor, Enrique N.; González-Paz, Maurilio; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcóyotl

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Method for producing flavonoids by using pectin-extracted orange peel  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for extracting, separating and purifying flavonoids from orange peel. In the method, the method for extracting an organic solvent is adopted and extraction is performed under the most optimal process conditions of extraction temperature of 90 DEG C, extraction time of 5 hours, 3 extraction times, 95 percent of alcohol concentration and a ratio of liquid to material of 1:30. The separation and purification adopt macroporous absorbent resin distributed elution to finally obtain orange flavonoids having purity of 90 percent. The method has the advantages of obtaining relatively higher yield and purity, utilizing industrial wastes, reducing environmental pollution and fulfilling the aim of resource comprehensive utilization.

QIYIN DU; DE FANG; XIAOYAN HU; LINSHAN LI; BING LIU; XIUJUN YANG; ANMING ZHANG

262

Analysis of flavors of wine from mixture of pineapple, mango and banana By GC-MS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flavors of wine from mixed fermentation of pineapple, mango and banana were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the volatile compounds of the wine from the mixture of pineapple, mango and banana were significantly different from those of the pineapple wine. The blending wine of pineapple, mango and banana was affluent in the volatile compounds of middle or high boiling point. This provides the basis of instrumental analysis for sensory evaluation of the wine.

Wang Yuguang; Lei Luwang; Hu Guanglie; Li Meiqiu; Qiu Zhibin

2005-01-01

263

Disinfection and conservation of mangoes, Mangifera indica L., haden and keitt varieties by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation doses of disinfestation and conservation for mangoes of Haden and Keitt varieties are described, including experimental data with different doses and different time of irradiation. (author).

1988-01-01

264

The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca++ and release of CO2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca++ treatment alone.

1993-01-01

265

75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...  

Science.gov (United States)

...commercial consignment. APHIS received a request from the Government of Pakistan to allow the importation of fresh mango fruits, Mangifera indica L., into the continental United States. Currently, fresh mango fruit is not authorized for entry from...

2010-06-17

266

Characterization of pomegranate peels tannin extractives  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phenolic extractives of pomegranate peels from various cultivars were studied. The total polyphenols, the condensed and the hydrolyzable tannin contents were analyzed for 4 Tunisian pomegranate cultivars (Mekki, Chelfi, Gabsi, Jbeli). Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry was used to examine the tannin oligomer structure. Analysis shows fluctuating rates of total polyphenols, condensed and hydrolyzable tannins between the different cultivars, but they are considered higher than those found with other plants. Flavonoid oligomers up to pentamers and some hexamers were detected in MALDI-TOF positive ion mode analysis. In the negative ion mode analysis the majority of the oligomers have glucose residues linked to them.

Saad H; Charrier-El Bouhtoury F; Pizzi A; Rode K; Charrier B; Ayed N

2012-11-01

267

Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film  

CERN Multimedia

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

2004-01-01

268

Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits cv. Dashehari  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango fruits cv. Dashehari irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilizing the market demand, revealed that irradiation of mango fruits with 200 Gy gamma radiation increase the post harvest life of 93.75 percent mango fruits by 12 days over control (46.66 percent) and proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of mango fruits as compared to control and higher doses of gamma radiation. (author)

2005-01-01

269

Comparison between 1% tretinoin peeling versus 70% glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of female patients with melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Melasma is an irregular brownish pigmentation observed on the faces of young to middle-aged women, especially of Asian races, which may contribute to various emotional disturbances. Although not any favorable treatment being approved yet, one appropriate approach is peeling by glycolic acid 70% (GA 70%). Considering the efficiency of Tretinoin in lower concentrations as over-the-counter lightening agents, peelings with higher strength Tretinoin may effectively relieve the pigmentation (melasma) sooner than other topical therapies. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose was to compare the efficiency and complications of GA 70% with Tretinoin 1% peeling. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial performed on 63 female patients with bilateral melasma. One facial side was treated by drug A (GA 70%) and the opposite side by agent B (Tretinoin 1%) peeling for four sessions with 2-week intervals. Descending changes in Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores, patients' discomfort and untoward complications following peeling all were evaluated and compared during the research period. RESULTS: The efficiency of Tretinoin 1% peelings in declining the MASI score (treatment of melasma) was similar to GA 70%, as well as the rare unwanted complications of them. However, the patients' discomfort following procedures as expressed by their own, was significantly lower with Tretinoin 1% compared to GA 70% peeling. The cases' satisfaction with the intervention was statistically similar to each other. Furthermore, we experienced almost the equal times of beginning the therapeutic responses in both groups.

Faghihi G; Shahingohar A; Siadat AH

2011-12-01

270

Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD50 values (?-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved. (author)

1983-01-01

271

Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L. )  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD/sub 50/ values (..gamma..-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved.

Sharma, D.K.; Majumder, P.K.; Singh, R.N. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi)

1983-03-01

272

Mango leaf gall formation: varietal susceptibility and within tree distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to screen most commonly cultivated mango, Mangifera indica L., cultivars for their susceptibility to gall formation. Sarooli cultivar proved to be the most resistant one by having a minimum number of galls per 100 leaves. The abundance of galls in four quadrants of the tree i.e., east, west, north and south, was also studied which revealed that east quadrant had maximum number of galls while the abundance of galls in the remaining quadrants was variable. Gall formation on mango leaves seemed to increase gradually with increasing height from the ground level, reached a maximum at the height 12 ft to 16 ft and then declined. Leaf area measurements and nutrient analysis of the leaves were also done to see their impact on gall formation. Correlation analysis revealed that gall formation was positively linked with leaf area and the amount of Zn (ppm), P (%), K (%) while N (%) had negative correlation (P

2012-01-01

273

Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

1996-01-01

274

Yield comparisons and cropping patterns of Kensington Pride mango selections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thirty-three trees were identified from commercial orchards in Queensland during the 1990–91 and 1991–92 seasons to investigate the potential of improving the agronomic and fruit quality aspects of Kensington Pride mango. These selections were grafted and planted in a replicated field trial in the Burdekin district for comparative evaluation. Cropping characteristics were recorded annually until the trees reached 10 years of age. Small yield variations were observed between the selections, with no significant differences between the top 19 selections. No single selection had outstanding yields, however 2 selections had significantly lower yields than the rest. These findings indicate the difficulty in significantly improving Kensington Pride mangoes through selection from existing commercial germplasm.

Bally ISE; Harris MA; Foster S

2002-01-01

275

Nanocomposite edible films from mango puree reinforced with cellulose nanofibers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellulose nanoreinforcements have been used to improve mechanical and barrier properties of biopolymers, whose performance is usually poor when compared to those of synthetic polymers. Nanocomposite edible films have been developed by adding cellulose nanofibers (CNF) in different concentrations (up to 36 g/100 g) as nanoreinforcement to mango puree based edible films. The effect of CNF was studied in terms of tensile properties, water vapor permeability, and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the nanocomposite films. CNF were effective in increasing tensile strength, and its effect on Young's modulus was even more noticeable, especially at higher concentrations, suggesting the formation of a fibrillar network within the matrix. The addition of CNF was also effective to improve water vapor barrier of the films. Its influence on T(g) was small but significant. The study demonstrated that the properties of mango puree edible films can be significantly improved through CNF reinforcement.

Azeredo HM; Mattoso LH; Wood D; Williams TG; Avena-Bustillos RJ; McHugh TH

2009-06-01

276

Ethanol vapor prior to processing extends fresh-cut mango storage by decreasomg spoilage, but does not always delay ripening  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to optimize ethanol vapor application as a ripening inhibitor on whole mangoes to extend fresh-cut mango shelf-life. One half of the freshly harvested mangoes were first subjected to hot water bath (+HWB) at 46 °C for 60 or 90 min. to simulate quarantine heat treatments, a...

277

75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES: Effective Date: August...

2010-08-27

278

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

279

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

2009-10-02

280

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2 degrees Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23 degrees Brix was inoculated with 3% (w/v) Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and held at 30 +/- 2 degrees C for 28 days. SS and pH decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing period of fermentation. Fermentation was 110% efficient. The wine produced had 8.12% (v/v) alcohol, 0.78% protein, 6.5% Brix SS, 0.64 g/100 ml TA, and a pH 3.10. Sensory evaluation results showed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.05) in colour, mouthfeel, sweetness, flavour and general acceptability, between African Bush mango wine and a reference wine. The wine was generally accepted.

Akubor PI

1996-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

Dosimetry during mango irradiation using Gafchromic HD-810 film.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dosimetric characteristics of Gafchromic HD-810 film were evaluated for its possible use as a high-dose dosimeter for routine dosimetry during mango irradiation. The film dosimeter sample of size 2 x 2 cm(2) was used throughout the course of this work. The irradiation of the film dosimeter for characterisation and calibration purposes was carried out in a gamma irradiator. The dose-response of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeter at 550 nm was found to be linear in the dose range 50-1000 Gy, which indicates the feasibility of using this film for dosimetry up to 1000 Gy. The mean inter-dosimeter variation was within 2%, which gives better dose-response consistency of the HD-810 film. The radiation absorbed dose measured by the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosimeter during mango irradiation was compared with that measured by a standard Ceric-cerous dosimeter. This study establishes the Gafchromic HD-810 film as a convenient and technically suitable dosimeter for high-dose dosimetry up to 1.0 kGy during mango irradiation. PMID:19324933

Sharma, S D; Chilkulwar, R H; Kumar, Rajesh

2009-03-26

282

[Facial rejuvenation with chemical peeling using phenol (Exoderm)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors report their personal experience in the treatment of the resurfacing by means of phenol chemical peeling using a new solution described by Dr. Yoram Fintsi and called Exoderm. They report dressing technique and possible contraindications as well.

Vergine M; Veneroso S; Martino G; Badiali V; Braccioni A; Monti M

2000-01-01

283

Internal limiting membrane peeling in vitreo-retinal surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peeling the internal limiting membrane of the retina has become a very common procedure performed by vitreo-retinal surgeons. The combination of new microsurgical instrumentation with the availability of different dyes to stain this thin and transparent membrane has facilitated the performance of internal limiting membrane peeling, reducing the time and trauma associated with this maneuver. Internal limiting membrane peeling has been used to treat a variety of retinal pathologies, including full-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and Terson syndrome, among others. Although it appears that peeling the internal limiting membrane in these retinal conditions may be associated with better anatomical and visual outcomes following surgery, further evidence through randomized controlled clinical trials is still needed to guide the vitreo-retinal surgeon on the appropriate use of this surgical maneuver. PMID:18572054

Abdelkader, Ehab; Lois, Noemi

284

Internal limiting membrane peeling in vitreo-retinal surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peeling the internal limiting membrane of the retina has become a very common procedure performed by vitreo-retinal surgeons. The combination of new microsurgical instrumentation with the availability of different dyes to stain this thin and transparent membrane has facilitated the performance of internal limiting membrane peeling, reducing the time and trauma associated with this maneuver. Internal limiting membrane peeling has been used to treat a variety of retinal pathologies, including full-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and Terson syndrome, among others. Although it appears that peeling the internal limiting membrane in these retinal conditions may be associated with better anatomical and visual outcomes following surgery, further evidence through randomized controlled clinical trials is still needed to guide the vitreo-retinal surgeon on the appropriate use of this surgical maneuver.

Abdelkader E; Lois N

2008-07-01

285

Reduced peeling losses in Mexican pine, after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In Centro de Estudios Nucleares UNAM, a wood-chip irradiation method was developed on the hypothesis that gamma irradiation would result in higher Kraft pulp yields. The effects of irradiation on the susceptibility of wood hemicellulose to alkaline peeling degradation were investigated by peeling loss test. Maximum pulp yields were obtained at 0.025 Mrad for irradiated air-dried wood meal, and at 0.012 Mrad for saturated humidity wood meal

1976-01-01

286

Insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the three insects studied. PMID:11198181

Ezeonu, F C; Chidume, G I; Udedi, S C

2001-02-01

287

Insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the three insects studied.

Ezeonu FC; Chidume GI; Udedi SC

2001-02-01

288

Evaluation of different formulations of Bacillus licheniformis in mango pack house trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different formulations of Bacillus licheniformis were evaluated on their own and in combination with prochloraz and stroburilin for their ability to reduce mango post-harvest fruit diseases (anthracnose and stem-end rot (SR)) when applied as a dip treatment in a mango pack house. Untreated fruit and...

Govender, V.; Korsten, Lise

289

Impact of two Williopsis yeast strains on the volatile composition of mango wine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the research was to study the volatile composition of mango wine fermented with two Williopsis yeast strains: Williopsis saturnus var. mrakii NCYC500 and W. staurnus var. suaveolens NCYC2586. Thirty terpenoids, twenty?six esters, ten alcohols, nine acids, seven aldehydes and ketones, two ethers, two phenols and one sulphur compound were identified in the mango wine fermented with strain NCYC500, while twenty?seven terpenoids, thirty esters, eleven alcohols, eight acids, eight aldehydes and ketones, three ethers, two phenols, one sulphur compound and one furan were detected in the mango wine fermented with the strain NCYC2586. The kinetic changes, final concentrations and odour activity values of major volatiles were compared between the two Williopsis yeast strains and also with other yeast reported in the literature. The results showed that Williopsis yeast strains NCYC500 and NCYC2586 were high producers of acetic acid and acetate esters, but low producers of medium? to long?chain fatty acids and their corresponding ethyl esters. Unlike mango wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most terpenoids derived from mango juice were retained in the resultant mango wine fermented with the two Williopsis yeast strains, suggesting the mango wine could retain the aromatic hints of fresh mango.

Li X; Yu B; Curran P; Liu S

2012-04-01

290

DETERMINATION OF COLOR AND FRUIT TRAITS OF HALF-SIB FAMILIES OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual appearance of fresh fruits and vegetables is one of the first quality determinants made by the consumer. Often the appearance of the commodity is the most critical factor in the initial sale. In Florida, the color of the mango is an important factor and everyone admires a handsome mango t...

291

EFFECT OF POLYSACCHARIDE COATINGS ON QUALITY OF FRESH CUT MANGOES (MANGIFERA INDICA)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango, the 'king of the fruits', has great potential as a fresh-cut product. However, preliminary tests showed that stored cut fruit becomes dry and looses flavor. Fruit coatings may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor. Ripe mango fruit (cv. Tommy Atkins), were washed, pe...

292

Protective effect of mango (Mangifera indica L.) against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is a medicinal plant whose extracts have been described as an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. PURPOSE: Skin aging is a consequence of chronic sun exposure to the sun and therefore ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Naturally occurring antioxidants are known to reduce skin aging. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective role of mango extract against UVB-induced skin aging in hairless mice. METHODS: HR-1 hairless male mice (6 weeks old) were divided into three groups: control (n = 5), UVB-treated vehicle (n = 5), and UVB-treated mango extract (n = 5) groups. UVB-irradiated mice from the mango extract group were orally administered 0.1 ml of water containing 100 mg of mango extract/kg body weight per day. The inhibitory activity of mango extract on wrinkle formation was determined by the analysis of the skin replica, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and damage to collagen fiber. RESULTS: The mean length of wrinkles in UVB-treated vehicle group significantly improved after the oral administration of mango extract, which significantly inhibited the increase in epidermal thickness and epidermal hypertrophy (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a marked increase in collagen bundles was observed in the UVB-treated group after the administration of mango extract by Masson's trichrome staining. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that mango extract showed anti-photoaging activity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice.

Song JH; Bae EY; Choi G; Hyun JW; Lee MY; Lee HW; Chae S

2013-04-01

293

Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the Sultanate of Oman  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango malformation, caused by Fusarium mangiferae, represents the most important floral disease of mango. The first symptoms of this disease were noticed in the beginning of 2005 in plantations at Sohar in the Sultanate of Oman. The affected inflorescences were abnormally enlarged and branched with ...

Kvas, Marija; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Al Adawi, Ali O.; Deadman, M.L.; Al Jahwari, A.A.; Marasas, Walter F.O. (Walter Friedrich Otto)

294

Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spirotetramat is a unique insecticide having both phloem and xylem mobility and imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used in the world. The combination formulation is very effective against sucking pests of mango. Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil was studied following application of the combination formulation, spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 SC) at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). Spirotetramat residues in/on mango fruits were 0.327 and 0.483 mg kg(-1) after giving 3 applications at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. The residues remained on mango fruits for 7 days and dissipated with the half-life of 3.3 and 5.2 days, respectively. Residues of spirotetramat-enol, the major metabolite of spirotetramat in plant, were not detected in mango fruits. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits from the two treatments were 0.329 and 0.536 mg kg(-1), respectively. Imidacloprid residues remained on mango fruits beyond 15 days and dissipated with the half-life of 5.2 and 8.2 days. The residues of spirotetramat, spirotetramat-enol and imidacloprid were found below quantifiable limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in mature mango fruits and field soil at harvest.

Mohapatra S; Deepa M; Lekha S; Nethravathi B; Radhika B; Gourishanker S

2012-10-01

295

Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirotetramat is a unique insecticide having both phloem and xylem mobility and imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used in the world. The combination formulation is very effective against sucking pests of mango. Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil was studied following application of the combination formulation, spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 SC) at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). Spirotetramat residues in/on mango fruits were 0.327 and 0.483 mg kg(-1) after giving 3 applications at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. The residues remained on mango fruits for 7 days and dissipated with the half-life of 3.3 and 5.2 days, respectively. Residues of spirotetramat-enol, the major metabolite of spirotetramat in plant, were not detected in mango fruits. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits from the two treatments were 0.329 and 0.536 mg kg(-1), respectively. Imidacloprid residues remained on mango fruits beyond 15 days and dissipated with the half-life of 5.2 and 8.2 days. The residues of spirotetramat, spirotetramat-enol and imidacloprid were found below quantifiable limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in mature mango fruits and field soil at harvest. PMID:22872376

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Lekha, S; Nethravathi, B; Radhika, B; Gourishanker, S

2012-08-08

296

BI-LO Issues Voluntary Recall on Daniella Brand Mangoes Due to Possible Health Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Today BI-LO announced an immediate voluntary recall on whole Daniella brand mangoes sold with a universal product code (UPC) of 0-00000-04051 in stores between July 12 and Aug. 27, 2012. The recalled mangoes, a product of Mexico, were sold as ...

297

Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop  

Science.gov (United States)

|Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

2007-01-01

298

Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the tre (more) atment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

Pinheiro, Ana Luiza; Jacomino, Angelo Pedro; Arruda, Maria Cecília de; Kluge, Ricardo Alfredo

2011-12-01

299

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PEELING CELLS FROM VITAL TISSUE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method and an apparatus for peeling cells from a vital tissue by applying vibration to a part of the vital tissue have been developed. For peeling cells from a vital tissue, a method for treating the whole vital tissue with an enzyme, a method for treating the whole vital tissue with chemicals or a method for applying vibration to the whole vital tissue has been so far employed. When cells peeled by the enzyme treatment method or the chemical treatment method are subjected to a pharmacological test or the like, a procedure of restoration from damages caused by the enzyme or the chemicals is needed after separation of the cells. Thus, it has been required to obtain cells as close to in-vivo cells as possible for a short period of time. Further, with respect to a method for peeling cells from a vital tissue by applying vibration to the whole vital tissue, the disclosure has been insufficient. The invention provides a method and an apparatus for peeling cells close to in-vivo cells by applying vibration to a part of a vital tissue. Accordingly, the use of the cells peeled by the invention is quite effective for clarifying a biological structure, developing medications and the like.

UNEYAMA Hisayuki Ajinomoto Co. Inc.; TORII Kunio Ajinomoto Co. Inc.

300

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Can Stanton Peele's opinions be taken seriously? A reply to Peele.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an article in the October-December 1988 issue of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Stanton Peele expressed a number of opinions against alcoholism treatment and in favor of controlled drinking as a treatment goal for alcoholics. These opinions are examined critically and found to be contradicted by recent studies, empirical observations, and reinterpretations of earlier studies. It is concluded that marginal scholarship, partial and/or inaccurate representations of research, and inappropriate generalizations do not constitute the basis for drawing reliable and valid conclusions about alcoholism treatment or about controlled drinking as a feasible treatment goal for alcoholics.

Wallace J

1989-04-01

302

Can Stanton Peele's opinions be taken seriously? A reply to Peele.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an article in the October-December 1988 issue of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Stanton Peele expressed a number of opinions against alcoholism treatment and in favor of controlled drinking as a treatment goal for alcoholics. These opinions are examined critically and found to be contradicted by recent studies, empirical observations, and reinterpretations of earlier studies. It is concluded that marginal scholarship, partial and/or inaccurate representations of research, and inappropriate generalizations do not constitute the basis for drawing reliable and valid conclusions about alcoholism treatment or about controlled drinking as a feasible treatment goal for alcoholics. PMID:2668489

Wallace, J

303

Effect of drying methods on the physical properties and microstructures of mango (Philippine ‘Carabao’ var.) powder  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mango powders were obtained at water content below 0.05kg water/kg dry solids using Refractance Window® (RW) drying, freeze drying (FD), drum drying (DD), and spray drying (SD). The spray-dried powder was produced with the aid of maltodextrin (DE=10). The chosen drying methods provided wide variations in residence time, from seconds (in SD) to over 30h (in FD), and in product temperatures, from 20°C (in FD) to 105°C (in DD). The colors of RW-dried mango powder and reconstituted mango puree were comparable to the freeze-dried products, but were significantly different from drum-dried (darker), and spray-dried (lighter) counterparts. The bulk densities of drum and RW-dried mango powders were higher than freeze-dried and spray-dried powders. There were no significant differences (P?0.05) between RW and freeze-dried powders in terms of solubility and hygroscopicity. The glass transition temperature of RW-, freeze-, drum- and spray-dried mango powders were not significantly different (P?0.05). The dried powders exhibited amorphous structures as evidenced by the X-ray diffractograms. The microstructure of RW-dried mango powder was smooth and flaky with uniform thickness. Particles of freeze-dried mango powder were more porous compared to the other three products. Drum-dried material exhibited irregular morphology with sharp edges, while spray-dried mango powder had a spherical shape. The study concludes that RW drying can produce mango powder with quality comparable to that obtained via freeze drying, and better than the drum and spray-dried mango powders.

Caparino OA; Tang J; Nindo CI; Sablani SS; Powers JR; Fellman JK

2012-07-01

304

Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption using yellow passion fruit peel as adsorbent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of color from aquatic systems caused by presence of synthetic dyes is extremely important from the environmental viewpoint because most of these dyes are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this present study, the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Degener) peel a powdered solid waste, was tested as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of MB onto this natural adsorbent was studied by batch adsorption isotherms at room temperature. The effects of shaking time and pH on adsorption capacity were studied. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of MB. The contact time required to obtain the maximum adsorption was 56 h at 25 degrees C. Yellow passion fruit peel may be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove MB from aqueous solutions. PMID:17692516

Pavan, Flávio André; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

2007-08-09

305

Long-term potentiation: Peeling the onion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP), thousands of papers have been published on this phenomenon. With this massive amount of information, it is often difficult, especially for someone not directly involved in the field, not to be overwhelmed. The goal of this review is to peel away as many layers as possible, and probe the core properties of LTP. We would argue that the many dozens of proteins that have been implicated in the phenomenon are not essential, but rather modulate, often in indirect ways, the threshold and/or magnitude of LTP. What is required is NMDA receptor activation followed by CaMKII activation. The consequence of CaMKII activation is the rapid recruitment of AMPA receptors to the synapse. This recruitment is independent of AMPA receptor subunit type, but absolutely requires an adequate pool of surface receptors. An important unresolved issue is how exactly CaMKII activation leads to modifications in the PSD to allow rapid enrichment. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23439383

Nicoll, Roger A; Roche, Katherine W

2013-02-21

306

Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels  

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Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP) was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control), 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g?g?1 in control sample to 0.382 g?g?1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g?g?1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG). The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

Raymundo Sánchez Orozco; Patricia Balderas Hernández; Nelly Flores Ramírez; Gabriela Roa Morales; Jaime Saucedo Luna; Agustín Jaime Castro Montoya

2012-01-01

307

Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas/ Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao fin (more) al de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, size and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each per (more) iod, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

Miguel, Ana Carolina Almeida; Durigan, José Fernando; Barbosa, José Carlos; Morgado, Cristiane Maria Ascari

2013-06-01

308

Estimativa da composição gasosa em embalagem de atmosfera modificada contendo mangas (mangifera indica l.) Cv. Keitt Gaseous composition estimation in modified atmosphere packaging of mangos (mangifera indica l.) Cv. Keitt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram determinadas as taxas de respiração e a perda de peso e composição gasosa no interior da embalagem, de mangas embaladas individualmente em filme de polietileno de baixa densidade com espessura de 24,5 ?m, armazenadas a 7°C (80-90% UR); 12°C (75-85% UR); 17°C (70-80% UR); 22°C (65-75% UR) e 25°C (65-75% UR). A partir dos resultados experimentais e equações de transferência de massa foram calculadas a permeabilidade da casca da manga ao vapor de água e a concentração de gás carbônico do espaço livre, após ter sido atingido um estado estacionário de transferência de massa. A concentração de gás carbônico calculada foi comparada com a obtida experimentalmente, tendo sido encontradas diferenças, dependendo da temperatura, entre -16% e 29%. A permeabilidade calculada da casca foi cerca de 600 vezes maior que a do filme plástico.Respiration and weight loss rate, and gaseous composition inside the packaging of mangos cv. Keitt individually sealed in a low-density polyethylene film, 24.5 _m thick, stored at 7°C (80-90% RH); 12°C (75-85% RH); 17°C (70-80% RH); 22°C (65-75% RH) e 25°C (65-75% RH) were determinated. After mass transfer had reached a steady state, mango peel permeability to water vapor and concentration of carbon dioxide inside the packaging were calculated using experimental results and mass transfer equations. Calculated peel permeability was 600 times greater than plastic film. Experimental and calculated carbon dioxide concentration were compared and, according temperature, were founded differences between -16% and 29%.

Fábio Yamashita; Javier Telis Romero; Theo Guenter Kieckbusch

1997-01-01

309

Chemical Studies of the Peel of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Tannia Cocoyam)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The peels of xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam) which is locally called kunkoro in Nupe land from four farms; randomly sampled to represent the four geographical areas in Bida, Niger State of Nigeria, were analyzed for their nutritive and anti-nutritional contents using standard analytical methods. The nutritive content of the peel and its effect on the period of sampling was also investigated, as a first step in their possible modification for use as animal feed. The results obtained show that samples collected during dry season contained more nutrients (proteins, lipid, etc.) than those collected during the wet season. Macro-minerals (Na, K, Ca and P) being the highest while the micro-mineral nutrients such as Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu etc were found to be generally lower than the dietary mineral requirement for animal feeds. The protein content of the peel ranged between 6.30-17.6%, while fibre and carbohydrate contents were 10.7-19.7% and 41.2-46.0% respectively. The lipid content was generally low and ranged between 0.70-2.14%. The peels collected during dry season contained lower concentration of phytate which ranged between (1.26-1.43%), hydrogen cyanide (3.17-3.20%), soluble oxalate (1.18-1.69%) and tannin (1.43-8.24%) than the peels collected during wet season, with the exception of sample CYD. These anti-nutritional factors in all the cocoyam peel studied were generally low, yet critical to the safety of the consumer as it affects bioavailability of some essential minerals. The proximate analysis of the peels suggests that they could serve as supplementary sources of essential nutrients for livestock production, especially with their low levels of anti-nutritional factors.

I.A. Yahaya; A.J. Nok; J.J. Bonire

2013-01-01

310

Xinhui tangerine peel pu'er tea preparation method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for preparing dried orange peel puer tea produced in Xinhui, which mainly comprises the following steps in sequence: (1) ripe fruits of citrus reticulata 'chachi' produced in Xinhui, Guangdong province are selected (2) the fruit is peeled to remove the pulp, and then the peel is dried with air the peel is humidified, softened and cut into threads after being stored for 2 to 5 months in the airproof environment, and then the processed peel is mixed with Yunan puer tea for a uniform stirring (3) the mixture is humidified by moist air with a humidity ranging from 60 percent to 80 percent for 7 to 8 hours so as to be softened, and then being formed by pressing (4) the formed mixture is dried and stored for 2 to 5 months in the airproof environment (5) after being humidified by moist air with the humidity ranging from 60 percent to 80 percent for 5 to 6 hours, the mixture is dried with air in the sunshine (6) the processed mixture is put in dry air with a humidity ranging from 30 percent to 50 percent for 4 to 5 hours so as to be cooled (7) the processed mixture goes through airproof storage again for a natural fermentation. As the preparation method of the invention is simple, the dried orange peel can be sufficiently fermented with the puer tea after going through sun drying, humidification, dehumidification, and airproof storage for fermentation for a plurality of times, the prepared dried orange peel puer tea has good taste, rich scent, and does not go moldy.

BINGGUANG LIN

311

Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha/ The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (25µm) com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax) e controle (sem filme plástico). Os f (more) rutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix), porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico) e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga. Abstract in english The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (25µm) with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax) and control (without film). The fruits were maintained at 12 (more) °C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

Pfaffenbach, Luciana Bittencourt; Castro, Josalba Vidigal de; Carvalho, Cássia Regina Limonta; Rossetto, Carlos Jorge

2003-12-01

312

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

2004-01-15

313

Farelo de resíduo de manga para tilápia do Nilo = Mango residues for Nile tilapia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial do resíduo do farelo de manga nas dietas de tilápia do Nilo, sobre a digestibilidade aparente, desempenho produtivo, rendimento de carcaça, índice hepatossomático, índice de gordura víscero-somática e peso dos órgãos. No ensaio de digestibilidade utilizou-se 48 animais com peso médio de 53,9 g, e no de desempenho utilizou-se 300 juvenis, com peso médio de 44,3. O delineamento experimental utilizado em ambos os experimentos foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, sendo o de desempenho com cinco repetições e o de digestibilidade com três. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro rações isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, com diferentes níveis de inclusão do farelo de resíduo de manga (0, 5, 10 e 15%). Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente das rações foram respectivamente: matéria seca (79,6; 76,9; 76,5 e 78,0%), proteína bruta (88,8; 87,4; 87,2 e 87,8%), energia bruta (77,8; 75,9; 76,4 e 77,5%). A energia digestível das rações (3304, 3320, 3395 e 3484 kcal kg-1) e proteína digestível (29,3; 30,3; 29,8 e 29,8%). Não foram observados efeitos dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis analisadas no desempenho, o que possibilita a inclusão de até 15,0% do farelo de resíduo de manga nas rações de tilápia do Nilo. To evaluate the potential of mango residues in the diets Nile tilapia on apparent digestibility, productive performance, body yield (with and without head), hepatosomatic index, somatic and visceral indexes, fat and organs weight in Nile tilapia. In the digestibility experiment were used 48 animals with average weight of 53.9 ± (1.04 g) and for the performance experiment 300 juveniles were used with the average weight of 44.3 ± (2.7 g). The experimental design for both was randomized with four treatments and the performance experiment with five replicates, and digestibility with three replications. The treatments consisted of four isoproteic- andisoenergetic diets with different levels of inclusion of mango waste bran (0, 5, 10 and 15%). The digestibility coefficients were: dry matter (79.6, 76.9, 76.5 and 78.0%), crude protein (88.8, 87.4, 87.2 and 87.8%), crude energy (77.8, 75.9, 76.4 and 77.5%). Digestible energy (3304, 3320, 3395 and 3484 kcal kg-1) and digestible protein (29.3, 30.3, 29.8 and 29.8%). There are no visible treatment effects on the variables analyzed. It is recommended the inclusion of about to 15,0% of mango wastes on Nile tilapia feeding.

Misleni Ricarte de Lima; Maria do Carmo Mohaupt Marques Ludke; Fernando de Figueiredo Porto Neto; Bárbara Wanderley Costa Pinto; Thaysa Rodrigues Torres; Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza

2011-01-01

314

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase from the submerged fermentation of citrus wastes by Penicillium janthinellum MTCC 10889.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase was studied in cultures of Penicillium janthinellum grown on citrus fruit waste supplemented cultivation media. Both dried orange peel and sweet lime peel could induce the production of this enzyme. The working strain showed a pronounced optimum pH and temperature for ?-xylosidase production at 6.0 and 27 °C, respectively. The enzyme production was found to remain stable for a long period of 120 h. Orange peel and sweet lime peel showed different responses in the presence of various nitrogen sources, probably due to their differences in hemicellulosic contents. This could be further confirmed by the difference in enzyme production after pretreatment with acid and alkali.

Kundu A; Ray RR

2012-09-01

315

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA). Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA), produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva; Dalmo Lopes de Siqueira; Aline Rocha; Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão; Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias; Tiago Barbosa Struiving

2012-01-01

316

Mango Tree Response to Lime Applied during the Production Phase  

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Full Text Available Tropical soils are usually highly acidic and this may hamper mango trees nutrition and production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lime doses applied to the soil surface on the plant nutritional status, the production, and the technological quality of mango fruits. The study was carried out at Selviria, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in a Typic Haplustox. Thirteen year old producing mango plants of the “Heden” variety, grafted on rootstock of the “Coquinho” variety, were used in this experiment. Lime doses of 0, 1.55, 3.10, 4.655, and 6.20 t ha–1 were applied to the soil. Each treatment was replicated 4 times and the experimental units distributed according to a randomized complete block design. Lime (CaO: 390 g kg–1; MgO: 130 g kg–1) was superficially applied to the soil and then incorporated at depths between 0 and 5 cm in the total area of the orchard. The soil chemical characteristics pH, Ca, Mg, K, sum of bases, and bases saturation, in the 0 - 20 cm layer, were evaluated 16 and 28 months after soil liming. Plant nutritional status was evaluated 12 months after soil liming. Fruit production and technological quality were evaluated during the cropping years of 2006 and 2007. Soil liming had a positive effect on the evaluated soil chemical characteristics and this improved plant nutritional status and fruit technological quality as well as increased fruit production. These beneficial effects though were observed only in the second year after soil liming. The highest fruit production was verified when soil bases saturation was of 72% and the contents of Ca and Mg were of 32 and 8 g kg–1, respectively.

Eliozeas Vicente de Almeida; Francisco Maximino Fernandes; Renato de Mello Prado; Aparecida Conceicao Boliani; Luiz de Souza Correa

2012-01-01

317

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract  

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Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

Maruti J. Dhanavade; Chidamber B. Jalkute; Jai S. Ghosh; Kailash D. Sonawane

2011-01-01

318

Multistage staggered leaf-peeling mechanism of cane harvester  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a cane leaf-peeling mechanism, in particular to a multistage staggered leaf-peeling mechanism of a cane harvester. A feeding hole (23) is arranged at one side of a box (22), and a cane outlet (24) is arranged at the other side of the box (22) fixed side plates (14) are respectively arranged on both side walls of a passage of the box (22) from the feeding hole (23) to the cane outlet (24) the fixed side plate (14) at one side is divided into an upper row and a lower row in which impeller assemblies are respectively arranged both ends of the upper row of impeller assemblies are respectively provided with a floating wheel assembly (7) with a sliding groove (27) the two floating wheel assemblies (7) correspond to input fixed rollers (1) respectively at both ends of the lower row of impeller assemblies and the fixed side plates (14) at both sides are oppositely arranged. The invention is a machine for peeling leaves from a whole cane instead of labor force, a leaf-peeling system has simple structure, and a leaf-peeling brush has good abrasion resistance and stabler operation.

ZHIKUI SONG

319

Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.  

Science.gov (United States)

A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively. PMID:23572690

Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

2010-10-09

320

Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

Patel AS; Jana AH; Aparnathi KD; Pinto SV

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ethylene in pure culture of F. mangiferae obtained from mango. The study also revealed that all the isolates dissected from mango acquire morphological features of F. mangiferae showing most similarity to the features of species with accepted standard features. The isolates of F. mangiferae from mango were observed to produce ethylene in significant amounts, ranging from 9.28-13.66 n mol/g dry wt/day. The findings presented here suggest that F. mangiferae could contribute to the malformation of mango by producing ethylene and probably stimulating stress ethylene production in malformed tissue of mango. Ethylene might be produced through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase-type ethylene-forming-enzyme (EFE) pathway in Fusarium sp, which needs to be investigated.

Ansari MW; Shukla A; Pant RC; Tuteja N

2012-12-01

322

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

Science.gov (United States)

This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminate inhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel was enzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of the released sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibition by limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes was a powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The encapsulated cells were able to ferment the orange peel hydrolyzate in 7 h, and produce ethanol with a yield of 0.44 g/g fermentable sugars. Cultivation of the encapsulated yeast in defined medium was successful, even in the presence of 1.5% (v/v) limonene. The capsules’ membranes were selectively permeable to the sugars and the other nutrients, but not limonene. While 1% (v/v) limonene was present in the culture, its concentration inside the capsules was not more than 0.054% (v/v).

Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Talebnia, Farid; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2007-01-01

323

CONSUMERS'ACCEPTANCE OF FRESH AND COMBINED METHODS PROCESSED MELON, MANGO AND CASHEW APPLE  

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Full Text Available Fresh and combined methods processed Cantaloupe melons, mangoes and cashew apples were submitted to consumers' acceptance and scored on a nine-point hedonic scale. Fruits were osmotically treated in sucrose syrup with two different concentrations of SO2. Overall acceptance, appearance, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated. Fresh cashew apples received lower scores for acceptance than processed cashew apples while fresh mangoes were more acceptable than processed mangoes. Acceptance of fresh melons and processed melons was similar. Treatments of the tropical fruits with two different concentrations of SO2 did not demonstrate significant differences between the fruits tested.

NASSU RENATA TIEKO; LIMA JANICE RIBEIRO; SOUZA FILHO MEN DE SÁ MOREIRA DE

2001-01-01

324

Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author).

1996-01-01

325

Effect of Various Coating Materials on Keeping Quality of Mangoes (Mangifera indica) Stored at Low Temperature  

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Full Text Available Mango fruits (cv. Chausa) were treated with different concentrations of CMC, calcium chloride and beeswax. The mangoes were then placed in boxes, each with a sponge soaked in KMnO4.The mangoes were then stored at refrigerated temperature (8-10°C). The physico-chemical analysis were repeated after seven days interval. Fruits treated with 2% CMC, showed best behaviour through out storage period with minimum loss of weight, increased ascorbic acid content and was able to conserve better sensory characteristics through entire period of storage.

Nuzba Anjum; Tariq Masud; Asia Latif

2006-01-01

326

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen produced from potato steam peels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen from renewable energy is considered a promising alternative to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Potato steam peels can be used as feedstock to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool to evaluate the main environmental benefits and burdens of using potato steam peals to produce hydrogen rather than to feed animals. Inventory data are derived from the literature and ecoinvent. Impacts are evaluated using IMPACT 2002+. The results show that producing hydrogen from potato steam peels offers clear advantages over a direct use of peels to feed animals. A factor of two to three is observed in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in the savings of non-renewable resources and in the reduction of human health impacts. The two-stage bioreactor is observed to consume around 25 MJ and to emit between 1000 and 1500 g of CO{sub 2} per kilogram of hydrogen produced. (author)

Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Dagnija Blumberga [Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, 1 Kronvalda Boulevard, Riga LV-1010 (Latvia); Humbert, Sebastien [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 407 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2008-06-15

327

Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides.

Glazer I; Masaphy S; Marciano P; Bar-Ilan I; Holland D; Kerem Z; Amir R

2012-05-01

328

The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface  

Science.gov (United States)

The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems.

Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

2013-10-01

329

Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-02-15

330

Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

2012-01-01

331

Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study.

Chang S; Gregory-Roberts EM; Park S; Laud K; Smith SD; Hoang QV

2013-04-01

332

Double peeling during vitrectomy for macular pucker: the Charles L. Schepens Lecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epiretinal membranes are commonly encountered in retinal practice, and they result in decreased vision. The present work addresses whether peeling of the internal limiting membrane is necessary during vitrectomy for macular pucker. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the effects of "single peeling," in which only the epiretinal membrane was peeled, and "double peeling," in which the internal limiting membrane was also stained and peeled. Although significantly more patients in the single-peeling group had an epiretinal membrane remaining in the central fovea postoperatively, visual acuity was not found to differ between the 2 groups in the short term. Patients who had an epiretinal membrane for more than 18 months had significantly worse visual acuity outcomes. Unexpectedly, there was a greater proportional decrease in central macular thickness in the single-peeling group than in the double peeling group, a finding that deserves further study. PMID:23579603

Chang, Stanley; Gregory-Roberts, Emily M; Park, Sungpyo; Laud, Ketan; Smith, Scott D; Hoang, Quan V

2013-04-01

333

Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants. PMID:23635477

Mallampati, Ramakrishna; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

2013-05-13

334

Apple peels--a versatile biomass for water purification?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of anions such as chromate, arsenate, and arsenite in drinking water is a major health concern in many parts of the world due to their high toxicity. Removal of such anions from water using low cost biomass is an efficient and affordable treatment process. Owing to the easy availability and biodegradability, we chose to use apple peel as a substrate for our investigations. Zirconium cations were immobilized onto the apple peel surface and used for the extraction of anions. Zirconium loaded apple peels were used to extract anions such as phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, and chromate ions from aqueous solutions. The presence of Zr cations on the apple peel surface was characterized using XPS. The modified adsorbent was characterized using SEM, EDS, and FT-IR. Zr treated apple peels showed efficient adsorption toward AsO2(-) (15.64 mg/g), AsO4(3-) (15.68 mg/g), Cr2O7(2-) (25.28 mg/g), and PO4(3-) (20.35 mg/g) anions. The adsorption and desorption studies revealed the adsorption mechanism involves electrostatic interactions. Anion removal efficiency was estimated by batch adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetic parameters for all anions at different concentrations were described using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. Langumir and Freundlich isotherms were used to validate our adsorption data. Arsenate and chromate anions were strongly adsorbed at the pH range from 2 to 6, while arsenite was extracted efficiently between pH 9 and 10. Overall, the Zr immobilized apple peel is an efficient adsorbent for common anionic pollutants.

Mallampati R; Valiyaveettil S

2013-05-01

335

Lemon peel and Limoncello liqueur: a proteomic duet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of lemon peels and pulp, of a home-made alcoholic infusion of peels and of a very popular Italian liqueur called "Limoncello", stated to be an infusion of the flavedo (the outer, yellow skin of lemons). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the lemon peel proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial liqueur via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the peel (and additionally of the pulp) proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analysed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The peel (the flavedo, not the underlying layer called albedo) proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 1011 unique gene products in the peel extracts and 674 in the pulp, 264 proteins in the home-made infusion and just 8 proteins (and protein fragments), together with 12 peptides, in one Italian Limoncello produced in the Sorrento Region, thus proving the genuineness of this product. On the contrary, cheaper Limoncellos were devoid of any protein/peptide, casting doubts on their production from vegetable extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products.

Fasoli E; Colzani M; Aldini G; Citterio A; Righetti PG

2013-08-01

336

Thomas Peel Dunhill: pioneer thyroid surgeon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thomas Peel Dunhill, a name by now almost completely forgotten in his native Australia, was born in 1876 near Kerang in the State of Victoria. Although he qualified as a pharmacist in 1898, Dunhill had already decided to study medicine and graduated in 1903 from the Clinical School of the Melbourne Hospital. He was regarded as an outstanding student. In 1905 Dunhill was invited to join the Senior Medical Staff at St Vincent's Hospital by Mother Berchmans Daly, the then Mother Rectress. In 1906 Dunhill was awarded the MD and in 1907 he performed his first thyroid lobectomy under local anaesthesia for toxic goitre. As early as 1908, Dunhill understood the essentials for successful surgery in thyrotoxicosis--enough thyroid had to be removed to cure the condition. To this end, he advocated a bilateral attack on the thyroid and advocated thyroidectomy in the thyrocardiac patient. He did this before Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted or George Crile. In 1911 Dunhill visited the USA and England and communicated his results to the thyroid surgeons in both countries (230 cases of exophthalmic goitre operated on with four deaths). The English could not, or would not, believe his results as the mortality of surgery for exophthalmic goitre at St Thomas's Hospital, London in 1910 was 33%. Dunhill served with distinction in the Great War and his abilities favourably impressed George Gask, who was to become the Professor of Surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Gask eventually invited Dunhill to join his Unit and Dunhill left St Vincent's Hospital in 1920. Between 1920 and Dunhill's retirement at the age of 60 in 1935, he became the outstanding general surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Dunhill and Cecil Joll, were regarded as the leading thyroid surgeons in the UK. Knighted in 1933, Dunhill was appointed surgeon to the Royal Household, serving four British monarchs. In addition to his brilliant surgical career, Dunhill maintained a love for the land. He was an expert fly fisherman. Dunhill retired from surgical practice in 1949 and died at the age of 80 in 1957 at his London home. Many eulogies were delivered, especially by Sir James Paterson Ross and Sir Geoffrey Keynes, his former pupils. Dunhill's exploits as a thyroid surgeon in the development of a safe and effective treatment for thyrotoxicosis and in operating on the thyrocardiac enables this modest, courteous and loyal Australian to be included with Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile in the pantheon of pioneer thyroid surgeons.

Vellar ID

1999-05-01

337

Thomas Peel Dunhill: pioneer thyroid surgeon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thomas Peel Dunhill, a name by now almost completely forgotten in his native Australia, was born in 1876 near Kerang in the State of Victoria. Although he qualified as a pharmacist in 1898, Dunhill had already decided to study medicine and graduated in 1903 from the Clinical School of the Melbourne Hospital. He was regarded as an outstanding student. In 1905 Dunhill was invited to join the Senior Medical Staff at St Vincent's Hospital by Mother Berchmans Daly, the then Mother Rectress. In 1906 Dunhill was awarded the MD and in 1907 he performed his first thyroid lobectomy under local anaesthesia for toxic goitre. As early as 1908, Dunhill understood the essentials for successful surgery in thyrotoxicosis--enough thyroid had to be removed to cure the condition. To this end, he advocated a bilateral attack on the thyroid and advocated thyroidectomy in the thyrocardiac patient. He did this before Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted or George Crile. In 1911 Dunhill visited the USA and England and communicated his results to the thyroid surgeons in both countries (230 cases of exophthalmic goitre operated on with four deaths). The English could not, or would not, believe his results as the mortality of surgery for exophthalmic goitre at St Thomas's Hospital, London in 1910 was 33%. Dunhill served with distinction in the Great War and his abilities favourably impressed George Gask, who was to become the Professor of Surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Gask eventually invited Dunhill to join his Unit and Dunhill left St Vincent's Hospital in 1920. Between 1920 and Dunhill's retirement at the age of 60 in 1935, he became the outstanding general surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Dunhill and Cecil Joll, were regarded as the leading thyroid surgeons in the UK. Knighted in 1933, Dunhill was appointed surgeon to the Royal Household, serving four British monarchs. In addition to his brilliant surgical career, Dunhill maintained a love for the land. He was an expert fly fisherman. Dunhill retired from surgical practice in 1949 and died at the age of 80 in 1957 at his London home. Many eulogies were delivered, especially by Sir James Paterson Ross and Sir Geoffrey Keynes, his former pupils. Dunhill's exploits as a thyroid surgeon in the development of a safe and effective treatment for thyrotoxicosis and in operating on the thyrocardiac enables this modest, courteous and loyal Australian to be included with Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile in the pantheon of pioneer thyroid surgeons. PMID:10353556

Vellar, I D

1999-05-01

338

Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

2010-01-01

339

The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%), melasma (36.5%), post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12%) and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%). A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

Grover C; Reddu B

2003-01-01

340

Microbial and Chemical Evaluation of Whey-Based Mango Beverage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out on the development and storage of Whey Based Mango beverage. The storability of the beverage was studied at 4±1ºC for 30 days. The storage study showed that there is an increasing trend in the TSS, acidity, and reducing sugar and a decreasing trend in the pH and ascorbic acid but total sugar has non significant effect during storage. Total viable count, Yeast and mold count, Coliform count, and Salmonella count was analyzed using standard methods. The Total Viable Counts (TVC) was high ranging from 2.60-2.76×104 cfu/mL. Yeast and mould count varied between 3.60-2.61×103 cfu/mL where as Coliforms include both the presence of fecals 4.5-3.6×104 cfu/mL and non fecals 2.61-3.00×102 cfu/mL and Salmonella were not observed in most of the tested samples. This research is aimed at production of whey/mango beverage. At later stages of the project, whey will be introduced into other products.

Ahmed Eltayeb Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader; Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Mango Malformation: I. Toxin Production Associated with Fusarium Pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight Fusarium species i.e. F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. monili-forme, F. avena and F. chlamydspore isolated from mango malformed disease were tested for their ability to cause mango malformation disease and their production of moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) using HPLC. A evaluated for moniliformin production, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.51 to 8.90 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by Fusarium subglutinans (8.51 µg/ml). Moderate concentrations of moniliformin was produced by F.moniliforme (6.90 µg/ml), F. oxysporum (6.30 µg/ml), F. proliferatum (4.10 ?g/ml) and F. sterilihyphosum (1.10 ?g/ml). Separation and identification of Fumonisin that was isolated from the pathogen- causing disease are made by (HPLC). A evaluated for total fumonisin production (FB1 + FB2), seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.10 to 8.30 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by F. monili-forme (8.30 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of fumonisin was produced by F .proliferatum (0.64 µg/ml) and F. subglutinans (0.50 µg/ml). Strong positive correlations between moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) activities and malformation disease incidence by F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum was observed.

Wafaa Haggag M.; Hazza M.; Sehab A.; Abd El-Wahab M.

2011-01-01

342

Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. ABBREVIATIONS: AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na(2)SO(3) - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon.

Jagarlamudi S; G R; Kurapati RK; Pinnamaneni R

2011-01-01

343

Genetic diversity of 'Uba' mango tree using ISSR markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the genetic diversity of 'Ubá' mango trees cultivated at the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was assessed, to identify whether there is variability in the plants grown in the region, justifying the mass selection as a breeding method. We used 102 accessions. Leaves were collected for extraction of genomic DNA, which was amplified with nine ISSR primers. The data obtained by the analysis of electrophoretic patterns were arranged in a binary matrix, considering 0 for the absence and 1 for the presence of bands. Based on these data, we performed the analysis of genetic dissimilarity and carried out the cluster analysis by the methods of Tocher and graphical dispersion. The most similar accessions are 144 and 150, both coming from Ubá, while the most divergent ones are 29 and 97, from Visconde do Rio Branco. The grouping by the Tocher method separated the accessions into six groups, 94.1% of which were allocated in the first group and showed that there is no separation of accessions depending on the sampling sites. The 3D scatter plot reinforces this conclusion. There is genetic variability among the accessions of 'Ubá' mango tree evaluated. Therefore, it is possible to make mass selection in open-pollinated populations.

Rocha A; Salomão LC; Salomão TM; Cruz CD; de Siqueira DL

2012-02-01

344

Genetic diversity of 'Ubá' mango tree using ISSR markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the genetic diversity of 'Ubá' mango trees cultivated at the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was assessed, to identify whether there is variability in the plants grown in the region, justifying the mass selection as a breeding method. We used 102 accessions. Leaves were collected for extraction of genomic DNA, which was amplified with nine ISSR primers. The data obtained by the analysis of electrophoretic patterns were arranged in a binary matrix, considering 0 for the absence and 1 for the presence of bands. Based on these data, we performed the analysis of genetic dissimilarity and carried out the cluster analysis by the methods of Tocher and graphical dispersion. The most similar accessions are 144 and 150, both coming from Ubá, while the most divergent ones are 29 and 97, from Visconde do Rio Branco. The grouping by the Tocher method separated the accessions into six groups, 94.1% of which were allocated in the first group and showed that there is no separation of accessions depending on the sampling sites. The 3D scatter plot reinforces this conclusion. There is genetic variability among the accessions of 'Ubá' mango tree evaluated. Therefore, it is possible to make mass selection in open-pollinated populations. PMID:21644009

Rocha, Aline; Salomão, Luiz Carlos Chamhum; Salomão, Tânia Maria Fernandes; Cruz, Cosme Damião; de Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes

2012-02-01

345

Studies on fruit-bud differentiation in Mango (Mangifera indica)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The time of fruit-bud-differentiation in mango is known to be governed by localweather conditions, which varies from place to place. To some extent, it also varies withvarieties grown under the same climatic conditions. The knowledge of the time of fruit-buddifferentiationunder a particular set of climatic conditions for a given variety would enablethe orchardists to schedule the manuring, irrigation and other cultural operations to havebetter yield. The fruit-bud-differentiation is a crucial event in the growth and developmentof mango, as it marks the change in partitioning and transport of metabolites from source tosink between the vegetative and reproductive organs which are governed by the growthhormones. The physiological and biochemical factors governing fruit-bud-differentiation inmango have not been adequately studied. Little is known about the role of naturallyoccurring growth substances and other metabolites involved in fruit-bud-differentiation.Need for such studies is all the more important, since these naturally occurring growthsubstances are now recognized as important factors controlling the ontogeny of flowering inhigher plants.

V. Palanichamy; Bhaskar Mitra; Arabi Mohammad Saleh; P. Deepa Sankar

2011-01-01

346

Responses of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Root Stock Seedlings to Water Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present studies were aimed at investigating the effect of different watering regimes on the gas exchange parameters (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates) and chlorophyll content of young Mango (Mangifera indica) rootstock seedlings. The hypothesis was...

Elizabeth Luvaha; G.W. Netondo; G. Ouma

347

Vinegar Production from Togolese Local Variety Mangovi of Mango Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol an...

Y. Ameyapoh; Jean-Yves Leveau; Simplice D. Karou; M. Bouix; Seyram K. Sossou; C. De Souza

348

Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ?-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of ?-carotene, ?-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, ?-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study. PMID:23265504

Liu, Feng-Xia; Fu, Shu-Fang; Bi, Xiu-Fang; Chen, Fang; Liao, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Song; Wu, Ji-Hong

2012-11-08

349

Physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of four mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four principal mango cultivars (Tainong No.1, Irwin, JinHwang and Keitt) grown in southern China were selected, and their physico-chemical and antioxidant properties were characterized and compared. Of all the four cultivars, Tainong No.1 had highest content of total phenols, ?-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, quercetin, titratable acidity, citric acid, malic acid, fructose, higher antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP) and L(*), lower pH, PPO activity and individual weight. Keitt mangoes showed significantly (p<0.05) higher contents of ?-carotene, ?-hydroxybenzoic acid, sucrose, total sugar, total soluble solid, catechin, succinic acid and higher PPO activity. JinHwang mangoes exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher individual weight and PPO activity, but had lower content of total phenols, ?-carotene and lower antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed the four mango cultivars to be differentiated clearly based on all these physico-chemical and antioxidant properties determined in the study.

Liu FX; Fu SF; Bi XF; Chen F; Liao XJ; Hu XS; Wu JH

2013-05-01

350

Optimization and production of antifungal hydrolysis enzymes by streptomyces aureofaciens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We isolated naturally occurring actinomycetes with an ability to produce metabolites having antifungal property against, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of mango anthracnose. One promising strain was strong antifungal activity, was selected for further studies. Based on the physiolo...

Wafaa Mohamed Haggag; Enas Mostafa Mohamed; Ahamed Mohamed El Azzazy

351

Physiological and biochemical changes of different fresh-cut mango cultivars stored at 5 °C  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatments to inhibit browning, decay and to extend shelf life of 'Keitt', 'Kent' and 'Ataulfo' mango cultivars as a fresh-cut produce were investigated. Combinations of calcium chloride (CaCl?), antioxidants [ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA)] and two commercial film coatings resulted in a reduction of browning and deterioration of fresh-cut mangoes stored at 5 °C, especially for the Ataulfo cultivar. The use of CaCl? + AA + CA significantly reduced colour deterioration, loss of firmness and did not affect sensory characteristics of fresh-cut mango, with a larger effect in the Ataulfo cultivar. In general, these treatments prevented loss of sugar and vitamin C of cubes during storage at 5 °C. Shelf life of this cultivar was 21 days, while that of Keitt and Kent was only 9 and 12 days, respectively. There is a correlation between carotene and vitamin C content of Ataulfo mango and its longer shelf life compared with the other cultivars.

Gonzalez-Aguilar GustavoA; Celis Jorge; Sotelo-Mundo RogelioR; de la Rosa LauraA; Rodrigo-Garcia Joaquin; Alvarez-Parrilla Emilio

2008-01-01

352

Biology of Gall-Midges Affecting Mango with Special Reference to the Extent of Damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents all the pertinent data covering the biology of the mango blossom midges (Dasineura amaramanjarae, Procystiphora mangiferae, Procystiphora indica) and the blister-gall midge (Erosomyia indica), the extent of damage by the midges, summar...

S. N. Prasad

1968-01-01

353

Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-?-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin exhibited high antibacterial activity. These 3 compounds were effectively extracted using ethanol and n-hexane, whereas phlorin was extracted with water. Further, the above 3 compounds were present in lemon essential oil and abundantly present in the residue produced upon the cooling treatment of concentrated lemon essential oil.

Miyake Y; Hiramitsu M

2011-10-01

354

Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-?-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin exhibited high antibacterial activity. These 3 compounds were effectively extracted using ethanol and n-hexane, whereas phlorin was extracted with water. Further, the above 3 compounds were present in lemon essential oil and abundantly present in the residue produced upon the cooling treatment of concentrated lemon essential oil. PMID:23572799

Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

2011-03-03

355

Host status of commercial mango cultivars to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa. T. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in Limpopo and Mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. Fruit were inspected for the presence of T leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. Mango fruit of the cultivars 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Sensation' were artificially infested with T. leucotreta eggs on the tree to determine if the larvae were able to develop in fruit. Mature fruit of these cultivars were harvested and were then exposed to T leucotreta eggs and the larval development monitored. Before harvest, fruit were inspected for natural infestations and a packhouse survey was conducted during the 2009-2010 season to determine if any infested fruit were present. T. leucotreta was present in all mango orchards where monitoring was done with traps but no eggs were found on the fruit, which suggests the presence of antixenosis. Development occurred in mature harvested fruit of all cultivars that had been exposed to T. leucotreta eggs. Depending on the cultivar, between 0 and 5.05% of immature fruit on the tree supported development and demonstrate antibiosis. No naturally infested fruit were found in the orchards or during the packhouse survey. Mango in South Africa is not a natural host for T. leucotreta. Mature mango fruit is an acceptable host for T. leucotreta larval development under artificial conditions. The latex plays an important role in the resistance mechanism of mango fruit to T. leucotreta. PMID:23356058

Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

2012-12-01

356

Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

1976-01-01

357

Host status of commercial mango cultivars to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa. T. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in Limpopo and Mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. Fruit were inspected for the presence of T leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. Mango fruit of the cultivars 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Sensation' were artificially infested with T. leucotreta eggs on the tree to determine if the larvae were able to develop in fruit. Mature fruit of these cultivars were harvested and were then exposed to T leucotreta eggs and the larval development monitored. Before harvest, fruit were inspected for natural infestations and a packhouse survey was conducted during the 2009-2010 season to determine if any infested fruit were present. T. leucotreta was present in all mango orchards where monitoring was done with traps but no eggs were found on the fruit, which suggests the presence of antixenosis. Development occurred in mature harvested fruit of all cultivars that had been exposed to T. leucotreta eggs. Depending on the cultivar, between 0 and 5.05% of immature fruit on the tree supported development and demonstrate antibiosis. No naturally infested fruit were found in the orchards or during the packhouse survey. Mango in South Africa is not a natural host for T. leucotreta. Mature mango fruit is an acceptable host for T. leucotreta larval development under artificial conditions. The latex plays an important role in the resistance mechanism of mango fruit to T. leucotreta.

Grové T; De Beer MS; Joubert PH

2012-12-01

358

[Facial rejuvenation with chemical peeling using phenol (Exoderm)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report their personal experience in the treatment of the resurfacing by means of phenol chemical peeling using a new solution described by Dr. Yoram Fintsi and called Exoderm. They report dressing technique and possible contraindications as well. PMID:10732384

Vergine, M; Veneroso, S; Martino, G; Badiali, V; Braccioni, A; Monti, M

359

Radiography of nonaxisymmetric objects: An onion-peeling inversion method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An onion-peeling method for obtaining the linear attenuation coefficient distribution within a body from a single radiographic projection is presented. Unlike previous methods, which are applicable only to axi- or centrosymmetric objects, ours requires only mirror symmetry relative to the plane of the radiograph. An example of the use of the method is presented and discussed

2002-09-09

360

Characterization of Constituents in the Peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fifteen constituents, including a new compound, were isolated from an ethanolic extract of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis Hort. ex. Y. Tanaka (Japanese brand name, kawachibankan) which is one of the citrus products specific to Ehime, Japan. The new compound was characterized as 4'-dihydrophaseic acid ?-glucopyranose ester (15) on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

Amakura Y; Yoshimura M; Ouchi K; Okuyama S; Furukawa Y; Yoshida T

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Pectin Extracted from Orange Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus juice and concentrate are among the major industrial products in Iran. Large quantities of citrus peels with considerable amounts of pectin are also produced. Pectin could be extracted from the peels to be used as a gelling agent in some food products. Unfortunately, all pectin used in the food industry is imported. This study was carried out to find the best conditions of pectin extraction from orange peels. Samples of orange peels were collected from a concentrated orange juice factory. Pectin was extracted by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. Certain qualitative and quantitative tests, such as yield of extraction and cost of extraction were determined. Also, food safety aspects as a result of using the above acids were considered. Hydrochloric acid was found to be the most suitable acid. In the second part of the research, the effects of temperature (85 and 90?C), time (40, 50 and 60 minutes) and pH (1.6, 1.8 and 2.0) on the yield of extraction, purity, gelling ability, percentage of methoxylation and degree of esterification of the extracted pectins were measured. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best conditions for the extraction of pectin include a pH level of 1.6, a temperature of 90?C and a period of 50 minutes.

J. Keramat; G. H. Kabir; B. Ghanaati

2003-01-01

362

Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity.

Yu MW; Lou SN; Chiu EM; Ho CT

2013-02-01

363

Antioxidant activity and effective compounds of immature calamondin peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant activity and the flavonoids of mature and immature calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) peel were investigated. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, and superoxide scavenging effect. 3',5'-Di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, naringin, hesperidin, nobiletin, and tangeretin are the five major flavonoids found in hot water extract with the levels of 6888±522, 2333±157, 1350±94, 165±13, and 8±4 mg/100 g dry basis, respectively. The contents of nobiletin and tangeretin increased after ripening. The hot water extract of immature calamondin peel was fractionated using a semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction VI showed the highest ORAC value (28.02±2.73 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fraction) and two compounds, naringin and hesperidin, were identified as the major active components attributed to the antioxidant activity. Fraction V contained 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin, which revealed low ORAC value with 7.43 mmol TE/g fraction. However, it might also contribute to antioxidant activity in immature calamondin peel due to its greatest quantity. PMID:23194504

Yu, Ming-Wen; Lou, Shyi-Neng; Chiu, E-Mean; Ho, Chi-Tang

2012-10-02

364

Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max. total phenolics content of 3.94 mg g?1 dry w...

Ashutosh Singh; Kebba Sabally; Stan Kubow; Danielle J. Donnelly; Yvan Gariepy; Valérie Orsat; G.S.V. Raghavan

365

Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha-1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha-1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

2009-01-01

366

Species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated on mango in Brazil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to assess diversity in the Botryosphaeriaceae on trees and fruit of mango (Mangifera indica L.) in a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil in which most exported fruit in the country are produced. Using morphological characteristics and DNA sequence data (ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S rDNA) we confirmed the presence of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in the region, and for the first time report Fusicoccum aesculi and Neofusicoccum parvum. L. theobromae was prevalent in the Assú Valley and F. aesculi and N. parvum were in the São Francisco Valley. In fruit inoculations, L. theobromae and N. parvum were more virulent than F. aesculi.

de Oliveira Costa ValériaSandra; Michereff SamiJorge; Martins RicardoBrainer; Gava CarlosAlbertoTuão; Mizubuti EduardoSeitiGomide; Câmara MarcosPazSaraiva

2010-08-01

367

Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

1985-01-01

368

Intensity of panicle malformation in mango (mangifera indica L.) varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango germplasm comprising of forty three varieties was evaluated for the level of the panicle malformation disease intensity. The intensity varied significantly among the genotypes. Out tested varieties four were tolerant, 27 were moderately tolerant, five were moderately susceptible while seven were recorded highly susceptible to malformation. Disease incidence frequency was highest in Lab-e-Mashooq (68.70 %) followed by G.M. Wala (64.28 %) and lowest in Sensation (7.20%) and Gulab Khas (7.8 %). The lowest affected varieties may be used for incorporating their tolerance in the other commercial varieties through breeding program. The incidence rate was higher (38.69%) in six commercial varieties under Central Punjab ecological conditions than that of (26.70%) in the Southern (Multan) region. However, the tolerance in genotypes seems specific to ecological regions and the growers of the highly susceptible varieties should be very careful and regular in carrying the control measures. (author)

2008-01-01

369

Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control.

Nery PS; Nogueira FA; Oliveira NJ; Martins ER; Duarte ER

2012-12-01

370

Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control. PMID:22773010

Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

2012-07-07

371

METHOD FOR PRODUCTION OF SCLEROGLUCAN THROUGH CULTIVATION OF SCLEROTIUM SP. IN CULTURE MEDIUM INCLUDING MANDARIN PEELS AS CARBON SOURCES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for preparing Scleroglucan by cultivating Sclerotium sp. in a culture medium including mandarin peels as a carbon source is provided to use the mandarin peels economically, thereby reducing manufacturing costs for the culture medium. A method for preparing Scleroglucan by cultivating Sclerotium sp. in a culture medium including mandarin peels as a carbon source comprises the following steps: saccharifying the mandarin peels with acids adding a diastatic enzyme to the saccharified mandarin peels so as to saccharify the mandarin peels additionally cultivating Sclerotium rolfsii in the culture medium wherein the saccharified mandarin peels are obtained and collecting the Scleroglucan from the cultivated Sclerotium rolfsii.

LEE JONG DAE; SONG SUNG KI; CHUN GIE TAEK; JUNG YONG SEOP; KIM JE KYUNG; JANG YONG MAN; AHN HYUN JUNG; CHOI NA NI

372

[Transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy and Brilliant Peel (BP)-assisted ILM peeling in patients with macular holes].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the visual and anatomic outcome after 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy and Brilliant Peel (BP)-assisted ILM peeling in patients with macular holes. METHODS: In a consecutive retrospective study in 41 eyes of 41 patients with macular holes a standardised 23-G transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy with ILM-peeling and gas tamponade was performed. All patients underwent preoperative measurements of visual acuity (VA), the maximum hole diameter, basis, height, and intraretinal changes using high resolution optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT; Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering). Main outcome measures included visual acuity 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery and the closure rate. We also evaluated photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) integrity as seen in SD-OCT for correlation with visual outcomes after macular hole surgery. RESULTS: At baseline the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.2 (0.77 logMAR). BCVA improved significantly to 0.4 (0.46 logMAR) after 1 month, to 0.44 (0.41 logMAR) after 3 months and to 0.58 (0.28 logMAR) after 6 months, respectively. A closure rate of 95.1 % was achieved. The morphological parameter photoreceptor IS/OS integrity was measured semiquantitatively and showed a positive correlation to BCVA. CONCLUSION: Transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy and Brilliant Peel (BP)-assisted ILM peeling in patients with macular holes is a very safe procedure and leads to good functional and anatomic results. The integrity of the IS/OS segment is a good predictive parameter for BCVA improvement after macular hole surgery.

Maier MM; Rass S; Mueller C; Feucht N; Lohmann CP

2013-07-01

373

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano.

Thomas L. Davenport

2007-01-01

374

Reproductive physiology of mango/ Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor (more) florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano. Abstract in english Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regu (more) lated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.

Davenport, Thomas L.

2007-12-01

375

Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB peeling 89%, non-peeling 36%, p

Christensen, U C; KrØyer, K

2009-01-01

376

Comparison of a series of superficial chemical peels with a single midlevel chemical peel for the correction of facial actinic damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chemical facial peels are common cosmetic procedures that have gained in popularity over the last decade. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and morbidity of a series of superficial glycolic acid (GA) peels with those of a midlevel trichloroacetic acid (TCA) peel. METHODS: We conducted a split-face study of 7 female patients, comparing the benefits of a single 35% TCA peel with those of a series of 5 30% GA peels performed at monthly intervals. Throughout the study, we performed noninvasive biophysical measurements, optical imaging, and expert and naïve image evaluations and conducted subject-group discussions so that we might objectively quantify and compare the treatments over time. An additional objective of the research was to use quantitative objective measurements of skin condition and actinic damage to establish these techniques as biologically based standards for treatment evaluation. RESULTS: Skin elasticity and hydration increased during the course of the study but were not significantly different between the 2 treatment modes. Overall improvement with both treatments was relatively small as judged by expert evaluations of digital images taken at baseline and 3 months after treatment. No important differences were perceived when naïve judges were asked to evaluate the images. Digital-image analysis of wrinkles in the cheek region revealed significantly greater improvement in wrinkles with the TCA peel. In patient-group discussions, TCA peels were associated with greater improvement but also with more discomfort; GA peels were associated with a high degree of satisfaction, although their effect on quantitative technical measures of actinic damage was not dramatic. CONCLUSIONS: Although a single TCA peel produced more improvement than a series of superficial peels, the differences were small, and the TCA peel was associated with significantly greater discomfort.

Kitzmiller WJ; Visscher MO; Maclennan S; Butterfield JL; Fuhrman E; Doughty D; Dawes N

2003-09-01

377

Cost-effectiveness of internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for patients with an idiopathic full-thickness macular hole: results from a randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling is cost-effective compared with no peeling for patients with an idiopathic stage 2 or 3 full-thickness macular hole. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed alongside a randomised controlled trial. 141 participants were randomly allocated to receive macular-hole surgery, with either ILM peeling or no peeling. Health-service resource use, costs and quality of life were calculated for each participant. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained was calculated at 6 months. RESULTS: At 6 months, the total costs were on average higher (£424, 95% CI -182 to 1045) in the No Peel arm, primarily owing to the higher reoperation rate in the No Peel arm. The mean additional QALYs from ILM peel at 6 months were 0.002 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.013), adjusting for baseline EQ-5D and other minimisation factors. A mean incremental cost per QALY was not computed, as Peeling was on average less costly and slightly more effective. A stochastic analysis suggested that there was more than a 90% probability that Peeling would be cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20,000 per QALY. CONCLUSION: Although there is no evidence of a statistically significant difference in either costs or QALYs between macular hole surgery with or without ILM peeling, the balance of probabilities is that ILM Peeling is likely to be a cost-effective option for the treatment of macular holes. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.

Ternent L; Vale L; Boachie C; Burr JM; Lois N

2012-03-01

378

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.

Cortet PP; Dalbe MJ; Guerra C; Cohen C; Ciccotti M; Santucci S; Vanel L

2013-02-01

379

Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. Methods This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Results Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80±2.35?dB with peeling versus 13.19±2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3±6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10?dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9±4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). Conclusions These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum.

Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

2012-01-01

380

Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI) removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1) occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1) was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI), litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass). After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI) with the simultaneous production of Cr (III). Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez; Rigoberto Martinez-Perez; Juan F. Cardenas-Gonzalez; Maria de Guadalupe Moctezuma-Zarate; Victor Manuel Martinez-Juarez

2012-01-01