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Sample records for mango peel waste

  1. Microwave-assisted extraction of pectic polysaccharide from waste mango peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Swathi, K; Jeevitha, P; Jayalakshmi, J; Ashvini, G

    2015-06-01

    This present study investigates the extraction characteristics and optimal parameters of the microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from waste mango peel (WMP). Microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio were selected as the extraction parameters and was studied by using Box-Behnken response surface design. The experimental data was analyzed by least square regression analysis method and a second order polynomial model was constructed for response from the experimental data. The constructed model was adequate to explain the relationships between independent variables and response. All studied factors had great influence on the yield of pectin by individually and interactively. The optimum microwave assisted extraction conditions for the highest pectin yield (28.86%) from WMP was found to be: microwave power of 413W, pH of 2.7, time of 134s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:18g/ml. The experimental value was well correlated with predicted value at the optimal condition. PMID:25843835

  2. Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Mango Peels Using Green Technology

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tunchaiyaphum; M. N. Eshtiaghi; N. Yoswathana

    2013-01-01

    Mango peels, wastes generated from fruit can processing, are a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds that has potential antioxidant properties. This study investigated the extraction of phenolic compounds from mango peels using subcritical water extraction (SCW). Experiments were performed in a batch laboratory-built equipment (50 ml volume of vessel) immersed in oil bath and temperatures ranging from 160 to 220 °C, extraction time of 30 to 120 min., material parti...

  3. Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susy Mary Souto de, Oliveira; Vivyanne S., Falcão-Silva; José P., Siqueira-Junior; Maria José de Carvalho, Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo, Diniz.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance t [...] o norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

  4. Sanitizers Effect in Mango Pulp and Peel Antioxidant Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila de Almeida Monaco; Sergio Marques Costa; Maíra Rodrigues Uliana; Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima

    2014-01-01

    Effects of ozonated water as sanitizer method on mango was studied on total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin C of pulp or peel. Mango cultivar “Palmer” was harvested and subjected to sanitization treatments by immersion in water, chlorinated water (10 minutes sodium hypochlorite 100 mg°C °C and 85%

  5. The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-12-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186

  6. Biorefinery of waste orange peel.

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Siles Lo?pez, J.; Li, Q.; Thompson, Ip

    2010-01-01

    Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical ...

  7. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2009-05-15

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

  8. Potencial agroindustrial de cáscaras de mango (Mangifera indica) variedades Keitt y Tommy Atkins / Agro industrial potential of peels of mango (Mangifera indica) Keitt and Tommy Atkins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Serna Cock; Cristian, Torres León.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el potencial agroindustrial de las cáscaras de mango de las variedades Keitt y Tommy Atkins, por sus características de rendimientos, contenidos en compuestos fenólicos totales y composición proximal (materia seca, proteína, extracto etéreo, cenizas, fibras dietéticas y energ [...] ía bruta). Las cáscaras se liofilizaron con el fin de preservar sus compuestos antioxidantes. Se utilizó un diseño unifactorial con dos niveles (variedades) y los datos se presentan como media ± desviación estándar (P = 0.05). Con el procesamiento artesanal se produjeron 13.5 ± 0.48% de cáscaras para la variedad Tommy Atkins y 16.1 ± 0.5% para la variedad Keitt, con materia seca de 18 y 17%, respectivamente. Por sus contenidos de materia seca, estos residuos agroindustriales tienen un alto potencial para desarrollar productos de valor agregado. Ambas variedades presentaron cáscara con alto contenido de fibras soluble e insoluble (Keitt 22.1%bs y Tommy Atkins19.9% bs). Se concluye que las cáscaras de mango de estas variedades tienen potencial como ingrediente o suplemento alimentario y en la formulación de alimentos funcionales prebióticos, ya que son una excelente fuente de fibra dietética y de compuestos fenólicos (> 3000 mg/100 g de MS). Abstract in english According to yield contents of total phenols and their proximate composition (dry matter, protein, ether extract, ash, dietary fiber, and gross energy) the agro-industrial potential of the peels from the mango varieties Keitt and Tommy Atkins was evaluated. The peels were lyophilized in order to pre [...] serve its antioxidant compounds. A univariate design with two levels was used, data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (p = 0.05). The artisanal processing generated 13.5 ± 0.48% of peels for variety Tommy Atkins and 16.1 ± 0.5% for the Keitt variety, dry matter of 18 and 17% respectively. The contents of dry matter make these agro-industrial wastes are potential to develop value-added products. The contents of soluble and insoluble fiber coincided with the classification of high fiber content (22.1% db Keitt and Tommy Atkins 19.9% bs., It was concluded that the mango peels and Tommy Atkins variety Keitt have potential as a food ingredient, dietary supplement, and the formulation of functional foods prebiotics, because they are excellent source of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds (> 3000 mg.100g-1 D.M.).

  9. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  10. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel extract fractions from different cultivars differentially affect lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Gidley, Michael J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2013-02-26

    Plant phytochemicals are increasingly recognised as sources of bioactive molecules which may have potential benefit in many health conditions. In mangoes, peel extracts from different cultivars exhibit varying effects on adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line. In this study, the effects of preparative HPLC fractions of methanol peel extracts from Irwin, Nam Doc Mai and Kensington Pride mangoes were evaluated. Fraction 1 contained the most hydrophilic components while subsequent fractions contained increasingly more hydrophobic components. High content imaging was used to assess mango peel fraction effects on lipid accumulation, nuclei count and nuclear area in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. For all three mango cultivars, the more hydrophilic peel fractions 1-3 inhibited lipid accumulation with greater potency than the more hydrophobic peel fractions 4. For all three cultivars, the more lipophilic fraction 4 had concentrations that enhanced lipid accumulation greater than fractions 1-3 as assessed by lipid droplet integrated intensity. The potency of this fraction 4 varied significantly between cultivars. Using mass spectrometry, five long chain free fatty acids were detected in fraction 4; these were not present in any other peel extract fractions. Total levels varied between cultivars, with Irwin fraction 4 containing the highest levels of these free fatty acids. Lipophilic components appear to be responsible for the lipid accumulation promoting effects of some mango extracts and are the likely cause of the diverse effects of peel extracts from different mango cultivars on lipid accumulation. PMID:23295454

  11. Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1, tie line length (?3.42–35.27%, NaCl (?2.5–11.5% and pH (4.5–10.5 on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2 purification factor (14.37 and yield (97.3% of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol?1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

  12. Aqueous extracts of mango and orange peel as green inhibitors for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaina Cardozo da, Rocha; José Antônio da Cunha Ponciano, Gomes; Eliane, D& #39; Elia.

    1581-15-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aqueous extracts of mango and orange peels were shown to be good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in a 1 mol L- 1 HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased as the extract concentration increased over a concentration range of 200-600 mg L- 1, varying from 79 to 96% (mango) [...] and 84 to 91% (orange) using Tafel plots and from 69 to 94% (mango) and 76 to 90% (orange) using electrochemical impedance. In the presence of 400 mg L- 1 of mango and orange peel extracts, the weight loss measurements showed an increase in the inhibition efficiency with immersion time, where the best results after 24 h of immersion were 97% and 95%, respectively. The adsorption of the extract components on the surface of the carbon steel follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. With the extraction procedure used in this work, it can be surmised that it is likely that the more polar heterosides in the extracts are responsible for the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in an acid solution.

  13. Comparative Assessment of Phenolic Content and in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity in the Pulp and Peel of Mango Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Guo, Xinbo; Fu, Xiong; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Youngsheng; Zhu, Yong; Yan, Huaifeng; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), also called "the king of fruits", is one of the most popular fruits in tropical regions. Pulp and peel samples of mango cultivars were analyzed to estimate total phenolic, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Phenolic acids, hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (hydro-PSC) and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) in vitro were also determined. Total phenolics and flavonoid contents were found maximum in the peel of Xiao Tainang and Da Tainang cultivars, respectively, whereas Xiao Tainang also exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. Noteworthy, concentrations of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acids at 79.15, 64.33, 33.75, 27.19 and 13.62 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) were quantified for Da Tainang, Xiao Tainang and of Jidan cultivars, respectively. Comparatively, a higher level of phenolics and significant antioxidant capacity in mango peel indicated that it might be useful as a functional food and value-added ingredient to promote human health. PMID:26075869

  14. Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

    2010-10-01

    Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

  15. Evaluación de Polvos Alimentarios obtenidos de Cáscaras de Mango (Mangifera indica) como fuente de Ingredientes Funcionales / Evaluation of food powders obtained from peels of mango (Mangifera indica) as sources of functional ingredients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liliana, Serna-Cock; Cristian, Torres-León; Alfredo, Ayala-Aponte.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de partícula (250 pm y 180 pm) sobre la humectabilidad, solubilidad, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA), capacidad de retención de aceite (CRAC) e hinchazón en polvos liofilizados obtenidos de cáscaras de mango de las variedades criollo, Keitt, y Tommy Atkins. Además [...] , se evaluó el contenido de antocianinas, carotenoides, licopeno y ácido ascórbico. El tamaño y la variedad influyeron significativamente (p Abstract in english The effects of particle size (250 microns and 180 microns) on wettability, solubility, water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), and swelling in freeze drying powders, obtained from three varieties of mango peels (Creole, Keitt and Tommy Atkins), were analyzed. In addition, the conte [...] nt of carotenoids, antioxianinas, and ascorbic acid, were evaluated. The particle diameter and the variety of mango affected the functional properties of the powders (p

  16. Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Saikaew

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

  17. Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

    2010-12-01

    Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730

  18. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products and their valuable components: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahurul, M H A; Zaidul, I S M; Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Nyam, Kar-Lin; Norulaini, N A N; Sahena, F; Mohd Omar, A K

    2015-09-15

    The large amount of waste produced by the food industries causes serious environmental problems and also results in economic losses if not utilized effectively. Different research reports have revealed that food industry by-products can be good sources of potentially valuable bioactive compounds. As such, the mango juice industry uses only the edible portions of the mangoes, and a considerable amount of peels and seeds are discarded as industrial waste. These mango by-products come from the tropical or subtropical fruit processing industries. Mango by-products, especially seeds and peels, are considered to be cheap sources of valuable food and nutraceutical ingredients. The main uses of natural food ingredients derived from mango by-products are presented and discussed, and the mainstream sectors of application for these by-products, such as in the food, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, are highlighted. PMID:25863626

  19. Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of alk(en)ylresorcinols using rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction of mango peels and rye grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerkens, Christian H; Matejka, Anna E; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-02-15

    Exhaustive extraction of alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs) from biological matrices is a prerequisite for economic screening of extensive plant collections including their rapid quantitation. For this purpose, an ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol was developed to facilitate the liberation of ARs from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.) and rye grains (Secale cereale L.). While maintaining or even improving the extraction efficiency of the analytes, the duration of analytical extraction was shortened from more than 1h to only 45s as compared to previous methods. In addition, sample weight and solvent use were significantly reduced. Besides the validation of the extraction procedure, validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD-MS(n) based characterisation and quantitation method are provided. In particular, fully satisfactory recovery rates and quantitation limits were achieved, and coefficients of variation (CV) for repeatability and reproducibility were ?8 and mango and three rye cultivars, and the results were compared to previously published data. PMID:25236225

  20. Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

    2015-06-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

  1. Improvement of biogas production from orange peel waste by leaching of limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikandari, Rachma; Nguyen, Huong; Millati, Ria; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20-40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m(3) methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel. PMID:25866787

  2. Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

  3. Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga / Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz dos Santos, Siqueira; Letícia Dias, Alves; Pollyanna Novato, Vasconcelos; Clarissa, Damiani; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de áci [...] do cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperatur [...] e and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

  4. Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K.L.; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

    2007-01-01

    A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels)...

  5. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

  6. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-07-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity and Bioaccessibility of Synergic Mango (cv. Ataulfo Peel Phenolic Compounds in Edible Coatings Applied to Fresh-Cut Papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rubén Velderrain-Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible coatings (EC applied to fresh-cut fruits are used to increase their shelf-life and to deliver antioxidant bioactives such as phenolic compounds (PC that reduce their oxidative damage while enhance their functional value. However, the combination of different PC may have synergetic, additive or antagonic effects on the final antioxidant capacity (AOXC. The aim of this study was to examine the AOXC of binary combinations of selected PC from mango peel and their bioaccessibility from 6% alginate-based EC applied to fresh-cut papaya, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Among equimolar (0.1 mM combinations, gallic + protocatechuic acids (AB were synergic in radical scavenging activity (RSA as assayed by DPPH (90% RSA and FRAP (0.39 mg TE/mL methods; when assayed in 6% alginate-based EC, their RSA increased (117.85% RSA, 0.88 mg TE/mL. The application of EC + AB to papaya cubes and further in vitro digestion decreased their AOXC probably due to interactions between EC and papaya’s matrix. Therefore, further studies are needed in order to evaluate the effect of combination of phenolic and EC applied in other fruits matrix on antioxidants bioaccessibility.

  8. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa / Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L) jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarissa, Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros, Vilas Boas; Manoel Soares, Soares Junior; Marcio, Caliari; Maria do Livramento de, Paula; Eduardo Ramirez, Asquier.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos tot [...] ais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vit [...] amin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

  9. Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

  10. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

  11. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Ridoutt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

  12. Optimisation of antioxidant extraction from Solanum tuberosum potato peel waste by surface response methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Franco, Daniel; Sánchez, Marivel; Zapata, Carlos; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2014-12-15

    This study reports the optimised conditions (temperature, ethanol concentration and processing-time) for antioxidant extraction from potato peel (Agria variety) waste. At short extraction times (34 min), optimal yields of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (Fv) compounds were reached at 89.9°C and ethanol concentrations of 71.2% and 38.6%, respectively. The main phenolic compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic (Cl) and ferulic (Fer) acids. A significant positive correlation was found between antioxidant activity and TP, Fv, Fer and Cl responses. Potato peel extracts were able to stabilize soybean oil under accelerated oxidation conditions, minimising peroxide, totox and p-anisidine indices. The production of hexanal and 2-hexenal in soybean oil samples was maximal for extracts obtained at intermediate temperatures and ethanol concentrations. Our results demonstrate potato peel waste is a good source of antioxidants able to effectively limit oil oxidation, while contributing to the revalorisation of these agrifood by-products. PMID:25038678

  13. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potentialInvestigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to analysis in accordance with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM. The carbohydrates were extracted by distilled water and characterized by physical, chemical and biochemical methods. The carbohydrates were subjected to anaerobic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol which was confirmed by the preparation of UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and ethyl salicylate. The highest % yield of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty acid ethyl ester was found to be 75% and 38%, respectively. The yield of bioethanol from banana peels and radish leaves was found to be 1.37% and 1.23%, respectively.

  14. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  15. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets

    OpenAIRE

    A.I. Ukanwoko; J.A. Ibeawuchi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 5...

  16. Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets

    OpenAIRE

    A.I. Ndubueze; S.N. Ukachukwu; F.O. Ahamefule.; J.A. Ibeawuchi

    2006-01-01

    The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji) cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D) consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW) and cassava peel ...

  17. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

  18. PROPIEDADES TÉCNICO-FUNCIONALES DE LA FIBRA DIETARIA DE CÁSCARAS DE MANGO VARIEDADHILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFECTO DEL SECADO POR CONVECCIÓN / TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DIETARY FIBER FROM MANGO PEEL VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFFECT OF CONVECTION DRYING / PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS DA FIBRA DIETÉTICA DA CASCA DE MANGA VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFEITO DA SECAGEM POR CONVECÇÃO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GUSTAVO ADOLFO, HINCAPIÉ LL.; DIANA CAROLINA, VÁSQUEZ O; VALERIA SOFÍA, GALICIA M; CARLOS AUGUSTO, HINCAPIÉ LL..

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available Um subproduto da produção de sumo de manga é a sua casca, que contém níveis significativos de fibra dietética que pode ser utilizado no processamento de alimentos, no entanto, não é actualmente utilizada. O processo de secagem prolonga-se a vida útil da casca e permite que seja adicionada a outros a [...] limentos. Neste estudo, CMH foi caracterizado quimicamente e avaliado o efeito da temperatura de secagem nas propriedades funcionais da fibra dietética; Capacidade inchaço (CI), capacidade de Reter Água (CRA) e Capacidade de Adsorção de Lipídeos (CAL), características determinam em grande parte a qualidade da fibra dietética (FD). Os resultados mostraram que o HMP é semelhante a outras variedades de manga, porque tem um conteúdo similar de fibra dietética total, proteína, extrato etéreo, carboidratos e fibra bruta. A casca seca da manga Hilacha (CSMH) obtido, é uma fonte promissora de DF porque a sua qualidade não afetou de forma significativa para o processo de secagem utilizado neste trabalho. Abstract in spanish Un subproducto de la obtención del jugo de mango es su cáscara; la cual contiene niveles considerables de fibra dietaria que podrían ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos alimenticios, sin embargo, actualmente no es muy aprovechado. El proceso de secado prolonga la vida útil de la cascara y [...] permite que pueda ser adicionada a otros alimentos. En este estudio, se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente la Cáscara de Mango Hilacha (CMH) y se evaluó el efecto de cinco temperaturas de secado sobre las propiedades técnico-funcionales de la fibra dietaria; Capacidad de Hinchamiento (CH), Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) y Capacidad de Adsorción de Lípidos (CAL), características que determinan en gran medida la calidad de la fibra dietaria (FD). Los resultados obtenidos indican que la CMH tiene un contenido de fibra dietaria total, proteína, extracto etéreo, carbohidratos y fibra cruda similar al de otras variedades de mango. La cáscara de mango hilacha seca y molida (CSMH) obtenida, es una promisoria fuente de FD, ya que su calidad no se vio afectada significativamente por el proceso de secado empleado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A byproduct from juice extraction of mango is the peel, which contains significant levels of dietary fiber that could be used in food processing, however, is not currently utilized. The drying process extends the useful life of the peel and allows it to be added to other foods. In This work, we made [...] a chemical characterization of HMP and evaluated the drying temperature effect over functional properties of dietary fiber; Swelling Capacity (SC), Water Retention Capacity (WRC) and Lipid Adsorption Capacity (LAC), features that define, in high degree, dietary fiber (DF) quality. Results showed that the HMP is similar to other mangoes varieties, because have a similar content of total dietary fiber, protein, ether extract, carbohydrates and crude fiber. The dry peel of Hilacha mango (MDPHM) obtained, is a promising source of DF because their quality didn’t affected significantly for the drying process used in this work.

  19. Análise física, sensorial e microbiológica de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa / Physical, sensory and microbiological analysis of mango jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clarissa, Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros, Vilas Boas; Manoel Soares, Soares Junior; Marcio, Caliari; Maria do Livramento de, Paula; Douglas Endrigo Perez, Pereira; Aline Gomes Moura, Silva.

    1418-14-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de casca em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Haden"). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: a cor, a consistência, a aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma e s [...] abor) e as características microbiológicas dos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que todos os tratamentos obtiveram, por meio de análise consumidores, escores médios entre sete (gostei moderadamente) e oito (gostei muito). As características físicas e microbiológicas mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de geléias de frutas estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas na formulação de geléia de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável nas áreas física, sensorial e microbiológica, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with levels of zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of peels in substitution of pulp of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Haden'). The quality criterion were color, consistency, sensory acceptability and microbiological characteristics. I [...] t was observed that all treatments obtained with the consumers mean scores between seven (liked moderated) and eight (liked a lot). Physical and microbiological characteristics were maintained inside of the fruit jams patterns established for Brazilian legislation. For the gotten results, the partial or total substitution of pulp for peels Haden mango in the jams formulation is viable on the physical, sensory and microbiological areas, with economic and environmental advantages.

  20. Production of Trichoderma asperellum T8a spores by a "home-made" solid-state fermentation of mango industrial wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Villaseñor-Ortega; Herna?ndez-rodri?guez, Luis E.; Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos; Pen?a-cabriales, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Dry wastes (dw) generated in processing mangoes, composed (in dry weight) mainly of soluble carbohydrates (71 ± 2%) and fiber (16 ± 1%), were evaluated as substrates in a “home-made” solid-state fermentation (using polyurethane foam as inert support matrix, various C:N ratios, moisture contents, and incubation periods) of Trichoderma asperellum T8a, a promising biological control agent against the mango pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (causal agent of anthracnose). Highest spore...

  1. Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds

  2. Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

  3. Anaerobic digestion of peel waste and wastewater for on site energy generation in a citrus processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A citrus processing facility produces significant quantities of both peel waste and wastewater. A leach – bed batch anaerobic digester was operated successfully at thermophilic (55 °C) temperature for biogasification of citrus peel waste. The retention time in the digester was 25 days. The citrus processing wastewater was digested in a thermophilic DSFF (down flow stationary fixed film) anaerobic reactor fed continuously and operated for 76 days. At an average organic loading rate of 0.51 kg sCOD m?3 d?1 the hydraulic retention time was 16 days. No long term toxicity issues due to limonene were observed during digestion of both citrus waste feedstocks. Biogasification yielded, 0.116 m3 methane at STP kg?1 peel waste received and 2.1 m3 at STP m?3 wastewater received. An energy analysis showed that in a citrus processing plant handling 600 tons per day of fruits, the biogas produced from the waste streams is more than sufficient to meet all the electricity and fuel demands. Excess electricity generated from biogas may be sold generating estimated revenues of more than a $1 million annually (at electricity sale price of $0.04/kWhe). - Highlights: • Citrus peel waste digestion yields 0.116 m3 of methane at STP per kg as received. • Citrus processing wastewater digestion yields 2.1 m3 of methane at STP per m3. • 600 ton/day citrus factory can produce 3.2 MWe on site, using biogas from wastes. • Biogas can supply all the energy (electricity and fuel) needs of the plant

  4. Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

  5. Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

  6. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of orange peel waste and residual glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M A; Fernández, R; Serrano, A; Siles, J A

    2013-07-01

    The manufacturing of orange juice generates high volumes of orange peel waste which should not be deposited in landfill according to current recommendations. Furthermore, glycerol is a compound co-generated in biodiesel manufacturing, but the volume generated is higher than the current demand for pure glycerol. The anaerobic co-digestion of orange peel waste with residual glycerol could reduce the inhibitory effect of some compounds and provide a correct nutrient balance. Under mesophilic temperature and semi-continuous conditions, a mixture of orange peel waste-residual glycerol of 1:1 (in COD) operated favorably for organic loads up to 2.10 g VS/L. At higher organic loads, the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and a decrease in the pH caused process destabilization. The methane yield coefficient was quite constant, with a mean value of 330±51 mL(STP)/g VSadded, while the organic loading rate (OLR) reached a mean value of 1.91±0.37 kgVS/m3 d (17.59±2.78 kgmixture/m3 d) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied in a range of 8.5-30.0 d. PMID:23680268

  7. Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t...

  8. Utilization of waste fruit-peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus flavus: a biotreatment of rice for safer storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, R; Sultana, Bushra; Khan, M Z; Naseer, D; Nigam, Poonam

    2014-11-01

    Antifungal activity in lemon and pomegranate peels was considerable against Aspergillus flavus, higher in pomegranate (DIZ 37mm; MIC 135?g/mL). Powdered peels (5, 10, 20% w/w) were mixed in inoculated rice. The inhibitory effect on fungal-growth and production of aflatoxins by A. flavus was investigated at storage conditions - temperature (25, 30°C) and moisture (18%, 21%) for 9months. The maximum total aflatoxins accumulated at 30°C, 21% moisture and at 25°C, 18% moisture were 265.09 and 163.45ng/g, respectively in control. Addition of pomegranate-peels inhibited aflatoxins production to 100% during four month-storage of rice at 25°C and 18% moisture, while lemon-peels showed similar inhibitory effect for 3months at same conditions. However a linear correlation was observed in aflatoxins level with temperature and moisture. Studies showed that both fruit-wastes are potent preventer of aflatoxin production in rice, useful for a safer and longer storage of rice. PMID:25270080

  9. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashok kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

  10. MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING

    OpenAIRE

    SAEED AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID; ISLAM-UD-DIN; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; MUHAMMAD AMIN

    2008-01-01

    Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. Th...

  11. Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices

    OpenAIRE

    Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

    2011-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was tre...

  12. Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-10-01

    Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3-21), GalOS (DP 5-12), and OGalA (DP 2-12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation. PMID:25207862

  13. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mango canning by-products (seed and peel together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM, ash, crude protein (CP, crude fibre (CF, ether extract (EE, nitrogen-free extract (NFE, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and peel silage is 4.68, 4.19 and 5.27% respectively. As expected, mango seed has a higher fibre content than mango peel and peel silage as indicated by NDF (53.01 vs 25.87 and 27.56% respectively and ADF (31.02 vs 19.14 and 17.68% respectively. However, mango seed also has greater GE than mango peel and peel silage (4,070 vs 3,827 and 3,984 kcal/g DM respectively, probably due partly to its high fat content.Four head of male native cattle were used to determine nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products by randomly allowing them to receive ensiled mango peel with rice straw (EMPR and different levels of Leucaena leaves. Treatments consisted of: 1 ensiled mango peel + rice straw (90:10; 2 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (85:10:5; 3 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (80:10:10; and 4 ensiled mango peel + rice straw + Leucaena leaves (75:10:15. Addition of Leucaena leaves to silage increased apparent digestibility of DM (53.84, 55.43, 59.04 and 58.69% for the four formulations above respectively, probably because of increasing amounts of CP from Leucaena leaves, resulting in greater digestibility of NDF (39.11, 44.47, 47.12 and 43.32% for the four formulations above respectively. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy (DE showed the same trends as apparent digestibility of DM.

  14. Residues of 14C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 ?g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 ?g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in ped. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

  15. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana María, Torrado; Sandra, Cortés; José Manuel, Salgado; Belén, Max; Noelia, Rodríguez; Belinda P, Bibbins; Attilio, Converti; José Manuel, Domínguez.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculu [...] m concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  16. Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Torrado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

  17. Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L. in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L. en la obtención de azúcares fermentables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The common mango waste (Mangifera indica L. is a vegetable material containing a high level of lignocelluloses tissue which can be used to obtain fermentable metabolites and fermentation products. In this study hydrolysis treatments were applied to the common mango in order to make the conversion of its polysaccharides to fermentable sugar units. Acid hydrolysis was applied to three different concentrations of dilute sulphuric acid. An enzymatic hydrolysis with two types of commercial enzymes to different concentrations in standard work conditions, was also applied. In addition, a thermic hydrolysis was applied at two different temperatures. At each treatment, the following tests were applied: total sugar concentration, reduced sugar concentration, and percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose residuals. Based on the data obtained from the tests, the best treatments were identified and so the best combinations of the best hydrolysis treatments were carried out. The most significant treatment for individual tests was acid hydrolysis at 0, 50% v/v sulphuric acid at 80?C for one hour. In the combined treatments the most relevant result was the treatment that combined the enzymatic hydrolysis (as pretreatment plus a thermic hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis. For security reasons in the reagents use, as well as in the elimination of collateral adverse effects for further alcoholic fermentation, a procedure involving thermic hydrolysis as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, was chosen as the main treatment with the most appropriate application in the fermentable metabolites production from common mango waste in order to produce alcohol. Further studies have allowed approaching the hydrolysis via microbial with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride, as well as the alcoholic fermentation post-treatment hydrolytic using previous studies. The simultaneous hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation, and recently performing the simultaneity of the processes, adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L. es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80?C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han permitido abordar la hidrólisis por vía microbiana con Aspergillus niger y Trichoderma v

  18. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-ok; Kim, Hee-su; Hyun, Sun-hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-suk; Choi, Hyung-kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

  19. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803

  20. Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2009-01-01

    Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

  1. Chemical and thermal characterization of potato peel waste and its fermentation residue as potential resources for biofuel and bioproducts production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

    2014-08-20

    The growing demand for renewable fuels has driven the interest in the utilization of alternative waste materials such as potato peel waste (PPW) which contains fermentable carbohydrate. Fermentation of PPW using a mixed microbial consortium yielded about 60% unreacted PPW fermentation residue (PPW-FR). The PPW and PPW-FR were characterized by a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to quantify changes after fermentation. Fermentation of PPW resulted in fermentation of starch and concentrating lignin plus suberin and lipids in PPW-FR. TGA analysis showed that decomposition peaks differed for PPW (423 °C) and PPW-FR (457 °C). Pyrolysis-GC/MS showed an increase in phenolic and long chain fatty acid compounds with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrate derived compounds in the PPW after fermentation. Both the PPW and PPW-FR have shown potential based on properties to be converted into crude biofuel via thermochemical processes. PMID:25093245

  2. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

  3. Chemical composition and in vitro gas production of silage from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different periods of ensilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dele, P A; Jolaosho, A O; Arigbede, O M; Ojo, V O A; Amole, T A; Okukenu, O A; Akinyemi, B T

    2013-12-01

    A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27) treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p Guinea Grass (GG)+25% cassava peel (CAP)+50% Cashew Apple Waste (CAW) which was not significantly (p > 0.05) different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p < 0.05) from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals. PMID:24506052

  4. Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

    2015-04-01

    The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

  5. PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Verma; Bansal, Mukesh C.; Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundan...

  6. Understanding the changes in Sri Lankan mango fruits during postharvest ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Thanaraj, Thiruchelvam

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to be carried out which describes changes in biochemical profile of both pre- and post-climacteric Sri Lankan mango fruits. Chemometric analysis revealed that spatial distribution of biochemical compounds between peel and pulp was the major discriminatory factor during maturation; whereas fully mature mango fruit contained the highest concentration of starch and lowest concentration of acids. Since these combined variables also responsible for the final ...

  7. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  8. Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

  9. Banana Peel Carbon that Containing Functional Groups Applied to the Selective Adsorption of Au(III) from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Huajun Zheng; Limin Wang

    2013-01-01

      This paper reports a kind of banana peel carbon (BPC) containing -OH, -NH2 functional groups which prepared through controlling carbonization temperature and its application on the selective adsorption of gold from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). The adsorption of BPC for Au(III) reached equilibrium in 30 min and the adsorption of Au(III) was favorable at pH 2.5. Meanwhile, the adsorption isotherm showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 801.7 mg/g for Au(III). The results displayed...

  10. The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patomsok Wilaipon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

  11. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri) / Efeito do farelo residual da manga na relação proteína:carboidrato sobre o desempenho e a composição corporal do pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.M., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; E.M.S., Moreira; E.M., Souza.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão do farelo residual de manga sem casca como fonte de carboidrato na relação proteína:carboidrato (PB:CHO) sobre o desempenho e a composição química da carcaça em juvenis de pacamãs. Foram utilizados 150 peixes (11,31±0,96g) estocados em 16 caixas de 500L, alimentados três vezes [...] ao dia (10% peso vivo), em um sistema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro dietas experimentais com níveis decrescentes da relação entre proteína bruta e carboidrato (1,40; 0,94; 0,56 e 0,29), com quatro repetições cada tratamento. Ao final de 60 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo total de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e a composição físico-química da carcaça. As relações de proteína:carboidrato afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho (P0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados, com exceção da matéria mineral, do pH e da umidade. A farinha de manga pode ser utilizada na proporção de até 15% na ração de pacamã, estabelecendo uma relação 1,40 PB:CHO, sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH) on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri) juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g) were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three t [...] imes daily (10% of live weight), in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29), with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival) and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05). The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  12. Effect of technological processing on the allergenicity of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Mark; Zunker, Katy; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Steinhart, Hans; Paschke, Angelika

    2004-06-16

    In parallel with the rising popularity of exotic fruits in Europe, allergy against mango is of increasing importance. Because mangoes are also consumed as processed products such as chutneys or beverages, the influences of different process conditions on their allergenicity were investigated. Mango purees and nectars were manufactured at small pilot-plant scale, and the allergenic potencies of the resulting intermediate and final products were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and inhibitive enzyme allergosorbent tests (EAST-inhibition), using a pool serum of 9 individuals with manifest mango allergy. The mango allergens were shown to be very stable during technological processing. Irrespective of enzymatic matrix decomposition, mechanical tissue disintegration and heating during peeling, mash treatment, and pasteurization, significant loss of allergenicity could not be observed in the extracts of mango purees and nectars derived thereof. These results were confirmed by analogous investigation of commercial mango drinks and nectars. Hence, conventional mango processing into pulp-containing products typical for this species obviously does not allow complete elimination of the allergenic potency. PMID:15186120

  13. A novel magnetic adsorbent based on waste litchi peels for removing Pb(II) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruixue; Tian, Jiyu; Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-05-15

    A new magnetic bioadsorbent, magnetic litchi peel (MLP), was synthesized by coating powdered litchi peel with Fe3O4, and was used for removing Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The influencing factors, adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics of Pb(II) adsorption by MLP were investigated using batch assays. Optimum Pb(II) adsorption by MLP was achieved using a contact time of 120 min, an adsorbent dose of 5 g/L, and pH of 6.0. The adsorption equilibrium data conformed to the Langmuir isotherm model, yielding a maximum Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 78.74 mg/g. The adsorption kinetics for Pb(II) adsorption by MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic results suggested that Pb(II) adsorption by MLP was spontaneous and exothermic. Additionally, the magnetic adsorbent was easily and rapidly separated out of solution under an external magnetic field. PMID:25770959

  14. Influences of harvest date and location on the levels of ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenols, in vitro antioxidant capacity, and phenolic profiles of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in the peel, seeds, and leaves of mango, yet less is known about the phenolic ...

  15. Biosorption properties of citrus peel derived oligogalacturonides, enzyme-modified pectin and peel hydrolysis residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A citrus processing industry priority is obtaining added value from fruit peel. Approximately one-half of each processed fruit is added to the waste stream. Peel residue mainly is composed of water (~80%), the remaining 20% (solid fraction) consists of pectin, soluble sugars, cellulose, proteins, ph...

  16. Banana Peel Carbon that Containing Functional Groups Applied to the Selective Adsorption of Au(III from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Zheng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available   This paper reports a kind of banana peel carbon (BPC containing -OH, -NH2 functional groups which prepared through controlling carbonization temperature and its application on the selective adsorption of gold from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs. The adsorption of BPC for Au(III reached equilibrium in 30 min and the adsorption of Au(III was favorable at pH 2.5. Meanwhile, the adsorption isotherm showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 801.7 mg/g for Au(III. The results displayed that BPC had a strong selectivity for Au(III and a negligible affinity to base metal ions, such as Cu(II, Ni(II, Fe(III and Pb(II. The BPC adsorbent, which absorbed gold, can be recovered completely by HCl-thiourea solution.

  17. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Gas Production of Silage from Guinea Grass, Cassava Peel and Cashew Apple Waste at Different Periods of Ensilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Amole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the quality of silage produced from guinea grass, cassava peel and cashew apple waste at different ensiling periods. The materials were mixed into nine different proportions and ensiled for 30, 60 and 90 days making twenty-seven (27 treatments with each replicated three times. At the expiration of ensiling duration, the jars were opened, the contents were mixed, oven-dried and the proximate composition and fibre fractions were determined. The results showed that there were significant (p0.05 different from 100% CAW. The NDF varied (p<0.05 from 44.21 in 75% CAP+25% CAW silage to 60.31 in 100% GG. The reduction in the CP and NDF of the silage is still within the range required for growth and maintenance in ruminant animals.

  18. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment. PMID:23054805

  19. Color index and correlation with physical and chemical parameters of guava, mango and papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedman Dantas Motta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was used a low cost colorimeter determine the color in agricultural products. Color analysis on peel and pulps of guava, papaya and mango were made. The values found in the L*a*b* color spaces were used to calculate color indexes that were related to the soluble solids content, pH and the fruit consistence during the maturation. The results obtained permit to conclude that it is possible to estimate the ripening of papaya over the color peel, having found an accurate relation between peel color index and soluble solids content expressed in terms of the third degree equation. Nevertheless for the guava and mango there is not a relation between the peel color indexes and soluble solids content. There is not a relation between color indexes of the guava, papaya and mango pulps with soluble solids content. For all fruits studied there was not relation between color indexes of the peel or pulp with pH.

  20. Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

  1. Residues of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in/on mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Deepa, M; Sharma, Debi

    2011-01-01

    Mango, the major fruit crop of India is affected by stone weevil, which can cause serious damage to the fruits. Acephate gives good control of mango stone weevil. Residues of acephate and its major metabolite, methamidophos were evaluated on mango fruits following repeated spray applications at the recommended dose (0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹) and double the recommended dose (1.5 kg a.i. ha?¹). Acephate residues mostly remained on the fruit peel which persisted up to 30 days. Movement of residues to the fruit pulp was detected after 1 day of application, increased to maximum of 0.14 and 0.26 mg kg?¹ after 3 days and reached to below detectable level (BDL) after 20 days. Methamidophos, a metabolite of acephate, was detected from 3rd day onwards in both peel and pulp and persisted up to 15 days. The residues (acephate + methamidophos) dissipated with the half-life of 5 days in peel and pulp. A safe pre-harvest interval of 30 days is recommended for consumption of mango fruits following treatment of acephate at the recommended dose of 0.75 kg a.i. ha?¹. PMID:21107525

  2. Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  3. A sarabande of tropical fruit proteomics: Avocado, banana, and mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Fasoli, Elisa; Luisa Marina, María; Concepción García, María

    2015-05-01

    The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely, that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely, banana, avocado, and mango. The first two are classified as "recalcitrant" tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavor dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such as in lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. PMID:25476008

  4. Biodegradation of Selected Nigerian Fruit Peels by the use of a Non-pathogenic Rhizobium species CWP G34B

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Boboye, Bolatito; Ajayi, George Olarewaju

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the ability of Rhizobium species CWP G34B to degrade the peels of selected Nigerian fruits. The potential of the bacterium to digest some carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose and mannitol) and peels of some Nigerian fruits (pineapple, orange, plantain, banana, pawpaw and mango fruits) was investigated by growing the organism on the substances separately after which DNSA reagent method was used to quantify glucose released into the mediu...

  5. Comparative Effect of Gamma Irradiation, UV-C and Hot Water on Antioxidant Potential of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zia Ahmad Chatha; Asif Ahmad; Tahir Zahoor; Ali Raza

    2013-01-01

    Use of gamma irradiation and UV-C was compared over conventional used hot water treatment on mango pulp and peel. The storage study was also carried out to explore the potential of these techniques for the retention of total polyphenolic substances and antioxidants activity. Results indicated that polyphenolic substances decreased during storage. This decline in polyphenolic substances can be controlled by using gamma irradiation and UV-C treatment in mango...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information...

  7. Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

  8. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

  9. Ácaros del mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  10. Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

  11. Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

  12. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha V. Ashtikar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in the adsorbent doses & temperature percent removal of copper increases. Thus mango seeds have the potential to be applied as alternative low-cost biosorbent in the remediation of heavy metal contamination in waste water.

  13. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  14. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, K A; M.B Patel; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti...

  15. ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    E.JESMINE MELBA

    2012-01-01

    Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

  16. Physico chemical characterization and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics of Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayanand, P; Deepu, E; Kulkarni, S G

    2015-02-01

    Mango (Magnifera indica L) is grown in the tropical and sub tropical regions of India. The fruit has a high commercial value depending on the color, flavor and pulp characteristics of the cultivar. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri cultivars grown in southern Karnataka were investigated for the physical chemical characteristics and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars had significantly different physico chemical and compositional characteristics. Sindura cultivar had a characteristic red color in the peel with high carotenoid content and slightly lower pulp content. Mallika contained higher pulp content with a pale yellow color in the peel and higher total soluble solids. Totapuri contained slightly lower pulp content than Mallika, lower total soluble solids and lower carotenoids among the cultivars. Sindura and Mallika pulps had significantly higher viscosity than Totapuri. Processing of the pulps resulted in significant decrease of carotenoids irrespective of the cultivar. Sensory quality of canned mango slices showed higher acceptability for Mallika followed by Sindura and Totapuri. Mango nectar prepared from Sindura was highly acceptable followed by Totapuri and Mallika. Processing of these underutilized mango cultivars into puree, nectar, juice beverages and slices, can result in value addition and popularization. PMID:25694717

  17. Phenological Relationship Between Mango Hoppers Idioscopus spp. and Mango Inflorescence/Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffar A. Talpur; Rab Kino Khuhro; Imtiaz A Nizaman

    2002-01-01

    The experiment on the phenological relationship between mango hoppers and mango inflorescence/fruit was conducted at Mir. Ghulam Rasool Talpur fruit farm, Tandojam, during 1999-2000. The results showed that mango hoppers were recorded during 30th December (0.06/shoot) on all the mango varieties. The population density increased gradually on the varieties up till second fortnight of February and thereafter populations of mango hopper increased rapidly. The peak populations of mango hopper on A...

  18. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  19. In vitro antioxidant properties of mangosteen peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttirak, Weerayuth; Manurakchinakorn, Supranee

    2014-12-01

    The growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on the screening of plant-derived raw materials for identifying new antioxidants. The special attention of research today is focused on inexpensive or residual sources from agricultural industries. Fruit peels as sources of powerful natural antioxidants are often the waste parts of various fruits from consumption and food industry. Among the fruit peels, mangosteen peel is an important source of natural phenolic antioxidants. The mangosteen peel contains various bioactive substances, i.e., phenolic acids and flavonoids, which possess biological and medicinal properties, especially antioxidant properties. The aim of this review, after presenting analytical techniques for determining in vitro antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, is to summarize available data on the factors affecting antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of mangosteen peel extract, the bioactive compounds identified from mangosteen peel extract and their antioxidant activity are presented. Potential applications of the mangosteen peel extract in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products are also discussed. PMID:25477623

  20. Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ?1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (?1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

  1. A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radjars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that consumption of fruits and cut fruits in Greater Accra is relatively low. The knowledge of food irradiation is very low as food irradiation has been associated with food radioactivity. It was observed that irradiation did not have significant (p>0.05) effect on the physicochemical parameters measured however, there were significant varietal difference (p0.05) on sensory attributes evaluated. (au)

  2. Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripeninhese effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

  3. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction with mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to the fruit mango is extremely rare and can exhibit either as immediate or delayed reactions. Since 1939, only 22 patients (10 with immediate type I reactions and 12 with delayed) have been documented with allergy to mango. History of atopy and geographical region may influence the type of reaction. Immediate reactions occurred most often in patients with history of atopy, while delayed reactions developed in non-atopic individuals. Clustering of delayed hypersensitivity reports from Australia and immediate reactions from Europe has been documented. We report a 50-year-old man with immediate type I hypersensitivity to mango, who developed cough, wheezing dyspnoea, generalised itching and abdominal discomfort after ingestion of mango. Life threatening event can also happen making it imperative to diagnose on time, so as to prevent significant morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:25133813

  4. Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

    2015-05-01

    The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

  5. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

  6. Experiences with the Mango Chain Game

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, S. A.; Zun?iga-arias, G.; Sterrenburg, S.

    2005-01-01

    The mango chain game is a simulation game used for research purposes. It facilitated studying the bargaining power of Costa Rican mango producers in international supply chains of mango. The game simulates a simplified mango export chain in which real world local producers can play the role of producer association, multinational, independent exporter or retailer. The game is an operationalisation of a conceptual model of a netchain build upon theories from multiple disciplines, including tran...

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100,000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly iine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. however, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031% was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 12 tabs

  8. / Chemical composition of different fruit peel Composigao centesimal de diferentes cascas de frutas / Composición aproximada de las cáscaras de diferentes frutas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia L, Stefanello; Claudia. S, Rosa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento integral dos alimentos é de suma importancia, pois permite que partes nao convencionais dos alimentos, como cascas, talos, sementes e folhas sejam aproveitadas, visando a agregacao de valor nutricional as preparacóes, além de reduzir custos e evitar o desperdicio. Desta forma, o pre [...] sente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a composicao química de 9 cascas de frutas. Os maiores teores de umidade foram para o mamao e a uva, e as frutas cítricas apresentaram menor umidade, o mamao destaca-se por ter maior teor de proteina. As frutas com maiores percentuais de carboidratos sao: a maca, bergamota, ameixa, manga e pera. A partir da composicao centesimal das cascas foi possivel perceber que elas apresentam elevados teores de nutrientes, podendo ser utilizadas em preparacóes. Além disso, com a composicao centesimal das cascas passa a ser possivel a colocacao desses alimentos nos cálculos de planos alimentares e dietas. Abstract in spanish El aprovechamiento de la comida es muy importante porque permite que las acciones de los alimentos no convencionales tales como la corteza, tallos, semillas y hojas se utilicen con el fin de agregar valor a las preparaciones nutritivas y también reducir los costos y evitar el derroche. Asi, este est [...] udio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición quimica de nueve cáscaras de fruta. Los más altos niveles de humedad eran de la papaya y las uvas y los citricos tuvieron una menor humedad. La papaya se destaca por tener un mayor contenido proteico. Las frutas con mayor porcentaje de hidratos de carbono son: manzana, bergamota, ciruela, mango y pera. De la composición de las cáscaras fue posible percibir que tienen altos niveles de nutrientes y se puede utilizar en preparaciones. Además, con la composición de las cáscaras se hace posible colocar estos alimentos en los cálculos de planes de alimentación y las dietas. Abstract in english The integral use of food is very important because it allows the use of non-conventional foods such as bark, stems, seeds and leaves being used in order to add value to nutritional preparations and also reduce costs and avoid wasting. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of nin [...] e fruit peels. The highest levels of humidity found were for papaya and grapes, while citrus fruits had lower moisture. Papaya stands out for having a higher protein content. The fruits with the highest percentage of carbohydrates are: apple, bergamot, plum, mango and pear. The composition of the peels made it possible to perceive they have high levels of nutrients and can be used in preparations. Moreover, the composition of the peels makes it possible to place these foods in the calculations of eating plans and diets.

  9. ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.JESMINE MELBA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

  10. Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

  11. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  12. Skin peeling syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharpuray Mohan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of skin peeling syndrome, a rare disorder in which sudden generalized exfoliation of the stratum corneum occurs. Histopathologically, there was well formed subcorneal pustule filled with polymorphs and nuclear dust, considering this to be a varient of subcorneal pustular dermatosis, we have put the patient on Dapsone.

  13. Irradiation of Kensington Pride mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoes (cv. Kensington Pride) exhibited delayed ripening and increased external injury (lenticel damage) following irradiation at 300 or 600 Gy but not at 75 Gy. Altering the conditions of irradiation (lower temperature, nitrogen atmosphere, lower dose rate) had no effect in alleviating that injury. Some chemical constituents were also affected to minor degrees but eating quality was not. Irradiation of mature-green, preclimacteric mangoes at doses of 300 Gy or more is not recommended; doses of 75 Gy can be used without adversely affecting marketability. (author)

  14. 6.RP Mangos for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A store was selling 8 mangos for \\$10 at the farmers market. Keisha said, “That means we can write the ratio 10 : 8, or \\$1.25 per mango.” Luis said, “...

  15. Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

  16. Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

  17. Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

    Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

  18. 7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206.202 ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION... § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who...

  19. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

  20. A Ride Down Mango Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

  1. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-11

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits. PMID:25608953

  2. Developing M2M applications with Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Juhasz, Bela

    2009-01-01

    Mango is an open source alternative for Machine to Machine software. It enables users to access and control electronic sensors, devices, and machines over multiple protocols simultaneously. However, Mango was designed for the desktop. It relies heavily on JavaScript to render its graphical pages. While rendering, massive amounts of data are being transferred between the Mango server and the browser. Furthermore, because of the continuous polling for new data, it can easily hog the CPU of the ...

  3. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sengar, S. H.; Khandetod, Y. P.

    2012-01-01

    Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  4. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  5. Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango", "anaphylaxis", "contact dermatitis", "cross-reactivity", "food hypersensitivity", "oral allergy syndrome" and "urticaria". The bibliographies of all papers thus located were searched for further relevant articles. A total of 17 reports describing 22 patients were documented, including ten patients with immediate hypersensitivity reaction and twelve patients with delayed hypersensitivity reaction to mango. Ten of these patients (four with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from geographical areas cultivating mango, whereas twelve patients (six with immediate reaction; six with delayed reaction) were from the countries where large scale mango cultivation does not occur. The clinical features, pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities of both these presentations are highlighted. The fruit mango can cause immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, as also "oral allergy syndrome". Although rare, it can even result in a life threatening event. Reactions may even occur in individuals without prior exposure to mango, owing to cross reactivity. It is imperative to recognize such a phenomenon early so as to avoid potentially severe clinical reactions in susceptible patients. PMID:22053296

  6. Opciones agroforestales para productores de mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montiel-Aguirre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó durante el año 2002 con la meta de contribuir con opciones agroforestales mejoradas para plantaciones de mango (Mangifera indica en el estado de Michoacán, con la metodología de diagnosis y diseño desarrollada por el Centro Internacional de Investigación en Agroforestería. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron diagnosticar el problema de uso de la tierra de los productores de mango y caracterizar las opciones agroforestales promisorias, practicadas, en la actualidad, por campesinos innovadores. El estudio incluye los sistemas agroforestales existentes: mango-limón, mangoguayaba, mango-ovino-guayaba y mango-bovino. Se analizaron, por su composición de especies, organización temporal y espacial, diversificación de productos, régimen de manejo, requerimientos de mano de obra, productividad y rentabilidad económica. Los resultados indican que todos los sistemas agroforestales son más productivos y económicamente más rentables que los sistemas de monocultivo. Los valores de uso equivalente de la tierra en sistemas agrosilvícolas fueron 2.21 y 1.76, para los sistemas mango + limón y mango + guayaba, respectivamente. Los valores de la relación beneficio/ costo, máximo 2.80 y mínimo 1.72, se obtuvieron para los sistemas de mango + limón y mango + ovino + guayaba, respectivamente. Además de los sistemas existentes, hay oportunidades para diseñar mejores tecnologías agroforestales con la incorporación de varias especies vegetales y animales promisorias, acordes conlas condiciones biofísicas y posibilidades socioeconómicas de los productores del estado de Michoacán, para contribuir al desarrollo de la agricultura sostenible.

  7. Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Das Gupta, D. K.; Roopa, N.; Leela, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT) through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage...

  8. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad J

    2013-01-01

    Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, posti...

  9. Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

    2008-06-01

    Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa. PMID:18502231

  10. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustos R, M.E

    1992-05-15

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  11. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutr...

  12. Synthesis of silicon containing materials from the rise peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that the rice peel - an agroindustrial waste can be used as the raw material, containing dioxide of silicon, in technology of reception of silicon containing materials as amorphous and crystal dioxide of silicon SiO2, water-soluble sodium silicate Na2SiO3 - liquid glass. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpna Rakholiya; Nirupa Amrutiya; Sumitra Chanda

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant prope...

  14. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  15. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  16. Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

  17. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  18. Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Wasim Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg?l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg?l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

  19. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  20. Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. R., Mafra; L., Igarashi-Mafra; D. R., Zuim; É. C., Vasques; M. A., Ferreira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. T [...] he time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated. Abstract in english [...

  1. Study of mango endogenous pectinases as a tool to engineer mango purée consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Houben, Ken; ten Geuzendam, Belinda; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using mango endogenous pectinases to change the viscosity of mango purée. Hereto, the structure of pectic polysaccharide and the presence of sufficiently active endogenous enzymes of ripe mango were determined. Pectin of mango flesh had a high molecular weight and was highly methoxylated. Pectin methylesterase showed a negligible activity which is related to the confirmed presence of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor. Pectin contained relatively high amounts of galactose and considerable ?-galactosidase (?-Gal) activity was observed. The possibility of stimulating ?-Gal activity during processing (temperature/pressure, time) was investigated. ?-Gal of mango was rather temperature labile but pressure stable relatively to the temperature and pressure levels used to inactivate destructive enzymes in industry. Creating processing conditions allowing endogenous ?-Gal activity did not substantially change the consistency of mango purée. PMID:25442554

  2. Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

  3. Phytochemicals Screening and Activities of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant of Some Fruit Peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to screen the secondary metabolites compounds including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids as well as to determine the antioxidant activities of four types of fruit peels namely Psidium guajava (guava), Mangifera indica (Chakonan mango), Citrus sinensis (Navel orange) and Malus sylvestris (Granny Smith apple). The hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were investigated using three different assays such as Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) were also conducted and the correlations between the antioxidant assays with TPC and TFC were evaluated. The TPC in the peels extract ranged between 204.90 to 517.00 mg GAE/ g extract weight while TFC ranged between 97.48 to 177.86 mg QE/ g extract weight. The FRAP, EC50 scavenging activity and ORAC values were 18.78 to 45.36 mM TE/ 100 g extract weight, 0.146 to 0.717 mg/ ml scavenging effect and 37.54 to 60.59 ?M TE/ g extract weight respectively. The extract of M. indica peels appeared to be as potent as ascorbic acid with maximum inhibition of 74 % at 200 ppm. M. indica peels showed highest value in all antioxidant assays and in TPC while the highest in TFC was found in M. sylvestris peels. There were strong correlations between all antioxidant assays with TPC but very weak correlations with TFC. ThC but very weak correlations with TFC. This study suggested that the extracts of fruit peels are convenient to be use as functional ingredients in food product development as they are rich in antioxidant activities. (author)

  4. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholdi, Laurent; Henriques, André

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known a...

  5. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation (60Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H1) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H1 indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  6. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  7. Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible

  8. Vermicomposting of leaf litter ensuing from the trees of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Guava (Psidium guujuvu) leaves

    OpenAIRE

    K Vasanthi, And A. J. A. Ranjit Singh; Chairman.K

    2013-01-01

    The leaf wastes Mango (Mangifera indica) and Guava (Psidium guujuvu) collected from the Sri Parasakthi College campus of Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu, premises was vermicomposted by using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae and Physico- Chemical features of leaf wastes before and after composting was analyzed, which showed that macro and micro nutrients as well as physico chemical features of leaf wastes compost before and after composting was analyzed, which showed that macro and micro nutrie...

  9. Decay control of carabao mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

  10. PEDIGREE ANALYSIS OF FLORIDA MANGO CULTIVARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Florida mango cultivars were historically described as hybrids between Indian types (monoembryonic) and Southeast Asian types (predominantly polyembryonic). Early molecular data including isozyme and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA analysis supported the hybrid origin. The Florida varieties a...

  11. Current Status of Mango Malformation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Raj Modi; Ashok Kumar Misra; Pradeep Kumar*1,

    2011-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) occupies a pre-eminent place amongst fruit crops in India and is acknowledged as ‘King of fruits’ in the country. Malformation is the most threatening malady that causes great economic loss and limits the mango production in India and among tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Floral malformation, in contrast to vegetative one, is very virulent and can cause the loss of the entire crop. Affected panicles either do not set fruit or abort fruit sh...

  12. Anaphylaxis following ingestion of mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, V L; Venkatesh, Y P

    2007-01-01

    Allergic reactions to fresh fruits and nuts have become increasingly common. Mango (Mangifera indica) is a popular fruit eaten all over the world. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who experienced oropharyngeal itching, swelling of the face and other parts of the body, and difficulty breathing within a few minutes of eating ripe mango fruit. The woman had no history of pollen or latex allergy. However, she reported instances of milder food allergic reactions to Indian dill and cashew apple. Skin prick tests using mango fruit pulp, Indian dill, and cashew apple extracts were positive. Prick tests with a panel of common grass and weed pollen extracts were negative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for mango-specific serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E was positive. A specific protein allergen in mango could not be detected by immunoblotting. Based on the strongly positive clinical history and results of allergy testing, it was concluded that the woman had IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions to mango fruit. PMID:17982928

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-33 Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes...

  14. 76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...members with direct customer sales experience. The Board has...nationally coordinated program of promotion, research, and information...Marketing agreements, Mango Promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping...follows: PART 1206--MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  15. 76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...members with direct customer sales experience. The Board has...nationally coordinated program of promotion, research, and information...Marketing agreements, Mango Promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping...follows: PART 1206--MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

  17. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  18. Chemical peels and combination therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The topical application of acids is one of the most dependable and widely recognized methods of improving the overall health and appearance of the skin. The goal of a chemical peel is to regulate and enhance the cellular turnover process-a complex system that ultimately leads to the shedding of cornified cells. In addition to maintaining healthy cell turnover rates, each of the most commonly used topical acids provides ancillary benefits. Numerous studies have shown that all chemical peel solutions stimulate collagen and glycosaminoglycan production, regardless of depth of penetration (). Other modalities have also gained popularity and many of them may be successfully combined with chemical peels to create dramatic, visible results in the skin. By outlining a variety of chemoexfoliants, as well as some popular modalities, the clinician will gain a deeper understanding of the wide variety of combination therapies available for improving skin health. PMID:23727725

  19. Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunsong Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  20. Pectinase production by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 by solid state fermentation using agricultural wastes and agro-industrial by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Dênis; Martins Eduardo da Silva; Silva Roberto da; Gomes Eleni

    2002-01-01

    Pectin lyase and polygalacturonase production by newly isolated Penicillium viridicatum strain Rfc3 was carried out by means of solid state fermentation using orange bagasse, corn tegument, wheat bran and mango and banana peels as carbon sources. The maximal activity value of polygalacturonase (Pg) (30U.g-1) was obtained using wheat bran as carbon source while maximal pectin lyase (Pl) (2000 U.g-1) activity value was obtained in medium composed of orange bagasse. Mixtures of banana or mango p...

  1. Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

  2. Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Das Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage studies were carried out in foil laminate packs at three different temperatures i.e. 4°C, RT (20-33°C and 37°C and evaluated for chemical parameters, Hunter colour values as well as microbiological and organoleptic characteristics. Studies showed that HT preserved texturized mango gel could be kept in acceptable condition up to 12 months at RT and 6 months at 37°C. During storage a considerable reduction in sulphur dioxide, carotenoids and an increase in acidity were observed. Decrease in L, a, b values was also observed in all the samples stored under different temperatures. The product was also found to be microbiologically stable and safe up to 12 m.

  3. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J P; Tai, C Y; Chen, B H

    2004-10-29

    An HPLC method was developed to determine the various carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). Initially, the peel and seed of mangoes were removed, the pulps were cut into pieces, freeze-dried, ground into powder, extracted and subjected to HPLC analysis. A mobile phase of methanol-isopropanol (99:1, v/v) (A) and methylene chloride (100%) (B) with the following gradient elution was developed: 100% A and 0% B in the beginning, maintained for 15 min, decreased to 70% A in 45 min, maintained for 15 min and returned to 100% A in 65 min. A total of 25 carotenoids were resolved within 53 min by using a C-30 column with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 450 nm. alpha-Carotene was used as an internal standard to quantify all the carotenoids. All-trans-beta-carotene was present in largest amount (29.34 microg/g), followed by cis isomers of beta-carotene (9.86 microg/g), violaxanthin and its cis isomers (6.40 microg/g), neochrome (5.03 microg/g), luteoxanthin (3.6 microg/g), neoxanthin and its cis isomers (1.88 microg/g), zeaxanthin (1.16 microg/g) and 9- or 9'-cis-lutein (0.78 microg/g). PMID:15553152

  4. ESR study of free radicals in mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with ?-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

  5. Irradiation of 'carabao' (Manila 'super') mangoes II. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation and the vapor heat treatment on fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Carabao' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to the vapor heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose a low but significant incidence of pulp discoloration was found, albeit in only one trial. Both the vapor heat treatment and gamma radiation need to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on peel color development. The results of this study indicate that irradiation might be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the 'Carabao' mango. (Auth.). 7 tabs., 3 figs

  6. The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pKa values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

  7. Disinfestation of mangoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity study of the different stages and ages within each stage of the Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel was undertaken to determine the minimum effective dose level for disinfecting mango fruits infected with fruit flies. It was found that the egg was most sensitive to radiation damage and the larvae, the least sensitive. With each stage, radiosensitivity decreased with increasing age. A dose of 50 krad prevented completely the emergence of any adult when mangoes inoculated with fruit fly eggs were irradiated immediately after innoculation. A dose of 75 krad prevented emergence of any fruit fly adults even if the irradiation was deferred to the sixth day after innoculation. (author)

  8. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  9. Irradiation of carabao mangoes for decay control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of postharvest diseases of carabao mangoes by gamma radiation has been the subject of several local studies, notably that of Herrera and Valencia (1964) and Pablo et al (1971) which showed dose levels of 16.6 Kr. and 60 Kr. respectively, to be effective in extending the market life. The wide range of resorted effective dose levels for mangoes prompted this investigation which aimed to establish the pre-dominant spoilage-causing micro-organisms and the effectivity of irradiation in controlling or delaying the growth of these micro-organisms. (author)

  10. Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Ibrahim; Aslam Pervez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benla...

  11. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305...Heat Treatments § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes...under emergency conditions. (g) Dip time is as follows: (1)...

  12. Analytical Study Of Mango Production In India With Special Reference To Mahamango Co- Operative

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam Deepak R; Bhawsar Anil C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In India the production of mango is taken in large extent. In world India is number one in mango production. Uttar Pradesh state the production of mango is large compared to the other states. Also Maharashtra has different varieties of mango production. Especially the Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board (MSAMB) has promoted the organization of Mango growers in the name of Mahamango. In order to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing, "MAHAMA...

  13. USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Manza R.R., Gaikwad B.P. and Manza G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram en...

  14. Cassava Peels for Alternative Fibre in Pulp and Paper Industry: Chemical Properties and Morphology Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashuvila Mohd Aripin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Without a proper waste management, the organic wastes such as cassava peels could result in increased amount of solid waste dump into landfill. This study aims to use non-wood organic wastes as pulp for paper making industries; promoting the concept of ‘from waste to wealth and recyclable material’. The objective  of this study is to determine the potential of casssava peel as alternative fibre in pulp and paper based on its chemical properties and surface morphology characteristic. Quantified parameters involved are holocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, one percent of sodium hydroxide, hot water solubility and ash content. The chemical characterization was in accordance with relevant TAPPI Test, Kurscher-Hoffner and Chlorite methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe and determine the morphological characteristic of untreated cassava peels fibre. In order to propose the suitability of the studied plant as an alternative fibre resource in pulp and paper making, the obtained results are compared to other published literatures especially from wood sources. Results indicated that the amount of holocellulose contents in cassava peels (66% is the lowest than of wood (70 - 80.5% and canola straw (77.5%; however this value is still within the limit suitability to produce paper. The lignin content (7.52% is the lowest than those of all wood species (19.9-26.22%. Finally, the SEM images showed that untreated cassava peel contains abundance fibre such as hemicellulose and cellulose that is hold by the lignin in it. In conclusion, chemical properties and morphological characteristics of cassava peel indicated that it is suitable to be used as an alternative fibre sources for pulp and paper making industry, especially in countries with limited wood resources

  15. Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholdi, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

  16. Line Creep in Paper Peeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosti J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling con?guration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ?nding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

  17. Hit-peeling device for oxide scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When processing radioactive metal wastes discharged from a nuclear power plant or radioactive material-handling facility, there is a method of dissolving to remove surface layers by using acidic solution or by colliding particles of ice or dry ice for separating to remove those materials deposited on the surface. However, oil contaminations or rubber and plastic materials can not always be removed. In view of the above, a hitting finger is constituted such that it can move vertically by driving means and a second hitting finger is disposed to the circumferential surface of a rotating drum. A guide wall having a slit extending vertically is formed in front of the hitting finger and the hitting finger is protruded through each of the slits into the processing chamber. Since deposited matters peeled off upon hitting are discharged through a sieve to a scale hopper, there is no external scattering and metal wastes and deposited matters can be separated easily and reliably. (K.M.)

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Mango Kernel Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Mirghani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is emphasized specifically on the potential of the mango Mangifera Indica seed kernel by discovering the prospective usage of mango seed kernels as a source of antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. For this study, three types of mango were used; Blackgold, Lemak and Waterlily from Malaysia and Thiland. The approach adopted for this purpose was by implementing agar well diffusion method. The results were expressed as the average diameter of bacterial inhibition zones surrounding the wells. The required solvents for the extraction were ethanol, methanol, acetone and phosphate buffer solutions were prepared in a different concentration; 0.10M, 0.05M and 0.01M. The results showed that Lemak gave relatively high antibacterial activity among other types of mango ranging between 1.40 and 2.23 cm. For the known antibiotic, which was Tetracycline, under the same conditions the diameter of inhibition zones were between 2.30 to 3.30. Then, the minimum inhibition concentration tests were conducted for Lemak for two solvents extract that gave the highest inhibition zones which were methanol and acetone. The results showed that the minimum inhibition concentration of extracts that inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was after 10X dilution (1 mM. The results obtained confirmed the antibacterial potential of mango kernels extracts and this would probably become an alternative source of new and natural antibacterial agents.

  19. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shan Wong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

  20. Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

  1. Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Shirley F.; Maureen Meister; Maryam Mahmood; Heba Eldoumi; Sandra Peterson; Penelope Perkins-Veazie; Clarke, Stephen L.; Mark Payton; Smith, Brenda J.; Lucas, Edralin A.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly redu...

  2. Irradiation and storage effects on sensorial and physical characteristics of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), quality of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation was used to determine its effect on the quality of U.S. mangoes irradiated in Canada with 60Co at a minimum dose of 0.60 and a maximum of 0.90 kGy. The sensory evaluation, the texture, the colour and total soluble solids content were assessed during 15 days storage period. Initially, the appearance of irradiated whole mangoes was preferred, but at the end of the storage period the reverse was observed. Although, the irradiation did not extend the shelf-life of mangoes, the pulp of irradiated mangoes was perferred for its colour, odour, taste and texture until day 9. The panelists preferred darker orange colour, fragrant, sweeter and soften mangoes

  3. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Rakholiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

  4. Pectinase production by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 by solid state fermentation using agricultural wastes and agro-industrial by-products Produção de pectinases por Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 através de fermentação em estado sólido, usando resíduos agrícolas e sub-produtos agroindustriais

    OpenAIRE

    Dênis Silva; Eduardo da Silva Martins; Roberto da Silva; Eleni Gomes

    2002-01-01

    Pectin lyase and polygalacturonase production by newly isolated Penicillium viridicatum strain Rfc3 was carried out by means of solid state fermentation using orange bagasse, corn tegument, wheat bran and mango and banana peels as carbon sources. The maximal activity value of polygalacturonase (Pg) (30U.g-1) was obtained using wheat bran as carbon source while maximal pectin lyase (Pl) (2000 U.g-1) activity value was obtained in medium composed of orange bagasse. Mixtures of banana or mango p...

  5. Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Rahman, M. A.; Begum, M. M.; Hasanuzzaman, A. T. M.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali), Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna), Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant) on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P.), its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide) for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrap...

  6. Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

  7. Integrated studies on irradiated Philippine mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of the fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, has restricted export of Philippine mangoes to Japan and other countries with strict quarantine requirements. The anticipated banning of the ethylene dibromide (EDB) as fumigant necessitated studies to find a suitable replacement. Based on the encouraging results of previous disinfestation experiments further studies utilizing irradiation and its combination with a hot water dip were undertaken. The objective of the studies was to interrelate the effects of the disinfestation method to fruit maturity, storage temperature, and some related processes, including shipping, on the shelf-life, chemical, and sensory attributes of the carabao mango. Results show that the combination treatment of 0.65 kGy and a hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes can be a good alternative for ethylene dibromide with the added benefit of shelf life extension. The chemical, nutritive and sensory characteristics of the fruit also are retained. 32 refs, 19 tabs

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYMILK ADDED WITH DRAGON FRUIT AND EGGPLANT PEEL EXTRACTS [Karakteristik Susu Kedelai dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga dan Kulit Terong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sari Kusuma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk has become progressively consumed in Indonesia since early 1990. However, soymilk has a short shelf life due to its high protein content that promotes growth of spoilage microorganisms. This study was aimed at utilizing peel waste of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus, to prolong shelf life of fresh soymilk through microbial growth inhibition, so that it will not be easily contaminated during storage, transportation and distribution time to meet the needs of consumers. Microbiological analysis showed a notably higher inhibitory effect of dragon fruit peel extract when soymilk was stored at 4ºC and it exhibited lower number of colonies even after 6 days. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of eggplant peel extract in cold soymilk could only be observed on day 3 until day 9. Hence, it is assumed that chlorogenic acid, as a primary antimicrobial agent in eggplant peel, needed certain time interval to activate its inhibitory activity against microorganism. However, the two peel extracts could not prolong the shelf life of soymilk stored at ambient temperature. All soymilk samples added with the peel extracts fulfilled the Indonesian National standards (SNI for pH value, protein, and total solid content. Based on the sensory evaluation, the samples with dragon fruit peel extract attained a comparable acceptance level as plain soymilk and were favored over those added with eggplant extract. In conclusion, this research indicated potential applications of usual household waste of dragon fruit and eggplant peels as antimicrobial agents for protein-rich beverages.

  9. Determination of 17 Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Mango by Modified QuEChERS Extraction Method Using GC-NPD/GC-MS and Hazard Index Estimation in Lucknow, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M. K.; Lohani, M.; Mudiam, M. K. R.; Srivastava, L. P.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg?1) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg?1. Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg?1 and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg?1 which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%–100% and 46.66%–100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg?1 and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg?1 body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one. PMID:24809911

  10. Enrichment of Commercially-Prepared Juice With Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Peel Extract as a Source of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilmar Meireles Pimenta Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to eat foods meet the demands of a modern lifestyle and the number of people seeking food that is convenient and safe is increasing. The extracts of peels from four different fruits were tested as potential value-added foods to offer to consumers. Physical and chemical analyses of the peel extracts were conducted to measure total phenolic compounds, tannins, phytic acid and antioxidant activity using the 1’-1’Diphenyl-2’picrylhydrazyl, and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid methods. The result of screening the antioxidant activity showed that the pomegranate peel had higher activity than the other peels (p<0.05. In addition, flavonoids and vitamin C were measured in the pomegranate peel, and low amounts of these components were found. The pomegranate peel had a high amount of phenolic compounds and high levels of antioxidants, and this peel was used to enrich a commercially-available juice. Furthermore, the sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control and enriched juice. The product was well accepted and feasible from a technological standpoint. Because the waste is rich in bioactive compounds, value is added to the final product, as these antioxidant compounds are known to protect health and improve the quality of life of the consumers.

  11. Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Ribeiro, Sônia Machado; Queiroz, José Humberto; Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz, Maria Eliana; Campos, Flávia Milagres; Pinheiro Sant'ana, Helena Maria

    2007-03-01

    This work was carried out to investigate the pulp composition of four mango cultivars (Haden, Tommy Atkins and Ubá) at the ripening stage in relation to three components with antioxidant potential (total phenolics, carotenoids and ascorbic acid). Total phenolic compound content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and total carotenoid content by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. The contents of beta-carotene and total vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Differences were found among the four mango cultivars in all the components analyzed. The content of phenolic compounds ranged from 48.40 (Haden) to 208.70 mg/100 g (Ubá); total carotenoid from 1.91 (Haden) to 2.63 mg/100 g (Palmer); beta-carotene from 661.27 (Palmer) to 2,220 microg/100 g (Ubá) and total ascorbic acid ranged from 9.79 (Tommy Atkins) to 77.71 mg/100 g (Ubá). These results corroborated previous information that mangoes are a good source of antioxidants in human diet. PMID:17243011

  12. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  13. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shwyeh Hussah Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7 cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX, p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9 in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent.

  14. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  15. Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

  16. PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi, N. W.; Singh, U. S.; Pani, D. R.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of...

  17. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  18. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khunger Niti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians? qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for Indian skin. It is essential to do prepeel priming of the patient?s skin with sunscreens, hydroquinone and tretinoin for 2-4 weeks. Endpoints in peels: For glycolic acid peels: The peel is neutralized after a predetermined duration of time (usually three minutes. However, if erythema or epidermolysis occurs, seen as grayish white appearance of the epidermis or as small blisters, the peel must be immediately neutralized with 10-15% sodium bicarbonate solution, regardless of the duration of application of the peel. The end-point is frosting for TCA peels, which are neutralized either with a neutralizing agent or cold water, starting from the eyelids and then the entire face. For salicylic acid peels, the end point is the pseudofrost formed when the salicylic acid crystallizes. Generally, 1-3 coats are applied to get an even frost; it is then washed with water after 3-5 minutes, after the burning has subsided. Jessner?s solution is applied in 1-3 coats until even frosting is achieved or erythema is seen. Postoperative care includes sunscreens and moisturizers Peels may be repeated weekly, fortnightly or monthly, depending on the type and depth of the peel.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ?, ethanol 80?: methanol 50?, methanol 80? and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2',-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-Carotene?linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50? peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g-1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g-1,106.78 mg QE 100 g-1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50? extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

  20. Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

  1. Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for Cr(III) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5 ml of 2 M HNO/sub 3/. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III) on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. (author)

  2. Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Itelima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD, followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD, while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD. The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05 than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

  3. Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Munir A.; Khan, K. M.; Shahnaz Alvi; Muhammad Shahid

    2003-01-01

    Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused signifi...

  4. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  5. 75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes from the Philippines AGENCY: Animal and...with regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines. DATES: We will...on regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines, contact Mr....

  6. Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels

    OpenAIRE

    Khunger Niti

    2008-01-01

    Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral...

  7. The Simulation of Paint Cracking and Peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Paquette, Eric; Poulin, Pierre; Drettakis, George

    2002-01-01

    Weathering over long periods of time results in cracking and peeling of layers such as paint. To include these effects in computer graphics images it is necessary to simulate crack propagation, loss of adhesion, and the curling effect of paint peeling. We present a new approach which computes such a simulation on surfaces. Our simulation is inspired by the underlying physical properties. We use paint strength and tensile stress to determine where cracks appear on the surface. Cracks are then ...

  8. Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

  9. Dermatology procedures: microdermabrasion and chemical peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam

    2014-11-01

    Microdermabrasion and chemical peels are exfoliation procedures used to treat various cosmetic and medical skin conditions. Microdermabrasion involves mechanical abrasion of the skin with a handheld motorized device. Chemical peels involve applying acids directly to the skin. After partial destruction of the skin, these modalities rejuvenate the skin by stimulating production of new skin as well as inducing changes such as increasing production of collagen. Patients planning to undergo one of these procedures should be screened for absolute or relative contraindications, including recent use of retinoids, active skin infection, and immunosuppression. In addition, patients with histories of herpes simplex virus infection in or near the area to be treated should receive antiviral prophylaxis. Microdermabrasion is performed by passing a handheld abrasion device over the skin. Chemical peels are performed by applying liquid acid to the skin. After a chemical peel, patients treated with strong acids may require acid neutralization to protect the skin from sun exposure and reduce pain. Patients should receive aftercare instructions about application of topical agents to reduce pain, erythema, and itching. Patients undergoing chemical peels should be instructed specifically not to remove peeling skin but to let it shed spontaneously. PMID:25373032

  10. Storage ability of gamma irradiated mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extension of shelf-life have been achieved by many methods. the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for the developing nations. The aim of this investigation is to study the effects of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with Alar or Benlate on 'Hindi Be Senara' mature green fruits and also to determine the optimum treatment and maximum extension in shelf - life. Mature-green 'Hindi be sinara' mango fruits were taken from trees planted in commercial orchard in 'kerdasa'Giza

  11. Current Scenario of Production, Area and some Important Post Harvest Disease of Mango and their Management in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bijendra Kumar Singh; Saurabh Singh,; S. M. Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfort...

  12. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the ?-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  13. Storage Studies of Jam Prepared from Different Mango Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Nouman Siddiqui; Tabassum Hameed; Amer Mumtaz; Muhammad Naeem Safdar; Samina Khalil; Muhammad Amjad

    2012-01-01

    Six mango varieties i.e. Chaunsa, Dusehri, Langra, Anwar Ratol, Malda and Fajri were subjected to physicochemical analysis to assess their suitability for jam preparation Storage stability of jam from selected mango varieties (Chaunsa, Dusehri and Anwar Ratol) was also investigated at ambient temperature (25±3°C) and relative humidity 60±6%. Fajri mango had the highest pulp content (77.62%) while Anwar Ratol pulp had the highest total soluble solids (21.9 °Brix), brix/acid ratio (43.80), ...

  14. Extratos etanólicos de manga como antioxidantes na alimentação de poedeiras / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for laying hens

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Salles, Trevisan; André Luís da, Cunha; Nádia de Melo, Braz; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos do caroço e da casca de manga, sobre o desempenho de poedeiras e sobre a qualidade e estabilidade lipídica dos ovos. Um total de 180 poedeiras comerciais Hisex White foi distribuído ao acaso em seis tratamentos, com cinco repetiçõ [...] es de seis aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante; ração com 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca de manga (Ecas); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato de caroço de manga (Ecar). Foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo produzida (grama por ave por dia), a conversão alimentar e características de qualidade dos ovos. A oxidação lipídica da gema durante o armazenamento foi determinada pela quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. As aves alimentadas com a ração sem adição de antioxidantes produziram ovos com os piores valores de unidade Haugh e maior oxidação lipídica da gema. Os teores de 400 ppm de Ecas e 200 ou 400 ppm de Ecar foram efetivos na prevenção de danos oxidativos aos ovos durante o armazenamento e podem ser utilizados na alimentação das poedeiras como substituto ao antioxidante sintético. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extracts of mango seeds and peel on laying hen performance, egg quality, and egg lipid stability. A total of 180 Hisex White hens were randomly distributed in six treatments, with five replicates of six birds. The treatments consisted [...] of: ration without antioxidant; ration with 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango peel extract (Ecas); and ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango seed extract (Ecar). Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, produced egg mass (gram by bird per day), feed conversion, and egg quality were evaluated. Yolk lipid oxidation during storage was determined by quantification of thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances. Birds fed diet without antioxidants produced eggs with the lowest Haugh unit values and the highest lipid oxidation of yolk. Ecas at 400 ppm and Ecar at 200 or 400 ppm were effective to prevent oxidative damage of eggs during storage and may be used in the diet of laying hens as a replacement for synthetic antioxidant.

  15. Mango varieties “espada”, “rosa” and tommy atkins: bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentialMangas das variedades espada, rosa e tommy atkins: compostos bioativos e potencial antioxidante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids and evaluate the antioxidant potential of mango varieties “Espada”, “Rosa” and Tommy Atkins. The fruits were ground to obtain the fresh pulp and waste resulting was dried, crushed to pass through sieve. Hydroacetone, hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts, obtained through sequential extraction procedure from pulp and dehydrated waste were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging. The “espada” and Tommy Atkins mango showed similar levels of total carotenoids, however less than Rosa mango. The Tommy Atkins mango exhibited the lowest content of ascorbic acid and the espada mango the highest level of phenolic compounds. The extract hydroacetone (pulp and dehydrated waste exhibited a strong free radical scavenging capacity ( > 80%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de ácido ascórbico, carotenóides e fenólicos totais e avaliar o potencial antioxidante de mangas das variedades Espada, Rosa e Tommy Atkins. As frutas foram desintegradas para obtenção da polpa, os resíduos resultantes desidratados, triturados e tamisados. Extratos hidroacetônico, hidrometanólico e aquoso, obtidos por processo de extração sequencial a partir da polpa fresca e do resíduo desidratado foram submetidos à determinação da capacidade de seqüestro do radical DPPH. A manga Espada e a Tommy Atkins apresentaram teor de carotenóides totais semelhante entre si, porém inferior ao da manga Rosa. A manga Tommy Atkins exibiu o menor teor de ácido ascórbico e a Espada o maior teor de fenólicos totais. O extrato hidroacetônico da polpa e do resíduo exibiu uma forte capacidade de seqüestro (superior a 80%.

  16. Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irshad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture under optimized fermentation conditions and maximum activity of 412 ± 12 U/mL was recorded after 4th day of incubation at pH 5.5 and 30?. Exo 1, 4-? glucanase was 4.17-fold purified with specific activity of 642 U/mg in comparison to the crude extract. To confirm its purity and molecular weight, sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE was performed. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 60 kDa with an optimum pH and temperature of 5 and 50?, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plot revealed that the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of purified Exo 1, 4-? glucanase were 76 µM and 240 U/mL.

  17. Dressing wounds with potato peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patange Vidya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of boiled potato peel (PP in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%, near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective.

  18. Diversidad isoenzimática de mangos criollos de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G\\u00E1lvez-L\\u00F3pez

    2007-01-01

    enzimático, por si solo, permitió diferenciar a cada uno de los mangos estudiados; sin embargo, la unión de los sistemas enzimáticos GPI-1 y GPI-2, generó patrones únicos que permitieron caracterizar a los diferentes mangos. El dendrograma indicó la existencia de 83 % de similitud entre las variedades analizadas, formando tres grupos: uno incluyó al mango Pomarrosa, diferente al resto de los individuos; otro grupo incluyó a los individuos criollos con características similares del fruto, así como alta cantidad de fibra y de azúcares y no comercializables. El tercer grupo incluyó mangos comerciales y algunos criollos que son comercializados localmente y que comparten similitudes en algunas características del fruto, como ausencia de fibra en la pulpa, alta cantidad de azúcares, entre otras.

  19. Lipid composition and flavor changes in irradiated mango (Var. Alphonso)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes were studied in fatty acid composition of the pulp, aroma and flavor of gamma irradiated (0.25kGy) and control mature green Alphonso mangoes during ripening at 25-30 degrees C. Ripening of both control and irradiated mangoes was accompanied by changes in glycerides as well as fatty acids. Oleic acid of pulp oil of irradiated mangoes decreased appreciably during ripening as compared with controls. Linoleic acid of pulp oil of unirradiated fruits decreased markedly on the 6th day of storage. With irradiated fruits linoleic acid remained unaffected up to the 12th day of storage. Linoleic acid content of pulp oil of irradiated fruit increased much more than that of unirradiated fruit during ripening. Gas chromatographic profiles of volatiles of control and irradiated mangoes showed no difference

  20. Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

  2. Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

  3. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  4. 76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...the importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation...found free of this disease. The mangoes would...Subpart--Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319...the importation of fruits and vegetables into the...

  5. Automated Mango Fruit Grading System Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Kin Teoh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the size of mango fruit. Mangoes grading by humans in current agricultural industry are subjective, inconsistent and inefficient because there is an individual difference in visual inspecting which is affected by environment, physical and psychological conditions. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to create a novel grading method. A membership function and fuzzy rules are generated from training instances based on minimum entropy formulas. Computer and Red Green and Blue (RGB fiber optic sensor are used to examine and clarify data corresponding to human judgment and intelligence. A total of 77.78% of accuracy is achevied under the proposed method which capable of differentiating three different grades of mango. This paper offers a competent practice and capable to be applied to improve and standardize the current mango fruit grading system.

  6. Moisture Desorption Isotherms for Fresh and Osmotically Treated Mangoes

    OpenAIRE

    Pheeraya Chottanom; Singhanant Phoungchandang

    2005-01-01

    Desorption isotherms of fresh and osmotically treated mangoes have been measured at 25, 35 and 45 ° C by the static method using a Novasina manometer. A non-linear regression program was used to fit three moisture sorption isotherm models, Modified-Halsey; Modified-Henderson and Modified-Oswin to the experimental data. The Modified-Henderson and the Modified-Oswin models gave the best fit for moisture desorption isotherms for fresh and osmotically treated mangoes, respectively. The osmotic p...

  7. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    OpenAIRE

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indic...

  8. MAGICdb – Mango Genetic stocks Identification and Characterisation database

    OpenAIRE

    Asaithambi, Dineshwaran; Natesan, Senthil; Venkatesan, Vinothkumar; Muthuraja, Raveendran; Muthusamy, Kumar; Vinayagam, Ponnuswami

    2013-01-01

    MAGICdb is a unique database that integrates the morphological, fruit quality and the marker data of most popular and widely cultivated commercially important mango cultivars. The main objective of MAGICdb is to provide the end users with an integrated dataset of each mango variety cultivated widely in Tamil Nadu. MAGICdb structure is categorized in to three domains namely Morphological Data Search, Fruit Quality Search and Marker Search which in further contains details on Tree Char...

  9. Automated Mango Fruit Grading System Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong Kin Teoh; Suzanawati Abu Hasan; Suraiya Sauddin@Sa’duddin

    2013-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the size of mango fruit. Mangoes grading by humans in current agricultural industry are subjective, inconsistent and inefficient because there is an individual difference in visual inspecting which is affected by environment, physical and psychological conditions. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to create a novel grading method. A membership function and fuzzy rules are generated from training instances based on minimum entropy formulas. Computer and Red Green an...

  10. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okojie L. O.; Adewuyi, S. A.; Adebayo, K.; Adetoye A. M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated int...

  11. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-?-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsol...

  12. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  13. Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

  14. Distribution of Pu and Am in different parts of mango trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of plutonium and americium in the mango leaves and the distribution of their concentration in different parts of the mango fruit were performed. The generally observed trend is leaves>cotyledon>shell>flesh. These results suggest that the contamination of mango fruits by Pu an Am will not pose any radiation risk because the edible portion of the mango has the lowest activity. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region

    OpenAIRE

    Mannan, M. A.; Khan, S. A. K. U.; Islam, M. R.; Sirajul Islam, M.; Ayesha Siddiqa

    2003-01-01

    Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid...

  16. The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2012-01-01

    A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found...

  17. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), ...

  18. Pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of Platycodon grandiflorum peel and its cellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Quan-Cheng; Geng, Jie

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of a biomass waste material, namely Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC (P. G.) peel and its cellulose extract were studied at heating rates of 10, 30 and 50 °C/min under a nitrogen flow atmosphere. The most probable mechanism function and activation energy pre-exponential factors were calculated by using the Popescu, FWO and KAS methods. The three stages appeared during pyrolysis include: moisture evaporation, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. Significant differences in the average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were observed. Stage II of the P. G. peel and its cellulose extract could be described by the function Avrami-Erofeev [-ln(1-?)](3) and the function chemical reaction (1-?)(-0.5), respectively. The average activation energy of P. G. peel and its cellulose extract were 157 and 196 kJ/mol, respectively. Kinetic compensation effects of the pre-exponential factors and activation energy were also observed. PMID:25498683

  19. Biosorption characteristics of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution by pummelo peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biomass pummelo peel was chosen as a biosorbent for removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution. The feasibility of adsorption of U(VI) by Pummelo peel was studied with batch adsorption experiments. The effects of contact time, biosorbent dosage and pH on adsorption capacity were investigated in detail. The pummelo peel exhibited the highest U(VI) sorption capacity 270.71 mg/g at an initial pH of 5.5, concentration of 50 ?g/mL, temperature 303 K and contacting time 7 h. The adsorption process of U(VI) was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption isotherm study indicated that it followed both the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters values calculated clearly indicated that the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. These properties show that the pummelo peel has potential application in the removal of the uranium(VI) from the radioactive waste water. (author)

  20. Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

  1. Flavonoids rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels reduces proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuates malaria pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Maurya, Anil K; Jyotshna; Saxena, Archana; Shanker, Karuna; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of possible pharmacological effects along with characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in peels may have a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. Extracts prepared from the Citrus limetta fruit peels were studied for antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity using in-vitro bioassays. Among all, ClEt an ethanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peels has shown promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ClEt was further validated to ensure its safety evaluation at 2000mg/kg and anti-malarial efficacy at 100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight with special reference to inflammatory mediators involved in malaria pathogenesis. In-vivo study revealed that ClEt was safe at higher dose and showed promising anti-malarial activity by inhibiting the parasitaemia and inflammatory mediators (IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-6) involved in malaria pathogenesis, able to improve the haemoglobin and glucose level and increase the survival time. Chemical fingerprint of ClEt revealed the presence of flavonoids. Results suggested the suitability of ClEt, a flavonoid rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels as a candidate for further investigation towards the management of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25860065

  2. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

  3. Development and evaluation of honey based mango nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Pooja; Vaidya, Devina

    2015-03-01

    Honey enriched mango nectar was prepared by using honey as sweetening agent because of its high fructose and glucose content and medicinal properties. The nectar having 20 % pulp, 15°B TSS and 0.30 % acidity was prepared, filled in pre-sterilized glass bottles, heat processed and stored up to 6 months under ambient (13.3-26.3 °C and 44.5-81.0 % RH) and refrigerated (4-7 °C and 73 % RH) conditions. The honey enriched mango nectar could be stored for 6 months at ambient temperature and low temperature storage conditions and only little changes in the quality parameters viz., TSS, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total and reducing sugars, carotenoids and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recorded as compared to sugar based nectar. These changes were more under ambient conditions than refrigerated and no microbial growth was found in nectars at fresh stage and during storage up to 6 months. The hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in the mango nectars increased with prolonged storage period. The mustard honey based mango nectar had the higher carotenoids content but this decreased (725.60-689.20 mg/100 ml) during storage up to 6 months under ambient storage conditions, whereas the decrease was less under refrigerated storage conditions. Organoleptic quality score was higher in mustard honey based mango nectar (6.8) as compared to sugar based mango nectar under refrigerated conditions after 6 months storage. The results indicated that the mustard honey based mango nectar stored at low temperature was acceptable with respect to colour, taste and overall acceptability without any microbial spoilage and could be marketed as health drink. PMID:25745248

  4. Irradiation quarantine treatments for mango seed weevil and Cryptophlebia spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was explored as a method to prevent adult emergence in, or to sterilize, mango seed weevil. Mixed-age mango seed weevils in mangoes were irradiated with target doses of 50, 100, or 300 Gy and held for adult emergence. The 300 Gy treatment (dose range 180-310 Gy) did not prevent adult emergence. Emerging adults from the 100 and 300 Gy treatments were lethargic and short-lived, and laid no eggs indicating sterility. An irradiation quarantine treatment (300 Gy) to sterilize mango seed weevil in mangoes has been approved. This treatment opens U.S. mainland markets to mango exports from Hawaii. Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) and C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests that attack lychee, longan, rambutan, mangoes and other fruits in Hawaii. Studies were undertaken to determine whether irradiation treatment at 250 Gy, an accepted treatment for disinfestation of fruit flies in tropical fruits from Hawaii, would also control the two Cryptophlebia species (Follett and Lower 2000). C. illepida was determined to be more tolerant of irradiation than C. ombrodelta and so C. illepida was used in detailed tests. Using the criterion of success in developing to the adult stage, the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in C. illepida was generally eggs< early instars< late instars< pupae. The most tolerant stage that could potentially occur in harvested fruits is the late (fourth and fifth) instar. No C. illepida larvae receiving an irradiation dollepida larvae receiving an irradiation dose ?125 Gy and emerging as adults produced viable eggs, indicating sterility can be achieved at doses <250 Gy. Large-scale tests in which 11,256 late instars were irradiated with a target dose of 250 Gy resulted in a pupation rate of only 8.4% and no adult eclosion. Therefore, the irradiation quarantine treatment of a minimum absorbed dose of 250 Gy approved for Hawaii's fruit flies will effectively disinfest fruits of any Cryptophlebia in addition to fruit flies. (author)

  5. Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the r detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

  6. Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate

    OpenAIRE

    Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil) Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy t...

  8. Efectos de la concentracion de solud y la relacion fruta/jarabe sobre sobre la deshidratacion osmotica de mango en cilindros¹

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anne, Valera; Judith, Zambrano; Willian, Materano; Ibis, Quintero.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en estudiar el efecto de la concentración del agente osmótico (glucosa en el jarabe a 50, 60 y 70% p/p) y la relación fruta/jarabe (1:2, 1:3 y 1:4) sobre la deshidratación osmótica de frutos de mango, Mangifera indica L., en cilindros. Para el estudio, se o [...] btuvieron los mangos tipo bocado del mercado local, se seleccionaron, pelaron, cortaron en forma de cilindros y se introdujeron en un recipiente de vidrio de 500 ml de capacidad conteniendo 300 ml de la solución osmótica. Los trozos fueron sacados después de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min para realizar determinaciones de ganancia de soluto (GS), pérdida de agua (PA) y °Brix. Determinaciones de actividad de agua (aw) fueron realizadas en la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todas las concentraciones del agente osmótico (50, 60 y 70% p/p) la ganancia de sólidos fue más notable en el caso de la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todos los casos se observó que la PA es más importante que la GS. Se alcanzó el máximo de grados Brix en menor tiempo en los trozos de mango tratados con el jarabe a 50 °Brix comparado con los jarabes a 60 y 70 °Brix. Las observaciones del presente trabajo en términos de GS y PA permiten concluir que la concentración del jarabe y particularmente la relación jarabe/fruta influyen de una manera directa en el proceso de osmodeshidratación de mango. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of the concentration of the osmotic agent (glucose in the syrup to 50, 60 and 70 % p/p) and the ratio fruit/syrup (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the osmotic dehydration of mango fruits in cylinders. For the study, mangoes type "Bocado" were obtained from the [...] local market, selected, peeled, cut in form of cylinders and introduced in a 500 cc container of glass with 300 cc of osmotic solution. The pieces were removed after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min to make determinations of gain of solute (GS), loss of water (PA) and °Brix. Determinations of water activity (aw) were made in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the concentrations of the osmotic agent evaluated the solid gain was more important in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the cases, it was found that the PA was more important than GS. The highest degree Brix was reached in less time in the mango pieces treated with 50 °Brix syrup than with 60 and 70 °Brix syrup. The observations of the present work about GS and PA allow to conclude that the concentration of the syrup, and particularly the ratio fruit/syrup influences the process of osmotic dehydration of mango

  9. Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m2 for 1.5-1.7 ?m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: ? Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. ? Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. ? Displacement and delactromagnet. ? Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. ? Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. ? The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m2.

  10. An Ap"peel"ing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Joshua A.; Sasse, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on mathematics activity wherein students peel oranges to explore the surface area and volume of a sphere. This activity encourages students to make conjectures and hold mathematical discussions with both their peers and their teacher. Moreover, students develop formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere…

  11. Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

  12. Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Orzua, Mari?a C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro La; Teixeira, J. A.; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noe?

    2009-01-01

    Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolu...

  13. Spatiotemporal patterns formed by deformed adhesive in peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical properties of peeling an adhesive tape are investigated experimentally as an analogy of sliding friction. An adhesive tape is peeled by pulling an elastic spring connected to the tape. Controlling its spring constant k and pulling speed V, peel force is measured and spatiotemporal patterns formed on the peeled tape by deformed adhesive are observed. It is found that there exist two kinds of adhesive state in peeling front. The emergence of multiple states is caused by the stability of a characteristic structure (tunnel structure) formed by deformed adhesive. Tunnel structures are distributed spatiotemporally on adhesive tape after peeling. Based on the spatiotemporal distribution, a morphology-dynamical phase diagram is constructed on k-V space and is divided into the four regions: (A) uniform pattern with tunnel structure, (B) uniform pattern without tunnel structure, (C) striped pattern with oscillatory peeling, and (D) spatiotemporally coexistent pattern

  14. Competitividad de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Michoacán / Mango (Mangifera indica L.) production competitiveness at Michoacan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. V., Ayala-Garay; G., Almaguer-Vargas; N. K., De la Trinidad-Pérez; I., Caamal-Cauich; R., Rendón.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que a [...] porta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos. Abstract in english Mexico has been the leading import supplier of mango with an import market share of 56 percent for mangoes to USA. Since 2000, however, other countries, such as Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Belize, have also increased their share of the growing U.S. import market for this fruit. Michoacán is one of th [...] e more important Mexican producers. Due to the importance of this product, the research objective was to analyze the competitiveness of Mexican mango in front of its main competitors and to analyze the profitability in the region. The Mexican competitiveness at international level was estimated with the Indices of Revealed Competitive Advantage. At regional level, the profitability was estimating in 214 farms. Mexico has competitiveness with a negative tendency in relationship to Brazil and India. Mangoes are profitable for the region; nevertheless, the utilities are low due to the high costs per tons and low productivity.

  15. Carotenoids and Vitamin C during Handling and Distribution of Guava (Psidium guajava L.), Mango (Mangifera indica L.), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) at Commercial Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Daniela Da Silva; Lobato, Alvanice Lemos; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Santana, Angela Maria Campos; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2010-05-26

    The content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA, and dehydroascorbic acid, DHA) and carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were analyzed in papaya, mango, and guava after the reception, preparation (cleaning, peeling, and slicing), and distribution stages for consumption in a commercial restaurant. The analysis of carotenoids and vitamin C was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fruits analyzed were considered excellent sources of vitamin C and carotenoids. There were no significant differences in the vitamin C and carotenoids content during the different fruit handling stages at the commercial restaurant, which demonstrates the excellent stability of the components under the usual handling conditions employed. The results show that customers of the commercial restaurant are directly benefitted since the nutritional quality of the fruits was preserved during all of the handling and distribution periods. PMID:20441159

  16. Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

  17. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

    2010-01-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Pl...

  18. Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically r storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

  19. Addition of Tomato Peel and Seed to Tomato Ketchup for Improving Its Nutritional Value and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abasi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, tomato peel and waste seed obtained from tomato paste processing were dried and milled. The obtained powder was added to tomato ketchup sauce in different proportions (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10%. To study the effect of tomato peel and seed powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the tomato ketchup samples, the parameters including lycopen, total solid, brix, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein, fat, ash, fiber, vitamin C, pH, color (L, a/b were evaluated. Rheological properties of the ketchup samples (consistency and viscosity were determined and compared with control samples. Sensory evaluation of the ketchup samples was carried out after 1, 2 and 5 months of storage by a group of panelists. Addition of tomato peel and seed powder resulted in an increase in total solid, brix, ash, fiber, protein, fat, consistency and viscosity of the ketchup samples. Sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant difference between the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the control and samples containing 1 or 2 % of tomato peel and seed powder. In addition, sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant changes in the ketchup samples during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that nutritional and rheological properties of tomato ketchup can be improved by addition of tomato peel and seed powder.

  20. Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Freire Júnior

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.. Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.. The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

  1. Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente / Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Murillo, Freire Júnior; Adimilson Bosco, Chitarra.

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.). Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva ent [...] re o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.). The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the [...] fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

  2. Identification of a 27 kDa protein in patients with anaphylactic reactions to mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, R; Hipler, C; Treudler, R; Harth, W; Süss, A; Simon, J C

    2008-01-01

    Mango fruit has become increasingly popular in recent years. We report on 2 patients who developed anaphylactic reactions after the ingestion of fresh mango. Allergy to mango was confirmed by a positive skin prick test result and positive cellular allergen stimulation test results. Neither of the patients had detectable mango-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels. Results were validated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis immunoblotting and analyzed using Quantiscan.We identified 2 major allergens with a molecular weight of 27 kDa in both patients, in addition to a 15 kDa allergen in 1 patient and a 32 kDa allergen in the other. Currently available IgE systems seem to be lacking these mango allergens and as such are probably unsuitable for diagnosing type 1 sensitization to mango. Skin prick testing with fresh mango fruit therefore seems to be a much more reliable test method for clinical practice. PMID:19123442

  3. USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manza R.R., Gaikwad B.P. and Manza G.R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram environment. The Simulink based customizable framework is designed for rapid simulation, implementation, and verification of video processing systems. In this work the comparative analysis of various mangos video edge detection methods is like Sobel, Prewitt, and Canny is presented.

  4. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ?-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following ?-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T2. (author)

  5. Effects on storage life and quality of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations on the effect of irradiation at 50 Krad, hot water treatment at 55 degC 5 min and hot water treatment followed by irradiation were carried out on the mature green Keaw mango to eradicate anthracnose disease development and delay ripening. Before introducing all treatments, mangoes were inoculated by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. All samples were determined after stored at 10 +- 2 degC and at 85% RH for 3 weeks. No difference in disease control between untreated and irradiated batches, but fruits treated with hot water followed by irradiation were significantly different from untreated ones. All treatments were effective in delaying ripening. Higher dosage of irradiation with a combination of hot water treatment was studied on colour break Pimsen Prure mango and 75 Krad after hot water treatment proved to be promising. Further study is being conducted

  6. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; SparsØ, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper presents the core-centric programming model for establishing and using GS connections in MANGO. We show how OCP transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system

  7. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  8. Aceleración de la maduración en mango "Kent" refrigerado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zamora Cienfuegos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Un problema que restringe el mercado mundial del mango (Mangifera indica L. ?Kent?, es la falta de uniformidad en la maduración del fruto y el escaso desarrollo de color en la cáscara. El mango de exportación es transportado a 13 °C hasta el mercado, y no se ha encontrado información científica concerniente a la aplicación de etileno exógeno después de exponer la fruta a temperaturas de refrigeración. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la aplicación de etileno exógeno en mango ?Kent? después del almacenamiento por 4 d a 13±1 °C y su posterior traslado a temperatura de 27±2 °C. Se seleccionaron 100 frutos con tratamiento hidrotérmico para cada uno de los siguientes tratamientos: mango madurado sin refrigeración ni aplicación de etileno, mango refrigerado por 4 d sin tratamiento con etileno y posteriormente almacenado a 27±2 °C, y refrigerado por 4 d más tratamiento con etileno exógeno a 100, 500 y 1000 ?L L-1 por 18 h a 20 °C, con posterior maduración a 27±2 °C. Como respuesta se evaluaron parámetros fisiológicos y fisicoquímicos. La aplicación de etileno exógeno al mango refrigerado por 4 d estimuló la maduración de los mismos y favoreció el desarrollo del color de la cáscara, lo que mejoró la apariencia externa de los frutos. Debido a la refrigeración se mantuvieron valores altos de firmeza de la pulpa durante los primeros días de almacenamiento (día 2 y 4, respectivamente, y un descenso normal de ésta después del tratamiento con etileno. Los tratamientos con dosis de 100 y 500 ?L L-1 de etileno produjeron mejores respuestas para la maduración; el sabor de los frutos así tratados fue ligeramente menos dulce y no se detectaron sabores u olores anormales debidos al tratamiento con etileno exógeno.

  9. Identification of irradiated mangoes by means of ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of mango varieties Tommy Atkins, Haiden and Ataulfo were irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation at doses in the range 0.15-1.0 kGy, and stored at room temperature for lapses of time up to 72 h. They were then studied by ESR spectrometry. Results show that the ESR signal of the irradiated samples is higher than that of the unirradiated samples, and this is found even at the minimum radiation dose of 0.15 kGy. The ESR signal remained stable during the storage time. The ESR signals obtained for hydroheated mangoes show insignificant differences with respect to the control samples. (author)

  10. Moisture Desorption Isotherms for Fresh and Osmotically Treated Mangoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pheeraya Chottanom

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption isotherms of fresh and osmotically treated mangoes have been measured at 25, 35 and 45 ° C by the static method using a Novasina manometer. A non-linear regression program was used to fit three moisture sorption isotherm models, Modified-Halsey; Modified-Henderson and Modified-Oswin to the experimental data. The Modified-Henderson and the Modified-Oswin models gave the best fit for moisture desorption isotherms for fresh and osmotically treated mangoes, respectively. The osmotic pretreatment affected the graphical form of the desorption isotherms because of biopolymer binding at low aw values and dissolution of sucrose at high aw values.

  11. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of ‘Alphonso’ Mangoes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramayya, Nidhi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Duncan, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Postharvest quality of Alphonso mangoes (Mangifera indica L) is vital to ensure proper ripening and good quality. 500 g mature green mangoes, were subjected to three pre- packaging hot water dips (20, 30 & 40°C) for 40 min, two packaging films (OPP unperforated and perforated), using three levels of gas concentrations of 25,50 and 75% v/v CO2 treatments (balance N2) and stored at 10°C for 21 days. During the storage period headspace gas composition, weight loss, ascorbic acid, pulp firmn...

  12. Assessment Keys for Some Important Diseases of Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Khalid P.; Alam, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Mangifera indica L., the most important tropical fruit is subjected to a number of disease at all stages of its development. Practical, efficient and accurate assessment of disease intensity is a major concern of plant pathologist. At present time there is no general up-to-date precise information`s available to asses the mango diseases. This paper provides over 9 key`s for the assessment of important mango diseases. All of which have been prepared from the literature used by different...

  13. Two new Ceratocystis species associated with mango disease in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wyk, Marelize; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Al Adawi, Ali O.; Rossetto, Carlos J.; Ito, Margarida Fumiko; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mangifera indica, a disease known as mango blight, murcha or seca da mangueira in Brazil, is caused by the canker wilt pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato. It is also closely associated with infestation by the non-native wood-boring beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). The aim of this study was to characterize Ceratocystis isolates obtained from diseased mango trees in Brazil. Identification was based on sequence data from ITS1+5.8S+ITS2 rDNA, part o...

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium (III Ion Adsorption by Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian A. Ugbe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Cr (III ion from aqueous solution using orange peels as adsorbent was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. The research is significant as it’s aimed at investigating the suitability of orange peel, a waste product as adsorbent for the adsorption of Cr (III ions from aqueous solution. Orange peel as an adsorbent is resource-saving and has an environmental friendly behavior. Adsorption envelope experiment was conducted using a constant Cr (III ion concentration of 0.1 M, adsorbent dose of 2.5 g and a temperature of 30°C at varying solution pH of 2, 4, 7, 9 and 12 respectively with pH of 2 having the highest adsorption and therefore it was selected for use in the adsorption isotherm experiment. Adsorption isotherm experiment was conducted at varying temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.3 M Cr(NO33. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G, ?H, ?Hr, ?A, and ?S were calculated from the experimental data which showed that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and followed physisorption mechanism 9H2O and adsorbent dosage (1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g respectively. The experimental results were tested using Langmuir, Freundlich, Linear and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The experimental data best fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The experimental results revealed the suitability of orange peel which is a waste product as effective adsorbent for the sorption of chromium (III ions from aqueous solution.

  15. Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de Azeredo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combining the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1 was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos, todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm, a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem.

  16. Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Valéria Robles Velasco; Fernanda Rumi Okubo; Maria Elizette Ribeiro; Denise Steiner; Valcenir Bedin

    2004-01-01

    O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulaç...

  17. Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo / Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Altafin, Galli; Marcos Doniseti, Michelotto; Luis Cláudio Paterno, Silveira; Antônio Lúcio Melo, Martins.

    Full Text Available A manga (Mangifera indica L.) é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância par [...] a o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill) da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g), maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %), menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 %) e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix). Abstract in english The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance [...] for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill) from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST) and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g), larger pulp percentage (85,7%), smaller pit percentage (6,3%) and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix), adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

  18. Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A manga (Mangifera indica L. é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância para o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g, maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %, menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 % e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix.The mango (Mangifera indica L. is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g, larger pulp percentage (85,7%, smaller pit percentage (6,3% and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix, adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

  19. Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Uddin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali, Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna, Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P., its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrapali followed by Rad, Mallika, BARI mango-1 and BARI mango-2 and the lowest infestation of 13.78 and 18.55% found in Langra and Gopalbhog followed by Kazla-01 and Khirsapath. The other three varieties sustained 27.49-30.64 % leaf damage. To control the mango leaf cutting weevil bagging with mosquito net and bagging with polythin bag had the best performance with 100% reduction of leaf infestation followed by spraying of Ripcord. Spraying of Decis caused 82.23 % reduction of leaf damage followed by Sevin, Azodrin and Diazinon with the least control efficiency of Sumithion.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels

    OpenAIRE

    J.T. Chia; B.A. Anhwange; S. T. Ubwa

    2011-01-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benu...

  1. Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarrin...

  2. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling

    OpenAIRE

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205--222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our mea...

  3. Peeling of polydimethylsiloxane adhesives at low velocities: cohesive failure

    OpenAIRE

    Piau, Jean-Michel; Ravilly, Guillaume; Verdier, Claude

    2005-01-01

    This work presents results obtained in 90-degree peeling tests at low velocities in the case of Newtonian adhesives, when failure is cohesive. Peeling experiments are described and consider the influence of the thickness, viscosity and surface tension of the adhesive, as well as the backing rigidity. A simple model, based on lubrication effects in thin films, is considered and compared with the measurements, when peeling is a two-dimensional phenomenon. Furthermore, a criterion for predicting...

  4. Peeling of Polydimethylsiloxane Adhesives : the Case of Adhesive Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Verdier, Claude; Ravilly, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion properties of high molecular weight Polydimethylsiloxane adhesives are measured using 90°-peel adhesion tests, in the high velocity range. Such adhesives undergo mainly adhesive failure in this regime. The influence of viscosity (non-Newtonian), adhesive thickness, peeling velocity, and backing properties are studied, and new unexpected behaviours are shown. The role of rheology and peeling velocity can be explained by an extension of a model already presented for cohesive failur...

  5. Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Jérôme; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, André; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

  6. Commercially suitable pectin methylesterase from Valencia orange peels

    OpenAIRE

    ??M?EK, ?ebnem; YEMEN?C?O?LU, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure was developed to extract pectin methylesterase (PME) from Valencia orange peels. Orange peels contain 25-34 mmol of COOH min-1 g-1 of peel PME activity. The enzyme was ionically bound to cell walls and could not be extracted with water. This enables removal of water soluble pectic substances and oils from peels via homogenization and washing with water before enzyme extraction. Enzyme extraction can be conducted simply by addition of suitable amounts of NaCl (...

  7. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling versus no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence supports ILM peeling as the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH.

  8. Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling versus No Peeling for Idiopathic Full-Thickness Macular Hole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling improves anatomic and functional outcomes of full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) surgery when compared with the no-peeling technique. DESIGN: Systematic review and individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis undertaken under the auspices of the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH undergoing vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling. INTERVENTION: Macular hole surgery, including vitrectomy and gas endotamponade with or without ILM peeling. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCdVA) at 6 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were BCdVA at 3 and 12 months; best-corrected near visual acuity (BCnVA) at 3, 6, and 12 months; primary (after a single surgery) and final (after >1 surgery) macular hole closure; need for additional surgical interventions; intraoperative and postoperative complications; patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (EuroQol-5D and Vision Function Questionnaire-25 scores at 6 months); and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Four RCTs were identified and included in the review. All RCTs were included in the meta-analysis; IPD were obtained from 3 of the 4 RCTs. No evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 6 months was detected (mean difference, -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.03; P=0.27); however, there was evidence of a difference in BCdVA at 3 months favoring ILM peeling (mean difference, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.17 to-0.02; P=0.02). There was evidence of an effect favoring ILM peeling with regard to primary (odds ratio [OR], 9.27; 95% CI, 4.98-17.24; P<0.00001) and final macular hole closure (OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.63-9.75; P=0.02) and less requirement for additional surgery (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.23; P<0.00001), with no evidence of a difference between groups with regard to intraoperative or postoperative complications or PROs. The ILM peeling was found to be highly cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence supports ILM peeling as the treatment of choice for patients with idiopathic stage 2, 3, and 4 FTMH.

  9. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  10. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  11. Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that frof the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).

    OpenAIRE

    Spiteri Cornish, K; Lois, N; Scott, N.; Burr, J; Cook, J; Boachie, C; Tadayoni, R; la Cour, M.; Christensen, U.; Kwok, A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes.  OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ILM peeling improves ...

  13. Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Rendon, Marta I.; Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing...

  14. Efficacy of Modified Jessner's Peel and 20% TCA Versus 20% TCA Peel Alone for the Treatment of Acne Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Neerja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of studies on the use of chemical peels for acne scars among the Asian population. A trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Jessner's combination chemical peel, originally described by Monheit, is said to be better than a TCA peel alone. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of 20% TCA and Jessner's solution versus 20% TCA alone for the treatment of acne scars. Materials and Methods : The patients were divided into two groups of 25 patients each. Chemical peeling was done in both the groups. In Group I, chemical peeling with Jessner's peel followed by 20% TCA was done and in Group II patients chemical peeling with 20% TCA peel alone was done. Results: In Group I (Jessner's peel and 20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 8% cases, moderate improvement in 32% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 60% patients. In Group II (20% TCA), mild improvement of acne scars was seen in 32% cases, moderate improvement in 40% cases and marked improvement of acne scars was seen in 28% patients. But, the difference in improvement of acne scars was not statistically significant in both the groups (P value > 0.05).

  15. Transportation and storage studies on irradiated Alphonso mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control as well as skin coated (6% ''Myvacet'') and/or irradiated (25 to 35 krad) mangoes were packed in baskets in dry paddy straw and shipped by rail. After a storage at a temperature of 25 to 320C for a period of 8 days, the baskets were shipped back. After receipt in the laboratory the fruits were kept under observation for 5 more days and then scored for ripening and marketability as assessed by appearance, skin gloss and typical flavour. 100 per cent of fruits skin-coated and irradiated were marketable at the end of the experiment. None of the unirradiated control fruits were saleable by this time, while 66%, of the irradiated fruits were in acceptable condition. In further experiments one dozen mangoes each from control, irradiated and skin-coated and irradiated groups were wrapped individually in tissue paper and packed tightly in a plyweed box. This consignment was air-lifted from Bombay to Budapest, a distance of about 5600 kilometers. The time interval between irradiation and their receipt in Hungary was 4 days. The mangoes were assessed for their storage characteristics by various parameters that included physiological loss in weight, puncture resistance of the skin, pulp texture, carotenoids, acidity and organoleptic attributes, at various periods during storage. It was found that ripening and senescence are strikingly delayed in mangoes by skin-coating and radiation treatment. The treated mangoes retained their skin-resistance while the disappned their skin-resistance while the disappearance of chlorophyl and formation of carotenoids were substantially delayed. Weight loss in storage was lower and reduction of acidity and formation of sugars in the fruit flesh took place later. Organoleptically, the fruits subjected to the combination treatment were good. These studies point to the feasibility of the combination treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fruits significantly to enable their transport to distant countries. (F.G.)

  16. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships of mango germplasm from Chiapas, Mexico / Diversidad molecular y relaciones genéticas de germoplasma de mango de Chiapas, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Didiana, Gálvez-López; Miguel, Salvador-Figueroa; Enrique N., Becerra-Leor; Maurilio, González-Paz; Sanjuana, Hernández-Delgado; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La mayor parte de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Chiapas, México, se localiza en la región Soconusco, donde se ha detectado una gran diversidad morfológica y genética, que se debe a la polinización libre entre plantas. La caracterización e identificación de plantas excepcionales pue [...] de ser útil para la conservación de la diversidad del mango, así como para su uso en el cultivo del mango. Se recolectaron 41 accesiones de mango en cinco localidades (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) en el estado de Chiapas, México, que se sometieron a análisis AFLP y después se compararon con 19 variedades cultivadas de mango. El análisis AFLP indicó altos niveles de polimorfismo entre las accesiones (> 84 %). El análisis AMOVA indicó una diferenciación genética significativa (F ST = 0.23743) entre y dentro las accesiones de mango. El análisis de agrupamiento arrojó dos grupos: las accesiones de Chiapas y los mangos Ataulfo se relacionan cercanamente a los cultivares Manila, Carabao, Amini y Cambodiana, nativas de Asia; y los mangos mexicanos y no mexicanos cultivados a partir del Banco de Germoplasma. Mangifera odorata fue distinta a todas las otras muestras de M. indica. La heterocigosidad más alta se encontró en mangos de Tuxtla Chico (0.260) y Escuintla (0.254). Las diferencias genéticas entre accesiones y cultivares se asociaron con su origen geográfico e indicaron nueva diversidad genética de los mangos de Chiapas debido a la polinización libre y el uso de plantas recombinantes. Abstract in english Most of mango (Mangifera indica L.) production in Chiapas, México is located at Soconusco region where a large morphological and genetic diversity have been detected due the free-pollination among plants. The characterization and identification of outstanding plants can be useful for mango diversity [...] conservation as well as the use for mango breeding. Forty-one local mango accessions collected in five locations (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) in the state of Chiapas, México, were subjected to AFLP analysis and then compared with 19 mango cultivars. AFLP analysis indicated high levels of polymorphisms among accessions (> 84 %). AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.23743) among and within mango accessions. Cluster analysis showed two groups: accessions from Chiapas and Ataulfo mangos closely related to Manila, Carabao, Amini and Cambodiana cultivars native from Asia; and Mexican and non-Mexican bred mangos from Germplasm Bank. Mangifera odorata was different than all other M. indica accessions. The highest heterozygosity were found in mangos from Tuxtla Chico (0.260) and Escuintla (0.254). Genetic differences among accessions and cultivars were associated with their geographical origin and indicated new genetic diversity of mangos from Chiapas due to free-pollination and the use of recombinant plants.

  17. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  18. Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

  19. Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

  20. Bioconversion Efficiency of ?-Carotene from Mango Fruit and Carrots in Vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Jose D.J. Ornelas-Paz; Yahia, Elhadi M.; Alfonso A. Gardea-Bejar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Bioconversion efficiency of ?-Carotene (BC) in vitamin A is strongly influenced by food matrix. This efficiency has been determined mainly in typical BC sources like carrots. BC content in mango fruit is considerably high however; the bioconversion efficiency of BC from fresh mango in vitamin A has not been determined nor compared with those of typical BC sources. Approach: Vitamin A depleted rats were daily fed with portions of Ataulfo mango (alone or with soybean oil...

  1. Extraction and Characteristics of Seed Kernel Oil from Mango (Mangifera indica)

    OpenAIRE

    Nzikou, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Congo mango seeds w ere collected and the kernels were separated and dried. This study was carriedout on mango seed kernels to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oilincluding unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Mango seed kernels contained a considerableunsaponifiable matter, and a low amount of crude protein. Stearic acid w as the m ain saturated fatty acid, w hileoleic acid w as the m ajor unsaturated fatty acid in all lipid classes. M...

  2. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement — a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, S. N.; Narsaiah, K.; Sharma, A. D.; Singh, M.; Bansal, S.; Kumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits “Mango” (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world’s mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destr...

  3. Evaluation of mango cultivars for resistance to infection by ceratocystis manginecans

    OpenAIRE

    Al Adawi, A. O.; Al Sadi, B. A.; Al Jabri, M. H.; Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Deadman, M. L.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Ceratocystis manginecans has been reported to cause a serious wilt disease of mango in Oman and Pakistan. To identify plants resistant to this disease, 30 mango cultivars were artificially inoculated with isolates of C. manginecans in three trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.0001) in lesion lengths among mango cultivars. Similarly, there were significant differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates used for inoculations. However, in trials...

  4. Infestation of Mangifera indica by the mango gall fly, Procontarinia matteiana, (Kieffer & Cecconi) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Augustyn, W. A.; Du Plooy, W.; Botha, B. M.; Wilpe, Erna

    2012-01-01

    Mango gall fly (Procontarinia matteiana Kieffer&Cecconi, 1906) is an orchard pest that infests flush leaves of mango, forming wart-like structures on the leaves. Serious outbreaks may result in reduced fruit yield. A natural parasite (Chrysonotomyia pulcherimma Kerrich, 1970) of the gall fly lays its eggs inside the gall and the larvae feed on the gall fly. Mango cultivars present varying susceptibilities to gall fly infestation, with cultivars ranging from completely resistant...

  5. A note on the peeling theorem in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the 'peeling property' of the Weyl tensor in higher dimensions in the case of even dimensions (and with some additional assumptions), thereby providing a first step towards an understanding of the general peeling behaviour of the Weyl tensor, and the asymptotic structure at null infinity, in higher dimensions

  6. DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

  7. Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

  8. The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca++ and release of CO2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca++ treatment alone

  9. 77 FR 71775 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ...Importation of Mangoes From India Into the Continental United...importation of mangoes from India into the continental United...include a preclearance workplan, trust fund agreement, compliance...plant protection organization of India. Estimated annual number...

  10. Effect of mango seed kernel extract on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangoes (Mangifera indica L. are one of the most important tropical foods. The seed is one of the main by-products of mango processing. Therefore, it is important to find an economically viable use for this waste (e.g., as a food additive or supplement with high nutraceutical value. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of mango seed kernel extract with hot water (MSKE-W in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in a high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity rat model. MSKE-W caused a significant decrease in the activity of glycerol 2-phosphate dehydrogenase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without eliciting cell cytotoxicity and inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through down-regulation of transcription factors such as PPAR? and C/EBP?. In the animal model, rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W gained less weight than rats fed an HFD alone. The visceral fat mass in rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W tended to be lower than that in rats fed an HFD alone. Furthermore, histological examination of rat livers from an HFD showed steatohepatitis. However, rats on an HFD containning 1% MSKE-W showed no histopathological changes in liver tissue. Our results indicate that MSKE-W influences anti-obesity effects, both in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that MSKE-W provides a novel preventive potential against obesity.

  11. Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits cv. Dashehari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango fruits cv. Dashehari irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilizing the market demand, revealed that irradiation of mango fruits with 200 Gy gamma radiation increase the post harvest life of 93.75 percent mango fruits by 12 days over control (46.66 percent) and proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of mango fruits as compared to control and higher doses of gamma radiation. (author)

  12. Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m2/g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

  13. 75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental...the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. Based on the findings...noxious weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES:...

  14. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ...Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental...associated with the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan into the continental...Pakistan to allow the importation of fresh mango fruits, Mangifera indica L., into...

  15. Mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica), variedad de Colombia: características antioxidantes, nutricionales y sensoriales / Sugar mango (Mangifera indica), variety from Colombia: antioxidant, nutritional and sensorial characteristics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Corrales-Bernal; Maria Elena, Maldonado; Luz Amparo, Urango; Maria Camila, Franco; Benjamín Alberto, Rojano.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El mango de azúcar es una variedad colombiana pequeña, de escasa fibra, buen aroma y sabor. Esta investigación evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del fruto en diferentes estados de maduración por FRAP y DPPH clasificados por inspección visual y escala CIELab. Las características nutricionales y el val [...] or ORAC se determinaron en el mango maduro. Las características sensoriales de dos formulaciones (sacarosa y sucralosa) con mango maduro se determinaron por prueba afectiva de aceptación y escala Hedónica. Resultados: la clasificación por inspección visual coincidió con la escala CIELab. El mango verde tiene 45% más flavonoides que el maduro. El contenido de carotenoides, valores DPPH y FRAP fueron similares en los diferentes estados de maduración. El 94% de los panelistas aceptaron el néctar con sucralosa comparado con el endulzado con sacarosa (89,1%). Los resultados indican que el mango de azúcar y un producto tipo néctar poseen capacidad antioxidante, compuestos bioactivos y nutricionales beneficiosos para la salud. Abstract in english The sugar mango is a small Colombian cultivar with low fiber content, good aroma and flavor. This research evaluated antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH) of the fruit at different ripening stages classified by visual inspection and CIELab scale. Nutritional and sensory characteristics and ORAC value we [...] re measured in the ripe fruit. Sensorial characteristics of two mango nectars sweetened with sucrose and sucralose using ripe fruit were determined by affective acceptance test and Hedonic scale. Results showed that classification by visual inspection coincided with the CIELab scale for all ripening stages. The green mango has 45% more flavonoids than the mature one. The carotenoid content, DPPH and FRAP values were similar in the different ripening stages. Sucralose sweetened nectar was accepted by 94.9% compared with that sweetened with sucrose (89.1%). Results indicate that mango sugar fruit and nectar present antioxidant capacity, bioactive and nutritional compounds with potential health benefits.

  16. Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD50 values (?-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved. (author)

  17. Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

  18. Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  19. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Zac Tchoundjeu; Atangana, Alain R.; Ann Degrande

    2005-01-01

    Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango) kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest]), in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%). Ei...

  20. Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris PV. magniferaeindicae in mango plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Gina Mercia

    1993-01-01

    The yearly losses incurred by bacterial blackspot disease are high. Often trees are asymptomatic, with the pathogen either in the resident phase or latent stage of infection. Detection of the pathogen in these asymptomatic trees is one of the most important means of controlling the disease. Isolates which consistently differed in virulence were isolated from symptomatic mango plants. These isolates could be categorised into four groups based upon differences in virulence. Monoc...

  1. Experimental analysis and modeling of mangoes drying kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Heilporn, Caroline; Wylock, Christophe; Spreutels, Laurent; Haut, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the drying rate of mango slices is experimentally studied and modeled. The developed model takes into account the physical transformations occurring during the drying process. The simulated drying rates, computed with the proposed model are compared with a set of experimental drying rates obtained by analyzing several drying trials. The model is also used to analyze the sensitivity of the drying rate with respect to its physico-chemical parameters. The results show a good fit be...

  2. Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtikar, Samiksha V.; Parkhi, Amruta D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in ...

  3. Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper pres...

  4. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  5. Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2009-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

  6. Forecasting Mango and Citrus Production in Nigeria: A Trend analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Sulaiman Adesina; Salau, Adekunle Sheu

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides the prediction of future production of citrus and mango in the medium term up to 2010. The prediction was based on the assumptions that past trends (area planted and yield) and existence of normal weather pattern will hold. Time trend model with specific emphasis on growth model was employed. The analysis delineated three different eras (period between 1961 and 2003, 1986 – 2003, and 1991-2003). These eras were used to simulate the different policy regimes of Regulation,...

  7. Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okojie L. O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

  8. Effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on the performance of an automated peeling machine

    OpenAIRE

    O.C. Ademosun; M.O. Jimoh; O.J. Olukunle

    2012-01-01

    Peeling of cassava tuber at all levels is still largely carried out manually; however, this work is presented with a view to investigate the effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on mechanical peeling and hence provides a basis for cassava peeling mechanization. These properties include size of the tuber, tl, proportion by weight of peel, wp, average moisture content of the peel, map, peel thickness, tp, tuber diameter, td, tuber surface taper angle, ?, peel penetrat...

  9. The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

  10. Mango leaf gall formation: varietal susceptibility and within tree distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to screen most commonly cultivated mango, Mangifera indica L., cultivars for their susceptibility to gall formation. Sarooli cultivar proved to be the most resistant one by having a minimum number of galls per 100 leaves. The abundance of galls in four quadrants of the tree i.e., east, west, north and south, was also studied which revealed that east quadrant had maximum number of galls while the abundance of galls in the remaining quadrants was variable. Gall formation on mango leaves seemed to increase gradually with increasing height from the ground level, reached a maximum at the height 12 ft to 16 ft and then declined. Leaf area measurements and nutrient analysis of the leaves were also done to see their impact on gall formation. Correlation analysis revealed that gall formation was positively linked with leaf area and the amount of Zn (ppm), P (%), K (%) while N (%) had negative correlation (P<0.05) with gall formation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study could be helpful in the management of mango leaf gall formation. (author)

  11. Dosimetry during mango irradiation using Gafchromic HD-810 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetric characteristics of Gafchromic HD-810 film were evaluated for its possible use as a high-dose dosemeter for routine dosimetry during mango irradiation. The film dosemeter sample of size 2 x 2 cm2 was used throughout the course of this work. The irradiation of the film dosemeter for characterisation and calibration purposes was carried out in a gamma irradiator. The dose-response of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter at 550 nm was found to be linear in the dose range 50-1000 Gy, which indicates the feasibility of using this film for dosimetry up to 1000 Gy. The mean inter-dosemeter variation was within 2%, which gives better dose-response consistency of the HD-810 film. The radiation absorbed dose measured by the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter during mango irradiation was compared with that measured by a standard Ceric-cerous dosemeter. This study establishes the Gafchromic HD-810 film as a convenient and technically suitable dosemeter for high-dose dosimetry up to 1.0 kGy during mango irradiation. (authors)

  12. Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments

  13. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on quality of 'Alphonso' Mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayya, Nidhi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Duncan, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Postharvest quality of Alphonso mangoes (Mangifera indica L) is vital to ensure proper ripening and good quality. 500 g mature green mangoes, were subjected to three pre- packaging hot water dips (20, 30 & 40°C) for 40 min, two packaging films (OPP unperforated and perforated), using three levels of gas concentrations of 25,50 and 75% v/v CO2 treatments (balance N2) and stored at 10°C for 21 days. During the storage period headspace gas composition, weight loss, ascorbic acid, pulp firmness, external fruit colour and overall quality score were measured to determine optimum storage conditions. The most effective postharvest condition was found to be dipping in water maintained at 40°C for 40 min, followed by packaging under 50% CO2 in bags made of unperforated film when compared to mangoes packed under 25 and 75% CO2 which showed deteriorated quality including spoilage and mould. Good keeping quality of at least 21 days was achieved under these conditions, which was much superior to the control samples that showed deterioration after 12 days of storage. PMID:24293691

  14. Biodegradable bioplastics from food wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated 1.8 billion tons of waste are created annually from food processing in the US, including the peels, pulp, and pomace (PPP) generated from fruits and vegetables when they are converted into frozen or canned products or pressed into juice. PPP currently is sold as animal feed at low cost,...

  15. First report of mango malformation disease caused by Fusarium pseudocircinatum in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation disease (MMD) is one of the most important diseases affecting this crop worldwide, causing severe economic loss due to reduction of yield. Subsequent to the first report in India in 1891 (3), MMD has spread worldwide to most mango-growing regions. Several spe...

  16. Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

  17. Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2007-01-01

    Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

  18. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango under common retail display conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. The synergism between the MAP system and an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate and citric acid) was also investigated. Mango sl...

  19. Identification and characterization of Fusarium mexicanum causing mango malformation disease in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein we summarize the results of fusaria we discovered associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México (Otero-Colina et al., 2010). From 2002 to 2009, 142 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically di...

  20. 78 FR 57467 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ...literature, information from Australian scientists, and/or...change in the PRA for Australian mangoes lowered the...fruit. Moreover, the Australian mango season, mid-September...Australia. State and local laws and regulations regarding...sold to the ultimate consumer. The question of...

  1. Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stephane; Vanel, Loic; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2014-03-01

    We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling an adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependencies of the stick and slip phases durations with the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K.W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.

  2. Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Telis-Romero; Kohayakawa, Ma?rcio N.; Vivaldo Silveira Jr.; Pedro, Maria A. M.; Gabas, Ana L.

    2005-01-01

    Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w) from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equ...

  3. Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

  4. Relaxation behavior and dose dependence of radiation induced radicals in irradiated mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangoes are imported to Japan after treated with hot water. Recently, irradiated mangoes imported to U. S. are widely used. This paper reports on the ESR method for analyzing the radiation induced radicals of irradiated mangoes. Upon the ? ray irradiation, a strong single peak in the flesh and skin of mangoes was observed at g=2.004. This singlet peak may be attributed to organic free radicals. The ESR spectra of the flesh and skin of mangoes showed the radiation induced radicals due to cellulose by irradiation over 12 kGy. The relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the singlet signal were calculated. T2 showed dose response according to increasing the irradiation dose levels, while T1 was almost constant. The value of (T1T2)1/2 showed the dependence of irradiation dose level. (author)

  5. Economic evaluation of extending shelf-life of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reviews the status of cultivation, annual production, local consumption and export volume of mangoes in Egypt. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual losses due to fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of mangoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of mangoes in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of mangoes for extending shelf-life has been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Studies have been carried out in Egypt since 1970 to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated mangoes. Nevertheless not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. In this study the 'Egypt's Mega Gamma I' Irradiator (with cobalt-60 source) was used. (author)

  6. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S N; Narsaiah, K; Sharma, A D; Singh, M; Bansal, S; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits "Mango" (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. PMID:23572595

  7. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

  8. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennet D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

  9. Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

  10. Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayantu Tucho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

  11. Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas / Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; José Carlos, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ta [...] manho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao final de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, si [...] ze and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each period, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

  12. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    CERN Document Server

    Budd, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    We start by studying a peeling process on finite random planar maps with faces of arbitrary degrees determined by a general weight sequence, which satisfies an admissibility criterion. The corresponding perimeter process is identified as a biased random walk, in terms of which the admissibility criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can be obtained from the peeling process of finite random maps by conditioning the perimeter process to stay positive. The simplicity of the resulting description of the peeling process allows us to obtain the scaling limit of the associated perimeter and volume process for arbitrary regular critical weight sequences.

  13. Stick-slip substructure in rapid tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2010-10-15

    The peeling of adhesive tape is known to proceed with a stick-slip mechanism and produces a characteristic ripping sound. The peeling also produces light and when peeled in a vacuum, even X-rays have been observed, whose emissions are correlated with the slip events. Here we present direct imaging of the detachment zone when Scotch tape is peeled off at high speed from a solid surface, revealing a highly regular substructure, during the slip phase. The typical 4-mm-long slip region has a regular substructure of transverse 220??m wide slip bands, which fracture sideways at speeds over 300 m/s. The fracture tip emits waves into the detached section of the tape at ?100?m/s, which promotes the sound, so characteristic of this phenomenon.

  14. Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha / The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Bittencourt, Pfaffenbach; Josalba Vidigal de, Castro; Cássia Regina Limonta, Carvalho; Carlos Jorge, Rossetto.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (25µm) com sachê absorv [...] edor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax) e controle (sem filme plástico). Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix), porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico) e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga. Abstract in english The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm), PEBD (25µm), PEBD (2 [...] 5µm) with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax) and control (without film). The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

  15. Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bittencourt Pfaffenbach

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax e controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix, porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga.The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax and control (without film. The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

  16. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  17. Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K

    2012-01-01

    Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a wel...

  18. Structure of the fruit peel of Pyrus communis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Konarska

    2013-01-01

    The peel of fruits of Pyrus communisL. cv. ‘Klapsa’,harvested at commercial maturity in September 2011, was examined using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning electron and transmission microscopy. The fruit peel was found to be composed of an epidermis covered by a cuticle and several layers of hypodermis. SEM observations showed that in the cuticle there were numerous microcracks of various widths, running in different directions, as well as numerous oval...

  19. Thermomechanical process intensification for oil extraction from orange peels.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezzoug, Sid-ahmed; Louka, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the intensification and improvement of oil extraction from orange peel through a thermomechanical process: the Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (briefly D.I.C process). This process involves subjecting orange peel for a short time to steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 50 mbar. Central composite design was used to study the combined effects of processing steam pressure (1–7 bar; which corresponds to a temperature ranging betwe...

  20. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Barr, J. L.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ˜ 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ˜ 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink.

  1. Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Luiza, Pinheiro; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Maria Cecília de, Arruda; Ricardo Alfredo, Kluge.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemica [...] l, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

  2. Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Pinheiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

  3. Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ? 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ? 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink. (paper)

  4. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin. In addition FRAP method was used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The results of colorimetric method showed that there was high concentration of flavonoids in all investigated samples, especially in peels (1156 mg/100 g in Satsuma peel and 804 mg/100 g in Clementine peel. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin, was determined in the highest concentration in both investigated pulps. In peels flavanon glycosides were present in decreasing sequence as follow: narirutin>hesperidin>naringin. According to FRAP method, all samples possess an evident antioxidant capacity especially peels. Correlation between total flavonoids, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin and antioxidant capacity was very high with correlation coefficiants between 0.81 and 0.98.

  5. Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA, produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

  6. Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiteri Cornish, Kurt; Lois, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes. 

  7. Novel Postharvest Treatment Reduces Ascorbic Acid Losses in Mango (Mangifera indica L. Var. Kent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Islas-Osuna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mango is a tropical fruit that ripens very quickly; for this reason, there has been a continuous effort to develop postharvest technologies to extend its shelf life and quality. Among them, 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP is widely used because it inhibits the action of ethylene receptors. Approach: Changes in physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and cell wall degrading activities were evaluated during storage and ripening of fresh whole mangoes treated with 1-MCP (750 nL L-1. Mature-green mangoes, cultivar Kent, untreated or treated with 1-MCP were evaluated for external quality, phytochemicals, Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methylesterase (PME enzymatic activities during storage at 20°C for 2 weeks. Results: Concentration of ascorbic acid decreased during fruit ripening but 1-MCP-treated mangoes had reduced losses. Polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase activities were reduced in the treated fruits as compared to untreated mangoes. Small changes in ?-carotene were observed between treated and untreated fruits. Conclusion: 1-MCP affected the ripening process in Kent mango, reducing losses of ascorbic acid, this treatment is justified since it helps to maintain mangos nutritional value during its shelf life.

  8. Bioconversion Efficiency of ?-Carotene from Mango Fruit and Carrots in Vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose D.J. Ornelas-Paz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bioconversion efficiency of ?-Carotene (BC in vitamin A is strongly influenced by food matrix. This efficiency has been determined mainly in typical BC sources like carrots. BC content in mango fruit is considerably high however; the bioconversion efficiency of BC from fresh mango in vitamin A has not been determined nor compared with those of typical BC sources. Approach: Vitamin A depleted rats were daily fed with portions of Ataulfo mango (alone or with soybean oil, carrots and BC dissolved in soybean oil, during a two weeks repletion period. These food portions provided an identical daily dose of BC (122.1-132.1 ?g, which was considered as low. After repletion, the retinol accumulation in rat livers was determined. Results: BC was the major carotenoid in tested carrots and mangoes. BC content in these foods varied from 87.8 to 164.4 and from 17.4 to 1.2 mg Kg-1, respectively. Mango portions size delivered to the rats were higher than those of carrots but both provided the same amount of BC. Test foods portions were completely consumed by rats. Total intake of BC during the repletion period was identical in all experimental groups (1.8 mg however, the accumulation of retinol in rat livers varied among experimental groups. The highest retinol accumulation was found in rats feeding the oily solution of BC. Co-consumption of mango and oil increase slightly the accumulation of retinol in rat livers, but statistical differences were not found. Rats fed with carrots accumulated 37% less retinol than those feeding mango without oil. Conclusion/Recommendations: Ataulfo mango was more effective than carrots in improving vitamin A status in deficient rats. Delivered BC doses were efficiently absorbed, converted to vitamin A and stored as retinol. Further studies are needed to test the potential of mango in improving the vitamin A status in humans routinely ingesting the fruit.

  9. MANGO S.A.: Reinventando el sector de la moda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Rodr\\u00EDguez- Donaire

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MaAngo se creó bajo tres premisas poco evidentes en su época: ropa para mujer joven y urbana, fabricación en países de costes de producción más competitivos por diferentes factores como precio, agilidad, proximidad geográfica, especialización técnica, etc. y moderación en los costes indirectos gracias a las tecnologías de la información. Una vez consolidadas estas premisas la organización ha desarrollado una serie de nuevos conceptos: imagen de marca global y eficiencia en los sistemas informáticos y logísticos, los cuales hacen de Mango un ejemplo de éxito empresarial.

  10. 21 CFR 173.315 - Chemicals used in washing or to assist in the peeling of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...in the peeling of fruits and vegetables. 173.315 ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...in the peeling of fruits and vegetables. Chemicals may...in the peeling of fruits and vegetables in accordance...

  11. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  12. Volumetric depth peeling for medical image display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, David; Clarke, John P.; Fielding, Julia R.; TaylorII, Russell M.

    2006-01-01

    Volumetric depth peeling (VDP) is an extension to volume rendering that enables display of otherwise occluded features in volume data sets. VDP decouples occlusion calculation from the volume rendering transfer function, enabling independent optimization of settings for rendering and occlusion. The algorithm is flexible enough to handle multiple regions occluding the object of interest, as well as object self-occlusion, and requires no pre-segmentation of the data set. VDP was developed as an improvement for virtual arthroscopy for the diagnosis of shoulder-joint trauma, and has been generalized for use in other simple and complex joints, and to enable non-invasive urology studies. In virtual arthroscopy, the surfaces in the joints often occlude each other, allowing limited viewpoints from which to evaluate these surfaces. In urology studies, the physician would like to position the virtual camera outside the kidney collecting system and see inside it. By rendering invisible all voxels between the observer's point of view and objects of interest, VDP enables viewing from unconstrained positions. In essence, VDP can be viewed as a technique for automatically defining an optimal data- and task-dependent clipping surface. Radiologists using VDP display have been able to perform evaluations of pathologies more easily and more rapidly than with clinical arthroscopy, standard volume rendering, or standard MRI/CT slice viewing.

  13. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g?g?1 in control sample to 0.382 g?g?1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g?g?1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  14. Effect of Various Coating Materials on Keeping Quality of Mangoes (Mangifera indica Stored at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia Latif

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mango fruits (cv. Chausa were treated with different concentrations of CMC, calcium chloride and beeswax. The mangoes were then placed in boxes, each with a sponge soaked in KMnO4.The mangoes were then stored at refrigerated temperature (8-10°C. The physico-chemical analysis were repeated after seven days interval. Fruits treated with 2% CMC, showed best behaviour through out storage period with minimum loss of weight, increased ascorbic acid content and was able to conserve better sensory characteristics through entire period of storage.

  15. CONSUMERS'ACCEPTANCE OF FRESH AND COMBINED METHODS PROCESSED MELON, MANGO AND CASHEW APPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASSU RENATA TIEKO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh and combined methods processed Cantaloupe melons, mangoes and cashew apples were submitted to consumers' acceptance and scored on a nine-point hedonic scale. Fruits were osmotically treated in sucrose syrup with two different concentrations of SO2. Overall acceptance, appearance, aroma, flavor and texture were evaluated. Fresh cashew apples received lower scores for acceptance than processed cashew apples while fresh mangoes were more acceptable than processed mangoes. Acceptance of fresh melons and processed melons was similar. Treatments of the tropical fruits with two different concentrations of SO2 did not demonstrate significant differences between the fruits tested.

  16. A case of renal failure developing in association with African mango consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Gülsüm; Ulusoy, ?ükrü

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease continues to represent a significant health problem in all societies. One of the main factors accelerating renal progression is nephrotoxins. The African mango is a plant added to many foods and commonly consumed in West Africa. No toxic effect has to date been shown. Our aim was to discuss the 42-year-old patient who became dialysis-dependent through developing rapid renal progression following 2.5-month African mango use. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of chronic renal insufficiency developing in association with African mango consumption. PMID:26131261

  17. Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

  18. Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

  19. PARÂMETROS TERMODINÂMICOS DA CASCA DE LARANJA DESIDRATADA / THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF DEHYDRATED ORANGE PEEL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina M., Santos; Leandro Cardoso de, Morais.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The global energy scenario is currently a widely discussed topic, with growing concern about the future supplies. Thus, much attention has been dedicated to the utilization of biomass as an energy resource. In this respect, orange peel has become a material of great interest, especially to Brazil, w [...] hich generates around 9.5 million tons of this waste per year. To this end, the authors studied the kinetics of the thermal processing of dried orange peel in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. The thermodynamic parameters were determined by the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method for the global process observed during heating from the 25°C up to 800°C. The thermal analysis in air and nitrogen showed 3-2 stages of mass loss, respectively, with approximately 20% residual mass under a nitrogen atmosphere. The increase in the values of activation energy for the conversion points between 20% and 60% for thermal effects in air and nitrogen atmosphere was observed. The activation energy obtained in an oxidizing atmosphere was higher than that obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere. The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the material has a high level of complexity with the presence of alkali and alkaline earth groups as well as phosphate, plus substances such as pectin, cellulose and lignin.

  20. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution using Citrus Limettioides peel and seed carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, R; Srinivasan, K; Premkumar, P

    2015-07-01

    The agricultural wastes like Citrus Limettioides peel and seed to be suitable precursor for the preparation of carbon [Citrus Limettioides peel carbon (CLPC) and seed carbon (CLSC)] has been explored in the present work, utilizing sulfuric acid as the activating agent. Adsorption studies were performed by varying contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose and temperature. The equilibrium time for Ni(II) ions was determined as 4h and optimal pH was 4-7. Surface morphology and functionality of the CLPC and CLSC were characterized by SEM, EDX and FT-IR. The experimental data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm equations using nonlinear regression analysis. Equilibrium data were found to fit well in the Langmuir isotherm, which confirmed the monolayer coverage of Ni(II) ions. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of CLPC and CLSC was found to be 38.46 and 35.54mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second order model with film diffusion process. The adsorbents were tested with Ni(II) plating wastewater in connection with the reuse and selectivity of the adsorbents. PMID:25841067

  1. Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

    2004-08-01

    The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2,714-11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. Kinetic analyses made with Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ritchie second-order and modified Ritchie second-order models showed better fits with modified Ritchie second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich (Sips equation) model best defined the experimental equilibrium data among the three isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) tested. Taking a particular metal concentration, the optimum dose and pH required for the maximum metal removal was established. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl. PMID:15081486

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

  3. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruti J. Dhanavade

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

  4. Microbial and Chemical Evaluation of Whey-Based Mango Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Eltayeb Ismail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on the development and storage of Whey Based Mango beverage. The storability of the beverage was studied at 4±1ºC for 30 days. The storage study showed that there is an increasing trend in the TSS, acidity, and reducing sugar and a decreasing trend in the pH and ascorbic acid but total sugar has non significant effect during storage. Total viable count, Yeast and mold count, Coliform count, and Salmonella count was analyzed using standard methods. The Total Viable Counts (TVC was high ranging from 2.60-2.76×104 cfu/mL. Yeast and mould count varied between 3.60-2.61×103 cfu/mL where as Coliforms include both the presence of fecals 4.5-3.6×104 cfu/mL and non fecals 2.61-3.00×102 cfu/mL and Salmonella were not observed in most of the tested samples. This research is aimed at production of whey/mango beverage. At later stages of the project, whey will be introduced into other products.

  5. Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zac Tchoundjeu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

  6. Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

  7. Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

  8. Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hua Ling; Feng Chen; Shan Wu; Sha Li; En-Qin Xia; Jie-Feng Xie; Xi Lin; Li-Li Gao; Li-Shan Zeng; Ya-Jun Guo; Ru-Dan Kuang; Xiang-Rong Xu; Chen Shen; Gui-Fang Deng; Hua-Bin Li

    2012-01-01

    Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified...

  9. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  10. The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

  11. Metabolic discrimination of mango juice from various cultivars by band-selective NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Masanori; Furihata, Kazuo; Wei, Feifei; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    NMR-based metabolic analysis of foods has been widely applied in food science. In this study, we performed discrimination of five different mango cultivars, Awin, Carabao, Keitt, Kent, and Nam Dok Mai, using metabolic analysis with band-selective excitation NMR spectra. A combination of unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) with low-field region (1)H NMR spectra obtained by band-selective excitation provided a good discriminant model of the five mango cultivars. Using F(2)-selective 2D NMR spectra, we also identified various minor components in the mango juice. Signal assignment of the minor components facilitated the interpretation of the loading plot, and it was found that arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, glutamine, shikimic acid, and trigonelline were important for classification of the five mango cultivars. PMID:22242555

  12. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...correspond to increases in market penetration and the number of households...increased mango consumption and market penetration, fostered better relations...Board would be used to improve market penetration, thereby improving...

  13. Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

    Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

  14. Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

  15. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation: a malady of stress ethylene origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Shukla, Alok; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Mango malformation is a major constrain in mango production worldwide causing heavy economic losses depending on cultivar type and susceptibility. The malady has variously been ascribed to be acarological, viral, fungal and physiological in nature. Here, we discuss the ethylene origin nature of malady. There are indications that most of the symptoms of mango malformation resemble with those of caused by ethylene effects. Multiple evidence reports of putative causal agents including Fusarium mangiferae to augment the endogenous pool of 'stress ethylene' are well documented. Therefore, over load of 'stress ethylene' impairs morphology malformed tissue and cyanide derived from ethylene biosynthesis causes necrosis and death of malformed cells. This review covers various factors eliciting 'stress ethylene' formation, role of ethylene in development of malady and regulation of ethylene action to reduce malformation in mango. PMID:25648881

  16. 79 FR 55963 - Importation of Mangoes From Jamaica Into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    ...concerning the importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of mangoes...flies, soft scale insects, and diseases and must be inspected prior to...regulations in ``Subpart-Fruits and Vegetables'' (7 CFR 319.56- 1...

  17. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: ? Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ ? Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. ? Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. ? Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. ? Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  18. Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape

    OpenAIRE

    De, Rumi; Maybhate, Anil; Ananthakrishna, G.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme,...

  19. External kink (peeling) modes in x-point geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the separatrix on the stability of edge current driven external kink (peeling) modes has been studied. Two approaches have been compared: taking the limit towards the separatrix using linear ideal and resistive MHD stability codes and including the complete x-point geometry using a new resistive MHD code. A strong stabilizing effect has been observed for the ideal and the resistive peeling mode for instabilities driven by the edge current gradient. Both approaches are in good agreement. A new resistive instability remains unstable and is not significantly affected by the separatrix. This mode is a combination of a kink and a tearing type mode and could be called a peeling-tearing mode

  20. Characterization of peeling-ballooning stability limits on the pedestal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peeling-ballooning model for edge localized modes (ELMs) and pedestal constraints, based on ideal MHD instabilities driven by pressure gradients and current in the edge barrier region, has been broadly applied toward understanding ELM and pedestal behaviour in a number of tokamak experiments. Due in part to multiple driving terms, multiple wavelengths and second stability access physics, the peeling-ballooning stability limits which are proposed to constrain the pedestal and trigger ELMs depend sensitively on many details of the tokamak equilibrium. Here we present a technique for characterizing these stability constraints as a function of important parameters, using carefully constructed model equilibria. We discuss comparisons of calculated stability constraints to observed pedestal behaviour, in which an encouraging level of agreement is found. We then present results of an extensive series of calculations which characterize the peeling-ballooning stability constraints as a function of pedestal width, magnetic field, plasma current, density, and triangularity

  1. Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

  2. The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.

  3. The effects of irradiation and hot water dip treatment on Philippine mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study showed that irradiation at 50 krad can prevent the hatching of the eggs of the Oriental fruitfly (Dacus Dorsalis Hendel) and can extend the postharvest shelf-life of Carabao mangoes by two days. Irradiation at 50 krad in combination with hot water dip at 50 degC for five minutes gave a shelf life extension of four days. No undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the treated mangoes were observed. (RTD)

  4. Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

  5. Selection of Yeasts Antagonists as Biocontrol Agent of Mango Fruit Rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae

    OpenAIRE

    DWI SUGIPRIHATINI; SURYO WIYONO; WIDODO

    2011-01-01

    Fruit rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important post harvest disease of mango in Indonesia. Study on biological control on the disease is required to develop environmentally-sound control technology. The research objectives were to study the potency of yeasts in controlling post harvest mango disease i.e. fruit rot caused by B. theobromae and mechanism involve in the biocontrol. Total yeast isolates used for screening were twenty one, four from collection of Plant ...

  6. First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ...

  7. Mango malformation: II. mangiferin changes associated with <i>fusarium</i> pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Haggag, Wafaa M.; Mahmoud Hazza; Abd El-wahab, Mohamed E.

    2011-01-01

    Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone-C2-b-D-glucoside) promoted vegetative growth and exhibited inhibitory role on the occurrence of malformation. Mangiferin changes associated with mango malformation pathogens were followed after inoculated mango seedlings (three years) with malformation pathogens i.e. Fusa-rium subglutinans, F. sterilihyphosum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Mangiferin remained at lower level in leaves of malformed shoots as compared to healthy one. The floral malfo...

  8. Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Kvas, Marija; Steenkamp, Emma Theodora; Al-adawi, Ali Obaid; Deadman, M. L.; Al Jahwari, A. A.; Marasas, Walter F. O.; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ploetz, Randy C.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mango malformation, caused by Fusarium mangiferae, represents the most important floral disease of mango. The first symptoms of this disease were noticed in the beginning of 2005 in plantations at Sohar in the Sultanate of Oman. The affected inflorescences were abnormally enlarged and branched with heavy and dried-out panicles. Based on morphology and DNA-sequence data for the genes encoding translation elongation factor 1? and ?-tubulin, the pathogen associated with these symptoms was iden...

  9. Mango sudden decline pathogen, Ceratocystis manginecans, is vectored by Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera : Scolytinae) in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Al Adawi, Ali O.; Al Jabri, R. M.; Deadman, M. L.; Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In Oman, the bark beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae is closely associated with trees affected by mango sudden decline disease caused by Ceratocystis manginecans. Although it has previously been assumed that this beetle plays a role in the dispersal of the pathogen, this has not been established experimentally. The aim of this study was to determine whether H. mangiferae vectors C. manginecans from infected to healthy mango trees. A survey conducted in northern Al Batinah region o...

  10. EVALUATION OF SCAR18 MARKER LINKED TO ?-CAROTENE FOR EARLY SCREENING OF MANGO (Mangifera indica L.) PROGENIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mochammad Roviq; Estri Laras Aruminingtyas; Tatik Wardiyati

    2010-01-01

    A breeding program of Mango (Mangifera indica) was organized by a team of Brawijaya University since 2006 by cross pollination between Arumanis 143 (green skin) with yellow skin cvs. of Carabao, Haden, Podang and Swarnarika in vice versa. As early identification a molecular evaluation was conducted . Measurement were on carotene content, DNA analysis using PCR and sequencing. The result showed that mango cultivars having orange or yellowish skin contain ? carotene higher than those mango c...

  11. Mineral Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Mono-Culture Fungal Fermented Mango (Mangifera Indica) Kernel Cake

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. O. Kayode; Sani, A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mono-culture fungal fermentation on mineral composition and amino acid profile of mango(Mangifera indica) kernel cake was investigated. Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer andPenicillium chrysogenum were isolated from decomposed mango kernels and then used to ferment mango kernelcake (MKC) for 168hrs. After fermentation the resulted MKC was dried at 600C before analysis for minerals andamino acid profiles. The values of calcium (119.3mg/kg), potassium (4...

  12. Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Mango Applying Bioactive Extracts from Their Seeds By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Vega-Vega; Corrales-maldonado, Consuelo G.; Ariadna Thalía Bernal-Mercado; Gonza?lez-aguilar, Gustavo A.; Irasema Vargas-Arispuro; Fernando Ayala-zavala, J.; Manuel Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela; Silva-espinoza, Brenda A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the application of ethanolic extract of “Haden” mango seeds to increase the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of fresh-cut mango flesh was evaluated. Phenolic HPLC analysis revealed that gallic acid was the major identified compound in the ethanolic extract (586.68 mg/g). Fresh-cut mango was treated for immersion within the ethanolic extract, packed and stored at 5? during 15 days. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and microbial growth of the tre...

  13. Lemon peel and Limoncello liqueur: a proteomic duet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Aldini, Giancarlo; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-08-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of lemon peels and pulp, of a home-made alcoholic infusion of peels and of a very popular Italian liqueur called "Limoncello", stated to be an infusion of the flavedo (the outer, yellow skin of lemons). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the lemon peel proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial liqueur via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the peel (and additionally of the pulp) proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analysed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The peel (the flavedo, not the underlying layer called albedo) proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 1011 unique gene products in the peel extracts and 674 in the pulp, 264 proteins in the home-made infusion and just 8 proteins (and protein fragments), together with 12 peptides, in one Italian Limoncello produced in the Sorrento Region, thus proving the genuineness of this product. On the contrary, cheaper Limoncellos were devoid of any protein/peptide, casting doubts on their production from vegetable extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:23681105

  14. Determining Sala mango qualities with the use of RGB images captured by a mobile phone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Ommi Kalsom Mardziah; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz

    2015-04-01

    Sala mango (Mangifera indicia) is one of the Malaysia's most popular tropical fruits that are widely marketed within the country. The degrees of ripeness of mangoes have conventionally been evaluated manually on the basis of color parameters, but a simple non-destructive technique using the Samsung Galaxy Note 1 mobile phone camera is introduced to replace the destructive technique. In this research, color parameters in terms of RGB values acquired using the ENVI software system were linked to detect Sala mango quality parameters. The features of mango were extracted from the acquired images and then used to classify of fruit skin color, which relates to the stages of ripening. A multivariate analysis method, multiple linear regression, was employed with the purpose of using RGB color parameters to estimate the pH, soluble solids content (SSC), and firmness. The relationship between these qualities parameters of Sala mango and its mean pixel values in the RGB system is analyzed. Findings show that pH yields the highest accuracy with a correlation coefficient R = 0.913 and root mean square of error RMSE = 0.166 pH. Meanwhile, firmness has R = 0.875 and RMSE = 1.392 kgf, whereas soluble solid content has the lowest accuracy with R = 0.814 and RMSE = 1.218°Brix with the correlation between color parameters. Therefore, this non-invasive method can be used to determine the quality attributes of mangoes.

  15. Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha-1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha-1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

  16. Exploring the mango-poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, Klilah; Weinberg, Ido; Ingber, Arieh

    2005-01-01

    A relationship between sensitivity to poison oak or poison ivy and mango dermatitis has been suggested by previous publications. The observation that acute allergic contact dermatitis can arise on first exposure to mango in patients who have been sensitized beforehand by contact with other urushiol-containing plants has been documented previously. We report 17 American patients employed in mango picking at a summer camp in Israel, who developed a rash of varying severity. All patients were either in contact with poison ivy/oak in the past or lived in areas where these plants are endemic. None recalled previous contact with mango. In contrast, none of their Israeli companions who had never been exposed to poison ivy/oak developed mango dermatitis. These observations suggest that individuals with known history of poison ivy/oak allergy, or those residing in area where these plants are common, may develop allergic contact dermatitis from mango on first exposure. We hypothesize that previous oral exposure to urushiol in the local Israeli population might establish immune tolerance to these plants. PMID:15701120

  17. Chromoplast morphology and beta-carotene accumulation during postharvest ripening of Mango Cv. 'Tommy Atkins'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez-Caicedo, Ana Lucía; Heller, Annerose; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold

    2006-08-01

    Accumulation of beta-carotene and trans-cis isomerization of ripening mango mesocarp were investigated as to concomitant ultrastructural changes. Proceeding postharvest ripening was shown by relevant starch degradation, tissue softening, and a rising sugar/acid ratio, resulting in a linear decrease (R (2) = 0.89) of a ripening index (RPI(KS)) with increasing ripening time. A modest accumulation of all-trans-beta-carotene and its cis isomers resulted in a slight pigmentation of the mango chromoplasts, because ambient temperatures of 18.2-19.5 degrees C provided suboptimal ripening conditions, affecting color development and beta-carotene biosynthesis. The ultrastructures of chromoplasts from mango mesocarp and carrot roots were comparatively studied by means of light and transmission electron microscopy. Irrespective of the ripening stage, mango chromoplasts showed numerous plastoglobuli varying in size and electron density. They comprised the main part of carotenoids, thus supporting the partial solubilization of the pigments in lipid droplets. However, because different pigment-carrying tubular membrane structures were also observed, mango chromoplasts were assigned to the globular and reticulotubular types, whereas the crystalline type was confirmed for carrot chromoplasts. The large portions of naturally occurring cis-beta-carotene in mango fruits contrasted with the predominance of the all-trans isomer characteristic of carrots, indicating that the nature of the structure where carotenoids are deposited and the physical state of the pigments are crucial for the stability of the all-trans configuration. PMID:16881676

  18. Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from pomegranate peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Surya, S Muneeswari; Naganyashree, S; Shivamathi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste pomegranate peel was investigated and optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (solid-liquid ratio, pH, extraction time and temperature) on the pectin yield was studied. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value. The optimal extraction condition was found to be 1:17.52 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio, 1.27 of pH, 28.31 min of extraction time and 61.90 °C of extraction temperature respectively. Under the optimal conditions, experimental yield was very close to the predicted values. PMID:25450551

  19. Isolation and extraction of antimicrobial substances against oral bacteria from lemon peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshiaki; Hiramitsu, Masanori

    2011-10-01

    We have isolated 4 antibacterial substances that were active against the oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontitis, such as Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, from lemon peel, a waste product in the citrus industry. The isolated substances were identified as 8-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin, and phloroglucinol 1-?-D-glucopyranoside (phlorin) upon structural analyses. Among these, 8-Geranyloxypsolaren, 5-geranyloxypsolaren, and 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin exhibited high antibacterial activity. These 3 compounds were effectively extracted using ethanol and n-hexane, whereas phlorin was extracted with water. Further, the above 3 compounds were present in lemon essential oil and abundantly present in the residue produced upon the cooling treatment of concentrated lemon essential oil. PMID:23572799

  20. Bioactive compounds and acceptance of cookies made with Guava peel flour

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana Maria Michelin, Bertagnolli; Márcia Liliane Rippel, Silveira; Aline de Oliveira, Fogaça; Liziane, Umann; Neidi Garcia, Penna.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compou [...] nd, lycopene, and ?-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and ?-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality.

  1. Optical coherence tomography guided peeling of macular epiretinal membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshio; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Ogura, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic aid in disorders of the vitreoretinal juncture. The purpose of this study is to determine whether OCT can be used as an additional tool for evaluating an architecture including the thickened area, and the identifiable edge of a macular epiretinal membrane (ERM), and helping us to dissect the ERM from the retinal surface more easily and safely. In two cases with ERM, the edges of the membranes were detected by OCT, and the peeling of the membrane was started at the area easily. OCT guided ERM peeling might be useful for dissecting ERM membranes without any hesitation. PMID:21311654

  2. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; van Doorn, W G

    2006-01-01

    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced spotting, but holding the fruit at 12 °C completely prevented it. The 12 °C treatment resulted in a lower level of total free phenolics, but had no effect on PAL or PPO activity. Transfer of ba...

  3. Thomas Peel Dunhill: pioneer thyroid surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellar, I D

    1999-05-01

    Thomas Peel Dunhill, a name by now almost completely forgotten in his native Australia, was born in 1876 near Kerang in the State of Victoria. Although he qualified as a pharmacist in 1898, Dunhill had already decided to study medicine and graduated in 1903 from the Clinical School of the Melbourne Hospital. He was regarded as an outstanding student. In 1905 Dunhill was invited to join the Senior Medical Staff at St Vincent's Hospital by Mother Berchmans Daly, the then Mother Rectress. In 1906 Dunhill was awarded the MD and in 1907 he performed his first thyroid lobectomy under local anaesthesia for toxic goitre. As early as 1908, Dunhill understood the essentials for successful surgery in thyrotoxicosis--enough thyroid had to be removed to cure the condition. To this end, he advocated a bilateral attack on the thyroid and advocated thyroidectomy in the thyrocardiac patient. He did this before Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted or George Crile. In 1911 Dunhill visited the USA and England and communicated his results to the thyroid surgeons in both countries (230 cases of exophthalmic goitre operated on with four deaths). The English could not, or would not, believe his results as the mortality of surgery for exophthalmic goitre at St Thomas's Hospital, London in 1910 was 33%. Dunhill served with distinction in the Great War and his abilities favourably impressed George Gask, who was to become the Professor of Surgery at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Gask eventually invited Dunhill to join his Unit and Dunhill left St Vincent's Hospital in 1920. Between 1920 and Dunhill's retirement at the age of 60 in 1935, he became the outstanding general surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. Dunhill and Cecil Joll, were regarded as the leading thyroid surgeons in the UK. Knighted in 1933, Dunhill was appointed surgeon to the Royal Household, serving four British monarchs. In addition to his brilliant surgical career, Dunhill maintained a love for the land. He was an expert fly fisherman. Dunhill retired from surgical practice in 1949 and died at the age of 80 in 1957 at his London home. Many eulogies were delivered, especially by Sir James Paterson Ross and Sir Geoffrey Keynes, his former pupils. Dunhill's exploits as a thyroid surgeon in the development of a safe and effective treatment for thyrotoxicosis and in operating on the thyrocardiac enables this modest, courteous and loyal Australian to be included with Theodor Kocher, Charles Mayo, William Halsted and George Crile in the pantheon of pioneer thyroid surgeons. PMID:10353556

  4. Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

  5. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  6. Effects of Adding Compost to Fertilization Programs on ‘Keitt’ Mango

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Bielinski M.

    2007-01-01

    Studies were conducted in the Dominican Republic during two years on adult ‘Keitt’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) fields to examine the long-term effect of chemical and organic fertilization programs on marketable fruit yield. The treatments were (a) 1.8 kg 15-15-15 (N-P-K)/tree, once a year (b) 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year (c) 1.4 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year (d) 1.8 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree (e) 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/...

  7. The Peel Secondary Followup Study: First Biennial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Benjamin

    The first round of a study of what happens to students after they leave Peel County (Ontario) secondary schools includes data from students who were in grade 11 in 1977-78 and 1979-80. A 10 percent sample (approximately 750 students in each group) was drawn from school records. Of these, 1,072 people (75 percent) were interviewed by telephone.…

  8. Chemical Constituents from the Fruit Peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemicals investigation on the fruit peel of Goniothalamus scortechinii (Selayar Raja Ubat) obtained from Gunung Stong, Kelantan has resulted in the isolation of five compounds namely pinocembrine, altholactone, goniofufurone, goniotriol and goniopypyrone. Their structures were determined extensive ultra violet (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GCMS) analysis. (author)

  9. Fracto-emission from the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J. T.; Shen, X. A.; Jensen, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The electron emission, positive ion emission, photon emission, and long wavelength electromagnetic radiation accompanying the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives in vacuum are examined. These results are interpreted in terms of a previously presented model involving fracture-induced microdischarges which excite the fracture surfaces by particle bombardment.

  10. The Contribution of E. A. Peel to Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is as much an attempt to catch some of the flavor of the man Peel as it is an exegesis of his work. It traces his special interests and contributions, especially his experimental extensions of Piaget in the realm of adolescent psychology. (Author/SJL)

  11. Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Pectin Extracted from Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Kabir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus juice and concentrate are among the major industrial products in Iran. Large quantities of citrus peels with considerable amounts of pectin are also produced. Pectin could be extracted from the peels to be used as a gelling agent in some food products. Unfortunately, all pectin used in the food industry is imported. This study was carried out to find the best conditions of pectin extraction from orange peels. Samples of orange peels were collected from a concentrated orange juice factory. Pectin was extracted by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. Certain qualitative and quantitative tests, such as yield of extraction and cost of extraction were determined. Also, food safety aspects as a result of using the above acids were considered. Hydrochloric acid was found to be the most suitable acid. In the second part of the research, the effects of temperature (85 and 90?C, time (40, 50 and 60 minutes and pH (1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 on the yield of extraction, purity, gelling ability, percentage of methoxylation and degree of esterification of the extracted pectins were measured. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best conditions for the extraction of pectin include a pH level of 1.6, a temperature of 90?C and a period of 50 minutes.

  12. Spectral characteristics of grapefruit oil peel furanocoumarins and coumarins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapefruit peel oil (GPO) contains numerous coumarins and furanocoumarins, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, ten of these compounds were isolated and studied by UV, FTIR, and mass spectroscopy (MS). These isolations were achieved by silica gel chromatography, preparative TLC, and r...

  13. Hypolipidemic Activity of Microwave-Dehydrated Mango (Mangifera indica L. Powder in Mice Fed a Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Osorio-Esquivel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with mango (Mangifera indica L. powder obtained by microwave dehydration was studied in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. The phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activities were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays, respectively. The total phenolic content of microwave-dehydrated mango powder was 1451.7 ± 26.7 ?ggallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, and catechin. The anti-oxidant activity was 14.6% higher in microwave-dehydrated mango powder than in conventional mango powder. Mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1 g cholesterol/100g over 7 days. The hypercholesterolemic mice whose diets were supplemented with microwave-dehydrated mango powder showed a significant decrease (P ? 0.05 in total serum cholesterol compared to the hypercholesterolemic mice and the mice fed with conventional dehydrated mango powder. We observed a significant increase (P ? 0.05 in HDL-c levels in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group mice (12.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (8.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L and the conventional-dehydrated mango powder group (10.9 ± 1.3 mmol/L. The mice provided with microwave-dehydrated mango powder had significantly lower (P ? 0.05 levels of serum LDL-c (36.0% and total cholesterol (43.3% compared to the mice in hypercholesterolemic group. Notably, the atherogenic index was 72% lower in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. These results suggest that the biocompounds, such as polyphenols and dietary fiber, found in mango pulp might improve the lipid profile in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

  14. Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U C; KrØyer, K

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB peeling 89%, non-peeling 36%, p

  15. Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Theanjumpol

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mixed with the six pure substances at various concentrations; glucose, sucrose, citric acid and malic acid were tested with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%w/w, starch and cellulose were tested with the concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w. The NIRSystem 6500 was used to scan the spectra in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. The partial least square regression (PLSR was used to develop a model for each component. The result was a wavelength that corresponds to each component. It was found that the second derivative spectra of glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose mixtures showed the best PLSR result. The mango cultivar had no effect on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The coefficient of determination (R2 of all models was 0.99. The standard error of calibration (SEC and the standard error of prediction (SEP were less than 0.5%w/w. The regression coefficient plot exhibited more sharp peaks than pure substances. The wavelength selection for NIRS evaluation mango fruit quality could not be done by using only measured spectrum of pure substance. However, the cultivars of mango had no effected on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The most effective wavelength for glucose and sucrose were 900-1000 nm, citric acid and malic acid were 800-1000 nm, starch was 900-1000 nm and cellulose was 800-1000 nm.

  16. Actividad antioxidante de lámina flexible de mango (Mangifera indica) / Antioxidant activity in mango fruit leather (Mangifera indica)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josué, Hernández-Varela; Arturo, Moncayo; Viluzca, Fernández; Betzabé, Sulbarán.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Una forma de concentrar las propiedades nutricionales de la fruta es mediante la elaboración de láminas flexibles, las cuales se realizan al secar una capa muy delgada de puré de fruta para obtener un producto con una textura blanda. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido [...] de polifenoles totales en láminas flexibles de mango cv. Tommy Atkins cultivados en el municipio Mara del estado Zulia. La actividad antioxidante de la lámina fue 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamina C/100g. El contenido de polifenoles totales en la lámina fue 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. Las láminas flexibles aportan una mayor cantidad de compuestos polifenólicos totales por lo que es una manera alternativa de consumir compuestos antioxidantes y nutritivos en la dieta. Abstract in english A way to concentrate the nutritional properties of the fruit is through the development of fruit leathers, which are made by drying a very thin layer of mashed fruit to obtain a product with a soft texture. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in fruit leathers [...] of mango cv. Tommy Atkints grown in Mara municipality, Zulia state. The antioxidant activity of the fruit leathers was 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamin C/100g. The total polyphenol content in the leathers was 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. The fruit leathers provide a greater amount of total polyphenolic compounds which is an alternative way of consuming antioxidant compounds and nutritious diet.

  17. Addition of dried 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L) by-products as a source of dietary fiber and polyphenols in starch-molded mango snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing demand of healthier foods favors the consumption of natural bioactive compounds such as antioxidants and dietary fiber (DF) that confers protection against cardiovascular diseases and other degenerative diseases. On the industrial processing of mango, 35-60 % of this fruit is discarde...

  18. Irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica, Linn) carabao variety, for commercial export. Pt. 1 - Establishment of dose requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs of Dacus dorsalis Hendel implanted on carabao mangoes packed in commercial boxes for export has been carried out. Irradiation of as low as 50 krad proved to be effective in disinfecting 5 kg batches of mature-green Carabao mangoes. In addition, the effect of irradiation on storage life and organoleptic properties are described. (author)

  19. Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (F.) in Philippine mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.) is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response stud...

  20. Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

  1. Impact of the stage of ripening and dietary fat on in vitro bioaccessibility of beta-carotene in 'Ataulfo' mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus Ornelas-Paz, J; Failla, Mark L; Yahia, Elhadi M; Gardea-Bejar, Alfonso

    2008-02-27

    Pulp from "slightly ripe", "moderately ripe", or "fully ripe" mangoes was digested in vitro in the absence and presence of processed chicken as a source of exogenous fat and protein to examine the impact of stage of ripening of mango on micellarization during digestion and intestinal cell uptake (i.e., bioaccessibility) of beta-carotene. The quantity of beta-carotene transferred to the micelle fraction during simulated digestion significantly increased as the fruit ripened and when chicken was mixed with mango before digestion. Qualitative and quantitative changes that occur in pectin from mango pulp during the ripening process influenced the efficiency of micellarization of beta-carotene. Finally, the uptake of beta-carotene in micelles generated during simulated digestion by Caco-2 human intestinal cells confirmed the bioaccessibility of the provitamin A carotenoid in mango. PMID:18232658

  2. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks. PMID:19895464

  3. Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango-producing areas of Arba Minch, southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15?cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

  4. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

  5. Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Godoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limited. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

  6. A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mannan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Observations were made on different fruit characteristics, physical and chemical properties in three ripening stages viz. green, ripe and over ripe stage. The fruits of the varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota weighed 189, 455, 180, 170 and 592 g, respectively. Maximum percentage of edible portion (78.53%, juice content (56.50-72.77% and highest Total Soluble Solids (18.66% were found in Madrazi Tota. Riped Madrazi Tota tastes very sweet in comparison to other varieties of mangoes under study. Indian Lota was higher in content of titratable acidity (0.04091% and lowest in Neelambori (0.01866%.

  7. Edible coatings influence fruit ripening, quality, and aroma biosynthesis in mango fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khuyen T H; Singh, Zora; Swinny, Ewald E

    2008-02-27

    The effects of different edible coatings on mango fruit ripening and ripe fruit quality parameters including color, firmness, soluble solids concentrations, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, fatty acids, and aroma volatiles were investigated. Hard mature green mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kensigton Pride) fruits were coated with aqueous mango carnauba (1:1 v/v), Semperfresh (0.6%), Aloe vera gel (1:1, v/v), or A. vera gel (100%). Untreated fruit served as the control. Following the coating, fruits were allowed to dry at room temperature and packed in soft-board trays to ripen at 21+/-1 degrees C and 55.2+/-11.1% relative humidity until the eating soft stage. Mango carnauba was effective in retarding fruit ripening, retaining fruit firmness, and improving fruit quality attributes including levels of fatty acids and aroma volatiles. Semperfresh and A. vera gel (1:1 or 100%) slightly delayed fruit ripening but reduced fruit aroma volatile development. A. vera gel coating did not exceed the commercial mango carnauba and Semperfresh in retarding fruit ripening and improving aroma volatile biosynthesis. PMID:18247535

  8. Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana de, Godoy; Rodrigo J., Morita; Beatriz R., Cordenunsi; Franco M., Lajolo; João Roberto O. do, Nascimento.

    Full Text Available During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limi [...] ted. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

  9. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Moreno Bermúdez; Deimer, Ballesteros Padilla; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  10. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Moreno Bermúdez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios estandarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139. En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%.In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango, is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139. This research article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  11. Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L.) var. rosa com açúcares / Mango (Mangifera indica l.) cv. rosa saturation with sugars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Sabino, RIBEIRO; Armando U.O., SABAA-SRUR.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangas (Mangifera indica L.) var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm) e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após [...] resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose), sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR) na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada. Abstract in english Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm), treated in hot w [...] ater in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose) and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

  12. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' / Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laerte, Scanavaca Júnior; Nelson, Fonseca; Mácio Eduardo Canto, Pereira.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, s [...] ecos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa). O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo). Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%), a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha. Abstract in english The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air [...] and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time). The loss of fresh mass (%), the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA), the total soluble solids (TSS), the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  13. Uso de fécula de mandioca na pó-colheita de manga 'surpresa' Use of cassava starch in the 'surpresa' mango postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Scanavaca Júnior

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A manga é uma fruta tropical climatéria que amadurece rapidamente depois de colhida. Avaliou-se a vida útil pós-colheita de mangas 'Surpresa' utilizando recobrimento com película de fécula de mandioca. Os frutos foram mergulhados em suspensões a 0; 1; 2 e 3% de fécula de mandioca por três minutos, secos ao ar e armazenados em temperatura ambiente (± 29º C e ± 87% de umidade relativa. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 4 x 5 (tratamentos x tempo. Foram avaliados a perda de massa fresca (%, a firmeza do fruto e da polpa, a acidez total titulável, os sólidos solúveis totais, a relação SST/ATT e o pH, além das cores da casca e da polpa. Os frutos foram avaliados aos 0; 3; 6; 9 e 12 dias. Os frutos tratados com 3% de fécula de mandioca reduziram a perda de água e melhoraram o aspecto visual dos frutos, e a logevidade deste tratamento foi de 12 contra 7 dias da testemunha.The mango is a tropical climacteric fruit that ripens quickly after having been picked. The useful postharvest life of 'Surpresa' mangos was evaluated using covering with cassava starch film. The fruits were immersed in suspensions to 1, 2 and 3% of cassava starch for three minutes, dried by the air and conserved in ambient temperature at ± 29º C of temperature and ± 87% of relative humidity. The outline used was entirely randomized and the experiment was carried out in 4 x 5 fatorial design (treatments x time. The loss of fresh mass (%, the firmness of the fruit and pulp, the total titratable acidity (TTA, the total soluble solids (TSS, the TSS/TTA relation and the pH, were evaluated besides of the colors of the peel and pulp. The fruits were evaluated on the 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. The fruits treated with 3% of cassava starch reduced its loses of water and improved the visual aspect of the fruits, and the shelf life of this treatment was 12 against 7 days of the witness.

  14. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH)2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  15. Evaluation of electron spin resonance technique for the detection of irradiated mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was examined as a method for the detection of irradiated mango fruits. A symmetric ESR signal at g = 1.988 was detected in the hard seed cover (endocarp), the dry epidermal layer (testa) surrounding the kernel, and the soft kernel portions of the seed from four mango cultivars. the amplitude of the signal in the epidermal layer and seed cover showed a dose-dependent increase over control values. Qualitatively, however, no new signal was observed following irradiation, except that line width increased by 50%. Methyl cellosolve washing greatly reduced the intensity of the endogenous and radiation (1.0 kGy)-induced ESR signals in the seed cover; results suggest phenolic substances as the source of free radicals. the similarity of naturally occurring ESR signals to that induced by irradiation seems to restrict the practical utility of this method in irradiated mangoes

  16. Improvement of shelf-life and quality of mangoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the studies on low dose gamma irradiation of mangoes in the dose range 10 to 200 krad alone or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments (i.e. hot water dipping and skin coating with 9 percent emulsion of acetylated monoglyceride) show that physiological, pathological and entomological factors can be controlled to extend the shelf-life of mangoes by one to two weeks. Organoleptic qualities of treated fruits are found to be comparable to those of unirradiated control mangoes. Texture qualities of the treated fruits are also retained at the end of 15 days after their transport over long distance. Irradiated fruits have the added advantage of disinfestation and reduction of stem end rot and anthracnose during ripening. Doses exceeding 75 krad are, however, found to be injurious to the fruits. (M.G.B.)

  17. Volatiles of Mango var. Ataulfo Characterized by SPME and Capillary GC/MS Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Salazar Sandoval

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los compuestos volátiles emitidos por flores y frutas verdes y maduras de mangos de la variedad Ataulfo del Soconusco, Chiapas fueron colectados por medio de la técnica de Microextracción en Fase Sólida (MEFS. El análisis químico de los volátiles se llevó a cabo por Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas (CG-EM. El análisis mostró que los volátiles del mango están formados por una mezcla principalmente de monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos. 3-careno, ?-pineno, mirceno, limoneno, terpinoleno, ?-selineno y el sesquiterpeno tentativamente identificado como germacreno D fueron los principales constituyentes. Esta información será de mucha utilidad en los programas de mejoramiento genético de variedades de mango, ofreciendo así confirmación del éxito de las técnicas de polinización cruzada.

  18. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  19. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  20. Physicochemical, Nutritional, Organoleptic Characteristics and Food Applications of Four Mango (Mangifera indica Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emy Njoh Ellong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics of four varieties of mango (Julie, Bassignac, Green and Moussache from Martinique (F.W.I. were examined at three ripening stages. All ripening protocols studied showed an evolution in parameters between the harvesting and the expandable stage. Fruit and pulp firmness, starch and vitamin C contents decreased whereas pulp pH and carotenoids content increased. Only fruit size and polyphenols content were the same during the ripening. Bassignac and Julie varieties were richer in vitamin C, polyphenols and carotenoids. Moussache variety was the most energetic with important carbohydrates content. The Green variety differed significantly with a light-coloured pulp, low fruity odour and mango flavour, and a specific slightly sweet, very sour, bitter and astringent taste. Moussache and Bassignac varieties had a very sweet taste unlike the Julie variety with a specific slightly sweeter taste. Different processing methods were tested for each variety. Mangoes technological ability processing had been validated.

  1. COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN MICHOACÁN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ayala-Garay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos.

  2. Optical coherence tomography guided peeling of macular epiretinal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoshio Hirano, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Yuichiro OguraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT has emerged as a powerful diagnostic aid in disorders of the vitreoretinal juncture. The purpose of this study is to determine whether OCT can be used as an additional tool for evaluating an architecture including the thickened area, and the identifiable edge of a macular epiretinal membrane (ERM, and helping us to dissect the ERM from the retinal surface more easily and safely. In two cases with ERM, the edges of the membranes were detected by OCT, and the peeling of the membrane was started at the area easily. OCT guided ERM peeling might be useful for dissecting ERM membranes without any hesitation.Keywords: optical coherence tomography, epiretinal membrane, vitrectomy

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

    2014-12-01

    Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3?±?1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5?±?6.5; 94.6?±?6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3?±?14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

  4. Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g-1, which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

  5. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

  6. Quantitative determination of the polyphenolic content of pomegranate peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nasr, C; Ayed, N; Metche, M

    1996-10-01

    The quantitative determination of total phenols, ellagic tannins and gallic and ellagic acids in the peel of the Tunisian pomegranate variety Chelfi, has been carried out. The ellagic tannin content is prominently less than the amount of total phenols, which led us to look for the presence of the condensed tannins. The determination of the content of catechic tannins in eight Tunisian varieties of the pomegranate was carried out using weekly samples over a period of 2 months. PMID:9123975

  7. Sach's peeling-off theorem as applied to supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Sach's peeling-off theorem we are able to show how for every Petrov class for Csub((ABCD)), the supergravitational generalization of the conformal tensor of gravity, there is one and only one Petrov class for Ssub((ABC)), its supersymmetric analog in N=1 supergravity. This work is based on the results of a previous paper where the transformation properties of supergravity were analyzed. We also go into the physical significance of the classification scheme. (orig.)

  8. Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Branka Levaj; Verica Dragovi?-Uzelac; Danijela Bursa? Kova?evi?; Nesrete Krasni?i

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin). In addition FRAP...

  9. Especies de trips (Thysanoptera) en mango, fluctuación y abundancia / Thrips species (Thysanoptera) in mango, fluctuation and abundance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alberto, Aguirre U; Mario Alberto, Miranda S.; Mario Alfonso, Urías L.; Fermín, Orona C.; Isidro Humberto, Almeyda L.; ROBERTO, JOHANSEN N.; Martin, Tucuch C..

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En Campeche, se desconocen las especies de trips presentes en mango y su fluctuación poblacional, lo que dificulta su combate y ocasiona pérdidas en producción y calidad de la fruta. Debido a esto, el objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las especies de trips asociadas al cultivo, la fluctuación de s [...] u población y el nivel de daño. El trabajo se efectuó entre 2009 y 2010 en Castamay, Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos de las poblaciones de adultos y ninfas cada 15 días en follaje e inflorescencias y se determinó el nivel de daño a la fruta. Las poblaciones se correlacionaron con variables de precipitación y temperatura mediante el coeficiente de Pearson y, a través de chi-cuadrada, se establecieron variaciones entre las poblaciones de trips y fechas de muestreo. En 2009, la población más baja fue de 0,00 y la más alta 0,13 por hoja tanto en ninfas como en adultos. En 2010, la población más baja fue de 0,00 individuos por hoja tanto para ninfas como para adultos y las más altas de 0,15 adultos por hoja y 0,35 ninfas por hoja. Los niveles de daño observados fueron bajos y no mostraron influencia significativa en la producción de fruta. Se registraron Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae y S. hectorgonzalazi asociadas al cultivo, todas ellas fitófagas. La fluctuación de sus poblaciones no mostró correlación significativa con las variables climáticas. Abstract in english In the Campeche state, México, thrips species in mango and their population fluctuations are unknown which difficult their control causing losses in production and fruit quality; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the thrips associated with the crop, their population fluctuation and [...] the level of damage. Research was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Castamay, Campeche, Mexico. Samples were taken of the adults and nymph's population every 15 days in foliage and inflorescences and the level of damage to the fruit was determined. Thrips population was correlated with precipitation and temperature variables using the Pearson coefficient and ?2 tests were performed between thrips population and sampling dates. In 2009, the lowest population was 0.00 and 0.13, the highest per leave in both nymphs and adults. In 2010, the lowest populations were 0.00 individuals per leaf for both nymphs and adults and the highest of 0.15 adults per leaf and 0.35 nymphs per leaf. The observed damage levels were low and showed no significant influence on fruit production. Four thrips species associated with mango, all phytophagous were found Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae and S. hectorgonzalazi. The population fluctuation was not significantly correlated with climatic variables.

  10. Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

    2009-12-01

    A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

  11. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largestts: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  12. Foliar Absorption, Translocation and Utilization of Zn-65 by Mango Seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse experiment was designed using ZnSO4 at rates of 0.125,0.25 and 0.50%. Solutions were adjusted to ph 6.0 and Tween-20 was added as a surfactant. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. Six-month old mango seedlings were arranged in a complete block design to study the foliar absorption,translocation and percentage use of Zn-65 as influenced by soil application of phosphorus. The total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was affected by spraying treatment of Zn-65 and soil application of phosphorus. In this respect increasing the rates of labelled Zn solution resulted in a great increment in the total absorption of in total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was observed due to increasing P rates as a soil application from 0.0 up to 100 ppm. Translocation of the absorbed Zn-65 either in upward or downward direction was positively related to the absorbed amount. The percentage use of Zn-65 by mango leaves was reduced by increasing foliar Zn rates. On the contrary, it was slightly increased as a result of increasing soil application rate of P. Generally, the percentage use of Zn-65 mango leaves was ranged between 8.7 and 16.87 under the conditions of this experiment. Therefore, foliar application of ZnSO4 could be recommended as a good source of Zn for mango nutrition in particular with addition of high rates of phosphorus as a soil application

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Peel and Pulp Hydro Extract in Ten Persian Pomegranate Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay, which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, in the range of 100-1000 ?mol L-1 were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars.

  14. Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimahmoodi, M; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Hadjibabaie, M; Farahani, E; Akrami, M R; Namdar, R

    2008-06-15

    This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay), which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, in the range of 100-1000 micromol L(-1) were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. PMID:18819648

  15. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  16. Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating stacks of HfO2/SiO2 and Ta2O5/SiO2 were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO2) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO2 or Ta2O5). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiOx) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

  17. Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

  18. Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais.This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

  19. MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and space on disk but resulting files require format conversion routines (i.e., from IAGA- 2002, WDC formats to flat ASCII tables) or specialized readers that unpack the desired magnetogram and index data. At present, 408 World Data Center ground magnetic field data products and the ring current Dst index data set have been converted into flat ASCII files, described via SPASE, and registered in the VMO metadata registry as a value-added service to users.

  20. Efficiency of irradiation as alternative or supplementary technique to the refrigeration in mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of mango cultivar Keitt was studied concerning to its preservation when submitted to irradiation of 80 Krad, storage at media environmental temperature of 210 C and air relative humidity at 83% and under refrigeration at 120 C with air relative humidity at 90%. The results shown that irradiated mangoes storage at 120 C were in good conditions after four weeks with low rate of anthraquinosis and media texture of 1,1 Kg/cm2 and the control presented ),05 Kg/cm2. (L.M.J.)

  1. Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

  2. Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

  3. Growth Performance and Some Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw or Boiled Mango Kennel Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, S. S.; Usman, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control) diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK) or boiled mango kernel (BMK) meal as a replacement for maize. ...

  4. Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

  5. Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a análise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR, 5 °C (75,4% UR e 12 °C (76,4% UR, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia.This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH, 5 °C (75,4% RH and 12 °C (76,4% RH for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

  6. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

  7. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for Mexican mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments involved the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina, A. ludens and Ceratitis capitata, over a range of doses between 10 and 250 Gy. Irradiation was carried out using a Co-60 AECL irradiator model JS-7400. The experiments were designed to achieve a dose distribution equal to or less than 1.025. Fricke dosimeters were used. Fertility tests were carried out on emerged adults of A. ludens and C. capitata; a larval dose of 40 Gy or more resulted in zero fertility in the case of A. ludens, while the corresponding figure for C. capitata was 60 Gy. The adults that emerged of A. serpentina died before reaching sexual maturity. It was concluded that i) irradiation at the dose of 60 Gy totally inhibits the emergence of A. serpentina and A. ludens adults; and ii) the dose of 150 Gy inhibits the emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults from 99.9% of irradiated larvae, and those which survive are sterile. The doses of 60 and 150 Gy exceed the mortality probit 9 threshold, and are within the tolerance limit of fresh fruit (approximately 1000 Gy). (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Purification and Properties of Invertase from Mango Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Habibur Rahman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A mango invertase was purified from the flesh of Himsagar variety to an electrophoretically homogeneous state, by successive ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 68 kDa in gel filtration chromatography and 65.5 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four bands, indicating that the enzyme was a tetramer. The enzyme was a glycoprotein as it gave yellow-orange colour in the presence of phenol sulphuric acid. The optimum pH for the enzyme was 4.5 and the enzyme was found to be stable from pH 2.5 to 8. The optimum temperature for enzyme was 75?C and the enzyme was stable between 10 - 75?C. The Km for sucrose was 5.25 mM (pH 4.5. The activities of enzyme were remarkably enhanced by Cu++, K+, Ca++ whereas, completely ceased by Hg++ and sodium dodecylsulfate.

  9. Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

  10. Peeling and aspiration of elschnig pearls! An effective alternative to Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy!

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv K.; Sharma, Sumat; Mehra, Namrata; Mishra, Anuraag

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of peeling and aspiration of Elschnig pearls. Retrospective study in a medical college hospital. Records of 217 eyes which underwent surgical peeling and aspiration for membranous PCO between 2006 and 2009, was reviewed. Peeling and aspiration was fashioned with a blunt tipped 20G cannula after stabilizing anterior chamber with anterior chamber maintainer. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Mc Nemar and Chi square tests. The mean age was 56.84 year...

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Najeeb S. Al-zoreky; Mutlag M. Al-Otaibi; Mutahar S. Shiban

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME) of peels had higher yield (45.4%) and total phenolics (27.4%) than water (WE) or ether extracts (EE). The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05) than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

  12. Silage Production from Cassava Peel and Cassava Pulp as Energy Source in Cattle Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Wisitiporn Suksombat; Mek Khungaew; Pipat Lounglawan

    2011-01-01

    Processing of the silage using cassava peel as energy source in dairy cow diets was studied. The experiment was conducted to investigate the chemical composition, degradability, lactic acid production and hydrocyanic acid content of various silages with varying cassava peel additions and ensiling times. The experiment was a 5x3 factorial design, completely randomized with factor A as the different formulated mixtures (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% kg fresh weight of cassava peel) and factor B as the ...

  13. Cambios fisicoquímicos y sensoriales limitantes de la vida de anaquel de mango fresco cortado / Physicochemical and sensory changes that limit shelf-life of fresh-cut mangoes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Ma, Salinas-Hernández; María Élida, Pirovani; Alfonso A., Gardea-Béjar; Gustavo A., González-Aguilar.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. 'Haden' fueron procesados mínimamente y almacenados a 5 °C durante 14 d. A intervalos de 2 d se determinaron las variables fisicoquímicas de color [L*, a* y b*, y los valores derivados: croma (C*), ángulo de matiz (h°) y diferencia total de color (?E*)], así [...] como sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza y pH. También se evaluaron los atributos sensoriales de olor característico, apariencia, brillo, color, sabor, textura, acidez y dulzor, mediante un panel entrenado. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y análisis de regresión, para identificar las variables con mayor variabilidad durante el almacenamiento y estimar la tasa de cambio tanto de diferentes atributos sensoriales como de variables fisicoquímicas. El ACP indicó que la menor variabilidad del mango fresco cortado fue con respecto a h° y SST. Los atributos sensoriales con menor cambio fueron acidez, textura, dulzor y olor. El análisis de regresión indicó que el brillo presentó la mayor tasa de cambio, mientras que el olor característico tuvo la mayor duración en el producto durante el almacenamiento. Entre las variables fisicoquímicas, las de mayor y menor tasa de cambio fueron croma (C*) y firmeza, respectivamente. Los cambios fisicoquímicos y atributos sensoriales con mayor variabilidad y mayor tasa de deterioro, cambios críticos durante el almacenamiento, pueden usarse como indicadores del deterioro en estudios de vida de anaquel del mango fresco cortado. Abstract in english 'Haden' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were minimally processed and stored at 5 °C during 14 d. At 2 d intervals, processed fruits were sampled to evaluate physicochemical variables of color [L*, a*, b*, and derived values: chroma (C*), hue angle (h°) and total color difference (?E*)], as well a [...] s sensory attributes: sweetness, texture, brightness, color, flavor, odor and appearance, as perceived by a trained panel. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to assess changes physicochemical variables and sensory attributes during storage. Principal components analysis indicated that hue angle (h°) and total soluble solids (TSS), and the sensory attributes of acidity, texture, sweetness and odor, showed a slight relevance on the variability observed on the sliced mango units during storage. Regression analysis indicated that brightness had the highest deterioration rate, whereas odor was the attribute with less change during storage. In the same way, C* was the physicochemical variable with the highest deterioration rate while the lowest deterioration was for firmness. Physicochemical and sensory changes with the largest variability and with the highest deterioration rates, are critical changes that can be used as spoilage indicators in shelf-life studies of fresh-cut mangoes.

  14. Peel strength of LDPE/ethylene-1-butene copolymer film crosslinked by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, ethylene-1-butene copolymer(EBP) was blended with LDPE to improve the mechanical properties as the packaging materials. After they were irradiated by an electron beam, their physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, modulus, peel strength, DSC, and DMA were examined. The results showed that the addition of EBP to LDPE exerted significant effects on the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength and peel strength. The addition of EBP led to a maximum increase in peel strength of ? 430%. The addition of 10-25w% EBP in LDPE was sufficient to enhance the peel strength significantly

  15. Design and Development of an Apparatus for Grating and Peeling Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H. Wan Zuha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit grater and peeler are needed in the processing of fruits in order to reduce the time required for fruits grating and peeling. Grating is important especially to make salad and for decoration purpose. A suitable grater is needed for specific decoration process. It is crucial for food (processing industry to operate at minimal operating cost. Peeling using hands is time consuming and may require several workers to perform the operation and thus may increase the operating cost. Therefore in this study, a machine was designed to combine the process of grating and peeling in one device. This new designed machine is suitable to be used domestically. The machine is small-sized and lightweight and is convenient to carry and store. It is comprised of a clamping mechanism, grater, peeling blade, movable arm and also a pair of end-cutting blade. The prototype was tested for automatic grating and peeling process and manual peeling was also performed to peel the skin of selected fruits and vegetable. The prototype was able to grate several fruits and vegetables and also reduce the peeling time by 94% when compared to manual peeling.

  16. Effect of Infrared Blanching on Enzyme Activity and Retention of ?-Carotene and Vitamin C in Dried Mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate infrared (IR) dry blanching in comparison with conventional water blanching prior to hot air drying of mango to inactivate polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) enzymes, and to study its effect on color change and retention of vitamin C and ?-carotene. Mango cylinders were blanched under similar temperature-time conditions either by IR heating or by immersion in a water bath during 2 min at 90 °C (high-temperature-short-time-HTST) or for 10 min at 65 °C (low-temperature-long-time-LTLT). After blanching mango was hot air dried at 70 °C. PPO was completely inactivated during the blanching treatments, but AAO had a moderate remaining activity after LTLT treatment (?30%) and a low remaining activity after HTST treatment (9% to 15%). A higher retention of vitamin C was observed in mango subjected to IR dry blanching, 88.3 ± 1.0% (HTST) and 69.2 ± 2.9% (LTLT), compared with water blanching, 61.4 ± 5.3% (HTST) and 50.7 ± 9.6% (LTLT). All-trans-?-carotene retention was significantly higher in water blanched dried mango, 93.2 ± 5.2% (LTLT) and 91.4 ± 5.1% (HTST), compared with IR dry blanched, 73.6 ± 3.6% (LTLT) and 76.9 ± 2.9% (HTST). Increased levels of 13-cis-?-carotene isomer were detected only in IR dry blanched mango, and the corresponding dried mango also had a slightly darker color. IR blanching of mango prior to drying can improve the retention of vitamin C, but not the retention of carotenoids, which showed to be more dependent on the temperature than the blanching process. A reduction of drying time was observed in LTLT IR-blanching mango. PMID:25922150

  17. Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

  18. Changes in Sugar, Amino Acid and Mineral Contents of Leaves of Two Mango Varieties Affected by Quick Decline Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shad, M. A.; Ansari, T. M.; Pervez, H.; Rubab, M.; Mahmood, T.

    2002-01-01

    Quick decline disease causes collapse of healthy mango plants within a few days. The menace has been observed in the entire mango growing areas of Pakistan. The leaf samples of healthy and diseased mango plants of two major varieties viz. chaunsa and langra were analyzed to asses the variations in the contents of sugars, free amino acids and metals in relation to quick decline. In general, the contents of total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, free amino acids and minerals were f...

  19. Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage ...

  20. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)