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1

Chemical Profiling of Different Mango Peel Varieties  

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Full Text Available The present exploration was an attempt to investigate the therapeutic potential of mango peel extract. For the purpose, five different mango peels namely chaunsa, anwar ratol, langra, dusahri and desi were nutritionally characterized. The nutritional analysis indicated that mango peel is a good source of moisture, protein and minerals. The means elucidated highest moisture in the peel of desi mango 71.38±2.05 followed by anwar ratol, chaunsa, langra and dusahri as 71.013.91, 70.744.01, 69.865.20 and 68.334.14%, respectively. Moreover, protein contents were reported from 1.940.04 to 2.360.01 in respective varieties. Similarly, fat and fiber contents in respective varieties were 2.310.14 and 5.010.25, 2.260.10 and 5.470.31, 2.250.17 and 4.880.12, 2.180.18 and 4.690.17 and 2.110.12 and 4.530.18%. Likewise, the recorded NFE values for respective samples were 87.876.87, 87.603.41, 88.865.20, 89.093.85 and 89.582.89, respectively. In the present case, the highest K content was observed in chaunsa (18.781.26 mg/100g followed by desi (18.760.96 mg/100g, anwar ratol (17.731.21 mg/100g, dusahri (17.161.02 mg/100g and langra (16.211.12 mg/100g. Similarly, Mg and Ca were recorded as 56.114.21 and 87.466.32, 54.733.69 and 82.724.18, 52.541.16 and 79.813.85, 50.251.52 and 75.084.10 and 56.832.32 and 78.395.02 mg/100g in respective mango peels. Amongst tested mango peels, ethanolic extract of chaunsa exhibited the highest TPC (75.353.96 mg/100g GAE, DPPH (59.283.69% and -carotene (57.334.14% activities however, FRAP value (7.880.19 mmol/100g was maximum in the acetone extract of chaunsa peel. From the present investigation, it is concluded that mango peel powder potential is potential source of minerals and antioxidants.

Muhammad Imran

2013-01-01

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance t [...] o norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Susy Mary Souto de, Oliveira; Vivyanne S., Falcão-Silva; José P., Siqueira-Junior; Maria José de Carvalho, Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo, Diniz.

2011-02-01

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FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste  

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Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

2009-05-15

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel  

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Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-03-01

5

Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel.  

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Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-01-01

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Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.  

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Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

2013-06-19

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Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).  

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Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

2014-09-15

8

Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System  

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Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1, tie line length (?3.42–35.27%, NaCl (?2.5–11.5% and pH (4.5–10.5 on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2 purification factor (14.37 and yield (97.3% of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol?1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-03-01

9

Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

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Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

10

The impact of extraction with a chelating agent under acidic conditions on the cell wall polymers of mango peel.  

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The objective of this research was to evaluate whether mango peel is a potential source of functional cell wall polymers. To reach this objective, the native pectin polymers (NPP) extracted as alcohol insoluble residue from mango peel, were characterised in terms of uronic acid content, degree of methoxylation, neutral sugar content, and molar mass and compared to citric acid (pH 2.5, 2h at 80°C) extracted polymers, mimicking industrial pectin extraction conditions. Water-solubilised NPP were highly methoxylated having two populations with a Mw of 904 and 83kDa and a degree of methoxylation of 66%. Citric acid extraction with a yield higher than H2SO4 extraction resulted in a very branched pectin with an extremely high DM (83%) and a high molar mass. Comparing the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy of extracted and native WSF showed that citric acid remained partially associated to the extracted pectin due to its chelating properties. PMID:24837941

Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Kyomugasho, Clare; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Ramezani, Mohsen; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

2014-10-15

11

Saccharification of Cassava peels waste for microbial protein enrichment  

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Cassava waste peels may constitute up to 55% of the original tuber. These waste peels were found to contain 41.8% carbohydrate, 1.1% protein, 12.5% ether extract and 4.9%, 4.9% total ash, and 20.8% crude fibre. Studies were conducted to formulate a fermentation medium to convert the waste peels to reducing sugars and to enrich the peels with microbial protein. Amylase-producing microorganisms were isolated from rotten cassava tuber discs buried in the soil at different locations. The microorganisms isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and a Pseudomonas sp. and A. niger; the level of reducing sugar was 20.5 mg/ml. The lowest was by B. subtilis an isolate from fermenting locust bean. Generally the levels of saccharification were higher when the waste media were supplemented with different nitrogen sourses. The crude protein yield in the cassava peel waste media by different microorganisms varied from 5.6% to 17.5%. The highest protein yield was in the waste medium fermented by A. fumigatus followed by A. niger, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. in decreasing order.

Odunfa, S.A.; Shasore, S.B.

1987-01-01

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Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System  

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Full Text Available An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000, potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w, system pH (6–9, and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%. Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2011-10-01

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Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

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Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (Epotato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

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Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes  

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Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

Wanna Saikaew

2009-11-01

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Characterization of bioactive compounds from raw and ripe Mangifera indica L. peel extracts.  

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Mango is one of the important tropical fruits in the world. As it is a seasonal fruit, it is processed for various products. During its processing, peel is one of the major byproducts, which is being wasted. Bioactive conserves were extracted using 80% acetone from peels of raw and ripe mango fruits and subjected to acid hydrolysis. The prominent phenolic compounds identified by HPLC were protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid. The phenolic acid derivatives present in acetone extracts of raw and ripe peels were tentatively identified by LC-MS. Gallic acid, syringic acid, mangiferin, ellagic acid, gentisyl-protocatechuic acid, quercetin were the phenolic compounds identified in both raw and ripe peels, while raw peel showed the presence of glycosylated iriflophenone and maclurin derivatives also. ?-Carotene was the major carotenoid followed by violaxanthin and lutein. Thus, both raw and ripe mango peel extracts have different phenolic compounds and carotenoids, which will have various pharmaceutical applications. PMID:20851730

Ajila, C M; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Rao, U J S Prasada

2010-12-01

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Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.  

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This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410 nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite. PMID:24751097

Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

2012-09-01

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Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

2013-04-01

18

Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

19

Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of alk(en)ylresorcinols using rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction of mango peels and rye grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaustive extraction of alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs) from biological matrices is a prerequisite for economic screening of extensive plant collections including their rapid quantitation. For this purpose, an ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol was developed to facilitate the liberation of ARs from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.) and rye grains (Secale cereale L.). While maintaining or even improving the extraction efficiency of the analytes, the duration of analytical extraction was shortened from more than 1h to only 45s as compared to previous methods. In addition, sample weight and solvent use were significantly reduced. Besides the validation of the extraction procedure, validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD-MS(n) based characterisation and quantitation method are provided. In particular, fully satisfactory recovery rates and quantitation limits were achieved, and coefficients of variation (CV) for repeatability and reproducibility were ?8 and developed method was exemplified using two mango and three rye cultivars, and the results were compared to previously published data. PMID:25236225

Geerkens, Christian H; Matejka, Anna E; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

2015-02-15

20

Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga / Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de áci [...] do cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperatur [...] e and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos, Siqueira; Letícia Dias, Alves; Pollyanna Novato, Vasconcelos; Clarissa, Damiani; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior.

 
 
 
 
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Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga / Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de áci [...] do cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperatur [...] e and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos, Siqueira; Letícia Dias, Alves; Pollyanna Novato, Vasconcelos; Clarissa, Damiani; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior.

2012-06-01

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Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels)...

Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K. L.; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

2007-01-01

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PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION  

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Full Text Available A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundant remains which represent an inexpensive material that has been undervalued until now. Pea peel waste is one of the undervalued, unused sources of energy that can serve as a potential source for cellulase production. Batch experiments have been performed, using pea peel waste as a carbon source for cellulase production under solid state cultivation by Trichoderma reesei. It was observed that 30 oC temperature and pH 5.0 are the most favorable conditions for cellulase production by T. reesei. FPase activity significantly increases by incorporation of whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in the basal salt media used in the production study. The present study describes the utility of pea peel waste, whey as well as wheat starch hydrolysate in cellulase production by T. reesei. The utilization of economically cheap, pea peel waste for cellulase production could be a novel, cost effective, and valuable approach in cellulase production as well as in solid waste management.

Nitin Verma

2011-03-01

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Análise física, sensorial e microbiológica de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Physical, sensory and microbiological analysis of mango jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de zero, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de casca em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. "Haden". Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: a cor, a consistência, a aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma e sabor e as características microbiológicas dos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que todos os tratamentos obtiveram, por meio de análise consumidores, escores médios entre sete (gostei moderadamente e oito (gostei muito. As características físicas e microbiológicas mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de geléias de frutas estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Pelos resultados obtidos, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas na formulação de geléia de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável nas áreas física, sensorial e microbiológica, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with levels of zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of peels in substitution of pulp of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Haden'. The quality criterion were color, consistency, sensory acceptability and microbiological characteristics. It was observed that all treatments obtained with the consumers mean scores between seven (liked moderated and eight (liked a lot. Physical and microbiological characteristics were maintained inside of the fruit jams patterns established for Brazilian legislation. For the gotten results, the partial or total substitution of pulp for peels Haden mango in the jams formulation is viable on the physical, sensory and microbiological areas, with economic and environmental advantages.

Clarissa Damiani

2008-08-01

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Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

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Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

B. G. Ridoutt

2009-07-01

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Use of starch and potato peel waste for perchlorate bioreduction in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for ClO(4)(-). This study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for ClO(4)(-) bioreduction. We obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a Citrobacter sp. S4, Streptomyces sp. S2, Flavobacterium sp. S6, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. S5, Streptomyces sp. S7, and an Aeromonas sp. S8 identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. ClO(4)(-) concentration substantially decreased in purified starch medium inoculated with the amylolytic bacterial consortium and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace. Potato peel waste supported ClO(4)(-) reduction by perclace with the rate of ClO(4)(-) reduction being dependent on the amount of potato peels. Over 90% ClO(4)(-) removal was achieved in 4 days in a single time point experiment with 2% (w/v) potato peels waste. ClO(4)(-) reduction in a non-sterile 0.5% potato peel media inoculated with perclace occurred with an initial concentration of 10.14+/-0.04 mg L(-1) to 2.87+/-0.4 mg L(-1) (71.7% reduction) within 5 days. ClO(4)(-) was not detected in the cultures in 6 days. In a non-sterile 0.5% potato media without perclace, ClO(4)(-) depletion occurred slowly from an initial value of 9.99+/-0.15 mg L(-1) to 6.33+/-0.43 mg L(-1) (36.63% reduction) in 5 days. Thereafter, ClO(4)(-) was rapidly degraded achieving 77.1% reduction in 7 days and not detected in 9 days. No susbstantial reduction of ClO(4)(-) was observed in the sterile potato peel media without perclace in 7 days. Redox potential of the potato peel cultures was favorable for ClO(4)(-) reduction, decreasing to as low as -294 mV in 24 h. Sugar levels remained very low in cultures effectively reducing ClO(4)(-) and was substantially higher in sterilized controls. Our results indicate that potato peel waste in combination with amylolytic microorganisms and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace can be economically used to achieve complete ClO(4)(-) removal from water. PMID:16084965

Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

2005-07-15

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Integrated utilization of fruit-processing wastes for biogas and fish production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated system for biogas production from mango-processing wastes and utilization of biogas effluent for production of major carp Rohu, (Labeo rohita) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Mango peels produced 0.21 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg of total solids. Biogas effluent of mango peels, when used at 34 kg/100 m{sup 2} area in ponds as the sole source of feed for carps, yielded 8.35 kg/100 m{sup 2} of fish which had acceptable colour, flavour and taste every 120 days. (author).

Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India))

1990-01-01

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Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

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Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels). Temperature of 30°C, inoculum size of S. cerevisiae G 6% and (v/v) Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077 4% (v/v), incubation period of 48 h and agitation for the first 24 h were found to be best for ethanol production using the combination of two wastes. The pretreated steam exploded biomass after enzymatic saccharification containing 63 gL(-1) reducing sugars was fermented with both hexose and pentose fermenting yeast strains under optimized conditions resulting in ethanol production, yield and fermentation efficiency of 26.84 gL(-1), 0.426 gg (-1) and 83.52 % respectively. This study could establish the effective utilization of kinnow waste and banana peels for bioethanol production using optimized fermentation parameters. PMID:23100683

Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K L; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

2007-12-01

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BIOSORPTION OF Fe (II FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING TAMARIND BARK AND POTATO PEEL WASTE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES  

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Full Text Available The sorptive potential of tamarind bark (Tamarindus indica and potato peel waste (Solanum tuberosum for Fe(II ions has been investigated in a batch system. These two biosorbents have been examined for their capacity to sequester Fe(II from aqueous solution under varying range of pH, biomass dosage, initial concentration of Fe(II and contact time. The adsorbents used in this study exhibited a good adsorption potential with increase pH from 1 to 2.5. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich isotherm models were used to analyze the equilibrium data. Experimental data of Fe(II biosorption onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste fitted well to Langmuir model in comparison to model of Freundlich. The maximum adsorption capacity of tamarind bark and potato peel waste was 11.75 mg.g-1 and 7.87 mg.g-1 respectively as calculated from Langmuir model. The mean free energies calculated from Dubinin-Redushkevich (D-R model for the adsorption process of Fe(II onto tamarind bark and potato peel waste were found to be 12.86 and 10.78 kJ.mol-1 respectively, indicating that chemisorption is involved in the adsorption process. Results show that the pseudo second-order kinetic model was found to correlate the experimental data well.

MOHAMMED ABDULSALAM ABDULLAH

2009-12-01

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Production of Trichoderma asperellum T8a spores by a "home-made" solid-state fermentation of mango industrial wastes  

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Full Text Available Dry wastes (dw generated in processing mangoes, composed (in dry weight mainly of soluble carbohydrates (71 ± 2% and fiber (16 ± 1%, were evaluated as substrates in a “home-made” solid-state fermentation (using polyurethane foam as inert support matrix, various C:N ratios, moisture contents, and incubation periods of Trichoderma asperellum T8a, a promising biological control agent against the mango pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (causal agent of anthracnose. Highest spore production (2.5 x 106 up to 76 ± 3 x 108 spores g-1 dw occurred after 8 days of incubation [at 28 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 85 ± 5%, photoperiod of 12h (540 Lux - 12h (20 Lux] at a C:N ratio of 26, and a moisture content of 78%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that T. asperellum T8a was able to grow on mango industrial wastes and into polyurethane foam. The extensive growth can be related to cellulases secreted by this fungus, liberating glucose from these wastes to its growth. Most (94 ± 1% of the spores grown on mango industrial wastes survived storage at 4 °C for 7 days and were equally effective as those grown on potato dextrose agar medium (86 ± 4% viable in biological control tests against C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456. Results indicate the potential use of mango industrial wastes as substrates to produce T. asperellum T8a spores in situ (mango orchards under a cheap “home-made” solid-state fermentation, reducing problems associated with wastes disposal and permitting the production of a biological control agent against C. gloeosporioides.

Francisco Villaseñor-Ortega

2012-11-01

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Valorisation of Apple Peels.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The peels of processed apples can be recovered for further food applications. Limited information on the valorisation of this type of waste is available for cooking varieties, e.g. cv Bramley’s Seedling. Extracts from fresh or dried (oven-dried or freeze-dried) peels were obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous acetone or ethanol) and assayed for their total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity; their antiradical power was compared to herb extracts. The dried peels were a...

Massini, Laura; Rico, Daniel; Martin-diana, Ana Belen; Barry-ryan, Catherine

2013-01-01

33

Valorisation of Apple Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The peels of processed apples can be recovered for further food applications. Limited information on the valorisation of this type of waste is available for cooking varieties, e.g. cv Bramley’s Seedling. Extracts from fresh or dried (oven-dried or freeze-dried) peels were obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous acetone or ethanol) and assayed for their total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity; their antiradical power was compared to herb extracts. The dried peels were a...

Massini, Laura; Rico, Daniel; Martin-diana, Ana Belen; Barry-ryan, Catherine

2012-01-01

34

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

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Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

2011-04-01

35

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

2011-04-01

36

Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

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Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar

2011-06-01

37

Purification, characterization, and prebiotic properties of pectic oligosaccharides from orange peel wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pectic oligosaccharides (POS) were obtained by hydrothermal treatment of orange peel wastes (OPW) and purified by membrane filtration to yield a refined product containing 90 wt % of the target products. AraOS (DP 3-21), GalOS (DP 5-12), and OGalA (DP 2-12, with variable DM) were identified in POS mixtures, but long-chain products were also present. The prebiotic potential of the concentrate was assessed by in vitro fermentation using human fecal inocula. For comparative purposes, similar experiments were performed using orange pectin and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as substrates for fermentation. The dynamics of selected microbial populations was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Gas generation, pH, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were also measured. Under the tested conditions, all of the considered substrates were utilized by the microbiota, and fermentation resulted in increased numbers of all the bacterial groups, but the final profile of the microbial population depended on the considered carbon source. POS boosted particularly the numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, so that the ratio between the joint counts of both genera and the total cell number increased from 17% in the inocula to 27% upon fermentation. SCFA generation from POS fermentation was similar to that observed with FOS, but pectin fermentation resulted in reduced butyrate generation. PMID:25207862

Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Remoroza, Connie; Schols, Henk A; Parajó, Juan C; Alonso, José L

2014-10-01

38

Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

2014-11-01

39

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t...

Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

2009-01-01

40

Citric Acid Production from Orange Peel Wastes by Solid-State Fermentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·103 to 0.7·108 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·106 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

Torrado, Ana Maria; Cortes, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, Jose; Max, Belen; Rodriguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Dominguez, Jose

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculu [...] m concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María, Torrado; Sandra, Cortés; José Manuel, Salgado; Belén, Max; Noelia, Rodríguez; Belinda P, Bibbins; Attilio, Converti; José Manuel, Domínguez.

2011-03-01

42

Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol. PMID:24802243

Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

2014-05-21

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Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L. in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L. en la obtención de azúcares fermentables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The common mango waste (Mangifera indica L. is a vegetable material containing a high level of lignocelluloses tissue which can be used to obtain fermentable metabolites and fermentation products. In this study hydrolysis treatments were applied to the common mango in order to make the conversion of its polysaccharides to fermentable sugar units. Acid hydrolysis was applied to three different concentrations of dilute sulphuric acid. An enzymatic hydrolysis with two types of commercial enzymes to different concentrations in standard work conditions, was also applied. In addition, a thermic hydrolysis was applied at two different temperatures. At each treatment, the following tests were applied: total sugar concentration, reduced sugar concentration, and percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose residuals. Based on the data obtained from the tests, the best treatments were identified and so the best combinations of the best hydrolysis treatments were carried out. The most significant treatment for individual tests was acid hydrolysis at 0, 50% v/v sulphuric acid at 80?C for one hour. In the combined treatments the most relevant result was the treatment that combined the enzymatic hydrolysis (as pretreatment plus a thermic hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis. For security reasons in the reagents use, as well as in the elimination of collateral adverse effects for further alcoholic fermentation, a procedure involving thermic hydrolysis as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, was chosen as the main treatment with the most appropriate application in the fermentable metabolites production from common mango waste in order to produce alcohol. Further studies have allowed approaching the hydrolysis via microbial with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride, as well as the alcoholic fermentation post-treatment hydrolytic using previous studies. The simultaneous hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation, and recently performing the simultaneity of the processes, adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L. es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80?C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han permitido abordar la hidrólisis por vía microbiana con Aspergillus niger y Trichoderma v

J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez

2007-12-01

44

Removal of Blue 56 by Orange Peel from the Waste Water  

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Full Text Available The use of orange peel as low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This paper concerns with the removal of Blue 56 from aqueous solutions by orange peel. The effects of pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent, temperature and also isotherm data analysis and adsorption kinetics were investigated. A maximum removal of 96.76% was obtained at pH 2.5 for an adsorbent dose of 0.2 mg. Rate of adsorption was found to conform to pseudo-second-order kinetics with a good correlation (R2=0.99. The maximumadsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir equation was9.69 (mgg-1.

M. R. Fat’hi and A. Zolfi

2012-03-01

45

Isolation and purification of bromelain from waste peel of pineapple for therapeutic application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%), followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able [...] to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.

Iara Rocha Antunes Pereira, Bresolin; Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto, Bresolin; Edgar, Silveira; Elias Basile, Tambourgi; Priscila Gava, Mazzola.

2013-12-01

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The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

Patomsok Wilaipon

2009-01-01

47

Chemical and thermal characterization of potato peel waste and its fermentation residue as potential resources for biofuel and bioproducts production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing demand for renewable fuels has driven the interest in the utilization of alternative waste materials such as potato peel waste (PPW) which contains fermentable carbohydrate. Fermentation of PPW using a mixed microbial consortium yielded about 60% unreacted PPW fermentation residue (PPW-FR). The PPW and PPW-FR were characterized by a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to quantify changes after fermentation. Fermentation of PPW resulted in fermentation of starch and concentrating lignin plus suberin and lipids in PPW-FR. TGA analysis showed that decomposition peaks differed for PPW (423 °C) and PPW-FR (457 °C). Pyrolysis-GC/MS showed an increase in phenolic and long chain fatty acid compounds with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrate derived compounds in the PPW after fermentation. Both the PPW and PPW-FR have shown potential based on properties to be converted into crude biofuel via thermochemical processes. PMID:25093245

Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

2014-08-20

48

Degumming of ramie fiber and the production of reducing sugars from waste peels using nanoparticle supplemented pectate lyase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banana, citrus and potato peels were subjected to treatment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (NP) supplemented purified pectate lyase (NP-PL), isolated from Bacillus megaterium AK2 to produce reducing sugar (RS). At both 50 and 90°C production of RS by NP-PL was almost twofold greater than that by untreated pectate lyase (PL) from each of the three peels. The optimal production of RS from banana and citrus peels were after 24 and 6h of incubation while it was 24 and 4h for potato peels at 50 and 90°C, respectively, on NP-PL treatment. NP-PL could degum raw, decorticated ramie fibers as well as enhance fiber tenacity and fineness. The weight loss of the fibers were 24% and 31% better (compared to PL treatment) after 24 and 48 h of processing. These findings have potential implications for the bio-ethanol, bio-fuel and textile industries. PMID:23587821

Mukhopadhyay, Arka; Dutta, Nalok; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Chakrabarti, Krishanu

2013-06-01

49

The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found that briquettes produced with compaction pressure over 7 MPa passed both impact resistance and compressive strength tests. The density-pressure relationship and strength-pressure relationship over studied range were also developed and validated.

Patomsok Wilaipon

2009-01-01

50

Comparative Effect of Gamma Irradiation, UV-C and Hot Water on Antioxidant Potential of Mango (Mangifera indica L. Fruit  

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Full Text Available Use of gamma irradiation and UV-C was compared over conventional used hot water treatment on mango pulp and peel. The storage study was also carried out to explore the potential of these techniques for the retention of total polyphenolic substances and antioxidants activity. Results indicated that polyphenolic substances decreased during storage. This decline in polyphenolic substances can be controlled by using gamma irradiation and UV-C treatment in mango peel and pulp. Lower doses (0.5 KGY is more effective in controlling these losses. Comparing the varietal differences, white chaunsa showed better phenolic and antioxidant retention potential as compared to black chaunsa.

Zia Ahmad Chatha

2013-01-01

51

Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

2012-09-01

52

Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

53

Persistence behavior of imidacloprid and carbosulfan in mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Imidacloprid was sprayed on mango cv. Dashehari at 0.3 mL L(-1) of water during pre-bloom stage with 6-8 cm panicle size (first week of March) to control hopper and carbosulfan was sprayed at 2.0 mL L(-1) of water in the trees of mango hybrid (H-1000) during fruit development stage (first week of May) to control leaf webber. Residues of both the insecticides were analysed in peel, pulp and fruit at different stages of fruit development and maturity. The initial residues of imidacloprid, after 30 days of spraying, were 1.21, 0.56 and 1.77 mg kg(-1) in peel, pulp and whole fruit, respectively. The residues persisted in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days and dissipated with a half-life of 38 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues. Carbosulfan in mango peel dissipated from 5.30 mg kg(-1) (after 1 h of spraying) to 0.05 mg kg(-1) at the time of harvest (after 45 days of spraying). Carbosulfan residue in pulp was very low (0.08 mg kg(-1)) after 1 h of spraying, which increased gradually to 0.90 mg kg(-1) after 10 days and finally came down to 0.04 mg kg(-1) after 26 days of spraying. The insecticide residue was not detected in the pulp at the time of harvest. The residues persisted in pulp for 26 days and in peel for 45 days and degraded with a half-life of 7 days. The dissipation of both imidacloprid and carbosulfan followed first order rate kinetics in whole fruit (peel + pulp). Therefore, the safe pre-harvest intervals were suggested to be 55 days for imidacloprid and 46 days for carbosulfan before consumption of mango fruits after spraying of these insecticides. PMID:23196371

Bhattacherjee, A K

2013-02-01

54

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

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Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

Tumbas Vesna T.; ?etkovi? Gordana S.; ?ilas Sonja M.; ?anadanovi?-Brunet Jasna M.; Vuli? Jelena J.; Knez Željko; Škerget Mojca

2010-01-01

55

Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical relevance of nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin was thought to be associated with the wrist lesion immediately below a glued portion of a wristwatch strap and metal clasp. PMID:15009389

Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

2004-03-01

56

Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

57

Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

58

Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

59

Mangifera Indica (Mango)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti...

Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

2010-01-01

60

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel  

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Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ?1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (?1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

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Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

63

Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels  

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Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

2007-09-01

64

Concrete peeling off device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a device for peeling off activated concretes in processing for discarding a reactor of a nuclear reactor facility. The device comprises a gyrotron for generation microwaves, an irradiator for irradiating output microwaves, a reflection mirror for reflecting and converging the microwaves and irradiating them to a material to be irradiated and a first rotating means for rotating the irradiator and the reflection mirror in parallel with the axis of the gyrotron while maintaining the positional relation between the irradiator and the reflection mirror. When the position of the microwaves irradiated on concrete walls are moved in a circumferential direction and the central axes of the rotational axis and the material to be irradiated are aligned, then the intensity of the irradiation of the microwaves at each of the irradiation points can be maintained constant without changing the focal distance of the reflected microwaves thereby enabling to peel off concretes efficiently. If operation conditions are controlled based on information such as temperature at the periphery of the microwave irradiation positions, the shape and the color of the material to be irradiated and the distance to the material to be irradiated, a concrete peeling off device of high reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

65

Phenological Relationship Between Mango Hoppers Idioscopus spp. and Mango Inflorescence/Fruit  

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Full Text Available The experiment on the phenological relationship between mango hoppers and mango inflorescence/fruit was conducted at Mir. Ghulam Rasool Talpur fruit farm, Tandojam, during 1999-2000. The results showed that mango hoppers were recorded during 30th December (0.06/shoot on all the mango varieties. The population density increased gradually on the varieties up till second fortnight of February and thereafter populations of mango hopper increased rapidly. The peak populations of mango hopper on Almas (24.23/shoot and Sindhri (25.66/shoot were recorded on 23rd March and 30th March, respectively. However, peak population density in Neelum (22.52/shoot was recorded on 16th March. Thereafter population of hoppers declined towards fruit maturation in all the varieties. Population density of mango hopper and positives significant correlation with the inflorescence phenology in all the mango varieties, however population of hoppers had negative correlation with fruit development. The population of mango hopper had positive significant correlation with temperature in Almas (r = 0.668 significant. The relative humidity had negative non-significant correlation with mango hoppers on all the mango varieties. It could therefore be inferred that Sindhri was more prone to the attack of mango hoppers and Neelum was least infested.

Muzaffar A. Talpur

2002-01-01

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Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its climatic environment during growth could affect postharvest behaviour and quality. PMID:23267462

Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

2013-04-15

67

Opciones agroforestales para productores de mango  

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Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó durante el año 2002 con la meta de contribuir con opciones agroforestales mejoradas para plantaciones de mango (Mangifera indica en el estado de Michoacán, con la metodología de diagnosis y diseño desarrollada por el Centro Internacional de Investigación en Agroforestería. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron diagnosticar el problema de uso de la tierra de los productores de mango y caracterizar las opciones agroforestales promisorias, practicadas, en la actualidad, por campesinos innovadores. El estudio incluye los sistemas agroforestales existentes: mango-limón, mangoguayaba, mango-ovino-guayaba y mango-bovino. Se analizaron, por su composición de especies, organización temporal y espacial, diversificación de productos, régimen de manejo, requerimientos de mano de obra, productividad y rentabilidad económica. Los resultados indican que todos los sistemas agroforestales son más productivos y económicamente más rentables que los sistemas de monocultivo. Los valores de uso equivalente de la tierra en sistemas agrosilvícolas fueron 2.21 y 1.76, para los sistemas mango + limón y mango + guayaba, respectivamente. Los valores de la relación beneficio/ costo, máximo 2.80 y mínimo 1.72, se obtuvieron para los sistemas de mango + limón y mango + ovino + guayaba, respectivamente. Además de los sistemas existentes, hay oportunidades para diseñar mejores tecnologías agroforestales con la incorporación de varias especies vegetales y animales promisorias, acordes conlas condiciones biofísicas y posibilidades socioeconómicas de los productores del estado de Michoacán, para contribuir al desarrollo de la agricultura sostenible.

G. Montiel-Aguirre

2006-01-01

68

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity  

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Full Text Available Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens, were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P<0.05 among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive.

CarmenWacher

2013-06-01

69

Effect of postharvest UV-C treatment on the bacterial diversity of Ataulfo mangoes by PCR-DGGE, survival of E. coli and antimicrobial activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since Mexico is the second largest exporter of mangoes, its safety assurance is essential. Research in microbial ecology and knowledge of complex interactions among microbes must be better understood to achieve maximal control of pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the effect of UV-C treatments on bacterial diversity of the Ataulfo mangoes surface using PCR-DGGE analysis of variable region V3 of 16S rRNA genes, and the survival of E. coli, by plate counting. The UV-C irradiation reduced the microbial load on the surface of mangoes immediately after treatment and the structure of bacterial communities was modified during storage. We identified the key members of the bacterial communities on the surface of fruits, predominating Enterobacter genus. Genera as Lactococcus and Pantoea were only detected on the surface of non-treated (control) mangoes. This could indicate that these genera were affected by the UV-C treatment. On the other hand, the treatment did not have a significant effect on survival of E. coli. However, genera that have been recognized as antagonists against foodborne pathogens were identified in the bands patterns. Also, phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and antimicrobial activity was assayed according to the agar diffusion method. The main phenolic compounds were chlorogenic, gallic, and caffeic acids. Mango peel methanol extracts (UV-C treated and control mangoes) showed antimicrobial activity against strains previously isolated from mango, detecting significant differences (P < 0.05) among treated and control mangoes after 4 and 12 days of storage. Ps. fluorescens and Ps. stutszeri were the most sensitive. PMID:23761788

Fernández-Suárez, Rocío; Ramírez-Villatoro, Guadalupe; Díaz-Ruiz, Gloria; Eslava, Carlos; Calderón, Montserrat; Navarro-Ocaña, Arturo; Trejo-Márquez, Andrea; Wacher, Carmen

2013-01-01

70

Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation; Desinfestacion de mango por irradiacion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E

1992-05-15

71

Solar drying of mangoes: preservation of an important source of vitamin A in French-speaking West Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin A deficiency, which is especially widespread among children younger than age 5 years, is a major barrier to reducing child mortality rates in French-speaking West Africa. A large amount of an indigenous plant source of provitamin A carotenoids are lost to postharvest waste. For example, the postharvest loss of mangoes in the region exceeds an annual total of 100,000 metric tons. In our study, 3.75 metric tons of fresh mangoes were dried using a solar dryer to a final moisture content of 10% to 12%, yielding a total of 360 kg dried mango. The product analysis revealed 4,000+/-500 microg beta carotene/100 g and 3,680+/-150 microg beta carotene/100 g after 2 and 6 months of storage, respectively. Thus, one greenhouse solar dryer is capable of reducing postharvest mango waste by 3.75 tons providing up to 1.15 million retinol activity equivalents of dietary vitamin A. The use of this technology that requires solar energy and manpower has the potential of increasing dietary vitamin A supply by up to 27,000-fold, compared to the currently available vitamin A in the region. Moreover, mango is a fruit that is well-liked by the population in this geographic area increasing the likelihood of its ready acceptance. Reducing postharvest loss of mangoes by using greenhouse model solar dryers is a promising strategy to help combat vitamin A deficiency in French-speaking West Africa. PMID:18502231

Rankins, Jenice; Sathe, Shridhar K; Spicer, Maria T

2008-06-01

72

Disinfestation of mangoes by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango is a fruit-bearing very important in the mexican economy. Mexico is between the first positions of the world like country producing with an average export volume of 40,000 annual tons in the last years. For this reason it was decided to make this investigation, which was developed according to the investigation protocols proposed by the Agricultural Research Service of the USA (ARS - US DOA). The objective is to account with the technical and scientific necessary bases to propose to the US DOA the regulation of the irradiation process like quarantine treatment for Mexican export mango. The goals are: to determine in the laboratory the minimum dose (Dmin.) to inhibit the emergency of adults of the species of the fruit flies of more importance for Mexico. To confirm the least radiation dose Dmin. for quarantine treatment based on the safety value Probit-9. To evaluate the mango quality irradiated to 2 and 2.5 times the Dmin. proposal for quarantine treatment. According to information provided by the General Direction of Vegetable Sanity, it was determined that the fly species of the fruit of more economic importance for Mexico are of the genus Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha serpentina, Anastrepha obliqua and Ceratitis capitata. (Author)

73

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

Sharad J

2013-11-01

74

Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray  

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Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg?l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg?l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

Md Wasim Siddiqui

2014-01-01

75

Coleoborers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae associated to culture wastes in mango crops in José de Freitas county – Piauí/ Coleobrocas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae associadas a restos culturais da cultura da manga (Mangifera indica L. – Anacardiaceae no município de José de Freitas – Piauí  

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Full Text Available The coleoborers use the wood to complete part of their cycle of life. In search for food they can make galleries and cause damages in the structure of the plant, allowing the entrance of pathogenic individuals that will harm the development of the crop. This research was carried out from January to May 2005 aiming to get information on the species of coleoborers associated to crop wastes in the area of mango crop, in José de Freitas county - Piauí. The insects had been collected in areas of Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent and Palmer varieties, in 10 fallen branches, with approximately 50 cm long and 2.5 cm of diameter, that were taken to the plant health laboratory of Centro de Ciências Agrárias in Universidade Federal do Piauí. The coleoborers were removed from the wood, assembled in entomologic pins and sent to the Instituto Biológico in São Paulo SP for species identification. The coleoborers Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae were found.As coleobrocas usam a madeira para realizar o seu ciclo de vida, fazendo galerias e causando danos na estrutura da planta e em certas situações, permitindo a entrada de patógenos. Este trabalho foi realizado de janeiro a maio de 2005 objetivando identificar e obter informações sobre as espécies de coleobrocas associadas a restos de cultura em área de cultivo de manga, no município de José de Freitas-Piauí. Foram coletados em cada área das variedades Tommy Atkins, Keitt, Kent e Palmer, dez ramos caídos, com aproximadamente 50 cm de comprimento e 2,5 cm de diâmetro, que foram levados ao laboratório de Fitossanidade do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí. As coleobrocas adultas foram retiradas da madeira, montadas em alfinetes entomológicos e enviadas ao Instituto Biológico em São Paulo-SP para identificação das espécies. Foram coletadas as coleobrocas Hypothenemus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Xyleborus sp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae e Orthostoma chryseis (Bates, 1970 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae.

Sávio Silveira Feitosa

2007-08-01

76

Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known a...

Bartholdi, Laurent; Henriques, Andre?

2012-01-01

77

Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (Hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and four fungi. All extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. The peel extracts showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram negative bacteria as compared to Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Amongst studied peel extracts Citrus limon followed by Manilkara zapota and Carica papaya showed good antimicrobial activity indicating its potency as a promising source of natural antimicrobics. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. PMID:24725235

Rakholiya, Kalpna; Kaneria, Mital; Chanda, Sumitra

2014-09-01

78

Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

2012-12-15

79

The drying characteristics of mango fruit strips  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A diffusion model is proposed to simulate the drying of mango fruit strips. The mass transfer in terms of Ficks law have been applied to the drying fruit and an effective diffusivity coefficient was identified for mango strips at air drying temperatures of 50°C, 75°C, and 83° C. Most of the moisture diffusivity data available originated from the method of applying drying curves. A drying curve represents the change in moisture content of mango strips with time, and also the change in...

Lwadya, Mujanay

2008-01-01

80

Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation  

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Full Text Available Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benlate was found more effective than Topsin-M to reduce the problem of mango malformation.

Faqir Muhammad

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

82

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist’s arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

83

Decay control of carabao mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

84

Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible

85

[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631

Kroyer, G

1986-03-01

86

Current Status of Mango Malformation in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. occupies a pre-eminent place amongst fruit crops in India and is acknowledged as ‘King of fruits’ in the country. Malformation is the most threatening malady that causes great economic loss and limits the mango production in India and among tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Floral malformation, in contrast to vegetative one, is very virulent and can cause the loss of the entire crop. Affected panicles either do not set fruit or abort fruit shortly after they have set; yields can be reduced by as much as 50-80%. Mango Malformation Disease is a fungal disease of mangoes caused by Fusarium species Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Mango is the only known host of the disease. Numerous studies on physiological, fungal, acarological, nutritional aspects have attempted, still the nature of the disorder is not fully understood. Keeping in view the seriousness of the problem, the present review explores out to establish a suitable genetic base, indicating the degree of resistance against malformation in different mango cultivars grown under open, natural field infection conditions. Disease management practices through various approaches.

Dinesh Raj Modi

2011-01-01

87

7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56-33... § 319.56-33 Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica...imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this...

2010-01-01

88

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2010-01-01

89

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Fenglei Luo

2012-09-01

90

Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

91

/ Chemical composition of different fruit peel Composigao centesimal de diferentes cascas de frutas / Composición aproximada de las cáscaras de diferentes frutas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aproveitamento integral dos alimentos é de suma importancia, pois permite que partes nao convencionais dos alimentos, como cascas, talos, sementes e folhas sejam aproveitadas, visando a agregacao de valor nutricional as preparacóes, além de reduzir custos e evitar o desperdicio. Desta forma, o pre [...] sente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a composicao química de 9 cascas de frutas. Os maiores teores de umidade foram para o mamao e a uva, e as frutas cítricas apresentaram menor umidade, o mamao destaca-se por ter maior teor de proteina. As frutas com maiores percentuais de carboidratos sao: a maca, bergamota, ameixa, manga e pera. A partir da composicao centesimal das cascas foi possivel perceber que elas apresentam elevados teores de nutrientes, podendo ser utilizadas em preparacóes. Além disso, com a composicao centesimal das cascas passa a ser possivel a colocacao desses alimentos nos cálculos de planos alimentares e dietas. Abstract in spanish El aprovechamiento de la comida es muy importante porque permite que las acciones de los alimentos no convencionales tales como la corteza, tallos, semillas y hojas se utilicen con el fin de agregar valor a las preparaciones nutritivas y también reducir los costos y evitar el derroche. Asi, este est [...] udio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición quimica de nueve cáscaras de fruta. Los más altos niveles de humedad eran de la papaya y las uvas y los citricos tuvieron una menor humedad. La papaya se destaca por tener un mayor contenido proteico. Las frutas con mayor porcentaje de hidratos de carbono son: manzana, bergamota, ciruela, mango y pera. De la composición de las cáscaras fue posible percibir que tienen altos niveles de nutrientes y se puede utilizar en preparaciones. Además, con la composición de las cáscaras se hace posible colocar estos alimentos en los cálculos de planes de alimentación y las dietas. Abstract in english The integral use of food is very important because it allows the use of non-conventional foods such as bark, stems, seeds and leaves being used in order to add value to nutritional preparations and also reduce costs and avoid wasting. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of nin [...] e fruit peels. The highest levels of humidity found were for papaya and grapes, while citrus fruits had lower moisture. Papaya stands out for having a higher protein content. The fruits with the highest percentage of carbohydrates are: apple, bergamot, plum, mango and pear. The composition of the peels made it possible to perceive they have high levels of nutrients and can be used in preparations. Moreover, the composition of the peels makes it possible to place these foods in the calculations of eating plans and diets.

Claudia L, Stefanello; Claudia. S, Rosa.

2012-06-01

92

INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS  

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Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

2010-08-01

93

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle; ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT; ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS; e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR. A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control; diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT; diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS; and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR. The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

2012-08-01

94

Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape. PMID:25363615

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

2014-11-19

95

Dressing wounds with potato peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete...

Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

1996-01-01

96

Hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion of mango flesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 42-year-old woman presented with a hypersensitivity reaction after the ingestion of a small amount of fresh mango gelato. She developed itchy palpable purpuric lesions over her arms, legs, neck and abdomen 4 days after ingestion. The lesions persisted for 5 weeks despite treatment with betamethasone-17 valerate 0.05% ointment and avoidance of mango. Resolution of these lesions was eventually achieved with continuing treatment. The patient denied any prior contact with mango skin but had experienced previous sensitizing reactions to mango flesh. Patch testing was strongly positive to mango skin and mango flesh. Skin-prick testing was negative. This case describes a systemic contact dermatitis to mango flesh, an entity less common than allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:18412816

Thoo, Caroline H F; Freeman, Susi

2008-05-01

97

Irradiation of carabao mangoes for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control of postharvest diseases of carabao mangoes by gamma radiation has been the subject of several local studies, notably that of Herrera and Valencia (1964) and Pablo et al (1971) which showed dose levels of 16.6 Kr. and 60 Kr. respectively, to be effective in extending the market life. The wide range of resorted effective dose levels for mangoes prompted this investigation which aimed to establish the pre-dominant spoilage-causing micro-organisms and the effectivity of irradiation in controlling or delaying the growth of these micro-organisms. (author)

98

An x-band peeled HEMT amplifier  

Science.gov (United States)

A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns thick peeled GaAs HEMT layer, eliminating the need for bond wires and creating a fully integrated circuit. Testing of devices indicate that the peeled device is not degraded by the peel off step but rather there is an improvement in the quantum well carrier confinement. Circuit testing resulted in a maximum gain of 8.5 dB and a return loss minimum of -12 dB.

Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1993-01-01

99

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

Yuh Shan Wong

2014-09-01

100

Comparative study of adsorption of Pb(II) on native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study using native garlic peel and mercerized garlic peel as adsorbents for the removal of Pb(2+) has been proposed. Under the optimized pH, contact time, and adsorbent dosage, the adsorption capacity of garlic peel after mercerization was increased 2.1 times and up to 109.05 mg g(-1). The equilibrium sorption data for both garlic peels fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the adsorbent-adsorbate kinetics followed pseudo-second-order model. These both garlic peels were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy, and the results indicated that mercerized garlic peel offers more little pores acted as adsorption sites than native garlic peel and has lower polymerization and crystalline and more accessible functional hydroxyl groups, which resulted in higher adsorption capacity than native garlic peel. The FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of both garlic peels before and after loaded with Pb(2+) further illustrated that lead was adsorbed on the through chelation between Pb(2+) and O atom existed on the surface of garlic peels. These results described above showed that garlic peel after mercerization can be a more attractive adsorbent due to its faster sorption uptake and higher capacity. PMID:24022100

Liu, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Tao, Yaqi; Yu, Youjie; Jiang, Hongmei; Lian, Hongzhen

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Development of a kolanut peeling device.  

Science.gov (United States)

A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p?peeling efficiency of the machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm. PMID:25328224

Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

2014-10-01

102

Single cell protein from mandarin orange peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40 degrees C, 24 h) produced 0.59 g g-1 reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120 degrees C with 0.8 N H2S04), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (g g-1) were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30 degrees C using 100g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts. (Refs. 12).

Mishio, M.; Magai, J.

1981-01-01

103

Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. T [...] he time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated. Abstract in english [...

M. R., Mafra; L., Igarashi-Mafra; D. R., Zuim; É. C., Vasques; M. A., Ferreira.

2013-09-01

104

Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

105

Irradiation and storage effects on sensorial and physical characteristics of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), quality of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation was used to determine its effect on the quality of U.S. mangoes irradiated in Canada with 60Co at a minimum dose of 0.60 and a maximum of 0.90 kGy. The sensory evaluation, the texture, the colour and total soluble solids content were assessed during 15 days storage period. Initially, the appearance of irradiated whole mangoes was preferred, but at the end of the storage period the reverse was observed. Although, the irradiation did not extend the shelf-life of mangoes, the pulp of irradiated mangoes was perferred for its colour, odour, taste and texture until day 9. The panelists preferred darker orange colour, fragrant, sweeter and soften mangoes

106

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

...mangiferae, Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae must be addressed by inspection during...Macrophoma mangiferae, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. (f) The mangoes may be...

2010-01-01

107

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

Kalpna Rakholiya

2013-01-01

108

Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

109

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYMILK ADDED WITH DRAGON FRUIT AND EGGPLANT PEEL EXTRACTS [Karakteristik Susu Kedelai dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Kulit Buah Naga dan Kulit Terong  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soymilk has become progressively consumed in Indonesia since early 1990. However, soymilk has a short shelf life due to its high protein content that promotes growth of spoilage microorganisms. This study was aimed at utilizing peel waste of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. and dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus, to prolong shelf life of fresh soymilk through microbial growth inhibition, so that it will not be easily contaminated during storage, transportation and distribution time to meet the needs of consumers. Microbiological analysis showed a notably higher inhibitory effect of dragon fruit peel extract when soymilk was stored at 4ºC and it exhibited lower number of colonies even after 6 days. Interestingly, the antimicrobial activity of eggplant peel extract in cold soymilk could only be observed on day 3 until day 9. Hence, it is assumed that chlorogenic acid, as a primary antimicrobial agent in eggplant peel, needed certain time interval to activate its inhibitory activity against microorganism. However, the two peel extracts could not prolong the shelf life of soymilk stored at ambient temperature. All soymilk samples added with the peel extracts fulfilled the Indonesian National standards (SNI for pH value, protein, and total solid content. Based on the sensory evaluation, the samples with dragon fruit peel extract attained a comparable acceptance level as plain soymilk and were favored over those added with eggplant extract. In conclusion, this research indicated potential applications of usual household waste of dragon fruit and eggplant peels as antimicrobial agents for protein-rich beverages.

Diana Sari Kusuma

2013-06-01

110

Determination of 17 organophosphate pesticide residues in mango by modified QuEChERS extraction method using GC-NPD/GC-MS and hazard index estimation in Lucknow, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg(-1)) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg(-1). Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg(-1) and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg(-1) which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%-100% and 46.66%-100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg(-1) and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg(-1) body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one. PMID:24809911

Srivastava, Ashutosh K; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M K; Lohani, M; Mudiam, M K R; Srivastava, L P

2014-01-01

111

Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake  

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Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

Chiraporn Sodchit

2013-12-01

112

Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

113

Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process  

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Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD, followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD, while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD. The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05 than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

J. Itelima

2013-04-01

114

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

115

Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2008-04-01

116

Storage ability of gamma irradiated mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extension of shelf-life have been achieved by many methods. the most modern one is using gamma irradiation as a promising technology for the developing nations. The aim of this investigation is to study the effects of gamma irradiation either alone or in combination with Alar or Benlate on 'Hindi Be Senara' mature green fruits and also to determine the optimum treatment and maximum extension in shelf - life. Mature-green 'Hindi be sinara' mango fruits were taken from trees planted in commercial orchard in 'kerdasa'Giza

117

Extratos etanólicos de manga como antioxidantes na alimentação de poedeiras / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for laying hens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos do caroço e da casca de manga, sobre o desempenho de poedeiras e sobre a qualidade e estabilidade lipídica dos ovos. Um total de 180 poedeiras comerciais Hisex White foi distribuído ao acaso em seis tratamentos, com cinco repetiçõ [...] es de seis aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante; ração com 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca de manga (Ecas); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato de caroço de manga (Ecar). Foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo produzida (grama por ave por dia), a conversão alimentar e características de qualidade dos ovos. A oxidação lipídica da gema durante o armazenamento foi determinada pela quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. As aves alimentadas com a ração sem adição de antioxidantes produziram ovos com os piores valores de unidade Haugh e maior oxidação lipídica da gema. Os teores de 400 ppm de Ecas e 200 ou 400 ppm de Ecar foram efetivos na prevenção de danos oxidativos aos ovos durante o armazenamento e podem ser utilizados na alimentação das poedeiras como substituto ao antioxidante sintético. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extracts of mango seeds and peel on laying hen performance, egg quality, and egg lipid stability. A total of 180 Hisex White hens were randomly distributed in six treatments, with five replicates of six birds. The treatments consisted [...] of: ration without antioxidant; ration with 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango peel extract (Ecas); and ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango seed extract (Ecar). Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, produced egg mass (gram by bird per day), feed conversion, and egg quality were evaluated. Yolk lipid oxidation during storage was determined by quantification of thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances. Birds fed diet without antioxidants produced eggs with the lowest Haugh unit values and the highest lipid oxidation of yolk. Ecas at 400 ppm and Ecar at 200 or 400 ppm were effective to prevent oxidative damage of eggs during storage and may be used in the diet of laying hens as a replacement for synthetic antioxidant.

Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Salles, Trevisan; André Luís da, Cunha; Nádia de Melo, Braz; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

118

New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

2002-03-01

119

Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste  

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Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture under optimized fermentation conditions and maximum activity of 412 ± 12 U/mL was recorded after 4th day of incubation at pH 5.5 and 30?. Exo 1, 4-? glucanase was 4.17-fold purified with specific activity of 642 U/mg in comparison to the crude extract. To confirm its purity and molecular weight, sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE was performed. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 60 kDa with an optimum pH and temperature of 5 and 50?, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plot revealed that the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of purified Exo 1, 4-? glucanase were 76 µM and 240 U/mL.

Muhammad Irshad

2012-09-01

120

Mineral Contents of Mango Seed Kernels  

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Full Text Available The mineral analysis of four commercially grown mango varieties (Maldah, Anwar Retaul, Chounsa and Dusehri included quantitative estimations of the macronutrients and micronutrients were carried out. These results showed that K range was I1.14-1.63g %, Ca (0.1075-1.11 25g %, Na (0.0575-0.1375g %. The contents (mgMOOg of other minerals i.e., Zn, Bi, Sr, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ni were in range of (6.10-10.20, (5.50-6.65, (1.60-1.65, (1.30-1.70, (0.70-1.20, (0.70-1.00, (0.30-0.60, (0.35-0.70, (0.20-1.55, (0.05-0.65 and (0.05-0.35 respectively. The variations in the contents of different minerals may be due to the change in soil composition, climatic conditions and varietal differences in parent trees. However, present studies are helpful to assess the food value of mango seed kernels particularly with regard to mineral contents.

Muhammad Aslam Shad

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Biological activity of feijoa peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractionated extracts of Feijoa peels were studied for cytotoxic activity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and antibacterial activity. Two most cytotoxic fractions A3 of acetone extract and M2 of methanol extract had potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Fraction A4 of acetone extract showed multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity comparable with that of verapamil (positive control). These results indicate the therapeutic value of Feijoa peel extracts as potential antimicrobial and MDR-modulating agents. PMID:11205266

Motohashi, N; Kawase, M; Shirataki, Y; Tani, S; Saito, S; Sakagami, H; Kurihara, T; Nakashima, H; Wolfard, K; Mucsi, I; Varga, A; Molnár, J

2000-01-01

122

Mango varieties “espada”, “rosa” and tommy atkins: bioactive compounds and antioxidant potentialMangas das variedades espada, rosa e tommy atkins: compostos bioativos e potencial antioxidante  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the amount of ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids and evaluate the antioxidant potential of mango varieties “Espada”, “Rosa” and Tommy Atkins. The fruits were ground to obtain the fresh pulp and waste resulting was dried, crushed to pass through sieve. Hydroacetone, hydromethanolic and aqueous extracts, obtained through sequential extraction procedure from pulp and dehydrated waste were screened for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging. The “espada” and Tommy Atkins mango showed similar levels of total carotenoids, however less than Rosa mango. The Tommy Atkins mango exhibited the lowest content of ascorbic acid and the espada mango the highest level of phenolic compounds. The extract hydroacetone (pulp and dehydrated waste exhibited a strong free radical scavenging capacity ( > 80%.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o teor de ácido ascórbico, carotenóides e fenólicos totais e avaliar o potencial antioxidante de mangas das variedades Espada, Rosa e Tommy Atkins. As frutas foram desintegradas para obtenção da polpa, os resíduos resultantes desidratados, triturados e tamisados. Extratos hidroacetônico, hidrometanólico e aquoso, obtidos por processo de extração sequencial a partir da polpa fresca e do resíduo desidratado foram submetidos à determinação da capacidade de seqüestro do radical DPPH. A manga Espada e a Tommy Atkins apresentaram teor de carotenóides totais semelhante entre si, porém inferior ao da manga Rosa. A manga Tommy Atkins exibiu o menor teor de ácido ascórbico e a Espada o maior teor de fenólicos totais. O extrato hidroacetônico da polpa e do resíduo exibiu uma forte capacidade de seqüestro (superior a 80%.

Cristiane Rodrigues de Araújo

2011-10-01

123

Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

124

Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

125

Heat treatment effects on ACC oxidase activity of 'Keitt' mangoes  

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Full Text Available With the use of ethylene dibromide for mango disinfestation being ruled out, vapor heat or hot water treatments are the only alternatives for quarantine treatments of mangoes. Physical treatments such as heat treatments have been implicated in higher incidence of physiological disorders and enhancement of ripening processes. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to determine the effects of hot water treatments on ethylene production and on the in vitro activity of ACC oxidase. Cv. Keitt mangoes were immersed for 3 min in hot water at 53 °C or 90 min in water at 46 °C. Immediately after the treatments, some of the mangoes were analyzed for ACC oxidase activity and others were stored to be analyzed after 4 days at 12 °C. There was a significant increase in the ACC oxidase activity just after the hot water treatments. After 4 days, only the mangoes treated for 90 min maintained high ethylene production and ACC oxidase activity. Tissue from the outer layers of the mesocarp had higher enzyme activity compared to tissues from the innermost layers of the mesocarp of heat-treated mangoes.

Bender Renar João

2003-01-01

126

Inhibitors of 15-lipoxygenase from orange peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of polymethoxylated flavonoids has been isolated from orange peel, and their inhibitory activity toward soybean 15-lipoxygenase was determined. The strongest inhibition was shown by 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone (IC(50) = 49 +/- 5 microM). Sinensetin, nobiletin, tangeretin, tetramethylscutellarein, and 3,5, 6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone were somewhat less active, with IC(50) values of 70-86 microM, comparable to the positive control quercetin (IC(50) = 68 +/- 5 microM). Demethylation apparently results in less active compounds, with 5-O-demethylsinensetin having an IC(50) value of 144 +/- 10 microM. Some other orange peel constituents were isolated and tested as well, hesperidin (IC(50) = 180 +/- 10 microM) and ferulic acid (111 +/- 2 microM), showing moderate activity. The polymethoxylated flavonoids were virtually inactive as scavengers of the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical. Hesperidin was only slightly active (24.2 +/- 0.7% scavenged at a concentration of 2 mM), and ferulic acid showed good activity (IC(50) = 86.4 +/- 0.7 microM). From this, it appears that orange peel constituents may counteract enzymatic lipid peroxidation processes catalyzed by 15-lipoxygenase in vitro. The radical scavenging activity of orange peel extracts is only modest. PMID:11087521

Malterud, K E; Rydland, K M

2000-11-01

127

[Corneal acid burning after facial peeling].  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the case of a 66-year-old woman who had previously undergone facial peeling and developed severe bilateral corneal burn due to direct contact Exopeel((R)) with her eyes. Despite medical treatment and an amniotic membrane graft, deep stromal opacity persisted in one eye. PMID:12048516

Zidi, M; Bourcier, T; Legall, J C; Touzeau, O; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

2002-05-01

128

Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: Stabilization of corn oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antioxidant potential of 80% methanolic extracts of some agro wastes (pomegranate peel, apple peel, banana peel, citrus peel, corncob, wheat husk, wheat bran, rice bran, and rice hull) was assessed. The yields of the extracts varied over a wide range (8.83 to 29.9 g/100g of dry weight). TPC, TFC, total flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin; HPLC method), DPPH. radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation for the extracts varied significantly (P < 0.05) ranging fr...

Ali Shahid Chatha, Shahzad; Rafique Asi, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Sultana, Bushra

2008-01-01

129

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

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Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1. Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

130

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

131

Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

2014-06-01

132

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

Bustos R, M.E.; Enkerlin H, W.; Toledo A, J.; Reyes F, J.; Casimiro G, A

1991-06-15

133

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

134

76 FR 26946 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase  

Science.gov (United States)

...funding in the face of market instability. The Board...of the U.S. mango market. Second, the Board...designed to strengthen the position of mangos in the marketplace...and expand U.S. markets for mangos. The program...States. In order to sustain and expand its...

2011-05-10

135

77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase  

Science.gov (United States)

...funding in the face of market instability. The Board...of the U.S. mango market. Second, the Board...designed to strengthen the position of mangos in the marketplace...and expand U.S. markets for mangos. The program...States. In order to sustain and expand its...

2012-04-12

136

Irradiation quarantine treatments for mango seed weevil and Cryptophlebia spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method to prevent adult emergence in, or to sterilize, mango seed weevil. Mixed-age mango seed weevils in mangoes were irradiated with target doses of 50, 100, or 300 Gy and held for adult emergence. The 300 Gy treatment (dose range 180-310 Gy) did not prevent adult emergence. Emerging adults from the 100 and 300 Gy treatments were lethargic and short-lived, and laid no eggs indicating sterility. An irradiation quarantine treatment (300 Gy) to sterilize mango seed weevil in mangoes has been approved. This treatment opens U.S. mainland markets to mango exports from Hawaii. Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) and C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests that attack lychee, longan, rambutan, mangoes and other fruits in Hawaii. Studies were undertaken to determine whether irradiation treatment at 250 Gy, an accepted treatment for disinfestation of fruit flies in tropical fruits from Hawaii, would also control the two Cryptophlebia species (Follett and Lower 2000). C. illepida was determined to be more tolerant of irradiation than C. ombrodelta and so C. illepida was used in detailed tests. Using the criterion of success in developing to the adult stage, the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in C. illepida was generally eggs< early instars< late instars< pupae. The most tolerant stage that could potentially occur in harvested fruits is the late (fourth and fifth) instar. No C. illepida larvae receiving an irradiation dose ?125 Gy and emerging as adults produced viable eggs, indicating sterility can be achieved at doses <250 Gy. Large-scale tests in which 11,256 late instars were irradiated with a target dose of 250 Gy resulted in a pupation rate of only 8.4% and no adult eclosion. Therefore, the irradiation quarantine treatment of a minimum absorbed dose of 250 Gy approved for Hawaii's fruit flies will effectively disinfest fruits of any Cryptophlebia in addition to fruit flies. (author)

137

Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

138

Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

2013-06-01

139

Peeling of a tape with large deformations and frictional sliding  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical model of peeling of an elastic tape from a substrate is presented for large deformations and scenarios where sliding occurs in the adhered regions, with this motion resisted by interfacial shear tractions. Two geometries are considered: the first has a detached segment of the tape forming the shape of an inverted letter 'V' between adhered sections (double-sided peeling), and the second has a free end of the tape being pulled (single-sided peeling). The mechanics of peeling is analyzed in terms of the applied force, displacement of the load point and the angle that the peeled tape makes with the substrate. Formulae are provided for the energy released per unit area of peeling that explicitly and separately account for the work done by frictional sliding. Assuming that peeling occurs when the energy released per unit area equals the work of separation for purely normal separation, it is shown that the critical force to propagate peeling can be significantly higher with sliding as compared to pure sticking. Similarly, due to frictional dissipation, the amount of work done by the applied force needed to propagate peeling can be significantly greater than the work of separation. For the single-sided peel test, an effective mixed-mode interface toughness is presented to be used with purely sticking models when sliding is not explicitly modeled: the closed-form result closely mirrors common empirical forms used to predict mixed-mode delamination.

Begley, Matthew R.; Collino, Rachel R.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; McMeeking, Robert M.

2013-05-01

140

Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

2012-03-30

 
 
 
 
141

Genetic Divergence in Mango and Obtaining Minimum Efficient Descriptors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangifera indica (mango is a typically tropical fruit with considerable economic value. Brazil features a wide variety of cultivars of this fruit, most of which are known under several different names. Indeed, the nomenclature of mango varieties is still quite confusing. Up to now there has been no well-defined scientific principle to differentiate them. The objective of the present work is to compare the different clustering methods in assessing genetic divergence among mango accessions, as well as identify the minimum efficient descriptors for that crop. A total of 20 mango accessions in Cáceres, Mato Grosso state, Brazil were evaluated. When building dissimilarity matrices, the descriptors were divided according to the following groups: leaf, flower/inflorescence, fruit, seed and growth habit/ripening period. With these divisions, combinations were performed among the groups of descriptors. The similarity index was used to obtain the dissimilarity matrices. Later, the accessions were clustered using the methods of Tocher, Ward and UPGMA. The study observed that it was possible to reduce the number of descriptors from 64 to 35, and that the clustering methods were compatible with the study of the genetic diversity of mango.

Sandra da Costa Preisigke

2013-11-01

142

Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

143

Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Pl...

Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

2010-01-01

144

Protective effect of potato peel powder in ameliorating oxidative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of dietary potato peel (PP) powder in ameliorating oxidative stress (OS) and hyperglycemia was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In a 4-week feeding trial, incorporation of potato peel powder (5 and 10%) in the diet of diabetic rats was found to significantly reduce the plasma glucose level and also reduce drastically the polyuria of STZ diabetic rats. The total food intake was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats fed 10% PP powder compared to the control diabetic rats. However, the body weight gain over 28 days was nearly four times greater in PP powder supplemented diabetic rats (both at 5 and 10%) compared to the control diabetic rats. PP powder in the diet also decreased the elevated activities of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and nearly normalized the hepatic MDA and GSH levels as well as the activities of specific antioxidant enzymes in liver of diabetic rats. The result of these studies clearly establishes the modulatory propensity of PP against diabetes induced alterations. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these results suggest the possibility that PP waste could be effectively used as an ingredient in health and functional food to ameliorate certain disease states such as diabetes. PMID:16021831

Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Rajini, P S

2005-06-01

145

USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram environment. The Simulink based customizable framework is designed for rapid simulation, implementation, and verification of video processing systems. In this work the comparative analysis of various mangos video edge detection methods is like Sobel, Prewitt, and Canny is presented.

Manza R.R., Gaikwad B.P. and Manza G.R.

2012-03-01

146

Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

2005-03-01

147

Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-01-01

148

The peel test in experimental adhesive fracture mechanics  

Science.gov (United States)

Several testing methods have been proposed for obtaining critical energy release rate or adhesive fracture energy in bond systems. These tests include blister, cone, lap shear, and peel tests. Peel tests have been used for many years to compare relative strengths of different adhesives, different surface preparation techniques, etc. The present work demonstrates the potential use of the peel test for obtaining adhesive fracture energy values.

Anderson, G. P.; Devries, K. L.; Williams, M. L.

1974-01-01

149

Peeling of Polydimethylsiloxane Adhesives : the Case of Adhesive Failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adhesion properties of high molecular weight Polydimethylsiloxane adhesives are measured using 90°-peel adhesion tests, in the high velocity range. Such adhesives undergo mainly adhesive failure in this regime. The influence of viscosity (non-Newtonian), adhesive thickness, peeling velocity, and backing properties are studied, and new unexpected behaviours are shown. The role of rheology and peeling velocity can be explained by an extension of a model already presented for cohesive failu...

Verdier, Claude; Ravilly, Guillaume

2007-01-01

150

Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.. Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.. The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

Murillo Freire Júnior

1999-05-01

151

Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

152

Thermodynamic Properties of Chromium (III Ion Adsorption by Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The adsorption of Cr (III ion from aqueous solution using orange peels as adsorbent was investigated using batch equilibrium technique. The research is significant as it’s aimed at investigating the suitability of orange peel, a waste product as adsorbent for the adsorption of Cr (III ions from aqueous solution. Orange peel as an adsorbent is resource-saving and has an environmental friendly behavior. Adsorption envelope experiment was conducted using a constant Cr (III ion concentration of 0.1 M, adsorbent dose of 2.5 g and a temperature of 30°C at varying solution pH of 2, 4, 7, 9 and 12 respectively with pH of 2 having the highest adsorption and therefore it was selected for use in the adsorption isotherm experiment. Adsorption isotherm experiment was conducted at varying temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C, concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.3 M Cr(NO33. Thermodynamic parameters such as ?G, ?H, ?Hr, ?A, and ?S were calculated from the experimental data which showed that the adsorption process is feasible, spontaneous and followed physisorption mechanism 9H2O and adsorbent dosage (1 g, 1.5 g and 2 g respectively. The experimental results were tested using Langmuir, Freundlich, Linear and Temkin adsorption isotherm models. The experimental data best fitted the Freundlich isotherm model. The experimental results revealed the suitability of orange peel which is a waste product as effective adsorbent for the sorption of chromium (III ions from aqueous solution.

Fabian A. Ugbe

2014-07-01

153

Two new Ceratocystis species associated with mango disease in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangifera indica, a disease known as mango blight, murcha or seca da mangueira in Brazil, is caused by the canker wilt pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato. It is also closely associated with infestation by the non-native wood-boring beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). The aim of this study was to characterize Ceratocystis isolates obtained from diseased mango trees in Brazil. Identification was based on sequence data from ITS1+5.8S+ITS2 rDNA, part o...

Wyk, Marelize; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Al Adawi, Ali O.; Rossetto, Carlos J.; Ito, Margarida Fumiko; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

154

Moisture Desorption Isotherms for Fresh and Osmotically Treated Mangoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desorption isotherms of fresh and osmotically treated mangoes have been measured at 25, 35 and 45 ° C by the static method using a Novasina manometer. A non-linear regression program was used to fit three moisture sorption isotherm models, Modified-Halsey; Modified-Henderson and Modified-Oswin to the experimental data. The Modified-Henderson and the Modified-Oswin models gave the best fit for moisture desorption isotherms for fresh and osmotically treated mangoes, respectively. The osmotic pretreatment affected the graphical form of the desorption isotherms because of biopolymer binding at low aw values and dissolution of sucrose at high aw values.

Pheeraya Chottanom

2005-01-01

155

Optimisation of freeze drying conditions for purified serine protease from mango (Mangifera indicaCv. Chokanan) peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the possible relationship between the encapsulation variables, namely serine protease content (9-50mg/ml, X1), Arabic gum (0.2-10%(w/w), X2), maltodextrin (2-5%(w/w), X3) and calcium chloride (1.3-5.5%(w/w), X4) on the enzymatic properties of encapsulated serine protease. The study demonstrated that Arabic gum, maltodextrin and calcium chloride, as coating agents, protected serine protease from activity loss during freeze-drying. The overall optimum region resulted in a suitable freeze drying condition with a yield of 92% for the encapsulated serine protease, were obtained using 29.5mg/ml serine protease content, 5.1%(w/w) Arabic gum, 3.5%(w/w) maltodextrin and 3.4%(w/w) calcium chloride. It was found that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and calcium chloride improved the serine protease activity, and Arabic gum was the most effective amongst the examined coating agents. Thus, Arabic gum should be considered as potential protection in freeze drying of serine protease. PMID:25214343

Mehrnoush, Amid; Tan, Chin Ping; Hamed, Mirhosseini; Aziz, Norashikin Ab; Ling, Tau Chuan

2011-09-01

156

Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of citrus peel for growth. We used engineered A. niger strains that were not able to catabolise D-galacturonic acid, but instead converted it to L-galactonic acid. These strains also produced pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and were used for the conversion of pectin in orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process. The D-galacturonic acid in the orange peel was converted to L-galactonic acid with a yield close to 90%. Submerged and solid-state fermentation processes were compared. PMID:24949267

Kuivanen, Joosu; Dantas, Hugo; Mojzita, Dominik; Mallmann, Edgar; Biz, Alessandra; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David; Richard, Peter

2014-01-01

157

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology / Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos), todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. [...] Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm), a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC) durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem. Abstract in english Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles) acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combinin [...] g the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm) at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC) during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1) was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.

Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de, Azeredo; Fátima Beatriz Silva de, Araújo; Deborah dos Santos, Garruti; Ana Amélia Martins, Queiroz; Gustavo Adolfo Saavedra, Pinto.

158

Stability of mango cubes preserved by hurdle technology Estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela tecnologia de obstáculos  

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Full Text Available Fruit preservation by hurdle technology is based on combinations of low levels of various antimicrobial factors (hurdles acting synergistically resulting in a shelf stable high moisture, fresh-like product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the stability of mango cubes obtained by combining the following hurdles: water activity reduction, pH reduction, and chemical preservation. Tommy Atkins mangoes, previously washed, sanitized and peeled, were cut into cubes of approximately 8 cm³. The cubes were osmotically dehydrated under stirring (150 rpm at 46ºC in a sucrose solution at 65.5oBrix added with 2% citric acid and 0.2% potassium sorbate, during two hours. The product was drained, packed in low-density polyethylene bags and stored at room temperature (about 25ºC during three months. The combination of hurdles on the final product (water activity, 0.96; pH, 3.99; potassium sorbate content, 396 mg.kg-1 was not effective to make it shelf stable, since the count of yeasts and molds increased. The cubes underwent pH reduction and color losses during storage. Furthermore, the acceptance of the product, as well as, the mango flavor intensity, decrease significantly with storage time.A conservação pela tecnologia de obstáculos baseia-se na combinação de vários fatores antimicrobianos (obstáculos, todos aplicados em baixos níveis, atuando sinergicamente e resultando em um produto de alta umidade, semelhante ao correspondente fresco, e com boa estabilidade à temperatura ambiente. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a estabilidade de cubos de manga conservados pela combinação dos seguintes obstáculos: redução da atividade de água, redução do pH e conservação química. Mangas Tommy Atkins, previamente lavadas, sanitizadas e descascadas, foram cortadas em cubos de aproximadamente 8 cm³. Os cubos foram desidratados osmoticamente, sob agitação (150 rpm, a 46ºC em uma solução de sacarose a 65,5ºBrix contendo 2% de ácido cítrico e 0,2% de sorbato de potássio, durante duas horas. O produto foi drenado, acondicionado em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade e estocado à temperatura ambiente (cerca de 25ºC durante três meses. A combinação de obstáculos não foi suficiente para tornar o produto estável, já que a contagem de fungos filamentosos e leveduras aumentou. Os cubos sofreram redução de pH e perda de cor durante a estocagem. Além disso, a aceitação do produto, assim como a intensidade do sabor da manga, diminuiram significativamente com o tempo de estocagem.

Henriette Monteiro Cordeiro de Azeredo

2005-04-01

159

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

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Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali, Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna, Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P., its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrapali followed by Rad, Mallika, BARI mango-1 and BARI mango-2 and the lowest infestation of 13.78 and 18.55% found in Langra and Gopalbhog followed by Kazla-01 and Khirsapath. The other three varieties sustained 27.49-30.64 % leaf damage. To control the mango leaf cutting weevil bagging with mosquito net and bagging with polythin bag had the best performance with 100% reduction of leaf infestation followed by spraying of Ripcord. Spraying of Decis caused 82.23 % reduction of leaf damage followed by Sevin, Azodrin and Diazinon with the least control efficiency of Sumithion.

M. A. Uddin

2003-01-01

160

Cystic fibrosis as a rare cause of apple peel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apple peel atresia is a special form of intestinal atresia with absence of mesentery. It is most likely due to an intrauterine intestinal vascular accident and has been described with other anomalies. Meconium ileus can compromise blood supply causing intestinal atresia. Therefore, cystic fibrosis needs to be ruled out in apple peel syndrome. PMID:24435787

Broekaert, I J; van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, S; Rietschel, E

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Single cell protein production from mandarin orange peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As the hydrolysis of mandarin orange peel with macerating enzyme (40/sup 0/C,24 h)produced 0.59 g g/sup -1/ reducing sugar per dry peel compared to 0.36 by acid-hydrolysis (15 min at 120/sup 0/C with 0.8 N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), the production of single cell protein (SCP) from orange peel was studied mostly using enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel. When the enzymatically hydrolyzed peel media were used, the utilization efficiency of reducing sugars (%) and the growth yield from reducing sugars (gg/sup -1/)were: 63 and 0.51 for Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 56 and 0.48 for Candida utilis; 74 and 0.69 for Debaryomyces hansenii and 64 and 0.70 for Rhodotorula glutinis. SCP production from orange peel by D. hansenii and R. glutinis were further studied. Batch cultures for 24 h at 30/sup 0/C using 100 g dried orange peel produced 45 g of dried cultivated peel (protein content, 33%) with D. hansenii and 34 g (protein content, 50%) with R. glutinis, and 38 g (protein content, 44%) with a mixture of both yeasts.

Nishio, N.; Nagai, S.

1981-01-01

162

Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly reduced blood glucose in both male (?4.45 mg/dL, P = 0.018) and female (?3.56 mg/dL, P = 0.003) participants. In addition, hip circumference was reduced in male (?3.3 cm, P = 0.048) but not in female participants. However, there were no significant changes in body weight or composition in either gender. Our findings indicate that regular consumption of freeze-dried mango by obese individuals does not negatively impact body weight but provides a positive effect on fasting blood glucose. PMID:25210462

Evans, Shirley F; Meister, Maureen; Mahmood, Maryam; Eldoumi, Heba; Peterson, Sandra; Perkins-Veazie, Penelope; Clarke, Stephen L; Payton, Mark; Smith, Brenda J; Lucas, Edralin A

2014-01-01

163

Improved Manager of Next Generation Sequencing Orders - MANGO  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Genomics Center Zurich (FGCZ) is a joint state-of-the-art research and training facility of the ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich. With latest technologies and expert support in genomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, the FGCZ carries out research projects and technology development in collaboration with the Zurich Life Science research community. The FGCZ offers services for different applications on the Illumina HiSeq2500, Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent, Ion Proton and PACBIO RS. At the FGCZ, we handle hundreds of NGS projects a year. We conceptualized, developed and implemented the MANGO to help manage, track, monitor and document our various and diverse NGS service orders. The MANGO works in multiple levels, first, it is a web accessible sample tracking system. It can be accessed and sample data can be added in real-time through a computer, an android tablet or an Ipad. Second, it manages multiplexing of sequencing runs because it can detect sub-optimal index combinations from various popular commericial kits and self made indices. Third, the MANGO creates well-formatted sample sheets for the various sequencers available in the FGCZ. Fourth, it can accept data in .csv format from instruments used for QC during library preparation. And lastly, it is flexible in adapting to the ever changing NGS workflows and instrumentations. In the poster, we will present the new features that have been implemented in the MANGO.

Georgijevic, J. K.; Schlapbach, R.; Fournier, C. A.

2014-01-01

164

76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...issued under the Mango Promotion, Research, and Consumer...authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information...that the Act shall not affect or preempt any other...Federal law authorizing promotion or research relating...with direct customer sales experience. The...

2011-03-14

165

76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...issued under the Mango Promotion, Research, and Consumer...authorized by the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information...that the Act shall not affect or preempt any other...Federal law authorizing promotion or research relating...with direct customer sales experience. The...

2011-06-22

166

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

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Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

Ibrahim, D.

2013-12-01

167

Banana Peel: A Green and Economical Sorbent for Cr(III Removal  

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Full Text Available Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5mL of 2 M HNO3. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III from industrial wastewater.

Jamil R. Memon

2008-06-01

168

Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

169

Biochemical properties of alpha-amylase from peel of Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora.  

Science.gov (United States)

alpha-Amylase activity was screened in the peel, as waste fruit, of 13 species and cultivars of Egyptian citrus. The species Citrus sinensis cv. Abosora had the highest activity. alpha-Amylase AI from Abosora peel was purified to homogeneity using anion and cation-exchange, and gel filtration chromatographies. Molecular weight of alpha-amylase AI was found to be 42 kDa. The hydrolysis properties of alpha-amylase AI toward different substrates indicated that corn starch is the best substrate. The alpha-amylase had the highest activity toward glycogen compared with amylopectin and dextrin. Potato starch had low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI but it did not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran. Apparent Km for alpha-amylase AI was 5 mg (0.5%) starch/ml. alpha-Amylase AI showed optimum activity at pH 5.6 and 40 degrees C. The enzyme was thermally stable up to 40 degrees C and inactivated at 70 degrees C. The effect of mono and divalent metal ions were tested for the alpha-amylase AI. Ba2+ was found to have activating effect, where as Li+ had negligible effect on activity. The other metals caused inhibition effect. Activity of the alpha-amylase AI was increased one and half in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+ and was found to be partially inactivated at 10 mM Ca2+. The reduction of starch viscosity indicated that the enzyme is endoamylase. The results suggested that, in addition to citrus peel is a rich source of pectins and flavanoids, alpha-amylase AI from orange peel could be involved in the development and ripening of citrus fruit and may be used for juice processing. PMID:19941088

Mohamed, Saleh Ahmed; Drees, Ehab A; El-Badry, Mohamed O; Fahmy, Afaf S

2010-04-01

170

Waste  

Oct 18, 2005 ... powers affected by the Clean Neighbourhoods and. Environment ... 3. Waste. \\Transport of Waste. This part of the document provides guidance on ... notices for \\failure to produce the required authority to .... to five years.” Waste.

171

Lenticel development and discolouration in the fruit of some mango (mangifera indica L.) cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lenticels are macroscopic openings occurring on the surface of roots, shoots and some fruits like apples, pears, avocados and mangos and are responsible for gaseous exchange and transpiration. The discolouration of the lenticels of some mango cultivars is a serious problem, affecting the economic value of the fruit, especially in ‘TA’ and ‘Keitt’ while problems with lenticel discolouration are seldom found in ‘Kent’. Mango fruit lenticels develop from ruptured stomata on fruit fro...

Bezuidenhout, Jan Louis Johannes

2005-01-01

172

FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA ESCAMA BLANCA DEL MANGO (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead) EN NAYARIT, MÉXICO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Los estudios se desarrollaron de 2003 a 2005 en huertos comerciales de tres cultivares de mango en Las Varas, Nayarit, México, con los objetivos siguientes: a) generar información sobre la fluctuación poblacional anual y b) la distribución dentro de los árboles de la escama blanca del mango. Se determinó que Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) es la especie que ataca al mango en Nayarit. Ocurrieron tres fases en el crecimiento poblacional durante el año. Una de ba...

Zquez-valdivia, V. Vu E.; Osuna-garcu Eda, J. A.; Pez, M. A. Uru Edas-lu F.; Rez-barraza, M. H. Pu E.

2010-01-01

173

Mapping the economic structure and organisation of selected South African mango export supply chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation is the outcome of a study to map the economic structure and organisation of two selected mango export chains from South Africa by applying selected supply chain analysis tools. The study is part of an inventory on the export of fresh fruit and vegetables commissioned by the European Commission under the Veg-i-Trade Project Work Package 1. The two selected chains were the Bavaria fresh mango and the Blue Skies freshly cut mango export supply chains. The study so...

Mahoya, Sophia

2013-01-01

174

Polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale L. tree gum (Policaju) as a coating for Tommy Atkins mangoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Policaju-based coatings were applied on “Tommy Atkins” mangoes and the effects of four different treatments on mango shelf-life were evaluated under storage condition at 4?C and 82 % of relative humidity over 28 days. The surface tension of mangoes was found to be 29.04 mN m?1; the dispersive and polar components were 27.57 mN m?1 and 1.47 mN m?1, respectively, and the critical surface tension was 22.7 mN m?1. A significantly lower mass loss was observed in all mango...

Souza, Marthyna P.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Souza, B. W. S.; Teixeira, J. A.; Porto, Ana L. F.; Vicente, A. A.; Carneiro-da-cunha, Maria G.

2010-01-01

175

The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca++ and release of CO2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca++ treatment alone

176

Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

2004-01-01

177

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

Bennet D

2013-12-01

178

Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase. PMID:24651387

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loïc

2014-01-01

179

77 FR 71775 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant...of Mangoes From India Into the Continental...of mangoes from India into the continental...Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS...of mangoes from India, contact Mr. William...the Secretary of Agriculture to restrict...

2012-12-04

180

Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

Okojie L. O.

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

182

Mango Varietal Susceptibility to Malformation and its Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These studies were carried out in six mango cultivars to assess the intensity of malformation and evaluate the control measure of the malady through removal of the infected shoots during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. The malformation was found highest in cv., Anwar Retaul (56.63%. Mango cvs., Chaunsa and Malda borne medium percentage of malformation i.e., 44.05 and 43.05%, respectively. The intensity was moderately low in Dusehri and Langra with values of 36.73 and 34.48%. The malformation susceptibility was found lowest in Sensation (16.51%. The removal of the malformed shoots at pea size stage of fruit development, resulted in reduction of the malady on an average of 60.79% in the subsequent year. However, the response of different varieties to removal of affected shoots for the control of the disease was variable.

Fayyaz Ahmad

2002-01-01

183

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

184

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

185

Calidad de mango `ataulfo´ sometido a tratamiento hidrotérmico  

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En esta investigación se determinó el efecto del tratamiento hidrotérmico (46.1 ºC/75 min) y temperaturas de almacenamiento (10, 13 y 20 ºC) en la calidad del mango ?Ataulfo?. Los frutos sometidos a tratamiento hidrotérmico desarrollaron mejor color y presentaron menor acidez titulable, pero aceleraron su proceso de maduración. Los daños por frío se presentaron a la segunda semana de almacenamiento con 67 % de incidencia a temperatura de 10 ºC en los&...

Gregorio Luna Esquivel; Valo Galarza, Ma Lourdes Aru E.; Socorro Anaya Rosales; Ngel Villegas Monter, U. C.; Marcelo Acosta Ramos; Gabriel Leyva Ruelas

2006-01-01

186

Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments

187

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2 degrees Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23 degrees Brix was inoculated with 3% (w/v) Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and held at 30 +/- 2 degrees C for 28 days. SS and pH decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing period of fermentation. Fermentation was 110% efficient. The wine produced had 8.12% (v/v) alcohol, 0.78% protein, 6.5% Brix SS, 0.64 g/100 ml TA, and a pH 3.10. Sensory evaluation results showed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.05) in colour, mouthfeel, sweetness, flavour and general acceptability, between African Bush mango wine and a reference wine. The wine was generally accepted. PMID:8865330

Akubor, P I

1996-04-01

188

Insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the three insects studied. PMID:11198181

Ezeonu, F C; Chidume, G I; Udedi, S C

2001-02-01

189

Chemical Peels for Melasma in Dark-Skinned Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melasma is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, which has a severe impact on the quality of life. Inspite of tremendous research, the treatment remains frustrating both to the patient and the treating physician. Dark skin types (Fitzpatrick types IV to VI) are especially difficult to treat owing to the increased risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The treatment ranges from a variety of easily applied topical therapies to agents like lasers and chemical peels. Peels are a wel...

Sarkar, Rashmi; Bansal, Shuchi; Garg, Vijay K.

2012-01-01

190

Reduced peeling losses in Mexican pine, after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Centro de Estudios Nucleares UNAM, a wood-chip irradiation method was developed on the hypothesis that gamma irradiation would result in higher Kraft pulp yields. The effects of irradiation on the susceptibility of wood hemicellulose to alkaline peeling degradation were investigated by peeling loss test. Maximum pulp yields were obtained at 0.025 Mrad for irradiated air-dried wood meal, and at 0.012 Mrad for saturated humidity wood meal

191

Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. PMID:24907732

Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

2014-08-01

192

Waste  

...of DownHistoric Monuments of FermanaghNatural HeritageWasteWater ManagementWildlifeWildlife GardeningNanotechnologyLooking for HelpWasteLast updated: 2 April 2010In Northern Ireland each household...

193

Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor  

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Full Text Available Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

Ana Luiza Pinheiro

2011-12-01

194

Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin. In addition FRAP method was used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The results of colorimetric method showed that there was high concentration of flavonoids in all investigated samples, especially in peels (1156 mg/100 g in Satsuma peel and 804 mg/100 g in Clementine peel. Among the flavonone glycosides, hesperidin, was determined in the highest concentration in both investigated pulps. In peels flavanon glycosides were present in decreasing sequence as follow: narirutin>hesperidin>naringin. According to FRAP method, all samples possess an evident antioxidant capacity especially peels. Correlation between total flavonoids, hesperidin, naringin, narirutin and antioxidant capacity was very high with correlation coefficiants between 0.81 and 0.98.

Branka Levaj

2009-12-01

195

Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

2007-01-01

196

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

197

RNA mango aptamer-fluorophore: a bright, high-affinity complex for RNA labeling and tracking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because RNA lacks strong intrinsic fluorescence, it has proven challenging to track RNA molecules in real time. To address this problem and to allow the purification of fluorescently tagged RNA complexes, we have selected a high affinity RNA aptamer called RNA Mango. This aptamer binds a series of thiazole orange (fluorophore) derivatives with nanomolar affinity, while increasing fluorophore fluorescence by up to 1,100-fold. Visualization of RNA Mango by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, together with injection and imaging of RNA Mango/fluorophore complex in C. elegans gonads demonstrates the potential for live-cell RNA imaging with this system. By inserting RNA Mango into a stem loop of the bacterial 6S RNA and biotinylating the fluorophore, we demonstrate that the aptamer can be used to simultaneously fluorescently label and purify biologically important RNAs. The high affinity and fluorescent properties of RNA Mango are therefore expected to simplify the study of RNA complexes. PMID:25101481

Dolgosheina, Elena V; Jeng, Sunny C Y; Panchapakesan, Shanker Shyam S; Cojocaru, Razvan; Chen, Patrick S K; Wilson, Peter D; Hawkins, Nancy; Wiggins, Paul A; Unrau, Peter J

2014-10-17

198

Economic evaluation of extending shelf-life of mangoes by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reviews the status of cultivation, annual production, local consumption and export volume of mangoes in Egypt. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual losses due to fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of mangoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of mangoes in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of mangoes for extending shelf-life has been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Studies have been carried out in Egypt since 1970 to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated mangoes. Nevertheless not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. In this study the 'Egypt's Mega Gamma I' Irradiator (with cobalt-60 source) was used. (author)

199

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

200

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g?g?1 in control sample to 0.382 g?g?1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g?g?1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

Jaime Saucedo Luna

2012-08-01

202

Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption using yellow passion fruit peel as adsorbent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The removal of color from aquatic systems caused by presence of synthetic dyes is extremely important from the environmental viewpoint because most of these dyes are toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. In this present study, the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Degener) peel a powdered solid waste, was tested as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of a basic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of MB onto this natural adsorbent was studied by batch adsorption isotherms at room temperature. The effects of shaking time and pH on adsorption capacity were studied. An alkaline pH was favorable for the adsorption of MB. The contact time required to obtain the maximum adsorption was 56 h at 25 degrees C. Yellow passion fruit peel may be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove MB from aqueous solutions. PMID:17692516

Pavan, Flávio André; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

2008-05-01

203

Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas / Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ta [...] manho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao final de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, si [...] ze and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each period, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; José Carlos, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado.

204

Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas / Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ta [...] manho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao final de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, si [...] ze and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each period, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; José Carlos, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado.

2013-06-01

205

Chemical Studies of the Peel of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Tannia Cocoyam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The peels of xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam which is locally called kunkoro in Nupe land from four farms; randomly sampled to represent the four geographical areas in Bida, Niger State of Nigeria, were analyzed for their nutritive and anti-nutritional contents using standard analytical methods. The nutritive content of the peel and its effect on the period of sampling was also investigated, as a first step in their possible modification for use as animal feed. The results obtained show that samples collected during dry season contained more nutrients (proteins, lipid, etc. than those collected during the wet season. Macro-minerals (Na, K, Ca and P being the highest while the micro-mineral nutrients such as Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu etc were found to be generally lower than the dietary mineral requirement for animal feeds. The protein content of the peel ranged between 6.30-17.6%, while fibre and carbohydrate contents were 10.7-19.7% and 41.2-46.0% respectively. The lipid content was generally low and ranged between 0.70-2.14%. The peels collected during dry season contained lower concentration of phytate which ranged between (1.26-1.43%, hydrogen cyanide (3.17-3.20%, soluble oxalate (1.18-1.69% and tannin (1.43-8.24% than the peels collected during wet season, with the exception of sample CYD. These anti-nutritional factors in all the cocoyam peel studied were generally low, yet critical to the safety of the consumer as it affects bioavailability of some essential minerals. The proximate analysis of the peels suggests that they could serve as supplementary sources of essential nutrients for livestock production, especially with their low levels of anti-nutritional factors.

J.J. Bonire

2013-01-01

206

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

2004-01-15

207

Peeling off an adhesive layer with spatially varying modulus.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze here displacement controlled peeling of a flexible adherent off a thin layer of elastic adhesive, the elastic modulus of which does not remain uniform but varies periodically along the direction of peeling. Calculation shows that with progressive peeling, the crack front does not propagate continuously at the interface but intermittently with crack arrests and subsequent initiations. The crack gets arrested close to the location of the minimum shear modulus of the layer and initiates again only at a sufficiently large peel off load. This effect is very similar to the peeling experiment off surface patterned and microchannel embedded adhesives which results in significant enhancement of fracture toughness of the interface over smooth adhesive layers. The fracture toughness of the interface increases with the increase in thickness of the layer and the amplitude of variation in modulus. Fracture toughness is calculated to be high also for the larger value of critical stress at the opening of the crack. With the wavelength of modulus variation, it varies nonmonotonically, maximizing at an intermediate value. These results define the criterion for designing adhesive layers with spatially modulated physical properties useful for variety of applications. PMID:20365570

Ghatak, Animangsu

2010-02-01

208

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L. Peel Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L. peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich source of flavanones and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants. These compounds, not only play an important physiological and ecological role, but are also of commercial interest because of their multitude of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The citrus peel oils show strong antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity has been checked in terms of MIC by using different solvents against microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036 for which MIC was 1:20 in presence of methanol, for Salmonella typhimurium NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 in presence of acetone. In case of Micrococcus aureus NCIM 5021 the observed MIC was 1:20 when ethanol was used as solvent. The compounds like coumarin and tetrazene were identified by GC/MS of lemon peel extract.

Maruti J. Dhanavade

2011-08-01

209

Microbial and Chemical Evaluation of Whey-Based Mango Beverage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out on the development and storage of Whey Based Mango beverage. The storability of the beverage was studied at 4±1ºC for 30 days. The storage study showed that there is an increasing trend in the TSS, acidity, and reducing sugar and a decreasing trend in the pH and ascorbic acid but total sugar has non significant effect during storage. Total viable count, Yeast and mold count, Coliform count, and Salmonella count was analyzed using standard methods. The Total Viable...

Ahmed Eltayeb Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader; Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

210

Bioconversion Efficiency of ?-Carotene from Mango Fruit and Carrots in Vitamin A  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bioconversion efficiency of ?-Carotene (BC in vitamin A is strongly influenced by food matrix. This efficiency has been determined mainly in typical BC sources like carrots. BC content in mango fruit is considerably high however; the bioconversion efficiency of BC from fresh mango in vitamin A has not been determined nor compared with those of typical BC sources. Approach: Vitamin A depleted rats were daily fed with portions of Ataulfo mango (alone or with soybean oil, carrots and BC dissolved in soybean oil, during a two weeks repletion period. These food portions provided an identical daily dose of BC (122.1-132.1 ?g, which was considered as low. After repletion, the retinol accumulation in rat livers was determined. Results: BC was the major carotenoid in tested carrots and mangoes. BC content in these foods varied from 87.8 to 164.4 and from 17.4 to 1.2 mg Kg-1, respectively. Mango portions size delivered to the rats were higher than those of carrots but both provided the same amount of BC. Test foods portions were completely consumed by rats. Total intake of BC during the repletion period was identical in all experimental groups (1.8 mg however, the accumulation of retinol in rat livers varied among experimental groups. The highest retinol accumulation was found in rats feeding the oily solution of BC. Co-consumption of mango and oil increase slightly the accumulation of retinol in rat livers, but statistical differences were not found. Rats fed with carrots accumulated 37% less retinol than those feeding mango without oil. Conclusion/Recommendations: Ataulfo mango was more effective than carrots in improving vitamin A status in deficient rats. Delivered BC doses were efficiently absorbed, converted to vitamin A and stored as retinol. Further studies are needed to test the potential of mango in improving the vitamin A status in humans routinely ingesting the fruit.

Jose D.J. Ornelas-Paz

2010-01-01

211

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20?kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50?kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions. PMID:24651648

Marston, Jeremy O; Riker, Paul W; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

2014-01-01

212

Peeled film GaAs solar cell development  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin-film, single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high-efficiency, low-mass GaAs solar cells is presently demonstrated. A peeled film GaAs solar cell was successfully produced. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide window and antireflective coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68 percent under AM0 illumination.

Wilt, D. M.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Brinker, D. J.; Deangelo, F. L.

1990-01-01

213

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Marston, Jeremy O.

2014-03-21

214

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen produced from potato steam peels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen from renewable energy is considered a promising alternative to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Potato steam peels can be used as feedstock to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool to evaluate the main environmental benefits and burdens of using potato steam peals to produce hydrogen rather than to feed animals. Inventory data are derived from the literature and ecoinvent. Impacts are evaluated using IMPACT 2002+. The results show that producing hydrogen from potato steam peels offers clear advantages over a direct use of peels to feed animals. A factor of two to three is observed in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in the savings of non-renewable resources and in the reduction of human health impacts. The two-stage bioreactor is observed to consume around 25 MJ and to emit between 1000 and 1500 g of CO{sub 2} per kilogram of hydrogen produced. (author)

Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Dagnija Blumberga [Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, 1 Kronvalda Boulevard, Riga LV-1010 (Latvia); Humbert, Sebastien [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 407 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2008-06-15

215

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminateinhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel wasenzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of thereleased sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibitionby limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes wasa powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The encapsulated cells wereable to ferment the orange peel hydrolyzate in 7 h, and produce ethanol with a yield of 0.44g/g fermentable sugars. Cultivation of the encapsulated yeast in defined medium wassuccessful, even in the presence of 1.5% (v/v limonene. The capsules’ membranes wereselectively permeable to the sugars and the other nutrients, but not limonene. While1% (v/v limonene was present in the culture, its concentration inside the capsules was notmore than 0.054% (v/v.

Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2007-08-01

216

Recovery of hesperidin from orange peel by concentration of extracts on styrene-divinylbenzene resin.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new procedure for obtaining hesperidin from the waste orange peel of the citrus industry. It is based on the adsorption of dilute extracts of hesperidin on a styrene-divinylbenzene (SDVB) resin and the desorption in much more reduced volumes by means of alkaline eluents. Hesperidin immediately precipitates with good yield and high purity after acidification of the concentrated solutions, thus overcoming disadvantages due to the high dilution. Different experiments were carried out to examine operating conditions in each phase of the process. Hesperidin was extracted from peel with an aqueous saturated Ca(OH)(2) solution, allowing precipitation of calcium pectates from colloidal pectins that can interfere in the subsequent phases of adsorption and separation of hesperidin. The clear extracts were neutralized to optimize adsorption on resin. The most effective eluent was 0.5 N NaOH solution containing 10% ethanol. Recycling of the crystallization liquor improved the yield and purity of the product and reduced the acid amount required for neutralizing fresh alkaline extracts. Resin must be washed after each adsorption-desorption cycle and regenerated after five cycles. Results can constitute a useful starting point for an industrial application. A flow scheme of the process is also reported. PMID:10552823

Di Mauro, A; Fallico, B; Passerini, A; Rapisarda, P; Maccarone, E

1999-10-01

217

Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

2012-02-15

218

Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

219

Mapping the economic structure and organisation of selected South African mango export supply chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation is the outcome of a study to map the economic structure and organisation of two selected mango export chains from South Africa by applying selected supply chain analysis tools. The study is part of an inventory on the export of fresh fruit and vegetables commissioned by the European Commission under the Veg-i-Trade Project Work Package 1. The two selected chains were the Bavaria fresh mango and the Blue Skies freshly cut mango export supply chains. The study sought to unders...

Mahoya, Sophia

2012-01-01

220

Utilization of banana peel by fungi for protein and carboxymethyl production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of protein and C/sub x/, cellulase by cultivation of fungi on banana peel was studied. The highest producer of cellulase was Trichoderma viride on dried peel, and the highest protein producer was Myrothecium verrucaria. All 10 fungi tested produced more protein on hot water extracts of banana peel than on dried peel, with the highest producer on aqueous extracts being Penicillium funiculosum.

Sethi, R.P.; Sood, S.M.

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

2010-01-01

222

Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

2010-01-01

223

Mango Malformation: I. Toxin Production Associated with Fusarium Pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight Fusarium species i.e. F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. monili-forme, F. avena and F. chlamydspore isolated from mango malformed disease were tested for their ability to cause mango malformation disease and their production of moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 using HPLC. A evaluated for moniliformin production, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.51 to 8.90 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by Fusarium subglutinans (8.51 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of moniliformin was produced by F.moniliforme (6.90 µg/ml, F. oxysporum (6.30 µg/ml, F. proliferatum (4.10 ?g/ml and F. sterilihyphosum (1.10 ?g/ml. Separation and identification of Fumonisin that was isolated from the pathogen- causing disease are made by (HPLC. A evaluated for total fumonisin production (FB1 + FB2, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.10 to 8.30 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by F. monili-forme (8.30 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of fumonisin was produced by F .proliferatum (0.64 µg/ml and F. subglutinans (0.50 µg/ml. Strong positive correlations between moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 activities and malformation disease incidence by F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum was observed.

Abd El-Wahab M.

2011-06-01

224

Resistance in mango against infection by Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to characterize and describe host cell responses of stem tissue to mango wilt disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata in Brazil. Disease progress was followed, through time, in inoculated stems for two cultivars, 'Ubá' (field resistant) and 'Haden' (field susceptible). Stem sections from inoculated areas were examined using fluorescence light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Tissues from Ubá colonized by C. fimbriata had stronger autofluorescence than those from Haden. The X-ray microanalysis revealed that the tissues of Ubá had higher levels of insoluble sulfur and calcium than those of Haden. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that fungal hyphae, chlamydospores (aleurioconidia), and perithecia-like structures of C. fimbriata were more abundant in Haden relative to Ubá. At the ultrastructural level, pathogen hyphae had grown into the degraded walls of parenchyma, fiber cells, and xylem vessels in the tissue of Haden. However, in Ubá, plant cell walls were rarely degraded and hyphae were often surrounded by dense, amorphous granular materials and hyphae appeared to have died. Taken together, the results of this study characterize the susceptible and resistant basal cell responses of mango stem tissue to infection by C. fimbriata. PMID:24548211

Araujo, Leonardo; Bispo, Wilka Messner Silva; Cacique, Isaías Severino; Moreira, Wiler Ribas; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

2014-08-01

225

Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango malformation is the most dangerous disease to mango worldwide. There are hints that Fusarium mangiferae might be one of the probable casual agents of disease. Recently, we reported on Fusarium isolates obtained from the mango tarai region of Uttarakhand acquiring morphological features of F. mangiferae. Here, further confirmation of Fusarium isolates were made by PCR amplification using primers specific to the translation elongation factors 1? and ?-tubulin gene of F. mangiferae. Further, SDS-PAGE and RAPD profiles showed genetic variability among isolates of F. mangiferae. This study provides further direct evidence of involvement of different strains of F. mangiferae in malformation diseases of mango in the tarai region of the Uttarakhand state. PMID:24691131

Joshi, Bhavna; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Kumar, J

2014-01-01

226

Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

227

Bioactive compounds and acceptance of cookies made with Guava peel flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compou [...] nd, lycopene, and ?-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and ?-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality.

Silvana Maria Michelin, Bertagnolli; Márcia Liliane Rippel, Silveira; Aline de Oliveira, Fogaça; Liziane, Umann; Neidi Garcia, Penna.

2014-06-01

228

Kids on the move in Halton and Peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project examined a variety of ways to make children's mobility more environmentally sound, safer, healthier, more helpful, and more enriching. It took place over the period March to September 2003 in the Halton-Peel region, Ontario. The objective was to determine whether the manual prepared for the European Union entitled Kids on the Move, should be adapted for use in North America, and if so, how the adaption should be made. It was concluded that adaptation of the manual was not required, but that it should be published as several shorter booklets on children and transportation, with specific audiences being targeted. The project also served to identify measures that could be taken in Halton-Peel and elsewhere for improved children's mobility. Approximately 300 people were consulted, mostly in Halton-Peel, identifying challenges, barriers to improvement, and means of overcoming barriers regarding children and transportation. The development of the booklets will require additional work. Increased consideration of children's needs in land use and transportation planning will also be required. An overview of recent work on the health impacts of transportation on children was presented. A presentation of available data on children's travel in Halton-Peel was included. refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

O' Brien, C.; Gilbert, R.; Schmied, B.; Cormier, A.

2003-10-01

229

Fracto-emission from the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron emission, positive ion emission, photon emission, and long wavelength electromagnetic radiation accompanying the peeling of pressure sensitive adhesives in vacuum are examined. These results are interpreted in terms of a previously presented model involving fracture-induced microdischarges which excite the fracture surfaces by particle bombardment.

Dickinson, J. T.; Shen, X. A.; Jensen, L. C.

1985-01-01

230

Familial jejunal atresia with 'apple-peel' variant.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report two siblings who had jejunal atresia which we believe to be familial. The parents of these siblings were first cousins. The first child had jejunal atresia with mesenteric agenesis and 'apple-peel' configuration; the second child had jejunal atresia with a V-shaped mesenteric defect. Other reported cases of familial atresia of the small intestine are reviewed.

Al-awadi, S. A.; Farag, T. I.; Naguib, K.; Cuschieri, A.; Issa, M.

1981-01-01

231

Peeling and Multi-critical Matter Coupled to Quantum Gravity  

CERN Document Server

We show how to determine the unknown functions arising when the peeling decomposition is applied to multi-critical matter coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity and compute the loop-loop correlation functions. The results that $\\eta=2+2/(2K-3)$ and $\

Harris, M G; Harris, Martin G.; Wheater, John F.

2000-01-01

232

Taxonomy and population genetics of Fusarium subglutinans sensu lato on pine and mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fusarium subglutinans sensu lato is a complex of fungi, which are the causal agents of important diseases on a wide variety of plants. Two important diseases caused by F. subglutinans sensu lato are pitch canker and mango malformation. F. subglutinans sensu lato isolates causing pitch canker on pine trees have been described as a separate species, F. circinatum. whereas F. subglutinans sensu lato isolates associated with mango malformation have not been formally described. The objective of st...

Heerden, Henriette Britz

2002-01-01

233

Morphological Characterization of African Bush Mango trees (Irvingia species) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The variation of the morphological characters of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) was investigated in the Dahomey Gap which is the West African savannah woodland area separating the Upper and the Lower Guinean rain forest blocks. African bush mangoes have been rated as the highest priority multi-purpose food trees species that need improvement research in West and Central Africa. A total of 128 trees from seven populations were characterized for their bark, fruits,...

Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, R. G.; Sosef, M. S. M.

2013-01-01

234

Lenticel development and discolouration in the fruit of some mango (mangifera indica L.) cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lenticels are macroscopic openings occurring on the surface of roots, shoots and some fruits like apples, pears, avocados and mangos and are responsible for gaseous exchange and transpiration. The discolouration of the lenticels of some mango cultivars is a serious problem, affecting the economic value of the fruit, especially in TA and Keitt while problems with lenticel discolouration are seldom found in Kent. Mango fruit lenticels develop from ruptured stomata on fruit from about 20 mm in T...

Bezuidenhout, Jan Louis Johannes

2006-01-01

235

Effect of Scuffing Damage and Curing on Diffusion Rate of CO2 Through Citrus Fruit Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These studies were initiated to observe the effect of curing on the shelf life of damaged citrus fruits by reducing diffusion rate of CO2. The damaged peel had a higher diffusion rate of CO2 than undamaged fruit peel before curing. The effect of curing on peel was that the diffusion rate of CO2 through damaged and undamaged peel was reduced after curing. The peel of cured fruits did not show any change in diffusion rate of CO2 after 30 days of storage. Curing could be useful to reduce respiration/exchange of gases and in extending the storage life of damaged citrus fruit.

Muhammad Akram Tariq

2001-01-01

236

PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of genetic diversity among Fusarium isolates collected from malformed mango tissues. Two texon selective primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r, were used for quick identification of Fusarium spp. The fungal genomic DNA was extracted from using CTAB method and was utilized as template for PCR amplification. Total 224 bands were amplified by 18 RAPD primers at an average of 12.44 bands per primer. The size of the obtained amplicons ranged from 0.264?kb (minimum) to 3.624?kb (maximum). Data scored from 25 isolates of Fusarium sp. with 18 RAPD primers were used to generate similarity coefficients. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.17 to 0.945. Based on DNA fingerprints, all isolates were categorized into two major clusters. This study indicated a wide variability among different isolates of Fusarium. PMID:21350657

Arif, M; Pani, D R; Zaidi, N W; Singh, U S

2011-01-01

237

Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha-1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha-1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

238

Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB peeling 89%, non-peeling 36%, p

Christensen, U C; KrØyer, K

2009-01-01

239

Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

240

Calidad de mango `ataulfo´ sometido a tratamiento hidrotérmico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En esta investigación se determinó el efecto del tratamiento hidrotérmico (46.1 ºC/75 min y temperaturas de almacenamiento (10, 13 y 20 ºC en la calidad del mango ?Ataulfo?. Los frutos sometidos a tratamiento hidrotérmico desarrollaron mejor color y presentaron menor acidez titulable, pero aceleraron su proceso de maduración. Los daños por frío se presentaron a la segunda semana de almacenamiento con 67 % de incidencia a temperatura de 10 ºC en los frutos con tratamiento hidrotérmico, y de 25 % en los frutos no tratados. En los frutos almacenados a 13 ºC el daño por frío se expresó hasta la tercera semana, sobre todo en los frutos sometidos al tratamiento hidrotérmico. Las características organolépticas de los frutos no se alteraron drásticamente con el tratamiento hidrotérmico, cuando se almacenaron hasta por dos semanas a temperaturas superiores a 13 °C.

Gregorio Luna Esquivel

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Características físicas y químicas, y prueba de preferencia de tres tipos de mangos criollos venezolanos  

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Full Text Available En Venezuela, durante las últimas tres décadas los mangos criollos han sido usados como portainjertos. Recientemente se ha incrementado el interés por los frutos de estas plantas para destinarlos al consumo fresco o procesado; sin embargo, existe escasez de información sobre ellos. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de caracterizar físicamente el fruto y químicamente la parte comestible de mangos tipo Bocado Común, Bocado Jobo e Hilacha y evaluar la preferencia del consumidor por su pulpa. Se colectaron 480 frutos en madurez fisiológica, los cuales se dejaron madurar por tres días en condición ambiente (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% HR y se procedió con las determinaciones y la prueba de preferencia. Se detectaron diferencias para las variables de masa fresca  total  del  fruto,  porcentaje  de  cáscara  y  pulpa, sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez total titulable (ATT y la relación entre SST/ATT en los tres materiales evaluados. En el mango Bocado Jobo se obtuvo la mayor masa fresca total, rendimiento en pulpa y SST/ATT. No hubo diferencia en el nivel de preferencia por la pulpa de los tres tipos mangos, indicando que la evaluación de esta característica no reflejó las diferencias detectadas en las variables químicas de las pulpas de los diferentes mangos.ABSTRACT Physical and chemical parameters, and preference tests of three Venezuelan native mangos In Venezuela, during the last three decades the native mangos have been used as rootstocks. Recently, the interest has increased for devoting the fruits of these plants, to fresh or processed consumption; however, little information of these materials exists. An experiment was conducted with the objective of characterizing physical and chemically the fruit and the edible part of Bocado Comun, Bocado Jobo and Hilacha mangos; and to evaluate the consumer's preference for the pulp of them. A total of 480 fruits were collected in physiologic maturity and allowed to ripen for three days in natural ambient condition (26 ±3 °C; 65 ± 5% RH before beginning the fruit analysis and the preference test. There were significant differences for the fresh mass of the fruit, percentage of shell, seed, and pulp. Total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity (TA and the ratio TSS/TA for the three evaluated materials. The mango Bocado Jobo produced the largest total fresh mass, pulp yield, and TSS/TA. There was not difference in the level of preference of the pulp among the mangos, showing that the evaluation of this characteristic did not reflect the differences detected in the chemicals variables.

Jesús Aular

2005-09-01

242

Reproductive physiology of mango / Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de inicia [...] ção independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano. Abstract in english Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently [...] from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.

Thomas L., Davenport.

2007-12-01

243

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

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Full Text Available Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano.

Thomas L. Davenport

2007-12-01

244

Reproductive physiology of mango / Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de inicia [...] ção independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano. Abstract in english Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently [...] from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.

Thomas L., Davenport.

245

Modeling of the Peeling Process of Pressure-sensitive Adhesive Tapes with the Combination of Maxwell Elements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple model for the peeling process of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is presented. The model consists of linear springs and dashpots and can be solved analytically. Based on the modeling, the curved profile of the peeling tape is spontaneously determined in terms of viscoelastic properties of adhesives. Using this model, two experimental results are discussed: critical peel rates in the peel force and the peel rate dependence of the detachment process of adhesive from ...

Sato, Katsuhiko; Toda, Akihiko

2004-01-01

246

Modeling of the Peeling Process of Pressure-sensitive Adhesive Tapes with the Combination of Maxwell Elements  

CERN Document Server

A simple model for the peeling process of pressure-sensitive adhesive tape is presented. The model consists of linear springs and dashpots and can be solved analytically. Based on the modeling, the curved profile of the peeling tape is spontaneously determined in terms of viscoelastic properties of adhesives. Using this model, two experimental results are discussed: critical peel rates in the peel force and the peel rate dependence of the detachment process of adhesive from the substrate.

Sato, K; Sato, Katsuhiko; Toda, Akihiko

2004-01-01

247

Hypolipidemic Activity of Microwave-Dehydrated Mango (Mangifera indica L. Powder in Mice Fed a Hypercholesterolemic Diet  

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Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with mango (Mangifera indica L. powder obtained by microwave dehydration was studied in normal and hypercholesterolemic mice. The phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activities were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays, respectively. The total phenolic content of microwave-dehydrated mango powder was 1451.7 ± 26.7 ?ggallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds identified were gallic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, and catechin. The anti-oxidant activity was 14.6% higher in microwave-dehydrated mango powder than in conventional mango powder. Mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (1 g cholesterol/100g over 7 days. The hypercholesterolemic mice whose diets were supplemented with microwave-dehydrated mango powder showed a significant decrease (P ? 0.05 in total serum cholesterol compared to the hypercholesterolemic mice and the mice fed with conventional dehydrated mango powder. We observed a significant increase (P ? 0.05 in HDL-c levels in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group mice (12.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (8.6 ± 1.4 mmol/L and the conventional-dehydrated mango powder group (10.9 ± 1.3 mmol/L. The mice provided with microwave-dehydrated mango powder had significantly lower (P ? 0.05 levels of serum LDL-c (36.0% and total cholesterol (43.3% compared to the mice in hypercholesterolemic group. Notably, the atherogenic index was 72% lower in the microwave-dehydrated mango powder group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. These results suggest that the biocompounds, such as polyphenols and dietary fiber, found in mango pulp might improve the lipid profile in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

Obed Osorio-Esquivel

2014-08-01

248

Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality  

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Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mixed with the six pure substances at various concentrations; glucose, sucrose, citric acid and malic acid were tested with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%w/w, starch and cellulose were tested with the concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w. The NIRSystem 6500 was used to scan the spectra in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. The partial least square regression (PLSR was used to develop a model for each component. The result was a wavelength that corresponds to each component. It was found that the second derivative spectra of glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose mixtures showed the best PLSR result. The mango cultivar had no effect on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The coefficient of determination (R2 of all models was 0.99. The standard error of calibration (SEC and the standard error of prediction (SEP were less than 0.5%w/w. The regression coefficient plot exhibited more sharp peaks than pure substances. The wavelength selection for NIRS evaluation mango fruit quality could not be done by using only measured spectrum of pure substance. However, the cultivars of mango had no effected on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The most effective wavelength for glucose and sucrose were 900-1000 nm, citric acid and malic acid were 800-1000 nm, starch was 900-1000 nm and cellulose was 800-1000 nm.

Parichat Theanjumpol

2013-06-01

249

Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.  

Science.gov (United States)

We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives. PMID:23496538

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Guerra, Claudia; Cohen, Caroline; Ciccotti, Matteo; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc

2013-02-01

250

Actividad antioxidante de lámina flexible de mango (Mangifera indica) / Antioxidant activity in mango fruit leather (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una forma de concentrar las propiedades nutricionales de la fruta es mediante la elaboración de láminas flexibles, las cuales se realizan al secar una capa muy delgada de puré de fruta para obtener un producto con una textura blanda. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido [...] de polifenoles totales en láminas flexibles de mango cv. Tommy Atkins cultivados en el municipio Mara del estado Zulia. La actividad antioxidante de la lámina fue 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamina C/100g. El contenido de polifenoles totales en la lámina fue 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. Las láminas flexibles aportan una mayor cantidad de compuestos polifenólicos totales por lo que es una manera alternativa de consumir compuestos antioxidantes y nutritivos en la dieta. Abstract in english A way to concentrate the nutritional properties of the fruit is through the development of fruit leathers, which are made by drying a very thin layer of mashed fruit to obtain a product with a soft texture. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in fruit leathers [...] of mango cv. Tommy Atkints grown in Mara municipality, Zulia state. The antioxidant activity of the fruit leathers was 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamin C/100g. The total polyphenol content in the leathers was 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. The fruit leathers provide a greater amount of total polyphenolic compounds which is an alternative way of consuming antioxidant compounds and nutritious diet.

Josué, Hernández-Varela; Arturo, Moncayo; Viluzca, Fernández; Betzabé, Sulbarán.

2013-04-01

251

Hexavalent Chromium Removal by Litchi chinensis Sonn Peel  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: We studied the Chromium (VI removal capacity in aqueous solution by the litchi peel. Approach: We use the diphenylcarbazide method to evaluate the metal concentration. Results: The highest biosorption of the metal (50 mg L-1 occurs within 6 min, at pH of 1 and 28°C. According to temperature, the highest removal was observed at 40 and 50°C, in 45 min, when the metal (1 g L-1 was completely adsorbed. At the analyzed concentrations of Cr (VI, litchi peel, showed excellent removal capacity, besides it removes efficiently the metal in situ (100% removal, 5 days of incubation, 5 and 10 g of biomass. After 1 h of incubation the studied biomass reduces 1.0 g of Cr (VI with the simultaneous production of Cr (III. Conclusion: The shell can be used to eliminate it from industrial wastewater."

Ismael Acosta-Rodriguez

2012-01-01

252

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

253

Patterning PEDOT:PSS with Parylene Peel-off Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and characterized a technique of patterning PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate) film with a Parylene peel-off method. PEDOT:PSS has characteristics of transparency and high conductivity which are expected to replace transparent ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes for flat panel displays. But existing technology of inkjet printing decreased its conductivity by mixing a binder, while the other method with electrochemical etching could not completely remove PEDOT:PSS film. To solve these problems, we proposed a process which consisted of negative patterning of Parylene film, coating of PEDOT:PSS and peeling off of Parylene film with the undesired-area of PEDOT:PSS. To peel off the Parylene from the substrates, the control of heating process of PEDOT:PSS under Parylene glass transition temperature was found to be required. The proposed process revealed that the conductivity was almost the same even after the process and its resolution reached down to 20 ?m. Finally, the 300-?m-wide electrodes were fabricated through the process, which leads to replacement of ITO for displays.

Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

254

Antioxidant-mediated protective effect of potato peel extract in erythrocytes against oxidative damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peels are waste by-product of the potato processing industry. They are reportedly rich in polyphenols. Our earlier studies have shown that extracts derived from potato peel (PPE) possess strong antioxidant activity in chemical and biological model systems in vitro, attributable to its polyphenolic content. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of PPE to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage, in vitro. The protection rendered by PPE in erythrocytes was studied in terms of resistance to oxidative damage, morphological alterations as well as membrane structural alterations. The total polyphenolic content in PPE was found to be 3.93 mg/g powder. The major phenolic acids present in PPE were predominantly: gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. We chose the experimental prooxidant system: FeSO(4) and ascorbic acid to induce lipid peroxidation in rat RBCs and human RBC membranes. PPE was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation with similar effectiveness in both the systems (about 80-85% inhibition by PPE at 2.5 mg/ml). While PPE per se did not cause any morphological alteration in the erythrocytes, under the experimental conditions, PPE significantly inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced morphological alterations in rat RBCs as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Further, PPE was found to offer significant protection to human erythrocyte membrane proteins from oxidative damage induced by ferrous-ascorbate. In conclusion, our results indicate that PPE is capable of protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage probably by acting as a strong antioxidant. PMID:18452909

Singh, Nandita; Rajini, P S

2008-05-28

255

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limi [...] ted. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

Adriana de, Godoy; Rodrigo J., Morita; Beatriz R., Cordenunsi; Franco M., Lajolo; João Roberto O. do, Nascimento.

256

A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region  

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Full Text Available Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Observations were made on different fruit characteristics, physical and chemical properties in three ripening stages viz. green, ripe and over ripe stage. The fruits of the varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota weighed 189, 455, 180, 170 and 592 g, respectively. Maximum percentage of edible portion (78.53%, juice content (56.50-72.77% and highest Total Soluble Solids (18.66% were found in Madrazi Tota. Riped Madrazi Tota tastes very sweet in comparison to other varieties of mangoes under study. Indian Lota was higher in content of titratable acidity (0.04091% and lowest in Neelambori (0.01866%.

M.A. Mannan

2003-01-01

257

Evolution of carbohydrates of pre-cut mango slices subjected to osmotic dehydration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Haden mango slices (non-osmotic dehydrated, NOD) were immersed in calcium chloride (2 g/l), citric acid (5 g/l), hydrogen peroxide (25 ml/l) and sodium benzoate (20 g/l) solutions. Slices to be treated with osmotic dehydration (OD) were first immersed in calcium, then placed in the osmotic solution (sucrose 65 degrees Bx, 30 degrees C) and 211 mbar vacuum was applied for 30 min. After the osmotic treatment, the slices were immersed in the same solutions as for NOD slices. All the slices were stored in sterile chambers at 24, 13 or 5 degrees C. Both OD and NOD slices displayed sucrose synthesis (SS) during storage, which was highest in NOD slices that were kept at 13 degrees C. Sucrose synthesis was the most significant change during ripening of whole mangoes (WM). Starch breakdown could not supply the necessary substrates for sucrose synthesis in either whole mangoes or slices. Injured tissues from mango slices sustained sucrose synthesis, which was highest at 13 degrees C in NOD slices, but the osmotic treatment decreased sucrose formation. Storage at 5 degrees C for 12 days affected sucrose content of Haden mangoes. Glucose and fructose concentrations remained low in all treatments. PMID:16395629

Tovar, Beatríz; García, Hugo S; Mata, Miguel

2005-12-01

258

Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

259

UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios estandarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139. En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%.In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango, is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139. This research article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

Adolfo Moreno Bermúdez

2012-12-01

260

UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

Adolfo, Moreno Bermúdez; Deimer, Ballesteros Padilla; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997); the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86); the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 1...

Ailton Teixeira do Vale; Rejane Marques Mendes; Marcela Regina Siqueira Amorim; Vandui Francisco de Siqueira Dantas

2011-01-01

262

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME) of peels had higher yield (45.4%) and total phenolics (27.4%) than water (WE) or ether extracts (EE). The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05) than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

Al-zoreky, Najeeb S.; Al-otaibi, Mutlag M.; Shiban, Mutahar S.

2012-01-01

263

Influence of viscoelastic nature on the intermittent peel-front dynamics of adhesive tape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the influence of viscoelastic nature of the adhesive on the intermittent peel front dynamics by extending a recently introduced model for peeling of an adhesive tape. As time and rate-dependent deformation of the adhesives are measured in stationary conditions, a crucial step in incorporating the viscoelastic effects applicable to unstable intermittent peel dynamics is the introduction of a dynamization scheme that eliminates the explicit time dependence in terms of dynamical v...

Kumar, Jagadish; Ananthakrishna, G.

2010-01-01

264

Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

2004-07-01

265

Microenxertia em cultivares de manga / Micrografting in mango cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático d [...] o porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido. Abstract in english This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meris [...] tem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an antioxidant solution composed of ascorbic acid, citric acid and cistein, to avoid the oxidation of the fenolic compounds. The apex meristem was cut with 2 mm length. The apex meristem and leaves of the rootstock were also cut off then the apex meristem of Tommy Atkins was placed on the extremity of the rootstock, being covered with ParafilmR. It was demonstrated that micrografting technique may develop matrix plants to implant a cloned garden in the protected greenhouse conditions.

Ronaldo Posella, Zaccaro; Luiz Carlos, Donadio; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo, Lemos.

266

Microenxertia em cultivares de manga Micrografting in mango cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático do porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido.This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meristem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an antioxidant solution composed of ascorbic acid, citric acid and cistein, to avoid the oxidation of the fenolic compounds. The apex meristem was cut with 2 mm length. The apex meristem and leaves of the rootstock were also cut off then the apex meristem of Tommy Atkins was placed on the extremity of the rootstock, being covered with ParafilmR. It was demonstrated that micrografting technique may develop matrix plants to implant a cloned garden in the protected greenhouse conditions.

Ronaldo Posella Zaccaro

2006-12-01

267

Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L.) var. rosa com açúcares / Mango (Mangifera indica l.) cv. rosa saturation with sugars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Mangas (Mangifera indica L.) var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm) e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após [...] resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose), sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR) na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada. Abstract in english Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm), treated in hot w [...] ater in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose) and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

Margarida Sabino, RIBEIRO; Armando U.O., SABAA-SRUR.

268

COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN MICHOACÁN  

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Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos.

A. V. Ayala-Garay

2009-01-01

269

Evaluation of electron spin resonance technique for the detection of irradiated mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was examined as a method for the detection of irradiated mango fruits. A symmetric ESR signal at g = 1.988 was detected in the hard seed cover (endocarp), the dry epidermal layer (testa) surrounding the kernel, and the soft kernel portions of the seed from four mango cultivars. the amplitude of the signal in the epidermal layer and seed cover showed a dose-dependent increase over control values. Qualitatively, however, no new signal was observed following irradiation, except that line width increased by 50%. Methyl cellosolve washing greatly reduced the intensity of the endogenous and radiation (1.0 kGy)-induced ESR signals in the seed cover; results suggest phenolic substances as the source of free radicals. the similarity of naturally occurring ESR signals to that induced by irradiation seems to restrict the practical utility of this method in irradiated mangoes

270

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

271

Os insetos como agentes polinizadores da mangueira / Insets as pollinizing agents on mango trees (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The authors study the insect population that visit the mango trees and search for their pollinizing activity. Prior operations showed that very few bees (Apis mellifera) visited the flowers of mango trees. It was known that the percentage of fecundation is low (Simão 1955), Popenoe (1929), Spencer a [...] nd Kennard (1955), Lynch and Mustard (1955), Ruehle and Ledin (1955), so that the authors wented to Know if insects could be responsible for this. Insects were collected from mango trees, belonging to 10 orders, which, on the whole are not pollinizing agents. Bees were not collected, 21% were Hymenoptera, 20% were Diptera, 13% Hemiptera, 10% Coleoptera, 3% Blattariae and smoller percentages belonged to other orders.

Salim, Simão; Zilcar C., Maranhão.

272

Mango malformation: II. mangiferin changes associated with fusarium pathogens  

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Full Text Available Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone-C2-b-D-glucoside promoted vegetative growth and exhibited inhibitory role on the occurrence of malformation. Mangiferin changes associated with mango malformation pathogens were followed after inoculated mango seedlings (three years with malformation pathogens i.e. Fusa-rium subglutinans, F. sterilihyphosum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Mangiferin remained at lower level in leaves of malformed shoots as compared to healthy one. The floral malformation was observed to be associated with the reduction of mangiferin. Strong positive correlations between mangiferin activity and malformation incidence were observed. Mangiferin level at panicle initiation may give a possible estimate of malformation incidence in mango.

Wafaa M. Haggag

2011-08-01

273

Especies de trips (Thysanoptera) en mango, fluctuación y abundancia / Thrips species (Thysanoptera) in mango, fluctuation and abundance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Campeche, se desconocen las especies de trips presentes en mango y su fluctuación poblacional, lo que dificulta su combate y ocasiona pérdidas en producción y calidad de la fruta. Debido a esto, el objetivo del trabajo fue determinar las especies de trips asociadas al cultivo, la fluctuación de s [...] u población y el nivel de daño. El trabajo se efectuó entre 2009 y 2010 en Castamay, Campeche, México. Se realizaron muestreos de las poblaciones de adultos y ninfas cada 15 días en follaje e inflorescencias y se determinó el nivel de daño a la fruta. Las poblaciones se correlacionaron con variables de precipitación y temperatura mediante el coeficiente de Pearson y, a través de chi-cuadrada, se establecieron variaciones entre las poblaciones de trips y fechas de muestreo. En 2009, la población más baja fue de 0,00 y la más alta 0,13 por hoja tanto en ninfas como en adultos. En 2010, la población más baja fue de 0,00 individuos por hoja tanto para ninfas como para adultos y las más altas de 0,15 adultos por hoja y 0,35 ninfas por hoja. Los niveles de daño observados fueron bajos y no mostraron influencia significativa en la producción de fruta. Se registraron Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae y S. hectorgonzalazi asociadas al cultivo, todas ellas fitófagas. La fluctuación de sus poblaciones no mostró correlación significativa con las variables climáticas. Abstract in english In the Campeche state, México, thrips species in mango and their population fluctuations are unknown which difficult their control causing losses in production and fruit quality; thus, the objective of this study was to determine the thrips associated with the crop, their population fluctuation and [...] the level of damage. Research was carried out during 2009 and 2010 in Castamay, Campeche, Mexico. Samples were taken of the adults and nymph's population every 15 days in foliage and inflorescences and the level of damage to the fruit was determined. Thrips population was correlated with precipitation and temperature variables using the Pearson coefficient and ?2 tests were performed between thrips population and sampling dates. In 2009, the lowest population was 0.00 and 0.13, the highest per leave in both nymphs and adults. In 2010, the lowest populations were 0.00 individuals per leaf for both nymphs and adults and the highest of 0.15 adults per leaf and 0.35 nymphs per leaf. The observed damage levels were low and showed no significant influence on fruit production. Four thrips species associated with mango, all phytophagous were found Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis, Frankliniella invasor, Scirtothrips perseae and S. hectorgonzalazi. The population fluctuation was not significantly correlated with climatic variables.

Luis Alberto, Aguirre U; Mario Alberto, Miranda S.; Mario Alfonso, Urías L.; Fermín, Orona C.; Isidro Humberto, Almeyda L.; ROBERTO, JOHANSEN N.; Martin, Tucuch C..

274

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica Almond Seed Fat  

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Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8?C and 10.9 min at 12?C. The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8?C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12?C, respectively and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

J.A. Solis-Fuentes

2007-01-01

275

Purification and Properties of Invertase from Mango Fruit  

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Full Text Available A mango invertase was purified from the flesh of Himsagar variety to an electrophoretically homogeneous state, by successive ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 68 kDa in gel filtration chromatography and 65.5 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four bands, indicating that the enzyme was a tetramer. The enzyme was a glycoprotein as it gave yellow-orange colour in the presence of phenol sulphuric acid. The optimum pH for the enzyme was 4.5 and the enzyme was found to be stable from pH 2.5 to 8. The optimum temperature for enzyme was 75?C and the enzyme was stable between 10 - 75?C. The Km for sucrose was 5.25 mM (pH 4.5. The activities of enzyme were remarkably enhanced by Cu++, K+, Ca++ whereas, completely ceased by Hg++ and sodium dodecylsulfate.

M. Habibur Rahman

2001-01-01

276

Efficiency of irradiation as alternative or supplementary technique to the refrigeration in mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of mango cultivar Keitt was studied concerning to its preservation when submitted to irradiation of 80 Krad, storage at media environmental temperature of 210 C and air relative humidity at 83% and under refrigeration at 120 C with air relative humidity at 90%. The results shown that irradiated mangoes storage at 120 C were in good conditions after four weeks with low rate of anthraquinosis and media texture of 1,1 Kg/cm2 and the control presented ),05 Kg/cm2. (L.M.J.)

277

Comparison of cross inoculation potential of South African avocado and mango isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and eighteen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from stem-end rot and anthracnose infected avocados as well as from stem-end rot/anthracnose and soft brown rot on mango, were compared using fruit inoculations. Isolates could be categorised according to lesion size and both avocado and mango isolates produced larger lesions when inoculated on their own hosts. Cross-inoculation potential of these isolates was also compared on strawberries, peppers, guavas, papayas and citrus. All isolates produced lesions on all hosts except citrus. Factors such as area of origin and symptom type from which original isolations were made, could not be correlated with lesion development on these hosts. PMID:12906387

Sanders, G M; Korsten, L

2003-01-01

278

Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer / Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de [...] injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS) e de acidez titulável (AT), e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated w [...] ith fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS) and titratable acidity (TA) and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado; Ramon Felipe De Oliveira, Gomes.

279

Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais.This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

2011-10-01

280

Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer / Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de [...] injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS) e de acidez titulável (AT), e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated w [...] ith fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS) and titratable acidity (TA) and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado; Ramon Felipe De Oliveira, Gomes.

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Cambios fisicoquímicos y sensoriales limitantes de la vida de anaquel de mango fresco cortado / Physicochemical and sensory changes that limit shelf-life of fresh-cut mangoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. 'Haden' fueron procesados mínimamente y almacenados a 5 °C durante 14 d. A intervalos de 2 d se determinaron las variables fisicoquímicas de color [L*, a* y b*, y los valores derivados: croma (C*), ángulo de matiz (h°) y diferencia total de color (?E*)], así [...] como sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza y pH. También se evaluaron los atributos sensoriales de olor característico, apariencia, brillo, color, sabor, textura, acidez y dulzor, mediante un panel entrenado. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y análisis de regresión, para identificar las variables con mayor variabilidad durante el almacenamiento y estimar la tasa de cambio tanto de diferentes atributos sensoriales como de variables fisicoquímicas. El ACP indicó que la menor variabilidad del mango fresco cortado fue con respecto a h° y SST. Los atributos sensoriales con menor cambio fueron acidez, textura, dulzor y olor. El análisis de regresión indicó que el brillo presentó la mayor tasa de cambio, mientras que el olor característico tuvo la mayor duración en el producto durante el almacenamiento. Entre las variables fisicoquímicas, las de mayor y menor tasa de cambio fueron croma (C*) y firmeza, respectivamente. Los cambios fisicoquímicos y atributos sensoriales con mayor variabilidad y mayor tasa de deterioro, cambios críticos durante el almacenamiento, pueden usarse como indicadores del deterioro en estudios de vida de anaquel del mango fresco cortado. Abstract in english 'Haden' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were minimally processed and stored at 5 °C during 14 d. At 2 d intervals, processed fruits were sampled to evaluate physicochemical variables of color [L*, a*, b*, and derived values: chroma (C*), hue angle (h°) and total color difference (?E*)], as well a [...] s sensory attributes: sweetness, texture, brightness, color, flavor, odor and appearance, as perceived by a trained panel. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to assess changes physicochemical variables and sensory attributes during storage. Principal components analysis indicated that hue angle (h°) and total soluble solids (TSS), and the sensory attributes of acidity, texture, sweetness and odor, showed a slight relevance on the variability observed on the sliced mango units during storage. Regression analysis indicated that brightness had the highest deterioration rate, whereas odor was the attribute with less change during storage. In the same way, C* was the physicochemical variable with the highest deterioration rate while the lowest deterioration was for firmness. Physicochemical and sensory changes with the largest variability and with the highest deterioration rates, are critical changes that can be used as spoilage indicators in shelf-life studies of fresh-cut mangoes.

Rosa Ma, Salinas-Hernández; María Élida, Pirovani; Alfonso A., Gardea-Béjar; Gustavo A., González-Aguilar.

282

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

2011-10-01

283

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

284

Amelioration of diabetic nephropathy by orange peel extract in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of alcoholic orange peel extract (OPE) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, treatment with OPE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further given for 4 weeks. Treatment with OPE 200 improved renal functions and significantly prevented the increase in creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen levels. Histological analysis of the kidneys revealed that tubulointerstitial fibrosis index was significantly decreased in OPE 200-treated group. The results indicated the prevention of diabetic nephropathy in rats by OPE treatment and suggest OPE as a potential treatment option. PMID:25103218

Parkar, Nishad; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu

2014-12-01

285

Convergence and performances of the peeling wavelet denoising algorithm  

CERN Document Server

This note is devoted to an analysis of the so-called peeling algorithm in wavelet denoising. Assuming that the wavelet coefficients of the signal can be modeled by generalized Gaussian random variables, we compute a critical thresholding constant for the algorithm, which depends on the shape parameter of the generalized Gaussian distribution. We also quantify the optimal number of steps which have to be performed, and analyze the convergence of the algorithm. Several versions of the obtained algorithm were implemented and tested against classical wavelet denoising procedures on benchmark and simulated biological signals.

Lacaux, Céline; Ranta, Radu; Tindel, Samy

2009-01-01

286

Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max. total phenolics content of 3.94 mg g?1 dry weight (dw) was obtained at S of 67.33%, t of 15 min and a MP of 14.67%. For ascorbic acid (1.44 mg g?1 dw), caffeic acid (1.33 mg g?1 dw), ferulic acid (0.50 mg g?1 dw) max contents were ob...

Valérie Orsat; Raghavan, G. S. V.; Donnelly, Danielle J.; Yvan Gariepy; Kebba Sabally; Stan Kubow; Ashutosh Singh

2011-01-01

287

AGE STRUCTURE AND SEX RATIO OF THRIPS Scirtothrips dorsalis HOOD (Thysanoptera : Thripidae ASSOCIATE WITH MANGO AGROECOSYSTEM IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA  

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Full Text Available A research aimed to investigate the age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis Hood in mango agroecosystem was conducted at PT. Trigatra Rajasa farm, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia. The research was started from April to May 2013. A Completely Randomized Design, Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were used to design, knew the variance and significantly different among the treatment, respectively. Thirteen mango trees set in cross section were sampled and observed for the presence of S. dorsalis including weeds under the mango canopy and four cardinal directions of border. A weekly sample was done for four weeks. The result showed that instar one and adult were preferred to associate with weeds under the mango canopy and borders compare to mango leaves except second instar. Further, observation was presented that all the age structures were given equal male female sex ratio. Based on total population numbers, there wasn't significantly difference of age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis associate with weeds inside the orchard including mango leaves and borders. Twenty seven species of weeds were discovered associate with mango agroecosystem and comprehensively discused based on the most dominance and preferred by S. dorsalis.

Affandi

2013-10-01

288

Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expe [...] ctations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV), transparent without vacuum (TWV), transparent under vacuum (TV), and laminated under vacuum (LV); they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues, Mendes; Cristiane Rodrigues, Gomes-Ruffi; Moacir Evandro, Lage; Fernanda Salamoni, Becker; Adriane Alexandre Machado de, Melo; Flávio Alves da, Silva; Clarissa, Damiani.

2013-12-01

289

Sunlight-stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activity and anthocyanin accumulation in exocarp of ‘Mahajanaka’ mango  

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Full Text Available The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL required for anthocyanin synthesis was stimulated by sunlight exposure resulting in the development of red colour in ‘Mahajanaka’ mango exocarp, which occurred only on the sunlight-exposed side of the fruit. The accumulation of anthocyanin was concurrent with the increase in PAL activity in the mature stage of the fruit. The exposed side of the fruit had higher PAL activity, endogenous sugar content, and anthocyanin accumulation than the unexposed side. It is concluded that sunlight increases red colour development of the mango exocarp by inducing PAL activity. Exposure to sunlight also enhances endogenous sugar accumulation in mango fruit.

Kobkiat Saengnil

2011-11-01

290

Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (?3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (pcrude apple peel extracts. PMID:23578632

Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2013-09-01

291

Free amino acid composition of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp and peel) and jam.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one free amino acids present in several samples of quince fruit (pulp and peel) and quince jam (homemade and industrially manufactured) were analyzed by GC/FID. The analyses showed some differences between quince pulps and peels. Generally, the highest content in total free amino acids and in glycine was found in peels. As a general rule, the three major free amino acids detected in pulps were aspartic acid, asparagine, and hydroxyproline. For quince peels, usually, the three most abundant amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid, and asparagine. Similarly, for quince jams the most important free amino acids were aspartic acid, asparagine, and glycine or hydroxyproline. This study suggests that the free amino acid analysis can be useful for the evaluation of quince jam authenticity. It seems that glycine percentage can be used for the detection of quince peel addition while high alanine content can be related to pear addition. PMID:14995121

Silva, Branca M; Casal, Susana; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Margarida A

2004-03-10

292

Research note: Antioxidant properties of plum peel applied to meat batters  

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Full Text Available The use of natural origin antioxidants presents in fruit peels like prunes and its application to a meat product were analyzed. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activity were determined to an ethanolic extract of prunes peels. A polyphenols concentration of 84 ug/g was found in the prunes peels extract with an antioxidant activity of 65.77% (TEAC. Two batches of cooked sausages were elaborated (pork meat and poultry paste, adding 5% of dehydrated prunes peels to sausages formulation to determinate the oxidative rancidity (TBA during 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sausageselaborated with poultry paste presented higher amount of malonaldehyde, indicating a higher tendency to lipid oxidation as compared to pork sausages. In same way, the incorporation ofprunes peels decreased oxidative rancidity since the content of antioxidant compounds delayed this process in processed meat products during storage.

Alan Jesús De-la-Vega-Martinez

2012-12-01

293

Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant  

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Full Text Available The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT, 50, 80 and 100°C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100°C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.

K.V. Harivaindaran

2008-01-01

294

Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m3) and sp2+sp3 bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C60, glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

295

Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m{sup 3}) and sp{sup 2}+sp{sup 3} bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C{sub 60}, glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Peng, J.L.; Fan, X. D.; Bursill, L.A.

1997-06-01

296

Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by using banana peel extract (BPE) as a simple, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green material'. The boiled, crushed, acetone precipitated, air-dried peel powder was used to reduce chloroauric acid. A variety of nanoparticles were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, BPE content, chloroauric acid concentration and temperature of incubation. The reaction mixtures displayed vivid colors and UV-vis spectra characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies revealed that the average size of the nanoparticles under standard synthetic conditions was around 300nm. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) confirmed these results. A coffee ring phenomenon, led to the aggregation of the nanoparticles into microcubes and microwire networks towards the periphery of the air-dried samples. X-ray diffraction studies of the samples revealed spectra that were characteristic for gold. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthetic process. The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. PMID:20620890

Bankar, Ashok; Joshi, Bhagyashree; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

2010-10-01

297

Nobiletin: efficient and large quantity isolation from orange peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that nobiletin possesses anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, the demand for nobiletin in large quantities and high purity has increased. However, conventional normal-phase silica gel chromatography and C(18)-reverse-phase separation methods cannot satisfy the requirement of pure and gram scale nobiletin in a timely manner. In exploring the composition and the biological activities of polymethoxyflavones from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel, we developed an efficient isolation method for nobiletin. By employing this methodology, pure nobiletin, in gram quantities, was obtained in only one purification cycle. The orange peel extract was loaded onto a silica gel flash column and eluted by a mixed solvent system of ethyl acetate and hexanes, and the fractions collected. Upon combination of the eluted fractions, mainly containing nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, and concentration under reduced pressure, the resultant residue was loaded onto a Regis chiral column. Gram amounts of nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone were then eluted with ethanol and hexanes, respectively. PMID:15999338

Li, Shiming; Yu, Haiqing; Ho, Chi-Tang

2006-01-01

298

Utilización de microondas en el tratamiento de jugo de mango  

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Full Text Available Introducción. En los últimos años, el uso del horno de microondas dentro de la industria agro-alimentaria ha ganado popularidad. Esta tecnología se utiliza para calentar, cocinar, descongelar, secar y últimamente se han reportados estudios en los que se ha empleado para reducir e inhibir microorganismos de acción patógena y degradantes sobre los alimentos. Objetivo. Determinar la eficacia del sistema del procesado por microondas para inactivar la carga microbiana presente en el jugo de mango preparado a partir de fruta fresca, verificandoel efecto sobre el potencial de hidrógeno, pH, y la concentración de sólidos solubles, ºBrix, fijados desde el comienzo. Todo esto con miras a generar información basada en esta realidad para el diseño de procesos en los que se utilice la microonda para la conservación de jugos de fruta. Materiales y métodos. El sistema de procesado por microondas utilizado incluye: dos microondas marca Samsung 2450 MHz y potencia 1.5 kW, dos espirales de vidrio refractario, un tanque con el fluido a tratar, una bomba, un condensador, dos sensores de temperatura y un data logger I.T.P. La concentración de sólidos solubles se determinó con un refractómetro Bausch & Lomb escala 0 - 32 °Brix, el pH con un pHmetro Schott CG 842 y las unidades formadoras de colonia en el cuenta colonias Indulab. Resultados. Se obtuvieron reducciones importantes, de hasta el 89%, con tratamiento suaves, en la carga microbiana Conclusión. La reducción significativa de la población microbiana inicial, pone de manifiesto que la energía electromagnética de microondas funciona favorablemente en el proceso de destrucción del hongo Aspergillus sp.

\\u00C1ngela Mar\\u00EDa Vel\\u00E1squez Valderrama

2008-01-01

299

Growth Performance and Some Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw or Boiled Mango Kennel Meal  

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Full Text Available In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180 day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK or boiled mango kernel (BMK meal as a replacement for maize. Boiling reduced the toxic factor (tannin content of mango kernel by up to 75.00%. During the starter phase (0-28 days birds fed the RMK- based diet ate significantly less feed, gained less weight and recorded a poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR than the control and the BMK - based diets, but there were no significant dietary effects on these parameters during the finisher period (28-63 days. There were no significant dietary effects on the haematological values but serum total protein and globin were markedly reduced on the RMK fed group. From these results it is concluded that 20% of the maize can be replaced with boiled mango kernel meal in the diet of broilers without adverse effects on growth and blood parameters.

S.S. Diarra

2008-01-01

300

Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of gamma radiation and some growth regulators on ripening and senescence in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken during the seasons of 1979 and 1980 to study the effect of gamma irradiation, some growth regulators, benlate and 'vaporgard' on ripening and senescence of 'Hindi Be - Sinnara' mango fruits during storage under room conditions and also to determine the optimum treatment for maximum extension in shelf - life

302

Responses of Mango (Mangifera indica L. Root Stock Seedlings to Water Stress  

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Full Text Available The present studies were aimed at investigating the effect of different watering regimes on the gas exchange parameters (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates and chlorophyll content of young Mango (Mangifera indica rootstock seedlings. The hypothesis was that different levels of water deficit affect the gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll content of the mango rootstock seedlings. Six-month-old Mango (Mangifera indica L. rootstock seedlings were grown in polythene pots in a greenhouse at Maseno University, Kenya from December 2003 to March 2004 and subjects to four different watering regimes (namely daily, twice in a week, once in a week and once in two weeks. These treatments were in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. The parameters determined were stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, CO2 assimilation rate and intercellular CO2 concentration. All the gas exchange parameters were determined by infra Red Gas Analyser (PP systems. The results showed that increasing water stress reduced the physiological parameters particularly at the later days of plant growth due to stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Leaf chlorophyll content however was slightly increased since the chlorophyll pigments may have been resistant to dehydration. It is concluded that increase in water stress (increasing level of water deficit reduces the gas exchange parameters of mango (Mangifera indica rootstock seedlings but slightly increased chlorophyll content due to an adaptive mechanism.

Elizabeth Luvaha

2007-01-01

303

Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

2014-01-01

304

The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.  

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A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

2012-05-01

305

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the physiology of Manila mango.  

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Manila mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) have sensory characteristics that make them attractive for consumption as a fresh fruit. A large portion of the annual yield of this fruit is infested by the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), adversely impacting the quality of the crop. Hence, it is necessary to develop economically viable postharvest treatments to reduce the damage caused by this insect. Currently, high hydrostatic pressures are used to guarantee the safety of many processed foods. The objective of this work was to assess the effects of high hydrostatic pressure on mangoes at their physiological maturity. High hydrostatic pressures were applied to mangoes at three levels: 50, 100 and 200 megapascals applied for four different time periods (0, 5, 10 and 20 min). Physiologically mature mangoes were more resistant to changes in response to the pressure of 50 MPa. Reduction of physiological activity by application of high hydrostatic pressure opens a new avenue for the research on treatments intended to enhance preservation of whole fresh fruit. PMID:23504511

Vargas-Ortiz, M A; De la Cruz-Medina, J; de Los Monteros, J J Espinosa; Oliart-Ros, R M; Rebolledo-Martinez, A; Ramírez, J A; García, H S

2013-06-01

306

Low temperature stress ethylene and not Fusarium, might be responsible for mango malformation.  

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Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.). The etiology of the disease has not yet been successfully resolved. Here, we quantified the endogenous ethylene content in malformed and healthy vegetative and floral tissues of mango cultivars viz., Amrapali, Bombay green, Chausa, Dushehri and Mallika. Levels of ethylene were higher in malformed vegetative and floral tissues as compared with that of healthy tissues at both prior to full bloom and full bloom stages. The study also revealed that isolates of Fusarium dissected from mango exhibited most morphological similarities to the accepted standard features of Fusarium mangiferae. The growth dynamic of F. mangiferae were evaluated with varying temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 °C. Temperatures of 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C were better suited for growth of F. mangiferae than temperatures of 20 °C or 40 °C. Conidium germination of F. mangiferae was maximum at 30 °C and minimum at mango malformation showed its most severity at 10-15 °C temperature range. Stress ethylene level is higher in diseased tissue at the same temperature range where growth of Fusaria is found to be completely restricted. The present study provides direct evidence that low temperature induced 'stress ethylene' is potentially responsible for the disease while on the other hand Fusarium role in the disease either through toxic principle or malformation inducing principle is not conclusive at <15 °C and is rather out of question. PMID:23707883

Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bains, Gurdeep; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-08-01

307

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant content of 'Ataulfo' mango during postharvest maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min [...] . Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.

Viviana Guadalupe, Ortega; José Alberto, Ramírez; Gonzalo, Velázquez; Beatriz, Tovar; Miguel, Mata; Efigenia, Montalvo.

308

Selection of Yeasts Antagonists as Biocontrol Agent of Mango Fruit Rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae  

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Full Text Available Fruit rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important post harvest disease of mango in Indonesia. Study on biological control on the disease is required to develop environmentally-sound control technology. The research objectives were to study the potency of yeasts in controlling post harvest mango disease i.e. fruit rot caused by B. theobromae and mechanism involve in the biocontrol. Total yeast isolates used for screening were twenty one, four from collection of Plant Clinic of Institut Pertanian Bogor, and twenty one isolated from healthy mango skin. All of yeast isolates were characterized and identified using BIOLOG. Bioassay on antagonistic activity of yeasts against fruit rot, in-vitro dual culture test and chitinolytic activity were carried out. Cryptococcus albidus var. aerius WSW1, Pichia guilliermondii K1, and Debaryomyces hansenii K12 were the three most effective antagonistic yeasts against B. theobromae with effectiveness of 70.83%, 45.83%, 37.50% respectively. In vitro bio-assay showed that C. albidus var. aerius WSW1, C. albidus WSW2, C. albidus K6, C. terreus YSW1, Candida edax OSW1, Candida edax K13, and Cryptococcus luteolus K2 had high antibiosis activity. Biocontrol activity of tested yeasts against fruit rot of mango did not correlate to its antibiosis and chitinolytic activity

DWI SUGIPRIHATINI

2011-12-01

309

Biotechnological advances in mango (Mangifera indica L.) and their future implication in crop improvement: a review.  

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Biotechnology can complement conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programmes. Studies involving in vitro culture and selection, micropropagation, embryo rescue, genetic transformation, marker-assisted characterization and DNA fingerprinting, etc. are underway at different centers worldwide. In vitro culture and somatic embryogenesis of several different genotypes have been achieved. The nucellus excised from immature fruitlets is the appropriate explant for induction of embryogenic cultures. High frequency somatic embryogenesis has been achieved in some genotypes; however, some abnormalities can occur during somatic embryo germination. Embryo rescue from young and dropped fruitlets can improve the hybridization success in a limited flowering season. Protocols for protoplast culture and regeneration have also been developed. In vitro selections for antibiotic tolerance and fungal toxin resistance have been very promising for germplasm screening. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been reported. Genes that are involved with fruit ripening have been cloned and there have been attempts to deliver these genes into plants. DNA fingerprinting and studies on genetic diversity of mango cultivars and Mangifera species are also being conducted at several research stations. The purpose of this review is to focus upon contemporary information on biotechnological advances made in mango. It also describes some ways of overcoming the problems encountered during in vitro propagation of mango. PMID:17321096

Krishna, Hare; Singh, S K

2007-01-01

310

Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School  

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This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

Sullivan, M. Alayne

2007-01-01

311

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant content of 'Ataulfo' mango during postharvest maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min [...] . Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.

Viviana Guadalupe, Ortega; José Alberto, Ramírez; Gonzalo, Velázquez; Beatriz, Tovar; Miguel, Mata; Efigenia, Montalvo.

2013-09-01

312

Management of Mango Hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, Using Chemical Insecticides and Neem Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

Adnan, S. M.; Uddin, M. M.; Alam, M. J.; Islam, M. S.; Kashem, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

2014-01-01

313

Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realiz [...] adas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta. Abstract in english Mango is one of the most consumed fruit in the world and the most exported by Peru. At present, Peru is the sixth largest exporter in the world. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of mango exports by Peru by making more focus to the main target markets, namely the [...] United States and the European Union for the period from 2000-2011. For this end, we used the model of Vector Error Correction. The choice of model is discussed in the methodology. The variables used to explain the determinants of mango exports are domestic prices, wholesale prices in the United States and the European Union, the internal income of the United States and the European Union and the exchange rate euro / dollar. The results show that international prices and income in the United States are determinant to explain exports of this fruit. The results show that the international prices and the income of importers markets are determinant to explain the export of this fruit.

Jorge Luis Sánchez, Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de, Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de, Araújo.

314

Testing and Performance Evaluation of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Mango Orchard  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops is quite difficult due to their tallness. There are small hand tools available for harvesting and pruning. But these tools of harvesting and pruning are restricted due tree height, unavailability of trained labours for climbing and cost of operation etc. The mechanized machines are available; these are heavy and costly and are not suitable for low land holding, Indian marginal famers. Harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops with the available hand tool is very difficult. The labor has to climb on the tree by carrying these hand tools, which requires skill too. To overcome the above problems a Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE powered by tractor PTO, was tested for the mechanical harvesting and pruning of mango orchards using digital load cell, digital Vibration meter and digital Techometer for elevator stability study and pruner engine RPM measurements while in branch cutting respectively. The field performance of the above machine was carried out on plane mango plot, at Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist: -Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India. The machine was tested for the better stability at maximum reach position for harvesting and pruning of various mango varieties, like Alphanso, Totapuri etc. Approach: To reduce the harvesting /pruning cost, increase the harvesting/pruning efficiency and enhance the overall productivity of mango orchards. Also to use the traditional mechanized/ manual pruning tools with the developed tractor mounted hydraulic elevator. To develop and refine the power operated mechanism for marginal farmers. This stability study was carried out, by using strain gauge load cell (S-beam, having capacity of 2000 kg. The load cell guiding device was designed and fabricated for conducting the above experiments following standard material specifications of American society of testing material. The reaction on rear wheel of tractor was measured by using digital load cell, which converts the force acting on rear wheel of tractor into electrical signals and get it displayed on the control panel. The speed of pruner engine is measured for various mango trees branches at different heights, using digital tachometer. The vibrations of the pruning platform are measured for the respective pruner engine speed and height of Pruning Platform. The speed and vibration readings are taken for different branches of different diameter and height. The time required for pruning the branches is also measured. Results: The tractor mounted hydraulic elevator is most suitable for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards upto 12 m tree height without affecting the stability of machine with available tools. The field capacity of elevator was 0.08 h?1 for mango harvesting. The observed field capacity of the developed TMHE is 5,400 mango (1400 kg day?1 for Alphanso mango, research is underway to develop hydraulic man-positioned, which would be easier to harvest, prune tree and spraying by hand or machine. Conclusion: The overturning of the elevator is not observed, up to 12 meter height of tree from ground including 150 kg load in the lifting platform for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards. The vibrations of the lifting platform noted are in safe limit.

Kishor P. Kolhe

2011-01-01

315

An Improved Method of Optimizing the Extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Peel  

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Full Text Available The present study has an objective to optimize the extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. peel. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design experiments and study the effect of six influential extraction parameters: extraction buffer concentration (100-500 mM, pH of extraction buffer (4.5-8.5, time (1-12 hours, temperature (4-40?C, concentration of PMSF (1-5 mM and volume of extraction buffer (200-1000 ml on the extraction of PPO. The dependent variable was considered as response function which was specific activity (SA of extracted PPO. ANOVA was performed to obtain the regression equation that could predict the responses within given range. From RSM generated model, the optimum conditions for the maximum extraction of PPO were phosphate buffer concentration of 100 mm, buffer pH of 4.5, extraction time of 1 hour, 40?C temperature, PMSF concentration of 5 mM and buffer volume of 200 ml. Finally, this study illustrates a cost effective and less time consuming method to maximize the extraction of PPO from a vegetable waste.

Suprabhat MUKHERJEE

2012-02-01

316

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

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Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

2012-08-01

317

The efficiency of ionizing radiation on the disinfestation of fresh mangoes (Carabao variety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, Carabao variety, were irradiated with doses found effective for fruit fly disinfestation, namely 60, 70 and 80 krad and stored at either 30deg C or 7deg C until subjection to various analyses. Parts of the fruit of varying sizes and maturity, both irradiated and non-irradiated, were exposed to varying ages and numbers of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) to study the degree of infestation. Analyses of physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of irradiated mangoes were carried out at appropriate intervals. Extension of shelf-life of mangoes irradiated with doses mentioned above could not be achieved when the fruits were stored at 30deg C. A study of factors considered important in measuring the effectiveness of radiation disinfestation showed that the degree of fruit fly infestation was significantly influenced by size and maturity of the fruits, and by the number of age of the infesting flies. Direct irradiation of different developmental stages of the fly showed that the low dose of 5 krad applied to eggs, larvae, and pupae prevented adult emergence and produced sterility in adults. A dose of 15 krad shortened survival time of adult fruit flies to 10 days. The 60 - 80 krad doses applied were found effective to extend the shelf-life of mangoes and could be used for insect disinfestation also. No significant changes in pH, texture, carotine, sugar, pectin and ascorbic acid contents were found in mangoes exposed at these dose levels. They were also found generally acceptable to judges. No significant differences between appearance, texture, odour, and flavour were found between controls and the irradiated samples by 8-10 trained judges using the Hedonic Scale

318

Behavioral Pattern of Physicochemical Constituents of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L. Influenced by Storage Stimuli  

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Full Text Available An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55±1°C and low temperature (4±1°C. The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g and titratable acidity (4.31% and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83; produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00% and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06% content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4±1°C exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS. Therefore, low temperature (4±1°C was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

Md. Khairul Islam

2013-01-01

319

Hot-water phytosanitary treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Ataulfo' mangoes.  

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We determined the thermal death rate constants and mortality curves for the eggs and different instars of Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) (Wiedemann) submerged in isolation in water at 44, 46, and 48 degrees C and submerged within fruits of Mangifera indica (mango) (L.) in water at 43.1, 44.1, 45.1, and 46.1 degrees C. The first instar was the most tolerant to this treatment, with estimated times for achieving 99.9968% mortality of 103.28, 92.73, and 92.49 min at temperatures of 43.1, 44.1, and 45.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of the study indicate that 'Ataulfo' mangoes weighing < 329 +/- 2.11 g and at risk immature Mediterranean fruit fly infestation should be immersed for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C to ensure that the fruit pulp remains at this temperature for 10 min. An efficacy test was conducted that involved treating 730 mangoes, with an average weight of 326 +/- 2.11 g (mean +/- SE) and infested with 84 +/- 1.15 first instars. In this test, none of the 61,720 larvae treated survived. The confirmatory test was performed using commercial equipment in which 1,112 infested mango fruit weighing an average of 329 +/- 2.11 g were treated. Each fruit was previously infested with an average of 59 +/- 0.61 first instars (= 65,825 total larvae) of which none survived. The data collected on mango quality indicate that hot water immersion for 95 min at 46.1-47 degrees C can produce a more uniform fruit-color and positively modify the pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). Taking all factors into consideration, we conclude that this treatment is sufficient to meet quarantine restrictions against C. capitata while maintaining market quality at least for 15 d. PMID:23356057

Hernández, Emilio; Rivera, Pedro; Bravo, Bigail; Toledo, Jorge; Caro-Corrales, José; Montoya, Pablo

2012-12-01

320

Control químico de la antracnosis del mango (Mangifera indica L.) en pre y postcosecha en el municipio cedeño, estado monagas, venezuela Chemical control of anthracnose during pre and postharvest in mango, in Cedeño County, Monagas State, Venezuela  

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En la actualidad las patologías más importantes del mango en las zonas productoras del oriente venezolano son las manchas en el follaje, flores y frutos causadas por la antracnosis (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz). Se ha visualizado que la implementación de un programa de aspersión de las plantas con fungicidas es la práctica más viable en el manejo de la enfermedad, ya que la mayoría de las fincas están establecidas con variedades de mango susceptibles a este hongo. El estudio se...

Berto Arias Rivas; Luis Carrizales

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

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Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to increase with increasing temperature and could be well adjusted by an exponential relationship. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to sorption isotherms and plots of deltaH versus deltaS provided the isokinetic temperatures, indicating an enthalpy controlled sorption process.Dados de equilíbrio da umidade da polpa de manga foram determinados utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico. As isotermas de adsorção e dessorção foram obtidas na faixa de 30-70 ºC e as atividades de água (a w de 0,02 a 0,97. A utilização do modelo de GAB nos resultados experimentais, através da análise de regressão não linear, proporcionou um bom ajuste entre os dados experimentais e os valores calculados. O calor isostérico de sorção foi estimado a partir dos dados de equilíbrio de sorção, utilizando-se a equação de Clausius-Clayperon. Notou-se que os calores isostéricos de sorção crescem com o aumento da temperatura e pode ser bem ajustado através de uma relação exponencial. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas de sorção e gráficos deltaH versus deltaS forneceram as temperaturas isocinéticas, indicando um processo de sorção entalpicamente controlado.

Javier Telis-Romero

2005-06-01

322

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango / Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Dados de equilíbrio da umidade da polpa de manga foram determinados utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico. As isotermas de adsorção e dessorção foram obtidas na faixa de 30-70 ºC e as atividades de água (a w) de 0,02 a 0,97. A utilização do modelo de GAB nos resultados experimentais, através [...] da análise de regressão não linear, proporcionou um bom ajuste entre os dados experimentais e os valores calculados. O calor isostérico de sorção foi estimado a partir dos dados de equilíbrio de sorção, utilizando-se a equação de Clausius-Clayperon. Notou-se que os calores isostéricos de sorção crescem com o aumento da temperatura e pode ser bem ajustado através de uma relação exponencial. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas de sorção e gráficos deltaH versus deltaS forneceram as temperaturas isocinéticas, indicando um processo de sorção entalpicamente controlado. Abstract in english Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w) from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear r [...] egression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to increase with increasing temperature and could be well adjusted by an exponential relationship. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to sorption isotherms and plots of deltaH versus deltaS provided the isokinetic temperatures, indicating an enthalpy controlled sorption process.

Javier, Telis-Romero; Márcio N., Kohayakawa; Vivaldo, Silveira Jr; Maria A. M., Pedro; Ana L., Gabas.

2005-06-01

323

Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.), is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response studies with larvae, pupae, and adult weevils. To validate an irradiation treatment, large-scale confirmatory tests were conducted with adults (the most radiation-tolerant stage) in mangoes at 100 and 150 Gy. After treatment, adults were removed from fruit, sexed, and mated in pairs to observe any reproduction. At 100 Gy, adults laid a small number of eggs but none of the eggs hatched. At 150 Gy (measured doses 96.7-164.1 Gy),4,559 treated weevils laid no eggs, indicating that this dose caused complete sterility. Irradiation treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 165 Gy will therefore provide quarantine security for S. frigidus in exported Philippine mangoes. PMID:24665698

Obra, Glenda B; Resilva, S S; Follett, P A; Lorenzana, L R J

2014-02-01

324

Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

Alikhani, Majid

2014-01-01

325

Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

Alikhani, Majid

2014-05-01

326

Determinación del perfil de calentamiento y evaluación sensorial en la elaboración de pulpa liofilizada de mango variedad Tommy Atkins  

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Marulanda Loaiza, Jorge Mario (2002) Determinación del perfil de calentamiento y evaluación sensorial en la elaboración de pulpa liofilizada de mango variedad Tommy Atkins. Otra thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Manizales.

Marulanda Loaiza, Jorge Mario

2002-01-01

327

Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud  

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Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

Omotioma M

2014-10-01

328

Effect of Hot Water Treatment on Quality and Incidence of Postharvest Disease of Mango (Mangifera indicia L. Fruits  

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Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an evergreen tree grown throughout subtropical and tropical regions. The mango fruit is one of the highly consumed and popular fruits throughout the world. As a fruit, it is liable to postharvest losses as a result of physiological deterioration and pathogen infection. In order to minimize the postharvest losses and extend shelf life, postharvest treatments are given to the fruit after harvest. Among the postharvest treatments, hot water treatment is the one and should be applied at the beginning of the packing or packing process for improved quality and shelf life of mango. Mango anthracnose, a major postharvest disease, induces huge losses in mangoes and threatens mango export and consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot water treatment on the quality and control of postharvest fungal disease. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of postharvest physiology, Jimma University from April to May 2014, using CRD factorial arrangement of treatments replicated three times. Two factors were considered as a treatment; temperature and time (duration of treatment. There were three levels of temperature (48, 50 and 52°C and two levels of time (5 and 10 min. Accordingly, the experiment had six factorial and one control treatments with three replications making a total of 21 experimental units. Mango fruits of local variety were used for the study that was brought from Sarboo district, Jimma zone. The result of the study showed that hot water treatment highly significantly (p<0.001 affected weight loss and disease incidence (anthracnose during storage time. In addition, hot water treatment significantly (p<0.05 affected the pH and TA value of mango fruit but had no significant effect on the total soluble solids and sugar acidity ratio of the fruits.

Obsa Neme Angasu

2014-01-01

329

Effect of cultural practices and selected chemicals on flowering and fruit production in some mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars  

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Although mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been studied for many years, numerous problems still elude researchers. The objectives of the current trials were to study the effects of some cultural practices (fruit thinning, panicle/ bud/ renewal/ post-harvest pruning) and chemicals (Corasil.E, potassium nitrate/urea, paclobutrazol) on various vegetative, floral, yield and quality parameters. The study meant to address problems of both South African and Ethiopian mango growers. The thinning (on ?...

Yeshitela, Teferi Belayneh

2005-01-01

330

Environmentally friendly approach to postharvest quality maintenance of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. ‘Tommy Atkins’&‘Kent’  

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The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an appealing subtropical fresh fruit with a pleasant flavor and taste, high nutritional value, beneficial medicinal properties and various processing options. However, as is the case with most subtropical fruit, it is a sensitive commodity, prone to losses postharvestly. The South African mango industry is highly dependent on a hot water and cold prochloraz dip treatment, to control postharvest anthracnose and soft brown rot on fruit destined for export. How...

Deventer, Francois Johannes

2012-01-01

331

Imaging the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape under a constant load  

CERN Document Server

Using a high speed camera, we study the peeling dynamics of an adhesive tape under a constant load with a special focus on the so-called stick-slip regime of the peeling. It is the first time that the very fast motion of the peeling point is imaged. The speed of the camera, up to 16000 fps, allows us to observe and quantify the details of the peeling point motion during the stick and slip phases: stick and slip velocities, durations and amplitudes. First, in contrast with previous observations, the stick-slip regime appears to be only transient in the force controlled peeling. Additionally, we discover that the stick and slip phases have similar durations and that at high mean peeling velocity, the slip phase actually lasts longer than the stick phase. Depending on the mean peeling velocity, we also observe that the velocity change between stick and slip phase ranges from a rather sudden to a smooth transition. These new observations can help to discriminate between the various assumptions used in theoretical...

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic

2007-01-01

332

Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

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Full Text Available Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits containing oil, water and solid cellulose materials was used as a feed material of this study. Extraction was carried out at 333 K and 20 MPa while the extraction efficiency over 80% was obtained for lemon and shikuwasa but it was about 60% for daidai peel slurry. The extracted oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS to compare the compositions of oils among these peel slurries. The compositions of extracted oils differed qualitatively and quantitatively from each other of feed materials in such a way that the monoterpenes (C10H16 content varied 89.23 to 93.20% with the type of peel slurry, while limonene as a major compound. Oxygenated compounds in these oils represented 8.84, 5.5 and 4.49% in lemon, daidai and shikuwasa peel slurry, respectively. The obtained product with the composition was almost the similar with the other citrus oils extracted from fresh fruit peels.

Bhupesh C. Roy

2005-01-01

333

Análisis de las características físicas y químicas del fruto de mango (Mangifera indica L.) "Bocado" de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes, Venezuela  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El mango Bocado es un fruto subutilizado a escala industrial, a pesar de que en el país posee una elevada productividad. Su aprovechamiento se ha limitado al desarrollo de productos artesanales, como jaleas, mermeladas, licores, encurtidos de mango verde y pulpa concentrada. En este trabajo se analizaron las variables físicas y químicas del mango Bocado de tres localidades del Estado Cojedes (El Genareño, Caño Hondo y La Palma) para indagar diferencias sobre variables de proceso, calidad...

Elba Milagros Garrido; Tonny García Rujano; Alexia Torres; Elba Sangronis; José Antonio Martínez; Luis Carlos Chaparro; Loreidys Sánchez

2013-01-01

334

Creep of a fracture line in paper peeling  

CERN Document Server

The slow motion of a crack line is studied via an experiment in which sheets of paper are split into two halves in a ``peel-in-nip'' (PIN) geometry under a constant load, in creep. The velocity-force relation is exponential. The dynamics of the fracture line exhibits intermittency, or avalanches, which are studied using acoustic emission. The energy statistics is a power-law, with the exponent $\\beta \\sim 1.8 \\pm 0.1$. Both the waiting times between subsequent events and the displacement of the fracture line imply complicated stick-slip dynamics. We discuss the correspondence to tensile PIN tests and other similar experiments on in-plane fracture and the theory of creep for elastic manifolds.

Koivisto, J; Alava, M J

2007-01-01

335

Production of biomass from untreated orange peel by fusarium avenaceum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth behaviour of Fusarium avenaceum (Sect. Roseum Wr.) in slurry fermentation systems using untreated orange peel as substrate was studied in a laboratory-fermenter scale to reproduce the results obtained in a shaken-flask fermenter. The eventual effect of impeller speed on mechanical disruption of mycelial hyphae was then assessed by determining mycelial growth, total reducing sugars consumption, TOC reduction, carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen absorption rates. In particular, the main biomass yield coefficient, as well as the apparent specific growth rate, appeared to be independent of the impeller speed, at least within the experimental range of 450 and 900 min/sup -1/ (equivalent to peripheral impeller speeds of 3.8-7.5 m sec /sup -1/.

Moresi, M.; Clementi, F.; Rossi, J.; Vinti, G.L.; Medici, R.

1987-10-01

336

Process optimization for supercritical concentration of orange peel oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english This work addresses modeling, simulation and optimization of countercurrent deterpenation of orange peel oil, modeled as a model mixture of limonene-linalool, with supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Binary and ternary systems are modeled with a group contribution equation of state, and vapor-l [...] iquid equilibria and selectivity predictions are compared to experimental data from different sources. A nonlinear programming model is proposed for the maximization of net profit. Process simulations are carried out at conditions reported in the literature and component purity and recovery in the output streams are contrasted against laboratory-scale process results. Optimization results provide operating conditions and equipment size to maximize net profit.

S., Espinosa; M. S., Diaz; E. A., Brignole.

337

Carbon nanotubes adhesion and nanomechanical behavior from peeling force spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Applications based on single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) are good example of the great need to continuously develop metrology methods in the field of nanotechnology. Contact and interface properties are key parameters that determine the efficiency of SWNT functionalized nanomaterials and nanodevices. In this work we have taken advantage of a good control of the SWNT growth processes at an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip apex and the use of a low noise (10-13 m/?Hz) AFM to investigate the mechanical behavior of a SWNT touching a surface. By simultaneously recording static and dynamic properties of SWNT, we show that the contact corresponds to a peeling geometry, and extract quantities such as adhesion energy per unit length, curvature and bending rigidity of the nanotube. A complete picture of the local shape of the SWNT and its mechanical behavior is provided.

Buchoux, J.; Bellon, L.; Marsaudon, S.; Aimé, J.-P.

2011-11-01

338

Effect of orange peel essential oil on oxidative stress in AOM animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing parameters of pump speed, inlet air temperature, outlet air temperature and homogenization pressure were evaluated. Encapsulation efficiency is high with a satisfied releasing rate. Then, acute otitis media (AOM) animal model was built and diet containing orange peel essential oil microcapsules were administrated to AOM animals. Pharmacological test showed that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease serum and cochlea malondialdehyde (MDA), immunoglobulins A (IgA), immunoglobulins G (IgG), immunoglobulins M (IgM) levels and increase antioxidant enzymes activities. It can be concluded that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease oxidative injury in acute otitis media rats. PMID:22342737

Lv, Yun-Xia; Zhao, Su-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Zhi-Hai; Cai, Geng-Ming; Jiang, Wei-Hong

2012-05-01

339

Production of ethanol from enzymatically hydrolyzed orange peel by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors extended their previous investigations of enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides in orange peel by commercial cellulase and pectinase enzymes to higher, more practical concentrations of orange peel solids. High yields of saccharification could be maintained even at substrate concentrations as high as 22-23%, but the rates of solubilization and saccarification decreased 2-3-fold. They also tested the fermentability of these hydrolysates by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which revealed the presence of inhibitory compounds. These compounds could be removed by the filtration of hydrolyzed peel. Successful fermentations of filtered hydrolysates were achieved after pH adjustment with calcium carbonate. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Grohmann, K.; Baldwin, E.A. (USDA Citrus Subtropical Products Lab., Winter Haven, FL (United States)); Buslig, B.S. (Florida Dept. of Citrus, Winter Haven, FL (United States))

340

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis were applied in different forms (treatments separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character of crust, colour of crumb, colour of crust, taste, texture, aroma and grain of bread. They also inhibited and delayed the microbial growth in the bread. Maximum inhibitory effect was achieved against molds and bacteria by spraying the malta peel essential oil on bread.

Salim -ur-Rehman

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

[A preliminary study on bioactivity of orange and tangerine peel extracts against aphis and mites].  

Science.gov (United States)

An assay was made on the bioactivity of the extracts of tangerine peel from Cinocitrus tangerina, orange peel from Citrus sinensis and mixed tangerine peel from Cinocitrus sp. against aphis Semia phis heraclei, Aphis craccivora, Uroleucon gobonis and Myzus persicae using residual film or topical method, and against mites Tetranychus viennensis and T. trancatus using slide-dip or immersion method. Test results show that these extracts have strong bioactivity against aphids and mites. The corrected mortality regression equations and LC50 (or LD50) of these extracts to pests are presented. PMID:7576134

Fan, Y; Ding, Z; Yang, L; Xu, L; Zhang, G; Li, K

1995-07-01

342

Transformación de embriones somáticos de mango por biobalística  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de transformar geneticamente manga mediante biobalística, se bombardearam embriões somáticos das variedades Haden, Madame Francis e Kent. Determinou-se a dose máxima de PPT em que os embriões somáticos sobrevivem, cultivando-os no meio Gamborg, Miller e Ojima em concentrações de 0; [...] 0,5; 1 e 2mg/l de PPT durante 3 meses e sub cultivando mensalmente para avaliar peso fresco e seco. Os embriões somáticos foram bombardeados com o plásmido CAMBIA 3201 que contêm os gens GUS e BAR, com dois tamanhos de partículas de tungstênio (0,7 e 1,3µm), pressão de 80psi, duas distâncias de bombardeio (10,0 e 16,5cm) e 5µg de ADN. Se selecionaram os embriões transformados em meio Gamborg, Miller e Ojima com 0,5mg/l de PPT. As condições de bombardeio escolhidas foram o tamanho de partícula de 0,7µm e a distância de bombardeio de 16,5cm. Depois de três meses de seleção nas concentrações de PPT utilizadas se fez evidente a sobrevivência dos embriões transformados na variedade Kent, enquanto que os embriões não transformados sobreviveram em concentração de 0,5mg/l. As variedades Haden e Madame Francis foram sensíveis às condições de bombardeio e seleção subministrados, morrendo depois deste processo. Se conseguiu uma sobrevivência de 4% e a regeneração de 3 clones por 0,5g de tecido bombardeado. Se evidenciou a atividade enzimática da expressão transitória do gene GUS mas não a estável e a incorporação dos gens GUS e BAR mediante PCR. Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de transformar genéticamente mango mediante biobalística, se bombardearon embriones somáticos de las variedades Haden, Madame Francis y Kent. Se determinó la dosis máxima de PPT en que los embriones somáticos sobreviven, cultivándolos en el medio Gamborg, Miller y Ojima en concentra [...] ciones de 0; 0,5; 1 y 2mg/l de PPT durante 3 meses y subcultivando mensualmente para evaluar peso fresco y seco. Los embriones somáticos fueron bombardeados con el plásmido CAMBIA 3201 que contiene los genes GUS y BAR, con dos tamaños de partículas de tungsteno (0,7 y 1,3µm), presión de 80psi, dos distancias de bombardeo (10,0 y 16,5cm) y 5µg de ADN. Se seleccionaron los embriones transformados en medio Gamborg, Miller y Ojima con 0,5mg/l de PPT. Las condiciones de bombardeo escogidas fueron el tamaño de partícula de 0,7µm y la distancia de bombardeo de 16,5cm. Después de tres meses de selección en las concentraciones de PPT utilizadas se hizo evidente la sobrevivencia de los embriones transformados en la variedad Kent, mientras que los embriones no transformados sobrevivieron en concentración de 0,5mg/l. Las variedades Haden y Madame Francis fueron sensibles a las condiciones de bombardeo y selección suministrados, muriendo después de este proceso. Se logró una sobrevivencia de 4% y la regeneración de 3 clones por 0,5g de tejido bombardeado. Se evidenció la actividad enzimática de la expresión transitoria del gen GUS pero no la estable y la incorporación de los genes GUS y BAR mediante PCR. Abstract in english In order to genetically transform mango by biobalistic, somatic embryos of the varieties Haden, Madame Francis and Kent were bombarded. The maximum dose of PPT that somatic embryos survive was determined by exposing them in Gamborg, Miller y Ojima media containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2mg/l PPT during 3 mo [...] nths and subculturing every month to evaluate fresh and dry weight. The embryos were bombarded with the plasmid CAMBIA 3201 with genes GUS y BAR, using two tungsten particle sizes (0.7 and 1.3µm), pressure of 80psi, bombardment distances of 10 and 16.5cm, and 5µg of DNA. Embryos were selected using 0.5mg/l PPT as selective agent. Particle size of 0.7µm and the bombardment distance of 16.5cm were selected. After 3 months of selection in the indicated PPT concentrations, selected clones of the Kent variety survived all concentrations, while non-transformed embryos survived only at 0.5mg/l. Haden and Madam

Marleny, Chavarri; Ariadne, Vegas; Asia Y., Zambrano; Jhonny R., Demey.

343

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL AND FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF ANANUS COMOSUS (L. MERRILL PEEL  

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Full Text Available Ananas comosus (L. Merrill is belonging to the family Bromeliaceae which act as an anti-inflammatory, antitumor effect. The present study is aimed to appraise the antioxidant potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis in Ananus comosus peel. The enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants profiles were analyzed in fresh peel of pineapple with the standard protocols and the FTIR was applied and Infrared spectrum in mid infrared region 4000–400 cm–1 was used for discriminating and to identify various functional groups present in the ethanolic extract of Ananus comosus. The fresh peel shows the significant amount of antioxidants and the FTIR analysis also found the presence of amino acids, alkenes, nitrates, nitrites, ethers, esters, aldehydes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, organic halogen compounds, carbohydrates, sulphur derivatives and polysaccharides. In conclusion, the results presented in the peel of Ananus comosus have strong antioxidant content which may be act as good pharmacotherapeutic agents in future.

Manokaran Kalaiselvi

2012-02-01

344

Phenolic profile of quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller) (pulp and peel).  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out on quince fruit samples from seven different geographical origins in Portugal. For each origin, both pulp and peel were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/MS. The results revealed differences between the phenolic profiles of pulps and peels in all studied cases. The pulps contained mainly caffeoylquinic acids (3-, 4-, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) and one quercetin glycoside, rutin (in low amount). The peels presented the same caffeoylquinic acids and several flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-galactoside, kaempferol 3-glucoside, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, and several unidentified compounds (probably kaempferol glycoside and quercetin and kaempferol glycosides acylated with p-coumaric acid). The highest content of phenolics was found in peels. PMID:12137485

Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Domingues, Ana L; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

2002-07-31

345

A highly versatile convergent/divergent "onion peel" synthetic strategy toward potent multivalent glycodendrimers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both convergent and divergent strategies for the synthesis of "onion peel" glycodendrimers are reported which resulted in one of the best multivalent ligands known against the virulent factor from a bacterial lectin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:25227948

Sharma, Rishi; Kottari, Naresh; Chabre, Yoann M; Abbassi, Leïla; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René

2014-11-11

346

Peeling-off of the external kink modes at tokamak plasma edge  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that there is a current jump between the edge plasma inside the last closed flux surface and the scrape-off layer and that the current jump can lead the external kink modes to convert to the tearing modes, due to the current interchange effects [L. J. Zheng and M. Furukawa, Phys. Plasmas 17, 052508 (2010)]. The magnetic reconnection in the presence of tearing modes subsequently causes the tokamak edge plasma to be peeled off to link to the divertors. In particular, the peeling or peeling-ballooning modes can become the "peeling-off" modes in this sense. This phenomenon indicates that the tokamak edge confinement can be worse than the expectation based on the conventional kink mode picture.

Zheng, L. J.; Furukawa, M.

2014-08-01

347

Peel LTP (Pru p 3)--the major allergen of peach--is methylated. A proteomic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipid transfer protein (LTP, Pru p 3) is the major allergen of peach (Prunus persica), and is in a greater abundance in the peel than in the pulp of the fruit. Peel LTP is more allergenic than pulp LTP, but it is not clear whether this is due to its specific allergenic properties or to its higher concentration. In this study, we have used a new one-step, rapid procedure for the purification of LTP from peel and pulp of four peach varieties [Gladys (white flesh), California (nectarine yellow flesh), Plusplus (yellow flesh), Red Fair (nectarine yellow flesh)] harvested in a field grown in Southern Italy. Purification was based on miniature reversed-phase chromatography, a procedure suitable for proteomic study. Proteomic analysis of purified LTPs revealed that the amino acid sequence of LTP was identical in all peach genotypes but, for the first time, peel LTP was found to be methylated. PMID:23871022

Larocca, Marilena; Martelli, Giuseppe; Grossi, Gerarda; Padula, Maria Carmela; Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

2013-12-01

348

Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. PMID:19770018

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Sousa, M João; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-01-01

349

Cinética de degradação de vitamina c em mangas 'palmer' minimamente processadas armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas / Kinects of vitamin C degradation of 'palmer' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) stored at different temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de utilizar parâmetros cinéticos para avaliar a degradação de vitamina C sobre a vida útil de mangas (Mangifera indica L.) minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas. Mangas 'Palmer' foram lavadas em água corrente, sanificadas, descasca [...] das, novamente sanificadas e fatiadas manualmente. O produto foi embalado em embalagem de polietileno com tampa e armazenado a 0ºC, 6ºC e 12ºC (85-90% UR). Para o acompanhamento da sua vida útil, a cada 2 dias foram feitas as seguintes análises: valores L* a* e b*, perda de massa, pH, firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT) e teor de vitamina C. As mangas minimamente processadas armazenadas à 0ºC e 6ºC apresentaram vida útil de 10 dias contra 4 dias das mangas armazenadas à 12ºC. Os dados obtidos por meio de regressão linear com os valores do logaritmo neperiano do teor de ácido ascórbico pelo tempo de armazenagem (dias) mostram que a reação de degradação da vitamina C se ajusta ao modelo cinético de 1ª ordem. O Modelo de Arrhenius foi aplicado às velocidades de reação (k) nas diferentes temperaturas estabelecendo energia de ativação (Ea) de 34,32 kcal mol-1. A degradação de vitamina C foi mais lenta (t1/2 = 63,6dias; e k = 0,0109 dias-1) à 0ºC o que proporcionou maior retenção de seus teores (89%) durante 10 dias de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas à 12ºC apresentaram maior velocidade de degradação (k = 0,1729 dias-1) e, consequentemente, t1/2 inferior às demais temperaturas (apenas 4 dias). Abstract in english This work was used to evaluate the kinetic parameters for degradation of vitamin C on the shelf-life of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) stored at different temperatures. 'Palmer' Mangos were washed in running water, sanitized, peeled, manually sliced and again sanitized. The produc [...] t was packaged in polyethylene packaging with lid and stored at 0ºC, 6°C and 12 °C (85-90% RH). To monitor its shelf-life, the following tests were done every two days: values L* a* b*, weight loss, pH, firmness, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and content of vitamin C. The minimally processed mangoes stored at 0ºC and 6ºC showed shelf-life of 10 days, whereas the shelf-life of mangoes stored at 12°C was 4 days. The data obtained by linear regression with the values of the Neperian logarithm content of ascorbic acid by the time of storage (days) show that the reaction of degradation of vitamin C fits the kinetic model of 1st order. The Arrhenius model was applied to the speed of reaction (k) at different temperatures by setting the activation energy (Ea) of 34,32 kcal.mol-1. The degradation of vitamin C was slower (t1 / 2 = 63.6 days, and k = 0.0109 days-1) at 0°C, which provided greater retention of its contents (89%) during 10 days of storage. Fruits stored at 12°C showed a higher rate of degradation (k = 0.1729 days-1) and, consequently, t1 / 2 less than the other temperatures (only 4 days).

Juliana Alvarenga, Alves; Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende, Nassur; Caroline Roberta Freitas, Pires; Emanuelle Mara de, Alcântara; Juliana Audi, Giannoni; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira, Lima.

2010-06-01

350

Cinética de degradação de vitamina c em mangas 'palmer' minimamente processadas armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas / Kinects of vitamin C degradation of 'palmer' mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) stored at different temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de utilizar parâmetros cinéticos para avaliar a degradação de vitamina C sobre a vida útil de mangas (Mangifera indica L.) minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas. Mangas 'Palmer' foram lavadas em água corrente, sanificadas, descasca [...] das, novamente sanificadas e fatiadas manualmente. O produto foi embalado em embalagem de polietileno com tampa e armazenado a 0ºC, 6ºC e 12ºC (85-90% UR). Para o acompanhamento da sua vida útil, a cada 2 dias foram feitas as seguintes análises: valores L* a* e b*, perda de massa, pH, firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS), acidez titulável (AT) e teor de vitamina C. As mangas minimamente processadas armazenadas à 0ºC e 6ºC apresentaram vida útil de 10 dias contra 4 dias das mangas armazenadas à 12ºC. Os dados obtidos por meio de regressão linear com os valores do logaritmo neperiano do teor de ácido ascórbico pelo tempo de armazenagem (dias) mostram que a reação de degradação da vitamina C se ajusta ao modelo cinético de 1ª ordem. O Modelo de Arrhenius foi aplicado às velocidades de reação (k) nas diferentes temperaturas estabelecendo energia de ativação (Ea) de 34,32 kcal mol-1. A degradação de vitamina C foi mais lenta (t1/2 = 63,6dias; e k = 0,0109 dias-1) à 0ºC o que proporcionou maior retenção de seus teores (89%) durante 10 dias de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas à 12ºC apresentaram maior velocidade de degradação (k = 0,1729 dias-1) e, consequentemente, t1/2 inferior às demais temperaturas (apenas 4 dias). Abstract in english This work was used to evaluate the kinetic parameters for degradation of vitamin C on the shelf-life of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) stored at different temperatures. 'Palmer' Mangos were washed in running water, sanitized, peeled, manually sliced and again sanitized. The produc [...] t was packaged in polyethylene packaging with lid and stored at 0ºC, 6°C and 12 °C (85-90% RH). To monitor its shelf-life, the following tests were done every two days: values L* a* b*, weight loss, pH, firmness, soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA) and content of vitamin C. The minimally processed mangoes stored at 0ºC and 6ºC showed shelf-life of 10 days, whereas the shelf-life of mangoes stored at 12°C was 4 days. The data obtained by linear regression with the values of the Neperian logarithm content of ascorbic acid by the time of storage (days) show that the reaction of degradation of vitamin C fits the kinetic model of 1st order. The Arrhenius model was applied to the speed of reaction (k) at different temperatures by setting the activation energy (Ea) of 34,32 kcal.mol-1. The degradation of vitamin C was slower (t1 / 2 = 63.6 days, and k = 0.0109 days-1) at 0°C, which provided greater retention of its contents (89%) during 10 days of storage. Fruits stored at 12°C showed a higher rate of degradation (k = 0.1729 days-1) and, consequently, t1 / 2 less than the other temperatures (only 4 days).

Juliana Alvarenga, Alves; Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende, Nassur; Caroline Roberta Freitas, Pires; Emanuelle Mara de, Alcântara; Juliana Audi, Giannoni; Luiz Carlos de Oliveira, Lima.

351

Cinética de degradação de vitamina c em mangas 'palmer' minimamente processadas armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Kinects of vitamin C degradation of 'palmer' mangoes (Mangifera indica L. stored at different temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de utilizar parâmetros cinéticos para avaliar a degradação de vitamina C sobre a vida útil de mangas (Mangifera indica L. minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas. Mangas 'Palmer' foram lavadas em água corrente, sanificadas, descascadas, novamente sanificadas e fatiadas manualmente. O produto foi embalado em embalagem de polietileno com tampa e armazenado a 0ºC, 6ºC e 12ºC (85-90% UR. Para o acompanhamento da sua vida útil, a cada 2 dias foram feitas as seguintes análises: valores L* a* e b*, perda de massa, pH, firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e teor de vitamina C. As mangas minimamente processadas armazenadas à 0ºC e 6ºC apresentaram vida útil de 10 dias contra 4 dias das mangas armazenadas à 12ºC. Os dados obtidos por meio de regressão linear com os valores do logaritmo neperiano do teor de ácido ascórbico pelo tempo de armazenagem (dias mostram que a reação de degradação da vitamina C se ajusta ao modelo cinético de 1ª ordem. O Modelo de Arrhenius foi aplicado às velocidades de reação (k nas diferentes temperaturas estabelecendo energia de ativação (Ea de 34,32 kcal mol-1. A degradação de vitamina C foi mais lenta (t1/2 = 63,6dias; e k = 0,0109 dias-1 à 0ºC o que proporcionou maior retenção de seus teores (89% durante 10 dias de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas à 12ºC apresentaram maior velocidade de degradação (k = 0,1729 dias-1 e, consequentemente, t1/2 inferior às demais temperaturas (apenas 4 dias.This work was used to evaluate the kinetic parameters for degradation of vitamin C on the shelf-life of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L. stored at different temperatures. 'Palmer' Mangos were washed in running water, sanitized, peeled, manually sliced and again sanitized. The product was packaged in polyethylene packaging with lid and stored at 0ºC, 6°C and 12 °C (85-90% RH. To monitor its shelf-life, the following tests were done every two days: values L* a* b*, weight loss, pH, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA and content of vitamin C. The minimally processed mangoes stored at 0ºC and 6ºC showed shelf-life of 10 days, whereas the shelf-life of mangoes stored at 12°C was 4 days. The data obtained by linear regression with the values of the Neperian logarithm content of ascorbic acid by the time of storage (days show that the reaction of degradation of vitamin C fits the kinetic model of 1st order. The Arrhenius model was applied to the speed of reaction (k at different temperatures by setting the activation energy (Ea of 34,32 kcal.mol-1. The degradation of vitamin C was slower (t1 / 2 = 63.6 days, and k = 0.0109 days-1 at 0°C, which provided greater retention of its contents (89% during 10 days of storage. Fruits stored at 12°C showed a higher rate of degradation (k = 0.1729 days-1 and, consequently, t1 / 2 less than the other temperatures (only 4 days.

Juliana Alvarenga Alves

2010-06-01

352

Effect of Pomegranate (Punica granatum Peels and It’s Extract on Obese Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been an inverse association between fiber intake and cardiovascular diseases. Dietary supplementation with nutrients rich in antioxidants is associated with inhibition of atherogenic modifications to LDL, macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Pomegranates are a good source of polyphenols and other antioxidants. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate peel powder and it’s extract on lipids metabolism in hypercholesterolemic male rats. pomegranate peel powder were added to hypercholestrolemic diet by 5, 10 or 15% as dietary fiber supplemented. While pomegranate peel extract were added to hypercholestrolemic diet by 1, 2 or 3% supplemented. Forty adult male rats were assigned to eight groups for four weeks feeding period; group (1 control negative, group (2 control positive hypercholesterolemic rats, groups (3, 4 and 5 hypercholesterolemic rats fed 5, 10 or 15% pomegranate peel powder as dietary fiber supplemented and groups (6, 7 and 8 hypercholesterolemic rats fed 1,2 or 3 % pomegranate peel extract supplemented. At the end of the feeding period, animal's blood were collected for serum lipid measurements. Results showed that hypercholesterolemic rats had highly significant changes in all tested lipids parameters comparing with control negative group. all hypercholestrolemic rats administrated with different levels of pomegranate peel powder (5, 10 and 15% had significant decrease in food consumption and body weight gain ratio comparing with control positive group. Liver, kidney spleen to body weight ratio and all tested lipid parameters except HDL had highly significant decrease for all hypercholestrolemic rats administrated with different levels of pomegranate peel powder (5, 10 and 15% or administrated with different levels of pomegranate peel extracts (1, 2 and 3% comparing with control positive group. In conclusion, the potent antioxidative capacity of pomegranate peel powder or it’s extract against lipid peroxidation may be the central link for the antiatherogenic effects of pomegranate peel powder or it’s extract on lipoproteins. Moreover, It suggested that, consumption of pomegranate peel powder or it’s extract my modify the risk of hypercholesterolemia and it have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants.

Fatma Labib Ahmed Hossin

2009-01-01

353

Evaluación de dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones de mango Evaluation of two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El mango (Mangifera indica L. es un fruto muy difundido en Venezuela que puede ser considerado como una fuente alternativa no convencional para la producción de almidón. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones del mango tipo Hilacha. Los cotiledones fueron molidos hasta harina, la cual fue sometida a dos tratamientos independientes de inmersión: (I agua destilada, y (II solución acuosa de NaOH 0,25 N. A los productos obtenidos se les determinó la composición química proximal (humedad, almidón, azúcares totales, grasa, cenizas, taninos y fibra cruda, las propiedades funcionales (índice de absorción de agua IAA e índice de solubilidad IS, color Hunter y perfil viscoamilográfico. La composición proximal de los productos presentó diferencias significativas (P?0,05, a excepción del contenido de azúcares totales, amilosa y amilopectina (P>0,05. El tratamiento con agua fue más eficiente en la extracción de los almidones pero éstos tuvieron menor pureza. El perfil viscoamilográfico registró 78,5 ºC como temperatura de gelatinización en ambos tratamientos. La baja resistencia reflejada en los valores amilosa sugieren que los almidones presentaron bajo poder de gelatinización.The mango (Mangifera indica L. fruit is widespread in Venezuela and it may be considered an unconventional alternative source for starch production. The objective of this research was to evaluate two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango (Mangifera indica L. type Hilacha. Cotyledons were ground to flour, and submitted to immersion in either (I distillated water, or (II aqueous solution of NaOH 0.25 N, for starch extraction. Chemical composition (moisture, starch, total sugars, fat, ash, tannins, crude fiber, amylose, and amylopectin, functional properties (water absorption index, and solubility indexI, color (Hunter and viscoamylographic profile of the products were determined. Significant difference (P?0.05 in the chemical composition were found, except for total sugars, amylose and amylopectin content (P>0.05. The major yield in starch obtained was found in the water treatment, although the product showed lower purity. The viscoamylographic profile showed that gelatinization temperature was 78.5 ºC in both products. The low resistance according to the amylose values suggests that the obtained starch had low gelatinization power.

Carlos Medina

2010-04-01

354

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis) and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis) were applied in different forms (treatments) separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character of crust, colour of crumb, colour of crust, taste, texture, aro...

Salim -ur-Rehman; Sarfraz Hussain; Haq Nawaz; Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad; Mian Anjum Murtaza; Ali Jaffar Rizvi

2007-01-01

355

Utilization of Cassava Peel Meal as Energy Source for Growing Pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation was carried out into the use of cassava peel meal as energy source for growing pigs. Four experimental diets were formulated using graded levels 0, 10, 20 and 30% cassava peel meal as replacement for maize on a weight for weight basis. The diets were neither iso-nitrogenous nor iso-caloric. Sixteen growing pigs of an average range 12.0 to 12.5 kg were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized fashion with each treatment replicated twice. The diet containing 0% cassava peel meal (control diet was tagged diet I and fed to pigs in treatment I while diets containing 10, 20 and 30% cassava peel meal, tagged diets 2, 3 and 4, respectively were fed to pigs in treatments 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The pigs were fed on an ad-libitum basis and data were collected on them for a period of 8 weeks. Results show that the inclusion of cassava peel meal up to a level of 30% in the diets of growing pigs did not have any significant (p>0.05 effects on their performance. The cassava peel meal diets gave similar daily weight gains and feel conversion ratios as the control diet while there were slight differences in feed intake. However, feed cost per kilogramme weight gain was significantly (p<0.05 reduced with the inclusion of cassava peel meal in the diets. Cassava peel meal could therefore be included in the diets of growing pigs up to level of 30% to reduce feed cost without any detrimental effect on performance.

G.A. Olubadewa

2006-01-01

356

Nanoscale Resolution, Multi-component Biomolecular Arrays Generated By Aligned Printing With Parylene Peel-Off  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present Print-and-Peel, a high-throughput method to generate multi-component biomolecular arrays with sub-100nm nanoscale feature width. An inkjet printer is first aligned to a parylene template containing nanoscale openings. After printing, the parylene is peeled off to reveal uniformly patterned nanoscale features, despite the imperfect morphologies of the original inkjet spots. We further patterned combinatorial nanoarrays by performing a second print-run superimposed over the first, th...

Tan, Christine P.; Cipriany, Benjamin R.; Lin, David M.; Craighead, Harold G.

2010-01-01

357

Effect of rootstock on mango fruit susceptibility to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the use of rootstock Criollo on the susceptibility of Manila mango fruit to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was determined in the present investigation. Growth, quality parameters (Soluble solids content (%), citric acid content (%), firmness, monoterpene volatiles (3-carene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-myrcene), main flavonoids content (milligrams/100 g fresh pulp), and larvicidal activity of methanolic extracts, as well as the degree of infestation during preharvest development of the fruits were analyzed. The results indicated that the rootstock did not have any significant effect on growth, soluble solids content, or citric acid content; although it increased firmness as well as 3-carene levels and main flavonoids content, resulting in a greater resistance to infestation by A. obliqua. The obtained results support the use of this rootstock because of the beneficial effects observed on the resistance of mango fruit to infestation by this fruit fly. PMID:22299362

Vazquez-Luna, A; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Perez-Flores, L J; Diaz-Sobac, R

2011-12-01

358

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

359

Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively. PMID:24049501

Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom; Lee, Tae-Soo

2005-12-01

360

Irradiation in combination with low temperature storage for preservation of semi-dried mango and longan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Semi dried mango (30% m.c.) and longan (16% m.c.) packed in low density polyethylene were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy using Cobalt-60 and stored at 14 degree C and 30 degree C. Irradiation had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on acidity, total and reducing sugars, total carotenes, vitamin C content and sensory quality of the product. An irradiation dose of 2 kGy was sufficient to prevent the growth of microorganisms but a high dose of 8 kGy failed to reduce the viable yeast-mold count to neutrality. Irradiation of semi-dried mango and longan at a minimum dose of 2 kGy and subsequent storage at 14 degree C prolonged the shelf life without significant changes in quality

 
 
 
 
361

Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de manga Thermal diffusivity of the mango pulp  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a difusividade térmica foi determinada para quatro amostras diferentes de polpa de manga. Foi verificada a influência dos sólidos solúveis e insolúveis em amostras de polpa de manga através do método utilizado por Silva (1997. Não foi verificada nenhuma influência dos sólidos insolúveis na difusividade térmica da polpa de manga, e com o aumento da concentração de sólidos solúveis a difusividade térmica mostrou ser menor do que para a polpa integral.Thermal diffusivity was of four samples of the mango pulp was determined by method suggested by Silva (1997. Different quantities of insoluble and soluble solid were taken into account for each sample. The authors didn’t detect any influence of the insoluble solid in the thermal diffusivity of the mango pulp. The more the concentration of soluble solids in the pulp was increased, the less was the thermal diffusivity.

Márcia Regina Simões

2000-05-01

362

Doces de corte formulados com casca de manga / Sweets formulated with mango skin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na industrialização da manga, a casca é um dos componentes de descarte. No entanto, a mesma pode ser utilizada como fonte de nutrientes, na composição de diversos outros produtos. Logo, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de doces de corte, formulados com 0% (controle), 25%, 50%, 75% [...] e 100% de cascas, em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, açúcares não redutores, pH, acidez total, acidez titulável e em ácido cítrico, sólidos solúveis totais, fibras (totais, solúveis e insolúveis), antioxidantes, características microbiológicas e aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e cor). Nos doces formulados com casca de manga, foram observados teores significativamente maiores de minerais (cinzas), pH, fibra alimentar, sólidos solúveis e sacarose. O incremento de casca de manga, nas formulações, elevou a atividade antioxidante, permitindo sugerir que a casca da manga é uma fonte alternativa de antioxidantes naturais. Os resultados das análises microbiológicas foram satisfatórios para todos os tratamentos, estando dentro dos padrões estabelecidos. No aspecto sensorial, houve boa aceitação, com notas acima de 7, para aparência, sabor, cor e aroma. Portanto, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas, na formulação de doce de corte de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável, sob os aspectos nutricional, sensorial e microbiológico. Abstract in english Concerning the mango industrial processing, skin is a disposal component. However, it can be used as a nutrient source in many by-products.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of sweets formulated with 0% (control), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of mango skin in substitution to the mang [...] o (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden) pulp. The quality features evaluated were: moisture, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars, pH, total acidity, titratable and citric acid acidity, total soluble solids, fibers (total, soluble, and insoluble), antioxidants, microbiological features, and sensorial acceptability (appearance, aroma, flavor, and color). For the sweets formulated with mango skin, significantly higher levels of minerals (ashes), pH, dietary fiber, soluble solids, and sucrose were observed. Furthermore, the increase of mango skin in the formulations also increased the antioxidant activity, what suggests that the mango skin is an alternative source of natural antioxidants. The microbiological analyses results were satisfactory for all treatments, according to established standards. For the sensorial aspect, there was a good consumer acceptance, with notes above 7, for aspect, flavor, color, and aroma. Therefore, the partial or total substitution of the mango pulp by mango skin, for the formulation of Haden mango sweet is a viable alternative, when considered its nutritional, sensorial, and microbiological aspects.

Clarissa, Damiani; Ana Cláudia Silva de, Almeida; Juliana, Ferreira; Eduardo Ramirez, Asquieri; Eduardo Valério de Barros, Vilas Boas; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

2011-09-01

363

Molecular Analysis in the differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from the cashew and mango trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present work was to analyze the molecular methods in the differentiation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates obtained from the cashew and mango trees. The different molecular taxonomic methods used proved to be efficient regarding intraspecific characterization. Similarly, mole [...] cular methods also proved to be efficient in differentiation of the C. gloeosporioides isolates in relation to host specificity. In the analysis of the ITS sequence of the ribosomal DNA, all the isolates amplified with the CgInt and ITS4 primers, confirming that they pertained to C. gloeosporioides. The results from this study suggested that methods based on the pathogenicity, isozyme analysis and RAPD were effective in differentiating C. gloeosporioides isolates from the cashew and mango trees.

Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Souza, Serra; Maria, Menezes; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Gabriela Moraes Guerra, Ferraz; Angélica Virginia Valois, Montarroyos; Luiza Suely Semem, Martins.

1099-11-01

364

Doces de corte formulados com casca de manga / Sweets formulated with mango skin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na industrialização da manga, a casca é um dos componentes de descarte. No entanto, a mesma pode ser utilizada como fonte de nutrientes, na composição de diversos outros produtos. Logo, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de doces de corte, formulados com 0% (controle), 25%, 50%, 75% [...] e 100% de cascas, em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden). Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram: umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, açúcares não redutores, pH, acidez total, acidez titulável e em ácido cítrico, sólidos solúveis totais, fibras (totais, solúveis e insolúveis), antioxidantes, características microbiológicas e aceitabilidade sensorial (aparência, aroma, sabor e cor). Nos doces formulados com casca de manga, foram observados teores significativamente maiores de minerais (cinzas), pH, fibra alimentar, sólidos solúveis e sacarose. O incremento de casca de manga, nas formulações, elevou a atividade antioxidante, permitindo sugerir que a casca da manga é uma fonte alternativa de antioxidantes naturais. Os resultados das análises microbiológicas foram satisfatórios para todos os tratamentos, estando dentro dos padrões estabelecidos. No aspecto sensorial, houve boa aceitação, com notas acima de 7, para aparência, sabor, cor e aroma. Portanto, a substituição parcial ou total da polpa por cascas, na formulação de doce de corte de manga Haden é uma alternativa viável, sob os aspectos nutricional, sensorial e microbiológico. Abstract in english Concerning the mango industrial processing, skin is a disposal component. However, it can be used as a nutrient source in many by-products.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of sweets formulated with 0% (control), 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of mango skin in substitution to the mang [...] o (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden) pulp. The quality features evaluated were: moisture, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, total sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars, pH, total acidity, titratable and citric acid acidity, total soluble solids, fibers (total, soluble, and insoluble), antioxidants, microbiological features, and sensorial acceptability (appearance, aroma, flavor, and color). For the sweets formulated with mango skin, significantly higher levels of minerals (ashes), pH, dietary fiber, soluble solids, and sucrose were observed. Furthermore, the increase of mango skin in the formulations also increased the antioxidant activity, what suggests that the mango skin is an alternative source of natural antioxidants. The microbiological analyses results were satisfactory for all treatments, according to established standards. For the sensorial aspect, there was a good consumer acceptance, with notes above 7, for aspect, flavor, color, and aroma. Therefore, the partial or total substitution of the mango pulp by mango skin, for the formulation of Haden mango sweet is a viable alternative, when considered its nutritional, sensorial, and microbiological aspects.

Clarissa, Damiani; Ana Cláudia Silva de, Almeida; Juliana, Ferreira; Eduardo Ramirez, Asquieri; Eduardo Valério de Barros, Vilas Boas; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

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Optimization and production of antifungal hydrolysis enzymes by streptomyces aureofaciens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango  

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Full Text Available We isolated naturally occurring actinomycetes with an ability to produce metabolites having antifungal property against, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of mango anthracnose. One promising strain was strong antifungal activity, was selected for further studies. Based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial strain was identical to Streptomyces aureofaciens. Culture filtrate collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of fungus tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrate. Isolate highly produced extracellular chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. In order to standardize the metabolite production some cultural conditions like different incubation time in hours, pH, carbon sources and concentrations and nitrogen source were determined. During fermentation, growth, pH and hydrolysis enzymes production were monitored .Treatment with bioactive components exhibited a significantly high protective activity against development of anthracnose disease on mango trees and increased fruit yield.

Ahamed Mohamed El Azzazy

2011-05-01

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Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) and Jam: antioxidant activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the antioxidant activity of quince fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) and jam, methanolic extracts were prepared. Each extract was fractionated into a phenolic fraction and an organic acid fraction and was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detection and HPLC/UV, respectively. Antiradical activities of the extracts and fractions were evaluated by a microassay using 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The phenolic fraction always exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than the whole methanolic extract. Organic acid extracts were always the weakest in terms of antiradical activity, which seems to indicate that the phenolic fraction gives a higher contribution for the antioxidant potential of quince fruit and jam. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts showed that peel extract was the one presenting the highest antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam extracts were correlated with the caffeoylquinic acids total content. Among the phenolic fractions, the seed extract was the one that exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam phenolic extracts were strongly correlated with caffeoylquinic acids and phenolics total contents. For organic acid fractions, the peel extract was the one that had the strongest antiradical activity. The IC50 values of quince pulp, peel, and jam organic acid fractions were correlated with the ascorbic acid and citric acid contents. PMID:15264903

Silva, Branca M; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Ferreira, Margarida A

2004-07-28

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Novel character impact compounds in Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yuzu ( Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka), a tree-grown fruit similar to a kind of sour orange, is widely used in Japanese food/cooking for its pleasant flavor. To clarify the odor-active volatiles that differentiate yuzu from other citrus fruits, sensory evaluations were conducted on yuzu peel oil. The results revealed that the polar part of yuzu peel oil was the source of the characteristic aroma of fresh yuzu fruit. By aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the polar volatile part of yuzu peel oil, seven odorants were newly identified as odor-active volatiles in yuzu peel oil in the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors of 128 and 32: oct-1-en-3-one, (E)-non-4-enal, (E)-dec-4-enal, 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, (E)-non-6-enal, (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (Yuzunone), and (6Z,8E)-undeca-6,8,10-trien-4-ol (Yuzuol). Among the most odor-active volatiles in yuzu, (E)-non-6-enal and Yuzunone were identified for the first time solely in yuzu peel oil and not in the peel of other citrus species, and Yuzuol was identified for the first time in nature. Sensory evaluation of yuzu aroma reconstitutions revealed that the newly identified compound, Yuzunone, contributes greatly to the distinct yuzu aroma. PMID:19203264

Miyazawa, Norio; Tomita, Naomi; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Nakanishi, Akira; Ohkubo, Yasutaka; Maeda, Tomoko; Fujita, Akira

2009-03-11

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Occurrence and Distribution of Colletotrichum spp. on Mango (Mangifera indica L. in Puerto Rico and Florida, USA  

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Full Text Available An extensive survey of anthracnose in mango caused by Colletotrichum spp. was conducted in seven locations from western, central and eastern, Florida, USA and five locations from western and southern, Puerto Rico. Morphological, serological and molecular characteristics of 183 Colletotrichum spp. isolates was determined. Ninety three percent of the isolates from Puerto Rico and Florida, USA were identified as C. gloeosporioides, while only 5% (eight isolates as C. acutatum. Another 2% (3 isolates from the same host were negative for both species. Pathogenicity tests conducted on detached mango leaves showed that both species were pathogenic. Necrotic lesions produced orange to salmon conidial masses on acervuli 7 days after inoculation. Colonies of isolates producing aerial mycelia were white, gray and/or dark gray, often with conidial masses on acidified potato dextrose agar. Conidia of isolates were hyaline, one-celled, ovoid to oblong, straight or slightly curved and ranged from 12 to 20 x 3.5 to 6 ?m for C. gloeosporioides and 8 to 13 x 2 to 5 ?m for C. acutatum. ELISA and PCR assays were used complementary to morphological results and confirmed C. acutatum causing anthracnose in mango`s flower, peduncles and immature fruit in Homestead, Florida. Colletotrichum acutatum was neither found during this survey and has never been reported on mango in Puerto Rico. Colletotrichum spp. identification is essential in the development of control strategies of anthracnose disease because of differences within species to benomyl and azoxystrobin. Other fungi isolated from necrotic lesions in mango were identified as Phomopsis sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium pallidoroseum, Pestalotiopsis sp., Alternaria infectoria and Nigrospora sp. Pathogenicity tests also indicated that A. infectoria, F. pallidoroseum and Pestalotiopsis sp. were pathogenic to detached mango leaves under laboratory conditions.

Lydia I. Rivera-Vargas

2006-01-01

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Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

S. Sarkiyayi

2013-04-01

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Effects of ionizing energy on fruit flies and seed weevil in Australian mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ses problems if detected at inspection unless export fruit is obtained from weevil free orchards. No significant fruit damage would be expected at a fruit fly treatment range of 100-200 Gy, but the maximum/minimum ratio for weevil treated fruit would need to be minimized as the treatment level is near the threshold for damage to the ''Kensington'' variety of mango. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

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Comparison of quarantine treatments on skin and pulp color of mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango (Mangifera indica L.) has shown the highest growth rates among the fruit exported by Brazil. This exportation implies specific treatments to attend phytosanitary requirements to attend USA and Europe market. Among them there are thermal treatments (hot water dip or vapor treatment) or irradiation witch it has ability to promote disinfestations and delaying the ripening of the mango. The main objective of this paper was to report the color behavior among treatments covering irradiation alone, thermal treatment combined with irradiation and control. The mangoes were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP and divided in four groups - the control (C) , dose 0,75 KGy (I), dose 0,75 KGy with hot water dip (46 deg C during 70 min) (2A) and dose 0,75KGy with hot water dip (52 deg C during 5 min) (2B). All fruits were stored at 11 deg C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days, after this period the fruits were kept at environmental conditions (25 deg C) during more 14 days. The results showed that the group 2A had the color of the skin delayed by treatment, not reaching stage 4 on the 26th. This group showed significant difference compared to groups C (p ? 0.05) however there was no difference among the others groups (2B and I). In general, these results indicate that the group 2A showed satisfactory results, concluding that combined treatment was beneficial for the mango, prolonging the process of development of its color. (author)

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FTIR aplicada durante la deshidratación osmótica de mango Ataulfo (Magnífera indica L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar un método para observar los cambios en la estructura molecular de mango Ataulfo (Magnífera indica L.) durante su deshidratación osmótica con una solución de sacarosa (45%) a 60° C. La técnica utilizada fue FTIR, en un equipo Perkin Elmer (Spectrum one), an [...] alizando las muestras deshidratadas a diferentes tiempos, como pastillas con KBr, entre 400-4000 cm-1 y 4 cm-1 de resolución. También fueron obtenidos los espectros de los sólidos insolubles en alcohol (AIS) extraídos del mango, así como de los compuestos puros de referencia: pectina, sacarosa, glucosa, fructosa y celulosa. Una vez obtenidos los espectros correspondientes al seguimiento de la deshidratación osmótica, estos fueron analizados en las frecuencias típicas de vibración para los átomos constituyentes de las moléculas de sacarosa y se obtuvo la cinética de difusión de la misma durante el proceso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to implement a method to observe changes in Ataulfo mango (Magnífera indica L.) molecular structure, during osmotic dehydration with a sucrose solution (45%) at 60° C. The samples dried at different process times were analyzed, such as using KBr pellets, on a FTIR Perkin El [...] mer (Spectrum one), between 400-4000 cm-1 and 4 cm-1 resolution. Moreover, with this technique were obtained reference spectra for pure compounds of pectin, sucrose, glucose and cellulose, as well as the fresh mango and its extracted alcohol insoluble solids (AIS). Once the spectrums were obtained from the osmotic dehydration monitoring, these were analyzed over constituent atoms characteristic vibration frequencies of the sucrose molecules and were obtained its diffusion kinetic during the process.

M. E., Rosas Mendoza; J. L., Fernández Muñoz.

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Comparison of quarantine treatments on skin and pulp color of mangoes  

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The mango (Mangifera indica L.) has shown the highest growth rates among the fruit exported by Brazil. This exportation implies specific treatments to attend phytosanitary requirements to attend USA and Europe market. Among them there are thermal treatments (hot water dip or vapor treatment) or irradiation witch it has ability to promote disinfestations and delaying the ripening of the mango. The main objective of