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Uses for mango wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential use of chemically modified mango waste is investigated in this article. Observations suggest that mango seed and peel are important raw materials for a number of industrial applications:- confectionery and chocolate industries, soft drink manufacturers, food processing, and textile and paper industries. Studies indicate that a high quality mango pectin can be obtained from mango peel. The wide availability, ease of collection and storage, will facilitate the establishment of small and medium size industries near mango processing plants. (Refs. 14).

Rahman, A.M.

1981-03-01

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Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Mango Peels Using Green Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango peels, wastes generated from fruit can processing, are a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds that has potential antioxidant properties. This study investigated the extraction of phenolic compounds from mango peels using subcritical water extraction (SCW). Experiments were performed in a batch laboratory-built equipment (50 ml volume of vessel) immersed in oil bath and temperatures ranging from 160 to 220 °C, extraction time of 30 to 120 min., material parti...

2013-01-01

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Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Mango Peels Using Green Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango peels, wastes generated from fruit can processing, are a good source of functional ingredients such as phenolic compounds that has potential antioxidant properties. This study investigated the extraction of phenolic compounds from mango peels using subcritical water extraction (SCW. Experiments were performed in a batch laboratory-built equipment (50 ml volume of vessel immersed in oil bath and temperatures ranging from 160 to 220 °C, extraction time of 30 to 120 min., material particle sizes of 30 to 70 mesh, solid to water ratio of 1:10 to 1:50 and pH of solution 2 to 8. The highest phenolic content was obtained 50.25 mg GAE / g DW at the condition as follows: 180 °C, 90 min, solid to water ratio as 1:40 and pH 4. The amount of phenolic compounds from mango peels using SCW extraction was higher than that using soxhlet extraction at extraction time 60 min as 1.5 times. SCW extraction might be an alternative green technology for phenolic compounds extraction from agricultural wastes which substitute conventional method using organic solvents.

S. Tunchaiyaphum

2013-08-01

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The peel and pulp of mango fruit: a proteomic samba.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of mango peel and pulp as well their peptidome content (the latter as captured with a C18 resin). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the mango proteome, but also to assess the potential presence of allergens and of peptides endowed with biological activities. The proteins of peel and pulp have been captured under both native and denaturing extraction techniques. A total of 334 unique protein species have been identified in the peel vs. 2855 in the pulp, via capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). PMID:24056186

Fasoli, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2013-12-01

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance t [...] o norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Oliveira, Susy Mary Souto de; Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne S.; Siqueira-Junior, José P.; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo.

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-in...

Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira; Falca?o-silva, Vivyanne S.; Siqueira-junior, Jose? P.; Maria José de Carvalho Costa; Melo Diniz, Margareth Fa?tima F.

2011-01-01

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Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System  

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Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1), tie line length (?3.42–35.27%), NaCl (?2.5...

Amid Mehrnoush; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-01-01

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Biorefinery of waste orange peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Up to comparatively recently orange peel and the associated residual remnants of membranes resulting from juice extraction represented a significant disposal problem, especially in those regions where orange cultivation is a major industry. However, recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste represents a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products. These developments are critically reviewed in this article. This includes a summary of the chemical composition of the substrate and an assessment of the range of applications in which the peel is deployed. Utilization as a substrate to produce animal feed, fertilizer, essential oils, pectin, ethanol, methane, industrial enzymes, and single cell protein is discussed. The applications described together with those that will no doubt be developed in the future, represent great opportunities to harness the economical benefit of this agro-industrial waste and to develop even more efficient and sustainable systems. A scheme of integrated utilization of orange peel in a biorefinery approach is discussed together with some prediction of further necessary research. PMID:20148755

Angel Siles López, José; Li, Qiang; Thompson, Ian P

2010-03-01

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Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel  

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Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The com...

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel  

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Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week ...

Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

2012-01-01

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Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (?2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (?1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-03-01

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Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30?g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53?g/L, KH2PO4: 4.90?g/L, and CoCl2·6H2O: 0.95?g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8?IU/mL.

Saravanan, P.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Viruthagiri, T.

2012-01-01

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PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii  

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Full Text Available Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P?0.05. The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P?0.05. Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

Tivkaa Amande

2013-08-01

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Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

2013-06-19

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Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

2014-09-15

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Optimization of Serine Protease Purification from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel in Polyethylene Glycol/Dextran Aqueous Two Phase System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango peel is a good source of protease but remains an industrial waste. This study focuses on the optimization of polyethylene glycol (PEG/dextran-based aqueous two-phase system (ATPS to purify serine protease from mango peel. The activity of serine protease in different phase systems was studied and then the possible relationship between the purification variables, namely polyethylene glycol molecular weight (PEG, 4000–12,000 g·mol?1, tie line length (?3.42–35.27%, NaCl (?2.5–11.5% and pH (4.5–10.5 on the enzymatic properties of purified enzyme was investigated. The most significant effect of PEG was on the efficiency of serine protease purification. Also, there was a significant increase in the partition coefficient with the addition of 4.5% of NaCl to the system. This could be due to the high hydrophobicity of serine protease compared to protein contaminates. The optimum conditions to achieve high partition coefficient (84.2 purification factor (14.37 and yield (97.3% of serine protease were obtained in the presence of 8000 g·mol?1 of PEG, 17.2% of tie line length and 4.5% of NaCl at pH 7.5. The enzymatic properties of purified serine protease using PEG/dextran ATPS showed that the enzyme could be purified at a high purification factor and yield with easy scale-up and fast processing.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2012-03-01

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Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pectins, recovered from the peels of four mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by mimicking industrial techniques, were evaluated in terms of yield, composition, macromolecular properties, and technofunctional quality. Freeze-dried peels of mature-green fruits, after major mesocarp softening, and at full ripeness were extracted using hot acid. The pectins were precipitated in propan-2-ol and their crude yields quantified as alcohol-insoluble substance. Like apple pomace, the dried peels provided hardly acetylated (DAc apple pectins with regard to gelling capacity and thickening properties. Whereas starch and matrix glycan fragments almost completely degraded during ripening, depolymerization of pectins and galactans was insignificant. Technofunctional properties, modulated by extraction at different pH values, were ascribed to structural differences influencing macromolecular entanglements. PMID:18980323

Sirisakulwat, Suparat; Nagel, Andreas; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Carle, Reinhold; Neidhart, Sybille

2008-11-26

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Ethanol production from potato peel waste (PPW).  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable concern is caused by the problem of potato peel waste (PPW) to potato industries in Europe. An integrated, environmentally-friendly solution is yet to be found and is currently undergoing investigation. Potato peel is a zero value waste produced by potato processing plants. However, bio-ethanol produced from potato wastes has a large potential market. If Federal Government regulations are adopted in light of the Kyoto agreement, the mandatory blending of bio-ethanol with traditional gasoline in amounts up to 10% will result in a demand for large quantities of bio-ethanol. PPW contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemicellulose and fermentable sugars to warrant use as an ethanol feedstock. In the present study, a number of batches of PPW were hydrolyzed with various enzymes and/or acid, and fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisae var. bayanus to determine fermentability and ethanol production. Enzymatic hydrolysis with a combination of three enzymes, released 18.5 g L(-1) reducing sugar and produced 7.6 g L(-1) of ethanol after fermentation. The results demonstrate that PPW, a by-product of the potato industry features a high potential for ethanol production. PMID:20471817

Arapoglou, D; Varzakas, Th; Vlyssides, A; Israilides, C

2010-10-01

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The impact of extraction with a chelating agent under acidic conditions on the cell wall polymers of mango peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to evaluate whether mango peel is a potential source of functional cell wall polymers. To reach this objective, the native pectin polymers (NPP) extracted as alcohol insoluble residue from mango peel, were characterised in terms of uronic acid content, degree of methoxylation, neutral sugar content, and molar mass and compared to citric acid (pH 2.5, 2h at 80°C) extracted polymers, mimicking industrial pectin extraction conditions. Water-solubilised NPP were highly methoxylated having two populations with a Mw of 904 and 83kDa and a degree of methoxylation of 66%. Citric acid extraction with a yield higher than H2SO4 extraction resulted in a very branched pectin with an extremely high DM (83%) and a high molar mass. Comparing the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy of extracted and native WSF showed that citric acid remained partially associated to the extracted pectin due to its chelating properties. PMID:24837941

Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Kyomugasho, Clare; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Ramezani, Mohsen; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

2014-10-15

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Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000, potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w, system pH (6–9, and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficient of the enzyme was decreased by increasing the PEG molecular weight. Additionally, the phase composition showed a significant effect on purification factor and yield of the enzyme. Optimum conditions for purification of pectinase from mango peel were achieved in a 14% PEG 4000-14% potassium phosphate system using 3% (w/w NaCl addition at pH 7.0. Based on this system, the purification factor of pectinase was increased to 13.2 with a high yield of (97.6%. Thus, this study proves that ATPS can be an inexpensive and effective method for partitioning of pectinase from mango peel.

Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Saccharification of Cassava peels waste for microbial protein enrichment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cassava waste peels may constitute up to 55% of the original tuber. These waste peels were found to contain 41.8% carbohydrate, 1.1% protein, 12.5% ether extract and 4.9%, 4.9% total ash, and 20.8% crude fibre. Studies were conducted to formulate a fermentation medium to convert the waste peels to reducing sugars and to enrich the peels with microbial protein. Amylase-producing microorganisms were isolated from rotten cassava tuber discs buried in the soil at different locations. The microorganisms isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and a Pseudomonas sp. and A. niger; the level of reducing sugar was 20.5 mg/ml. The lowest was by B. subtilis an isolate from fermenting locust bean. Generally the levels of saccharification were higher when the waste media were supplemented with different nitrogen sourses. The crude protein yield in the cassava peel waste media by different microorganisms varied from 5.6% to 17.5%. The highest protein yield was in the waste medium fermented by A. fumigatus followed by A. niger, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas sp. in decreasing order.

Odunfa, S.A.; Shasore, S.B.

1987-01-01

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Cadmium ion removal using biosorbents derived from fruit peel wastes  

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Full Text Available The ability of fruit peel wastes, corn, durian, pummelo, and banana, to remove cadmium ions from aqueous solution by biosorption were investigated. The experiments were carried out by batch method at 25oC. The influence of particle sizes, solution pH, and initial cadmium ion concentrations were evaluated on the biosorption studies. The result showed that banana peel had the highest cadmium ions removal followed by durian, pummelo, and corn peels at cadmium ions removal of 73.15, 72.17, 70.56, and 51.22%, respectively. There was a minimal effect when using different particle sizes of corn peel as biosorbent, while the particle size of the others had no influence on the removal of cadmium ions. The cadmium ions removal increased significantly as the pH of the solution increased rapidly from 1 to 5. At pH 5, the cadmium ions removal reached a maximum value. The equilibrium process was best described by the Langmuir isotherms, with maximum biosorption capacities of durian, pummelo, and banana peel of 18.55, 21.83, and 20.88 mg/g respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy revealed that carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups on the fruit peels’ surface and these groups were involved in the adsorption of the cadmium ions.

Wanna Saikaew

2009-11-01

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Direct Purification of Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) Peel Using a PEG/Salt-Based Aqueous Two Phase System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An Aqueous Two-Phase System (ATPS) was employed for the first time for the separation and purification of pectinase from mango (Mangifera Indica Cv. Chokanan) peel. The effects of different parameters such as molecular weight of the polymer (polyethylene glycol, 2,000–10,000), potassium phosphate composition (12–20%, w/w), system pH (6–9), and addition of different concentrations of neutral salts (0–8%, w/w) on partition behavior of pectinase were investigated. The partition coefficie...

Amid Mehrnoush; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Shuhaimi Mustafa; Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

2011-01-01

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Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Arbos, Kettelin Aparecida; Stevani, Pamela Caroline; Castanha, Raquel de Fátima.

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Biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effectiveness of cellulose nanocrystals derived from potato peel waste as a reinforcement and vapor barrier additive. The nanocrystals were derived from cellulosic material in the potato peel by alkali treatment and subsequently acid hydrolysis. TEM images revealed the average fiber length of the nanocrystals was 410nm with an aspect ratio of 41; its aspect ratio being considerably larger than cotton-derived nanocrystals prepared using similar reaction conditions. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-filled polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared by solution casting method to maintain uniform dispersion of the 1-2% (w/w) filler content. An increase of 19% and 33% (starch composite) and 38% and 49% (PVA composite) in tensile modulus was observed for the 1% and 2% CNC-reinforced composites, respectively. Water vapor transmission measurements showed a marginal reduction of water permeability for the PVA composite, whereas no effect was observed for the thermoplastic starch composite. PMID:24751097

Chen, D; Lawton, D; Thompson, M R; Liu, Q

2012-09-01

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Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de ácido cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%. A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga.Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb., which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperature and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%. The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

2012-06-01

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Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

2009-07-01

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Bioprospecting of thermo- and osmo-tolerant fungi from mango pulp-peel compost for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent edaphic stress on microbial succession due to dynamic changes during composting was explored for selection of multi-stress tolerant microbe(s) desirable for ethanol production. A total of 23 strains were isolated from mango compost using four successive enrichments in YP broth (g l(-1)): glucose, 100; 150; 250 with ethanol (40) and cycloheximide (0.4) at 40 °C, pH 6.0. Based on multi-gene ribotyping, 14 yeasts (61 %) of Saccharomycetaceae, 2 filamentous fungi (8.6 %) and 7 bacteria (30.4 %) were obtained. Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis of the 14 yeasts revealed 64.3 % tolerant to 500 g l(-1) glucose, growth at 45 °C and resemblance to Candida sp. (14.3 %), Kluyveromyces marxianus (35.7 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (21.4 %) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (28.6 %). Assessment of the 14 yeasts in glucose fermentation medium (pH 4.5 at 40 °C) showed ethanol productivity of ?92 % by 12 yeasts with theoretical yields of 90-97 %. Fermentation of molasses (150 g l(-1) glucose equivalent) by P. kudriavzevii D1C at 40 °C resulted in 73.70 ± 0.02 g l(-1) ethanol and productivity of 4.91 ± 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1). Assessment of P. kudriavzevii D1C revealed multi-stress tolerance towards 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, ethanol (20 %, v/v), high gravity and H2O2 (0.3 M) indicating suitability for ethanol production using high gravity molasses and pre-treated lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. PMID:23180376

Dandi, N D; Dandi, B N; Chaudhari, A B

2013-04-01

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Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

B. G. Ridoutt

2009-07-01

30

Use of starch and potato peel waste for perchlorate bioreduction in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of carbon substrates for microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is central to the success and competitiveness of a sustainable bioremediation strategy for ClO(4)(-). This study explored the potential application of starch in combination with an amylolytic bacterial consortia and potato peel waste for ClO(4)(-) bioreduction. We obtained a potent amylolytic bacterial consortium that consisted of a Citrobacter sp. S4, Streptomyces sp. S2, Flavobacterium sp. S6, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. S5, Streptomyces sp. S7, and an Aeromonas sp. S8 identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. ClO(4)(-) concentration substantially decreased in purified starch medium inoculated with the amylolytic bacterial consortium and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace. Potato peel waste supported ClO(4)(-) reduction by perclace with the rate of ClO(4)(-) reduction being dependent on the amount of potato peels. Over 90% ClO(4)(-) removal was achieved in 4 days in a single time point experiment with 2% (w/v) potato peels waste. ClO(4)(-) reduction in a non-sterile 0.5% potato peel media inoculated with perclace occurred with an initial concentration of 10.14+/-0.04 mg L(-1) to 2.87+/-0.4 mg L(-1) (71.7% reduction) within 5 days. ClO(4)(-) was not detected in the cultures in 6 days. In a non-sterile 0.5% potato media without perclace, ClO(4)(-) depletion occurred slowly from an initial value of 9.99+/-0.15 mg L(-1) to 6.33+/-0.43 mg L(-1) (36.63% reduction) in 5 days. Thereafter, ClO(4)(-) was rapidly degraded achieving 77.1% reduction in 7 days and not detected in 9 days. No susbstantial reduction of ClO(4)(-) was observed in the sterile potato peel media without perclace in 7 days. Redox potential of the potato peel cultures was favorable for ClO(4)(-) reduction, decreasing to as low as -294 mV in 24 h. Sugar levels remained very low in cultures effectively reducing ClO(4)(-) and was substantially higher in sterilized controls. Our results indicate that potato peel waste in combination with amylolytic microorganisms and Dechlorosoma sp. perclace can be economically used to achieve complete ClO(4)(-) removal from water. PMID:16084965

Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

2005-07-15

31

Integrated utilization of fruit-processing wastes for biogas and fish production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated system for biogas production from mango-processing wastes and utilization of biogas effluent for production of major carp Rohu, (Labeo rohita) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Mango peels produced 0.21 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg of total solids. Biogas effluent of mango peels, when used at 34 kg/100 m{sup 2} area in ponds as the sole source of feed for carps, yielded 8.35 kg/100 m{sup 2} of fish which had acceptable colour, flavour and taste every 120 days. (author).

Mahadevaswamy, M.; Venkataraman, L.V. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India))

1990-01-01

32

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 5...

2009-01-01

33

Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji) cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D) consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW) and cassava peel ...

2006-01-01

34

Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and orange peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesophilic anaerobic digestion is a treatment that is widely applied for sewage sludge management but has several disadvantages such as low methane yield, poor biodegradability and nutrient imbalance. In this paper, we propose orange peel waste as an easily biodegradable co-substrate to improve the viability of the process. Sewage sludge and orange peel waste were mixed at a proportion of 70:30 (wet weight), respectively. The stability was maintained within correct parameters throughout the process, while the methane yield coefficient and biodegradability were 165 L/kg volatile solids (VS) (0 degrees C, 1 atm) and 76% (VS), respectively. The organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 0.4 to 1.6kg VS/m3 d. Nevertheless, the OLR and methane production rate decreased at the highest loads, suggesting the occurrence of an inhibition phenomenon. PMID:24645472

Serrano, Antonio; Siles López, José Angel; Chica, Arturo Francisco; Martín, M Angeles; Karouach, Fadoua; Mesfioui, Abdelaziz; El Bari, Hassan

2014-01-01

35

Bio-hydrogen generation from mixed fruit peel waste using anaerobic contact filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of treating mixed fruit peel waste was investigated using anaerobic contact filter based on bio-hydrogen generation. The effectiveness of anaerobic treatment was monitored by varying the influent volatile solid content (46, 66 and 84 g/L) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 18 days). The results showed that for an influent volatile solid content of 46, 66 and 84 g/L a HRT of 10, 13 and 18 days were required to achieve a volatile solid destruction efficiency of 60%. The hydrogen content in the biogas reached a stable value of 63{+-}2%, irrespective of influent volatile solid concentration and HRT. While the average biogas generation for the mixed fruit peel waste was found to be 0.73m{sup 3}/kgVS destroyed at a HRT of above 5 days. (author)

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Soning, Christianto [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2007-12-15

36

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

37

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 56.5; 10, 53.5; 20, 43.5 and 30, 33.5% respectively. Each animal received each diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake was determined. Urine and faecal samples were taken and analyzed. The dry matter intake, nitrogen intake, N-balance and absorbed -N increased as the percentage of dried poultry waste in the diets increased. The faecal -N values differed significantly (p<0.05. The digestibility coefficients of crude fibre, nitrogen-free-extract and energy were significantly (p<0.05 different among experimental animals. All the diets promoted positive N-balance.

A.I. Ukanwoko

2009-01-01

38

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María Torrado

2011-03-01

39

Enhanced ethanol production from pomelo peel waste by integrated hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomelo peel is an abundant pectin-rich biomass waste in China and has the potential to serve as a source of fuels and chemicals. This study reports a promising way to deal with pomelo peel waste and to utilize it as raw material for ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). An integrated strategy, incorporating hydrothermal treatment, multienzyme formulation, and fed-batch operation, was further developed to enhance the ethanol production. The results show that hydrothermal treatment (120 °C, 15 min) could significantly reduce the use of cellulase (from 7 to 3.8 FPU g(-1)) and pectinase (from 20 to 10 U g(-1)). A multienzyme complex, which consists of cellulase, pectinase, ?-glucosidase, and xylanase, was also proven to be effective to improve the hydrolysis of pretreated pomelo peel, leading to higher concentrations of fermentative sugars (36 vs 14 g L(-1)) and galacturonic acid (23 vs 9 g L(-1)) than those with the use of a single enzyme. Furthermore, to increase the final ethanol concentration, fed-batch operation by adding fresh substrate was employed in the SSF process. A final solid loading of 25% (w/v), which is achieved by adding 15% fresh substrate to the SSF system at an initial solid loading of 10%, produced 36 g L(-1) ethanol product in good yield (73.5%). The ethanol concentration is about 1.73-fold that at the maximum solid loading of 14% for batch operation, whereas both of them have a closed ethanol yield. The results indicate that the use of the fed-batch mode could alleviate the decrease in ethanol yield at high solid loading, which is caused by significant mass transfer limitation and increased inhibition of toxic compounds in the SSF process. The integrated strategy demonstrated in this work could open a new avenue for dealing with pectin-rich biomass wastes and utilization of the wastes to produce ethanol. PMID:24802243

Huang, Renliang; Cao, Ming; Guo, Hong; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

2014-05-21

40

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with H-NMR based metabolic profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The (1)H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squares-discriminate analysis of (1)H-NMR spectral data of mouse plasma demonstrated that there were clear separations among plasma samples from mice fed with buffer, mango flesh and peel. A loading plot demonstrated that metabolites from mango fruit, such as fructose and aspartate, might stimulate alcohol degradation enzymes. This study suggests that mango flesh and peel could be used as resources for functional foods intended to decrease plasma ethanol level after ethanol uptake. PMID:21562641

Kim, So-Hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

Kim, So-hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-ok; Kim, Hee-su; Hyun, Sun-hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-suk; Choi, Hyung-kyoon

2011-01-01

42

Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product. PMID:17919803

Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

2008-01-01

43

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

44

MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. The fruits were harvested at three different times of the day: morning (7 a.m., noon (12 p.m. and evening (5 p.m. and subjected to lime (@ 0.5% and Mango Wash (@ 0.4% treatments. No sap injury (0 score was observed in the fruits harvested and de-sapped during morning whereas maximum sap injury was observed at noon in both the cases (0.5 score for lime, 0.75 score for Mango Wash. Both lime and Mango Wash showed significantly less sap injury as compared to control for all the three times of treatment application. Almost all of the physico-chemical attributes (except fruit peel colour and non-reducing sugar contents were non-significantly affected by the desapping treatments. Fruit peel colour was slightly suppressed by Mango Wash. Lime was found to impart attractive appearance to the fruits; however the skin colour was not significantly improved as compared to control. The time of fruit harvest also exerted non significant effects on most of the fruit quality attributes. Significantly higher TSS value was measured in the fruit harvested at noon as compared to other times of the day. Minimum sapburn injury in the fruits harvested and desapped in the morning hours led to the conclusion that morning is the best time of harvest and desapping for the mangoes. Moreover, the potential of lime for controlling sapburn injury in mangoes was also confirmed and it was concluded that lime can be successfully used for mango fruit desapping as a substitute of highly expensive Mango Wash.

SAEED AHMAD

2008-08-01

45

Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 56.5; 10, 53.5; 20, 43.5 and 30, 33.5 %, respectively. Each animal received each diet for 24 days. Daily feed intake (g/d, average daily gain (g/d, milk yield (g/d and composition (%, feed conversion ratio (FCR and fat – corrected milk (FCM were determined for each cow per dietary regime. Results showed that feed intake and milk yield were not affected (P>0.05 by diets. FCM (kg however, differed among treatments with diets A (0.21 and B (0.24 having similar (P>0.05 but higher FCM yields than diets C (0.07 or D (0.13. Milk protein (Nx6.38, butterfat (BF, total solids (TS, lactose, solids-not-fat (SNF, ash and energy contents of milk did not vary (P>0.05 significantly. Feed conversion ratio was 0.70 for diet B and this value was superior (P< 0.05 to the corresponding values obtained for diets A (0.91, C (2.45 and D (1.56. The relationships between TS and energy (r = 0.54 and BF and energy (r = 0.98 were positive and significant (P< 0.05. Non-significant (P>0.05 negative correlation existed between milk yield and TS (r = - 0.02, milk yield and BF (r = -0.04, and milk yield and milk protein (r = -0.23. Milk yield was generally poor probably due to low level of supplementation.

A.I. Ndubueze

2006-01-01

46

Preparation using Pectinase and Characterization of Nanofibers from Orange Peel Waste in Juice Factories.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports the preparation and characterization of nanofibers consisting mainly of cellulose microfibrils from orange peel (OP), which is a significant byproduct of orange juice production. Three treatments (boiling, alkaline, and pectinase) were investigated with and without subsequent grinding treatment. It was possible to prepare the cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) using these methods, except for the boiling treatment with grinding. Interestingly, only pectinase and a mild-physical blender treatment without grinding produced nanofibers. The width of the nanofibers from OP was approximately 10 to 50 nm. The microfibril bundles of OP were considered to be thinner than those of commercial CNFs. Our data indicated that the removal of pectic polysaccharides and hemicelluloses covering the cellulose microfibrils was important for the preparation of nanofibers from OP. These nanofibers from OP using pectinase are proposed to be applicable as food materials, pharmaceuticals, and filters for the tractive characteristics of the sheet. PMID:24806523

Hideno, Akihiro; Abe, Kentaro; Yano, Hiroyuki

2014-06-01

47

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current...

Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-01-01

48

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-...

Fenglei Luo; Qiang Lv; Yuqin Zhao; Guibing Hu; Guodi Huang; Jiukai Zhang; Chongde Sun; Xian Li; Kunsong Chen

2012-01-01

49

The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

Patomsok Wilaipon

2009-01-01

50

Banana Peel Carbon that Containing Functional Groups Applied to the Selective Adsorption of Au(III) from Waste Printed Circuit Boards  

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  This paper reports a kind of banana peel carbon (BPC) containing -OH, -NH2 functional groups which prepared through controlling carbonization temperature and its application on the selective adsorption of gold from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). The adsorption of BPC for Au(III) reached equilibrium in 30 min and the adsorption of Au(III) was favorable at pH 2.5. Meanwhile, the adsorption isotherm showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 801.7 mg...

Huajun Zheng; Limin Wang

2013-01-01

51

Anaerobic digestion of orange peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestions fed with waste orange peels are stable at loading rates up to 3.5 kg total solids (TS)/cubic m.d if the amount of peel oil introduced into the digestion is less than 0.075 g/L digestion liquor per day. The yield of gas (50-55% methane) is 0.5 cubic m/kg of TS; conversion of solids to gas approaches 100%. Oil content of peels can be reduced to non-toxic levels using commercial oil recovery equipment. Presence of aromatic acids in digestion liquors cannot serve as an indication of toxicity or overloading.

Lane, A.G.

1984-03-01

52

Peeling back the onion : Alberta company offers on-site treatment of SAGD wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 80 percent of Alberta's bitumen is buried too deeply to be surface-mined. When it comes to steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), two of the biggest challenges associated with oilsands mines, tailings treatment and land reclamation, are primarily out of the picture since in-situ projects do not generate tailings nor scar the landscape the way surface mining operations do. This article discussed the use of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) by an Alberta company to treat wastes. Aspects of SAGD operations that concern the public and environmentalists were presented. This included the need for water to make steam for underground injection. Water recycling was discussed as a solution to this problem. The SAGD process was outlined and the treatment of produced water was also discussed. Several examples of companies using SAGD to treat wastes were presented, including Newalta and Suncor. A recent liquid waste survey by the Pembina Institute ranked Newalta's MacKay plant at the top in Alberta, beating 7 other SAGD plants on the topic of liquid waste generated per barrel of bitumen produced. The survey took into account various sources of liquid waste, including lime sludge, water from softeners, brine and produced water generated by Alberta's SAGD plants. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Mahony, J.

2010-06-15

53

Residues of {sup 14}C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes; Residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas irradiadas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 {mu}g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 {mu}g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2000-07-01

54

PEA PEEL WASTE: A LIGNOCELLULOSIC WASTE AND ITS UTILITY IN CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY Trichoderma reesei UNDER SOLID STATE CULTIVATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A wide variety of waste bioresources are available on our planet for conversion into bioproducts. In the biological systems, microorganisms are used to utilize waste as an energy source for the synthesis of valuable products such as biomass proteins and enzymes. The large quantities of byproducts generated during the processing of plant food involve an economic and environmental problem due to their high volumes and elimination costs. After isolation of the main constituent, there are abundan...

2011-01-01

55

Antioxidant properties and hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS profiling of Chilean Pica mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño).  

Science.gov (United States)

Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu), 13 in Pica peel (ppe) 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu) and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe). Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10), seven acid derivatives (peaks 1-4, 11, 20 and 21) and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12) and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7), which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13) was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14) was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively) than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively). The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW) measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products. PMID:24384924

Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J

2013-01-01

56

Antioxidant Properties and Hyphenated HPLC-PDA-MS Profiling of Chilean Pica Mango Fruits (Mangifera indica L. Cv. piqueño  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant capacities and polyphenolic contents of two mango cultivars from northern Chile, one of them endemic of an oasis in the Atacama Desert, were compared for the first time. Twenty one phenolic compounds were detected in peel and pulp of mango fruits varieties Pica and Tommy Atkins by HPLC-PDA-MS and tentatively characterized. Eighteen compounds were present in Pica pulp (ppu, 13 in Pica peel (ppe 11 in Tommy Atkins pulp (tpu and 12 in Tommy Atkins peel (tpe. Three procyanidin dimers (peaks 6, 9 and 10, seven acid derivatives (peaks 1–4, 11, 20 and 21 and four xanthones were identified, mainly mangiferin (peak 12 and mangiferin gallate, (peak 7, which were present in both peel and pulp of the two studied species from northern Chile. Homomangiferin (peak 13 was also present in both fruit pulps and dimethylmangiferin (peak 14 was present only in Tommy pulp. Pica fruits showed better antioxidant capacities and higher polyphenolic content (73.76/32.23 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 32.49/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay, for edible pulp and peel, respectively than Tommy Atkins fruits (127.22/46.39 µg/mL in the DPPH assay and 25.03/72.01 mg GAE/100 g fresh material in the TPC assay for pulp and peel, respectively. The peel of Pica mangoes showed also the highest content of phenolics (66.02 mg/100 g FW measured by HPLC-PDA. The HPLC generated fingerprint can be used to authenticate Pica mango fruits and Pica mango food products.

Javier E. Ramirez

2013-12-01

57

Banana Peel Carbon that Containing Functional Groups Applied to the Selective Adsorption of Au(III from Waste Printed Circuit Boards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   This paper reports a kind of banana peel carbon (BPC containing -OH, -NH2 functional groups which prepared through controlling carbonization temperature and its application on the selective adsorption of gold from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs. The adsorption of BPC for Au(III reached equilibrium in 30 min and the adsorption of Au(III was favorable at pH 2.5. Meanwhile, the adsorption isotherm showed the maximum adsorption capacity of 801.7 mg/g for Au(III. The results displayed that BPC had a strong selectivity for Au(III and a negligible affinity to base metal ions, such as Cu(II, Ni(II, Fe(III and Pb(II. The BPC adsorbent, which absorbed gold, can be recovered completely by HCl-thiourea solution.

Huajun Zheng

2013-04-01

58

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE) was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radica...

2010-01-01

59

Saving Mango Street  

Science.gov (United States)

The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

60

Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

1978-04-01

62

ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

2012-01-01

63

Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

1996-04-01

64

Antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulata peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mandarin peel, a waste product coming from juice production, was extracted by conventional extraction with 70% acetone. Content of flavonoids in mandarin peel extract (MPE was determined by HPLC. Hesperidin was the most dominant flavonoid. Free radical scavenging activity of MPE on stable DPPH radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated. EC50 value determined in spectrophotometrical DPPH radical assay was 0.179 mg/ml, while this value in ESR spin trapping hydroxyl radical assay was 0.415 mg/ml. Also, MPE showed protective effects in stabilising sunflower oil during accelerated storage. The results indicated that mandarin peel can be a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

Tumbas Vesna T.

2010-01-01

65

Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

1990-01-01

66

A Ride Down Mango Street.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

O'Malley, Thomas F.

1997-01-01

67

Developing M2M applications with Mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango is an open source alternative for Machine to Machine software. It enables users to access and control electronic sensors, devices, and machines over multiple protocols simultaneously. However, Mango was designed for the desktop. It relies heavily on JavaScript to render its graphical pages. While rendering, massive amounts of data are being transferred between the Mango server and the browser. Furthermore, because of the continuous polling for new data, it can easily hog the CPU of the ...

Juhasz, Bela

2009-01-01

68

Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported to Poland. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the peels of the Šampion cultivar of apples and white grapes, and in the seeds of the Idared cultivar apples and oranges. Tannins play a meaningful role as antioxidants in grape, apple and goosberry fruits. The peels and seeds of various fruits, which are waste products in fruit and vegetable industry, may be a potential source of antioxidants.

Aleksandra Duda-Chodak

2007-09-01

69

Development of Stable Restructured Mango Gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Restructured mango gel was prepared by alginate texturization of mango pulp using sodium alginate, glucono-?-lactone and calcium hydrogen orthophosphate. The requisite quantities of the chemical additives were mixed, added together to the neutralized mango pulp in a mixer and allowed to set at 4°C for 16 h. The mango gel was cut into 1.5 cm cubes and stabilized by Hurdle Technology (HT) through adjustment of water activity to 0.89, pH 4.4 and pasteurization in polypropylene pouches. Storage...

Das Gupta, D. K.; Roopa, N.; Leela, R. K.

2007-01-01

70

Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in ?(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

2014-01-01

71

Mango Group: growth and internationalisation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango was created with the aim of providing clothing for a young, urban feminine market according to the latest fashionable trends in quality garments at a reasonable price and with the mission of being available worldwide. To be able to carry out this mission it has had to base its business model in three basic aspects: its people, processes and technology. These aspects have been key in being able to carry out their international growth successfully and in being recognized as an example of ...

Rodri?guez Donaire, Silvia; Casi, Enric; Carbonell, Xavier

2010-01-01

72

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant prope...

Sumitra Chanda; Nirupa Amrutiya; Kalpna Rakholiya

2013-01-01

73

On the explanation of Peele`s Pertinent Puzzle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigation of Peele`s Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) by analytical and numerical simulation shows that if covariations of experimental data are determined within frames of rigorous maximum likelihood method (MLM), then least-squares method (LSM) gives for PPP correct but unusually looking results. It is shown also that some restrictions and corrections outside rigorous MLM frame bring to incorrect results instead of improved ones.

Gai, E.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

74

Nutrient cycling in mango trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimates of nutrient amounts both shedding and demanding replacement in the maintenance of productivity of fruit trees require studies on element dynamics within the many ecosystem components generally made up of nutrient cycling. Thus, it was the objective of this study to evaluate the nutrient biochemical cycling in a mango tree (Mangifera indica L. orchard, Palmer variety. Macronutrients [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and sulfur (S] had their contents evaluated in leaves at different stages: new, mature, senescent, and litter. First exploratory analysis was performed for main components which preserve the multivariate structure shown by the data. It was possible to observe the association of new leaves with N, P, K, Mg, and S; senescent leaves and the leaves from the litter were associated to Ca, while mature leaves, to K. As a complement, taking the independent variables into consideration, Tukey test (p?0.01 showed that the averages of N, P, and Ca differ between the new and the mature leaves; average of Mg in new leaves differs from the others, and S does not differ along the stages. Also observed was the re-translocation of 41%, 63% and 57% of N, P, and K, respectively, when comparison was made among the contents of the elements in mature leaves as well as in litter, which indicates that the biochemical cycling is important for the mango tree cultivation.

Cinara Xavier de Almeida

2014-02-01

75

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

Sharad J

2013-11-01

76

Convenient Synthesis of Two Mango Allergens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mango allergens, 5[2’(Z-heptadecenyl]resorcinol (10 and 5[12’(Z-heptadecenyl]resorcinol (20 have been synthesized by simple routes using easily accessible starting materials.

Vasant R. Mamdapur

1999-08-01

77

Phytochemicals Screening and Activities of Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Antioxidant of Some Fruit Peels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to screen the secondary metabolites compounds including alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids as well as to determine the antioxidant activities of four types of fruit peels namely Psidium guajava (guava), Mangifera indica (Chakonan mango), Citrus sinensis (Navel orange) and Malus sylvestris (Granny Smith apple). The hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were investigated using three different assays such as Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoids Content (TFC) were also conducted and the correlations between the antioxidant assays with TPC and TFC were evaluated. The TPC in the peels extract ranged between 204.90 to 517.00 mg GAE/ g extract weight while TFC ranged between 97.48 to 177.86 mg QE/ g extract weight. The FRAP, EC50 scavenging activity and ORAC values were 18.78 to 45.36 mM TE/ 100 g extract weight, 0.146 to 0.717 mg/ ml scavenging effect and 37.54 to 60.59 ?M TE/ g extract weight respectively. The extract of M. indica peels appeared to be as potent as ascorbic acid with maximum inhibition of 74 % at 200 ppm. M. indica peels showed highest value in all antioxidant assays and in TPC while the highest in TFC was found in M. sylvestris peels. There were strong correlations between all antioxidant assays with TPC but very weak correlations with TFC. This study suggested that the extracts of fruit peels are convenient to be use as functional ingredients in food product development as they are rich in antioxidant activities. (author)

2012-12-01

78

76 FR 36281 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0092] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2011-06-22

79

76 FR 13530 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Reapportionment  

Science.gov (United States)

...Doc No. AMS-FV-10-0092] Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...positions. In accordance with the Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order...which is authorized under the Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of...

2011-03-14

80

Isolation, identification and quantification of unsaturated fatty acids, amides, phenolic compounds and glycoalkaloids from potato peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven compounds were isolated from potato peels and identified. Their structures were determined by interpretation of UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectral data and by comparison with reported data. The main components of the potato peels were found to be chlorogenic acid and other phenolic compounds, accompanied by 2 glycoalkaloids, 3 low-molecular-weight amide compounds, and 2 unsaturated fatty acids, including an omega-3 fatty acid. The potato peels showed more potent radical scavenging activity than the flesh. The quantification of the 11 components indicated that the potato peels contained a higher amount of phenolic compounds than the flesh. These results suggest that peel waste from the industry of potato chips and fries may be a source of useful compounds for human health. PMID:22980823

Wu, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Ma, Qiong; Cao, Ye; Ma, Jian-Nan; Ma, Chao-Mei

2012-12-15

 
 
 
 
81

7 CFR 319.56-33 - Mangoes from the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Mangoes from the Philippines. 319.56-33 Section 319.56-33... § 319.56-33 Mangoes from the Philippines. Mangoes (fruit) (Mangifera indica...imported into the United States from the Philippines only in accordance with this...

2010-01-01

82

7 CFR 319.56-46 - Mangoes from India.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false Mangoes from India. 319.56-46 Section 319.56-46...Vegetables § 319.56-46 Mangoes from India. Mangoes (Mangifera indica ) may...into the continental United States from India only under the following...

2010-01-01

83

Glycolic acid peel therapy - a current review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I-IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. PMID:24399880

Sharad, Jaishree

2013-01-01

84

Genetics Home Reference: Acral peeling skin syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... skin syndrome? Acral peeling skin syndrome is a skin disorder characterized by painless peeling of the top layer ... be mild and similar to those of other skin disorders, the condition is likely underdiagnosed. What genes are ...

85

[The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels].  

Science.gov (United States)

The antioxidant properties of freeze-dried citrus fruit peels (orange, lemon, grapefruit) and methanolic extracts from the peel were studied. Freeze-dried orange peel showed the highest, lemon peel somewhat less and grapefruit peel the lowest but still remarkable antioxidant activity. This could be significantly improved by preparing methanolic extracts of the peels. Comparative examinations and autoxidation studies with the flavanon glycosides hesperidin and naringin as well as with their aglycones hesperetin and naringenin showed that the former are mainly responsible for the antioxidative activity of the citrus peel and extracts. In order to compare their antioxidative activity with that of the commercially available natural antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and ascorbylpalmitate, the freeze-dried citrus peels and their methanolic extracts should be used in higher concentrations, in consideration of their peculiar properties and complex natural composition. Furthermore, aspects of the correlation between antioxidant activity and molecular structure of the flavanones were discussed. PMID:3727631

Kroyer, G

1986-03-01

86

Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

2011-01-01

87

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Fenglei Luo

2012-09-01

88

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH• free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-01-01

89

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H(2)O(2)-induced Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH(•) free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc) or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under H(2)O(2)-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H(2)O(2) stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases. PMID:23109851

Luo, Fenglei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yuqin; Hu, Guibing; Huang, Guodi; Zhang, Jiukai; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2012-01-01

90

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle; ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT; ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS; e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR. A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control; diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT; diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS; and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR. The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

2012-08-01

91

Powdery Mildew of Mango : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Powdery mildew is a serious disease of mango in the world caused by a fungus . Young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits are attacked by the fungus. Crop losses up to 100 percent have been reported in case of blossom infection when disease spreads in epidemic form. Conidia are dispersed by wind and germinate best at 20-25°C with moderate humidity. Pathogen survive from one season to the next as mycelia in dormant buds and as haustoria on old infected leaves. Telemorph of the fungus have not been reported in Pakistan or from the other mango growing regions of the world. No completely resistant cultivar of mango has been reported any where but they vary in their susceptibility to powdery mildew. Fungicides applied at 30-40 Percent flowering stage followed by two applications at 2-3 week intervals depending upon environmental conditions can effectively control the malady.

Khalid P. Akhtar

2000-01-01

92

Irradiation of carabao mangoes for decay control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control of postharvest diseases of carabao mangoes by gamma radiation has been the subject of several local studies, notably that of Herrera and Valencia (1964) and Pablo et al (1971) which showed dose levels of 16.6 Kr. and 60 Kr. respectively, to be effective in extending the market life. The wide range of resorted effective dose levels for mangoes prompted this investigation which aimed to establish the pre-dominant spoilage-causing micro-organisms and the effectivity of irradiation in controlling or delaying the growth of these micro-organisms. (author)

1979-12-05

93

An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

1999-05-01

94

Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benla...

Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Ibrahim; Aslam Pervez, M.

1999-01-01

95

Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (pfeed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme. PMID:21651339

Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

2011-10-01

96

The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pKa values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

2010-05-15

97

The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK{sub a} values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: iqbalmdr@brain.net.pk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

2010-05-15

98

Antibacterial Activity of Mango Kernel Extracts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is emphasized specifically on the potential of the mango Mangifera Indica seed kernel by discovering the prospective usage of mango seed kernels as a source of antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains. For this study, three types of mango were used; Blackgold, Lemak and Waterlily from Malaysia and Thiland. The approach adopted for this purpose was by implementing agar well diffusion method. The results were expressed as the average diameter of bacterial inhibition zones surrounding the wells. The required solvents for the extraction were ethanol, methanol, acetone and phosphate buffer solutions were prepared in a different concentration; 0.10M, 0.05M and 0.01M. The results showed that Lemak gave relatively high antibacterial activity among other types of mango ranging between 1.40 and 2.23 cm. For the known antibiotic, which was Tetracycline, under the same conditions the diameter of inhibition zones were between 2.30 to 3.30. Then, the minimum inhibition concentration tests were conducted for Lemak for two solvents extract that gave the highest inhibition zones which were methanol and acetone. The results showed that the minimum inhibition concentration of extracts that inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was after 10X dilution (1 mM. The results obtained confirmed the antibacterial potential of mango kernels extracts and this would probably become an alternative source of new and natural antibacterial agents.

M.E.S. Mirghani

2009-01-01

99

Line Creep in Paper Peeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling con?guration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ?nding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

Rosti J.

2010-06-01

100

Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals  

CERN Document Server

There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

Bartholdi, Laurent

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Dressing wounds with potato peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete...

Patange Vidya; Fernandez Rui; Motla Meena; Mahajan Sunanda

1996-01-01

102

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali), Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna), Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant) on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P.), its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide) for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3...

Uddin, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Rahman, M. A.; Begum, M. M.; Hasanuzzaman, A. T. M.

2003-01-01

103

Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

2007-01-01

104

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

Yuh Shan Wong

2014-09-01

105

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (passiflora edulis) peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

 Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v), extraction times (60-300 min), and extraction temperatures (25-60°C) that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC) of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications. PMID:24887941

Wong, Yuh Shan; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Khoo, Hock Eng; Ang, Yee Kwang; Chang, Sui Kiat; Chang, Sui Kiat; Yim, Hip Seng

2014-07-01

106

Determination of 17 Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Mango by Modified QuEChERS Extraction Method Using GC-NPD/GC-MS and Hazard Index Estimation in Lucknow, India  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg?1) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg?1. Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg?1 and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg?1 which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%–100% and 46.66%–100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg?1 and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg?1 body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one.

Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M. K.; Lohani, M.; Mudiam, M. K. R.; Srivastava, L. P.

2014-01-01

107

Determination of 17 Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Mango by Modified QuEChERS Extraction Method Using GC-NPD/GC-MS and Hazard Index Estimation in Lucknow, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 162 samples of different varieties of mango: Deshehari, Langra, Safeda in three growing stages (Pre-mature, Unripe and Ripe) were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of seventeen organophosphate pesticide residues. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method of extraction coupled with gas chromatography was validated for pesticides and qualitatively confirmed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. The method was validated with different concentrations of mixture of seventeen organophosphate pesticides (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 mg kg-1) in mango. The average recovery varied from 70.20% to 95.25% with less than 10% relative standard deviation. The limit of quantification of different pesticides ranged from 0.007 to 0.033 mg kg-1. Out of seventeen organophosphate pesticides only malathion and chlorpyriphos were detected. Approximately 20% of the mango samples have shown the presence of these two pesticides. The malathion residues ranged from ND-1.407 mg kg-1 and chlorpyriphos ND-0.313 mg kg-1 which is well below the maximum residues limit (PFA-1954). In three varieties of mango at different stages from unpeeled to peeled sample reduction of malathion and chlorpyriphos ranged from 35.48%-100% and 46.66%-100% respectively. The estimated daily intake of malathion ranged from 0.032 to 0.121 µg kg-1 and chlorpyriphos ranged from zero to 0.022 µg kg-1 body weight from three different stages of mango. The hazard indices ranged from 0.0015 to 0.0060 for malathion and zero to 0.0022 for chlorpyriphos. It is therefore indicated that seasonal consumption of these three varieties of mango may not pose any health hazards for the population of Lucknow, city, India because the hazard indices for malathion and chlorpyriphos residues were below to one. PMID:24809911

Srivastava, Ashutosh K; Rai, Satyajeet; Srivastava, M K; Lohani, M; Mudiam, M K R; Srivastava, L P

2014-01-01

108

Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

2004-01-01

109

PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of...

Arif, M.; Pani, D. R.; Zaidi, N. W.; Singh, U. S.

2011-01-01

110

Biohydrogen generation from jackfruit peel using anaerobic contact filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel method of anaerobic digestion using contact filter was adopted for treating solid waste generated from the fruit processing industry, namely jackfruit, with the intention of generating energy free from greenhouse gases. A new source of microflora was isolated from cow dung by subjecting it to pH adjustment at 5+/-0.2 coupled with heat treatment at 105 deg C for 1h, and not less than three consecutive periods of heat treatment. The isolated microflora exhibited their capability to generate hydrogen while treating solid waste consisting of jackfruit peel. The biogas generation was found to be 0.72l/g VS (jackfruit peel) destroyed. The hydrogen content in the biogas was found to be consistent resulting in 55+/-2%, while the biogas was free from methane content. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on volatile solids destruction efficiency was investigated for an influent volatile solids content of 33g/l at an HRT of 7 and 12d. The results showed a volatile solids destruction efficiency of 22% and 50%, respectively, for the above said conditions. The efficiency of anaerobic digestion was also investigated for varying influent volatile solids content viz: 22.5, 17.1 and 11.3g/d at 12d HRT. The anaerobically digested jackfruit peel waste having an initial volatile solid content of 22.5g/d was subjected to filtration test at 15psi for a period of 1.3h. The sludge resulting from the filtration test had a solids content of 12%, whereas the filtrate had the following characteristics viz: pH 5.3+/-0.2, COD 1700mg/l, BOD 1175mg/l and TKN 120mg/l. (author)

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa; Khairil Bin Ibrahim, Mohd [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2006-04-15

111

Characterization of mango (Mangifera indica L.) transcriptome and chloroplast genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We characterized mango leaf transcriptome and chloroplast genome using next generation DNA sequencing. The RNA-seq output of mango transcriptome generated >12 million reads (total nucleotides sequenced >1 Gb). De novo transcriptome assembly generated 30,509 unigenes with lengths in the range of 300 to ?3,000 nt and 67× depth of coverage. Blast searching against nonredundant nucleotide databases and several Viridiplantae genomic datasets annotated 24,593 mango unigenes (80 % of total) and identified Citrus sinensis as closest neighbor of mango with 9,141 (37 %) matched sequences. The annotation with gene ontology and Clusters of Orthologous Group terms categorized unigene sequences into 57 and 25 classes, respectively. More than 13,500 unigenes were assigned to 293 KEGG pathways. Besides major plant biology related pathways, KEGG based gene annotation pointed out active presence of an array of biochemical pathways involved in (a) biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids, flavones and flavonols, (b) biosynthesis of terpenoids and lignins and (c) plant hormone signal transduction. The mango transcriptome sequences revealed 235 proteases belonging to five catalytic classes of proteolytic enzymes. The draft genome of mango chloroplast (cp) was obtained by a combination of Sanger and next generation sequencing. The draft mango cp genome size is 151,173 bp with a pair of inverted repeats of 27,093 bp separated by small and large single copy regions, respectively. Out of 139 genes in mango cp genome, 91 found to be protein coding. Sequence analysis revealed cp genome of C. sinensis as closest neighbor of mango. We found 51 short repeats in mango cp genome supposed to be associated with extensive rearrangements. This is the first report of transcriptome and chloroplast genome analysis of any Anacardiaceae family member. PMID:24515595

Azim, M Kamran; Khan, Ishtaiq A; Zhang, Yong

2014-05-01

112

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

Kalpna Rakholiya

2013-01-01

113

Conversion of mango kernel starch to glucose syrups by enzymatic hydrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present investigation, the possibility of utilizing the starch present in mango seed (which are thrown away as waste) kernels for the production of glucose syrups by enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis has been studied. Under the conditions of operation, particles less than 90 microns in size showed maximum conversion at (i) {alpha}-amylase concentration = 0.06% (v/v), pH = 6.5 and temperature 95 C and (ii) glucoamylase concentration = 0.8% (v/v), pH = 4.5 and temperature = 60 C. (orig.)

Velan, M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Krishnan, M.R.V. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lakshmanan, C.M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-05-01

114

Peel test of spinnable carbon nanotube webs  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents results of peel tests with spinnable carbon nanotube webs. Peel tests were performed to study the effect of orientation angles on interface energies between nanotubes. In absence of any binding agent the interface energy represents the Van Der Waals energies between the interacting nanotubes. Therefore, the effect of the orientations on Van Der Waals energies between carbon nanotubes is obtained through the peel test. It is shown that the energy for crossed nanotubes at 90° angle is lower than the energy for parallel nanotubes at 0° angle. This experimental observation was validated by hypothetical theoretical calculations.

Khandoker, Noman; Hawkins, Stephen C.; Ibrahim, Raafat; Huynh, Chi P.

2014-06-01

115

Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

2014-06-01

116

Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused significant effect only in peeled form, ash reduced significantly during peeling and cooking except in tomato. Four minerals reduced significantly in both peeling and cooking especially in peeled cooking. Vitamins losses were highly significant in both peeling and cooking.

Munir A. Sheikh

2003-01-01

117

Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused signifi...

Shahnaz Alvi; Khan, K. M.; Sheikh, Munir A.; Muhammad Shahid

2003-01-01

118

Adsorption study of cadmium (II) and lead (II) on radish peels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The removal efficiency of heavy metals like Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Raphanus sativus (Radish peels) has been studied. The effects of time, pH, concentration of adsorbent and agitation speed on adsorption have been evaluated. It is found that radish peels powder has high removal efficiency for both the metals. Batch adsorption study has shown that Cd(II) and Pb(II) has been removed up to 88% and 86% respectively. Adsorption equilibriums for both metals have been described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum amount of heavy metals (Q ) adsorbed at max equilibrium were 7.5 and 1.23 mg/g for Cd(II) and Pb(II) respectively as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm. It is concluded that waste materials like radish peels can be used for removal of heavy metals from aqueous streams. (author)

2009-06-01

119

Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

Chiraporn Sodchit

2013-12-01

120

Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

1999-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

1974-01-01

122

Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

2001-03-01

123

76 FR 65988 - Importation of Mangoes From Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

...broad- spectrum post-harvest fungicidal dip...inspection. Post- harvest diseases do...the pre- and post-harvest mitigation options...the irradiation treatment. Mangoes imported...analysis of the potential...

2011-10-25

124

Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

1989-01-01

125

Automated Mango Fruit Grading System Using Fuzzy Logic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the size of mango fruit. Mangoes grading by humans in current agricultural industry are subjective, inconsistent and inefficient because there is an individual difference in visual inspecting which is affected by environment, physical and psychological conditions. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to create a novel grading method. A membership function and fuzzy rules are generated from training instances based on minimum entropy formulas. Computer and Red Green and Blue (RGB fiber optic sensor are used to examine and clarify data corresponding to human judgment and intelligence. A total of 77.78% of accuracy is achevied under the proposed method which capable of differentiating three different grades of mango. This paper offers a competent practice and capable to be applied to improve and standardize the current mango fruit grading system.

Yeong Kin Teoh

2013-12-01

126

Dressing wounds with potato peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of boiled potato peel (PP) in dressing of various skin conditions was studied. A total of 11 patients were selected, which included resistant wounds of pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and leg ulcers. An autoclaved PP dressing with a thin layer of antiseptic cream was applied at 25 sites. It was covered with multilayered gauze and the dressing was secured firmly with either a roller bandage or with an adhesive tape. Complete epithelization was seen at 20 sites (80%), near complete epithelization at one site. There was no satisfactory response at three sites and at one site the result could not be evaluated. The mean duration of healing was one week for superficial wounds and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound and three weeks for deep wounds. The PP dressing facilitates the wound healing process by providing and maintaining a moist environment. The PP dressing is easy to prepare, apply as well as remove. It is a comfortable dressing and is also cost effective. PMID:20948091

Patange, V S; Fernandez, R J; Motla, M U; Mahajan, S A

1996-01-01

127

7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305...Treatments § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. ...immediately after the hot water immersion treatment, then the original dip...

2010-01-01

128

Analytical Study Of Mango Production In India With Special Reference To Mahamango Co- Operative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: In India the production of mango is taken in large extent. In world India is number one in mango production. Uttar Pradesh state the production of mango is large compared to the other states. Also Maharashtra has different varieties of mango production. Especially the Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board (MSAMB has promoted the organization of Mango growers in the name of Mahamango. In order to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing, "MAHAMANGO", a co-operative partnership society has been established on 8th March, 1991. Researchers aspire is to analyze the production of mango in India with the special reference to MAHAMANGO Cooperative. Also researcher wants to know the state wise varieties grown and overall production of mango in India and the world.

Kadam Deepak R

2013-09-01

129

An analysis of elastic and plastic fruit growth of mango in response to various assimilate supplies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in elastic and plastic components of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv 'Cogshall') fruit growth were analyzed with a model of fruit growth over time and in response to various assimilate supplies. The model is based on water relations (water potential and osmotic and turgor pressures) at the fruit level. Variation in elastic fruit growth was modeled as a function of the elastic modulus and variation in turgor pressure. Variation in plastic fruit growth was modeled using the Lockhart (1965) equation. In this model, plastic growth parameters (yield threshold pressure and cell wall extensibility) varied during fruit growth. Outputs of the model were diurnal and seasonal fruit growth, and fruit turgor pressure. These variables were simulated with good accuracy by the model, particularly the observed increase in fruit size with increasing availability of assimilate supply. Shrinkage was sensitive to the surface conductance of fruit peel, the elasticity modulus and the hydraulic conductivity of fruit, whereas fruit growth rate was highly sensitive to parameters linked to changes in wall extensibility and yield threshold pressure, regardless of the assimilate supply. According to the model, plastic growth was generally zero during the day and shrinkage and swelling were linked to the elastic behavior of the fruit. During the night, plastic and elastic growths were positive, resulting in fruit expansion. PMID:17241964

Lechaudel, Mathieu; Vercambre, Gilles; Lescourret, Françoise; Normand, Frederic; Génard, Michel

2007-02-01

130

Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mix...

Parichat Theanjumpol; Guy Self; Ronnarit Rittiron; Tanachai Pankasemsu; Vicha Sardsud

2013-01-01

131

Distribution of Pu and Am in different parts of mango trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of plutonium and americium in the mango leaves and the distribution of their concentration in different parts of the mango fruit were performed. The generally observed trend is leaves>cotyledon>shell>flesh. These results suggest that the contamination of mango fruits by Pu an Am will not pose any radiation risk because the edible portion of the mango has the lowest activity. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

1994-07-01

132

A Study on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Some Mango Varieties in Khulna Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fruit characteristics of some mango varieties grown in Khulna region were studied at the Horticulture Laboratory, Agrotechnology Discipline of Khulna University, Khulna during the period from March to December, 2002. The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the pattern of physico-chemical properties of mango varieties Amrapali, Sharmai Fazli, Neelambori, Indian Lota and Madrazi Tota. Mango fruits were collected from mango growers of Botiaghata Upazila, Khulna. The experiment was laid...

Mannan, M. A.; Khan, S. A. K. U.; Islam, M. R.; Sirajul Islam, M.; Ayesha Siddiqa

2003-01-01

133

New insulating particleboards from durian peel and coconut coir  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of new particleboards from tropical fruit peels with low thermal conductivity as a component of construction panels for energy conservation of building is the main purpose of this study. Durian (Durio zibethinus) peels and coconut (Cocos nucifera) coir fibers were used as the raw material to manufacture particleboards. Two main parameters were investigated namely binder types, (UF 12%, PF 6% and IC 3%) and board density. In general, the effect of adhesive type on the properties of boards was not obvious whereas that of the density was more significant on most properties of boards. Experimental investigation indicated that the mechanical strength of all boards such as modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing board density, but it is still rather low. However, this decreased the dimensional stability, measured in term of thickness swelling, and thermal conductivity as well. Finally, as the raw materials are agriculture waste, manufacturing particleboards is therefore an economic and interesting option. Such natural particleboards with a low thermal conductivity could be utilized for specific applications as in insulating ceiling and walls.(author)

Khedari, J.; Charoenvai, S.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Building Scientific Research Center

2002-03-01

134

Biological activity of feijoa peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractionated extracts of Feijoa peels were studied for cytotoxic activity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and antibacterial activity. Two most cytotoxic fractions A3 of acetone extract and M2 of methanol extract had potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi tested. Fraction A4 of acetone extract showed multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity comparable with that of verapamil (positive control). These results indicate the therapeutic value of Feijoa peel extracts as potential antimicrobial and MDR-modulating agents. PMID:11205266

Motohashi, N; Kawase, M; Shirataki, Y; Tani, S; Saito, S; Sakagami, H; Kurihara, T; Nakashima, H; Wolfard, K; Mucsi, I; Varga, A; Molnár, J

2000-01-01

135

Analysis of peeling decoder for MET ensembles  

CERN Multimedia

The peeling decoder introduced by Luby, et al. allows analysis of LDPC decoding for the binary erasure channel (BEC). For irregular ensembles, they analyze the decoder state as a Markov process and present a solution to the differential equations describing the process mean. Multi-edge type (MET) ensembles allow greater precision through specifying graph connectivity. We generalize the the peeling decoder for MET ensembles and derive analogous differential equations. We offer a new change of variables and solution to the node fraction evolutions in the general (MET) case. This result is preparatory to investigating finite-length ensemble behavior.

Hinton, Ryan

2009-01-01

136

Efectos de la concentracion de solud y la relacion fruta/jarabe sobre sobre la deshidratacion osmotica de mango en cilindros¹  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en estudiar el efecto de la concentración del agente osmótico (glucosa en el jarabe a 50, 60 y 70% p/p) y la relación fruta/jarabe (1:2, 1:3 y 1:4) sobre la deshidratación osmótica de frutos de mango, Mangifera indica L., en cilindros. Para el estudio, se o [...] btuvieron los mangos tipo bocado del mercado local, se seleccionaron, pelaron, cortaron en forma de cilindros y se introdujeron en un recipiente de vidrio de 500 ml de capacidad conteniendo 300 ml de la solución osmótica. Los trozos fueron sacados después de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min para realizar determinaciones de ganancia de soluto (GS), pérdida de agua (PA) y °Brix. Determinaciones de actividad de agua (aw) fueron realizadas en la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todas las concentraciones del agente osmótico (50, 60 y 70% p/p) la ganancia de sólidos fue más notable en el caso de la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todos los casos se observó que la PA es más importante que la GS. Se alcanzó el máximo de grados Brix en menor tiempo en los trozos de mango tratados con el jarabe a 50 °Brix comparado con los jarabes a 60 y 70 °Brix. Las observaciones del presente trabajo en términos de GS y PA permiten concluir que la concentración del jarabe y particularmente la relación jarabe/fruta influyen de una manera directa en el proceso de osmodeshidratación de mango. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of the concentration of the osmotic agent (glucose in the syrup to 50, 60 and 70 % p/p) and the ratio fruit/syrup (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the osmotic dehydration of mango fruits in cylinders. For the study, mangoes type "Bocado" were obtained from the [...] local market, selected, peeled, cut in form of cylinders and introduced in a 500 cc container of glass with 300 cc of osmotic solution. The pieces were removed after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min to make determinations of gain of solute (GS), loss of water (PA) and °Brix. Determinations of water activity (aw) were made in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the concentrations of the osmotic agent evaluated the solid gain was more important in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the cases, it was found that the PA was more important than GS. The highest degree Brix was reached in less time in the mango pieces treated with 50 °Brix syrup than with 60 and 70 °Brix syrup. The observations of the present work about GS and PA allow to conclude that the concentration of the syrup, and particularly the ratio fruit/syrup influences the process of osmotic dehydration of mango

Anne, Valera; Judith, Zambrano; Willian, Materano; Ibis, Quintero.

137

Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Pl...

Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

2010-01-01

138

Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

2011-10-10

139

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase from the submerged fermentation of citrus wastes by Penicillium janthinellum MTCC 10889  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase was studied in cultures of Penicillium janthinellum grown on citrus fruit waste supplemented cultivation media. Both dried orange peel and sweet lime peel could induce the production of this enzyme. The working strain showed a pronounced optimum pH and temperature for ?-xylosidase production at 6.0 and 27 °C, respectively. The enzyme production was found to remain stable for a long period of 120 h. Orange peel and sweet lime peel showed different ...

2012-01-01

140

Antioxidant potential of extracts from different agro wastes: Stabilization of corn oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antioxidant potential of 80% methanolic extracts of some agro wastes (pomegranate peel, apple peel, banana peel, citrus peel, corncob, wheat husk, wheat bran, rice bran, and rice hull) was assessed. The yields of the extracts varied over a wide range (8.83 to 29.9 g/100g of dry weight). TPC, TFC, total flavonols (kaempeferol, quercetin, myricetin; HPLC method), DPPH. radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation for the extracts varied significantly (P < 0.05) ranging fr...

Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Rafique Asi, Muhammad; Ali Shahid Chatha, Shahzad

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C18 cartridges...

Hock Eng Khoo; Azrina Azlan; Amin Ismail; Faridah Abas

2012-01-01

142

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil) Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy t...

2010-01-01

143

Palmoplantar peeling secondary to sirolimus therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sirolimus (rapamycin) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used in transplant recipients. Although sirolimus has less renal toxicity than calcineurin inhibitors, its use has been limited by its side effects. The most common cutaneous pathologies associated with sirolimus are inflammatory acneiform eruptions, lymphedema and aphthous ulcers. We present a novel cutaneous manifestation of sirolimus therapy that limited its use in at least one transplant recipient. Upon commencing sirolimus therapy, four solid organ transplant recipients developed tender, nonpruritic palmoplantar peeling within the first month of therapy. The peeling clinically resembled a mild form of hand-foot syndrome, yet none of the patients had been treated with chemotherapeutics. Desquamation presented on the palms and soles with dry vesicles and minor peeling extending to the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet. Histologically, the lesions were noninflammatory; the epidermis showed subtle separation between keratinocytes, suggesting either spongiosis or a defect in intercellular adhesion. One patient opted to discontinue treatment because of the tenderness associated with the palmoplantar peeling, which resulted in complete resolution within 2 weeks. PMID:24224736

Liu, L S; McNiff, J M; Colegio, O R

2014-01-01

144

Chemical Analysis of Tacca leontopetaloides Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacca leontopetaloides tubers are known to be a staple food of inhabitants of the area under study, however, the peels have been found to be poisonous to livestock and other animals that feed on them. This study therefore, is aimed at investigating the nutrients and antinutritional factors in order to ascertain their composition in the peels. The peels were collected from Utange and Mbachegh wards in Katsina-Ala Local Government Area and Mbaatikyaa ward in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria and were labeled as sample A, B and C respectively. The moisture, ash, Crude lipids, crude protein and carbohydrates analysis were determined. Anti-nutritional factors like phytate, oxalate, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins were also determined. Results of the analysis indicate the moisture content to be 18.58, 15.40 and 28.38% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Ash content of the peels was found to be 4.13, 9.60 and 5.13% for samples A, B and C, respectively. Lipids content of the samples was found to be 3.80, 2.85 and 1.10% for A, B and C, respectively. The amount of fibre in sample A, B and C was found to be 2.06, 2.07 and 1.10%, respectively while 0.21, 00.07 and 00.18% was obtained as the protein content of the peels, respectively. The result of carbohydrates was found to be 71.20, 69.35 and 62.94 for the three samples, respectively. Results of anti-nutrition indicate the levels of Cyanogenic glycoside to be high (45.00, 43.00 and 44.00 mg kg-1. Saponin content of the peels was found to be 35.00, 31.50 and 34.50 mg kg-1. Phytate in the sample to range between 28.50-29.50 mg kg-1, while Haemogglutinin and oxalate were found to be 20.00-23.00, 16.50, 19.00 and 15.50 mg kg-1 for samples A, B and C, respectively. Tacca leontopetaloides peels though has high content of carbohydrates, it is not suitable for consumption because of the high anti-nutritional factors.

J.T. Chia

2011-01-01

145

Antioxidative activity of bound-form phenolics in potato peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free and bound-form phenolics were isolated from potato (cv. Toyoshiro) flesh and peel. The free and bound-form phenolics in the peel showed high DPPH radical scavenging activity, while those in the flesh showed low activity. The total amount of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the free-form phenolics from the peel was highly correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Ferulic acid was identified as the active radical scavenging compound in the bound-form phenolics from the peel. The potato peel may therefore offer an effective source of an antioxidative. PMID:16794331

Nara, Kazuhiro; Miyoshi, Takayuki; Honma, Tamaki; Koga, Hidenori

2006-06-01

146

USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram environment. The Simulink based customizable framework is designed for rapid simulation, implementation, and verification of video processing systems. In this work the comparative analysis of various mangos video edge detection methods is like Sobel, Prewitt, and Canny is presented.

Manza R.R., Gaikwad B.P. and Manza G.R.

2012-03-01

147

Mango Varietal Susceptibility to Malformation and its Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These studies were carried out in six mango cultivars to assess the intensity of malformation and evaluate the control measure of the malady through removal of the infected shoots during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001. The malformation was found highest in cv., Anwar Retaul (56.63%). Mango cvs., Chaunsa and Malda borne medium percentage of malformation i.e., 44.05 and 43.05%, respectively. The intensity was moderately low in Dusehri and Langra with values of 36.73 and 34.48%. The malformation ...

Fayyaz Ahmad; Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz; Ali Asghar Asi; Saeed Ahmad; Mehmood Khan

2002-01-01

148

Moisture Desorption Isotherms for Fresh and Osmotically Treated Mangoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desorption isotherms of fresh and osmotically treated mangoes have been measured at 25, 35 and 45 ° C by the static method using a Novasina manometer. A non-linear regression program was used to fit three moisture sorption isotherm models, Modified-Halsey; Modified-Henderson and Modified-Oswin to the experimental data. The Modified-Henderson and the Modified-Oswin models gave the best fit for moisture desorption isotherms for fresh and osmotically treated mangoes, respectively. The osmotic pretreatment affected the graphical form of the desorption isotherms because of biopolymer binding at low aw values and dissolution of sucrose at high aw values.

Pheeraya Chottanom

2005-01-01

149

Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente / Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.). Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva ent [...] re o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.). The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the [...] fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

Freire Júnior, Murillo; Chitarra, Adimilson Bosco.

150

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

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Full Text Available Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy the orchestrated properties above. Consequent on the foregoing Aluminum – steel (Galvanized foil laminate bonds were prepared using Araldite Rapid (an Epoxy Adhesive as the bonding agent. The specimens were subjected to Peel Test on the Mosanto Tensometer. Outcome of investigation revealed that a mode of failure was by the Steel foil simply peeling off the Aluminum piece along the bond film; much strength was needed to initiate the peel, after which little strength was needed per elongation and that the ends of the laminate carried 63.8% of the total load.

Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

2010-10-01

151

Addition of Tomato Peel and Seed to Tomato Ketchup for Improving Its Nutritional Value and Rheological Properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, tomato peel and waste seed obtained from tomato paste processing were dried and milled. The obtained powder was added to tomato ketchup sauce in different proportions (1, 2, 5, 7 and 10%. To study the effect of tomato peel and seed powder on physicochemical and nutritional properties of the tomato ketchup samples, the parameters including lycopen, total solid, brix, total sugars, reducing sugars, protein, fat, ash, fiber, vitamin C, pH, color (L, a/b were evaluated. Rheological properties of the ketchup samples (consistency and viscosity were determined and compared with control samples. Sensory evaluation of the ketchup samples was carried out after 1, 2 and 5 months of storage by a group of panelists. Addition of tomato peel and seed powder resulted in an increase in total solid, brix, ash, fiber, protein, fat, consistency and viscosity of the ketchup samples. Sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant difference between the color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of the control and samples containing 1 or 2 % of tomato peel and seed powder. In addition, sensory evaluation tests did not show any significant changes in the ketchup samples during storage. Thus, it can be concluded that nutritional and rheological properties of tomato ketchup can be improved by addition of tomato peel and seed powder.

A Abasi

2009-04-01

152

Orange Peel coupling in granular ferromagnetic films  

CERN Multimedia

We present magnetoresistance (MR) measurements performed on magnetic tunnel junctions in which one of the electrodes is a granular ferromagnetic film. These junctions exhibit a zero field resistance dip. The dip magnitude depends on the size of the grains. We interpret these results as a consequence of the orange peel effect between the continuous ferromagnetic film and the magnetic grains. The coupling is found to be much stronger than that between continuous ferromagnetic layers.

Barness, D

2003-01-01

153

Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material  

Science.gov (United States)

Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

1996-01-01

154

Rejuvenescimento da pele por peeling químico: enfoque no peeling de fenol Facial skin rejuvenation by chemical peeling: focus on phenol peeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O envelhecimento da pele é um processo que preocupa muitos indivíduos, que buscam a ajuda especializada do médico para minimizar seus sinais. Um dos recursos para melhorar a qualidade da pele são os peelings químicos, utilizando várias substâncias ativas, como ácido glicólico, retinóico, tricloroacético e o fenol, entre outros, que proporcionam a esfoliação cutânea e posterior renovação celular. Dependendo da concentração e do valor de pH em que são empregados nas formulaç...

2004-01-01

155

Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

2007-01-01

156

Protective effect of potato peel powder in ameliorating oxidative stress in streptozotocin diabetic rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of dietary potato peel (PP) powder in ameliorating oxidative stress (OS) and hyperglycemia was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In a 4-week feeding trial, incorporation of potato peel powder (5 and 10%) in the diet of diabetic rats was found to significantly reduce the plasma glucose level and also reduce drastically the polyuria of STZ diabetic rats. The total food intake was significantly reduced in the diabetic rats fed 10% PP powder compared to the control diabetic rats. However, the body weight gain over 28 days was nearly four times greater in PP powder supplemented diabetic rats (both at 5 and 10%) compared to the control diabetic rats. PP powder in the diet also decreased the elevated activities of serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and nearly normalized the hepatic MDA and GSH levels as well as the activities of specific antioxidant enzymes in liver of diabetic rats. The result of these studies clearly establishes the modulatory propensity of PP against diabetes induced alterations. Considering that potato peels are discarded as waste and not effectively utilized, these results suggest the possibility that PP waste could be effectively used as an ingredient in health and functional food to ameliorate certain disease states such as diabetes. PMID:16021831

Singh, Nandita; Kamath, Vasudeva; Rajini, P S

2005-06-01

157

Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A manga (Mangifera indica L. é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância para o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g, maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %, menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 % e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix.The mango (Mangifera indica L. is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g, larger pulp percentage (85,7%, smaller pit percentage (6,3% and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix, adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

Juliana Altafin Galli

2008-01-01

158

Qualidade de mangas cultivadas no Estado de São Paulo / Mangoes quality cultivated in São Paulo State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A manga (Mangifera indica L.) é uma das frutas mais consumidas no mundo. A escolha da variedade a ser plantada deve estar relacionada com as preferências do mercado consumidor, que incluem frutos com elevada porcentagem de polpa e alto teor de sólidos solúveis, propriedades de grande importância par [...] a o processamento industrial e para o mercado interno e externo. Foram avaliadas a qualidade dos frutos de 39 variedades de manga (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra e Zill) da coleção do Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, localizado em Pindorama, São Paulo, objetivando a obtenção de informações sobre a qualidade dos frutos produzidos nesta região. Vinte frutos de cada variedade foram colhidos maduros e avaliados quanto à massa fresca, massa da casca, massa do caroço, porcentagens de polpa, casca e caroço, teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST) e infestação por mosca-das-frutas. Para a análise dos dados de porcentagem de polpa e SST utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a variedade Smith destacou-se pelos frutos com maior massa total (694 g), maior porcentagem de polpa (85,7 %), menor porcentagem de caroço (6,3 %) e maior teor de SST (24,9º Brix). Abstract in english The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most consumed fruits in the world. The choice of variety for cultivation should be related with preferences of the consuming market, that include fruits with larger pulp percentage and larger tenor of total soluble solids, properties of great importance [...] for industrial processing and for internal and external markets. The overall quality of fruits from 39 mango varieties (Adams, Alda, Brasil, Cacipura, Carabao, Carrie, Castro, Edward, Eldon, Família, Foice, Haden, Haden 2H, Haden TR, IAC 10 Bourbon, Itamarati, Joe Welch, Julima, Lima Peru, M20-222 Winter, Mabrooca, Neves, Palmer, Pele de Moça, Petacon, Pope, Regina, Rocha, Rosa, Rubi, Sensation, Smith, Surpresa, Torbet, Torrinha, Ubá, Wesley, White Langra and Zill) from the collection of Pólo Apta Centro-Norte, located at Pindorama, São Paulo State, was appraised, with the objective of gathering information regarding fruits produced in this area. Twenty fruits of each variety were picked ripe traits such as fresh weight, weight of the peel, weight of the pit, pulp, peel and pit percentages, tenor of total soluble solids (SST) and infestation for fruit-flyes were evaluated. A design in randomized blocks was used for the analysis of the data of pulp percentage and SST. Averages were compared by the Tukey test of 5% of probability. Based on results, it can be concluded that the variety Smith stands out for exhibiting fruits with larger total weight (694 g), larger pulp percentage (85,7%), smaller pit percentage (6,3%) and larger tenor of SST (24,9º Brix), adequate for industrial processing and for internal and external markets.

Juliana Altafin, Galli; Marcos Doniseti, Michelotto; Luis Cláudio Paterno, Silveira; Antônio Lúcio Melo, Martins.

159

Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

2005-03-01

160

Production of total reducing sugar (TRS) from acid hydrolysed potato peels by sonication and its optimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel is a waste biomass which can be a source of raw material for biofuel production. This biomass contains a sufficient amount of total reducing sugar (TRS), which can be extracted and further treated with microbial pathways to produce bioethanol. The extraction of TRS from potato peels by hydrolysis in dilute sulphuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.50%, 0.75% and 1% w/v) and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction after hydrolysis. Response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to verify the experimental data and later applied for the optimization of the main important reaction variables including amplitude (60%, 80% and 100%), cycle (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) and treatment time (5, 10 and 15 min) for the responses of TRS extraction by acid hydrolysis and later compared with the experimental data. PMID:24191439

Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Chakraborty, Sudip; Datta, Siddhartha; Drioli, Enrico; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

2013-06-01

162

Evaluation of boiled potato peel as a wound dressing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a series of experiments full thickness skin defects in 68 rats were covered with dressings made of boiled potato peels according to the method developed in Bombay. The wounds closed within 14 days and histologically complete repair of epidermis was found. The cork layer of the potato peel prevents dehydration of the wound and protects against exogenous agents. Experiments with homogenates revealed that a complete structure of the peel is necessary. Steroidal glycosides may have contributed to the favourable results. PMID:1930669

Dattatreya, R M; Nuijen, S; van Swaaij, A C; Klopper, P J

1991-08-01

163

Peeling of Polydimethylsiloxane Adhesives : the Case of Adhesive Failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adhesion properties of high molecular weight Polydimethylsiloxane adhesives are measured using 90°-peel adhesion tests, in the high velocity range. Such adhesives undergo mainly adhesive failure in this regime. The influence of viscosity (non-Newtonian), adhesive thickness, peeling velocity, and backing properties are studied, and new unexpected behaviours are shown. The role of rheology and peeling velocity can be explained by an extension of a model already presented for cohesive failu...

Verdier, Claude; Ravilly, Guillaume

2007-01-01

164

Isolation and Characterisation of Flavonoids From Citrus Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citrus flavonoids are very interesting for food and pharmaceutical industry since they possess many antioxidant properties and biological activities. Mandarin peels represent an important source of hesperidin and polymethoxy flavones nobiletin and tangeretin. Pommelo peels represent an important source of naringin that can be used as precursor for naringin dihdydro-2,3-chalcone artificial sweetener. Since pommelo peels possess good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, their extracts are ...

Makovs?ek, Katja

2013-01-01

165

Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarrin...

Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

2012-01-01

166

Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemical, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also eval...

2011-01-01

167

The survey and the effect of gamma irradiation on Mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of the mango seed weevil during February to July of 1993-1995 at Ratchaburi province, Chachoengsao province and Chieng Mai province. Only at Chieng Mai province was found at 2.35 percent to 37.36 percent. Outbreak occurred in the mango orchard which there was no insecticide application and pruning. Over 20 years old of the mango trees with the crevices of the bark around the trunk would be the host area of the adult mango seed weevil. The adult would hibernate by living in the crevice of the bark and in the ground around the base of the trunk. All specimens of mango seed weevils found was Sternochaetus oliveri (Faust). The study on effect of gamma radiation on the adult of mango seed weevil found that L D99 is 1.39 kGy after 28 days of irradiation. They were very slow movement without feeding and mating

1996-12-01

168

Ripening influences banana and plantain peels composition and energy content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Musa sp. peels are widely used by smallholders as complementary feeds for cattle in the tropics. A study of the influence of the variety and the maturation stage of the fruit on fermentability and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the peels was performed using banana (Yangambi Km5) and plantain (Big Ebanga) peels at three stages of maturation in an in vitro model of the rumen. Peel samples were analysed for starch, free sugars and fibre composition. Samples were incubated in the presence o...

Happi Emaga, Thomas; Bindelle, Je?ro?me; Angeesens, Richard; Buldgen, Andre?; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

2011-01-01

169

High oxygen levels promote peel spotting in banana fruit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We studied the effect of high oxygen on early peel spotting in `Sucrier¿ bananas held at 25 °C and 90% RH. Fruit first ripened to colour index 3¿4 (about as yellow as green) and were then held in containers with a continuous gas flow of 18 ± 2 kPa (control) or 90 ± 2 kPa oxygen. High oxygen promoted peel spotting. The in vitro activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), measured both in the whole peel and in peel spots, were lower in high oxygen than in ...

Maneenuam, T.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W. G.

2007-01-01

170

Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of citrus peel for growth. We used engineered A. niger strains that were not able to catabolise D-galacturonic acid, but instead converted it to L-galactonic acid. These strains also produced pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and were used for the conversion of pectin in orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process. The D-galacturonic acid in the orange peel was converted to L-galactonic acid with a yield close to 90%. Submerged and solid-state fermentation processes were compared. PMID:24949267

Kuivanen, Joosu; Dantas, Hugo; Mojzita, Dominik; Mallmann, Edgar; Biz, Alessandra; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David; Richard, Peter

2014-01-01

171

Gluten free cakes made with broken rice and cassava peel
Bolos sem glúten a base de arroz quebrado e casca de mandioca
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The agribusiness rice and cassava generate significant volumes of broken grains (byproducts) and bark (waste). The improper disposal of waste is waste of cassava feedstock, which could be better utilized, due to the large amount produced and its nutritional value. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying dried cassava peel in the formulation of mixtures of gluten free cakes instead of rice flour. The cakes were formulated with different substitution levels of...

2013-01-01

172

Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing...

Rendon, Marta I.; Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

2010-01-01

173

Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolu...

2009-01-01

174

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

Ibrahim, D.

2013-12-01

175

Irradiation in combination of heat treatment of mango puree  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of irradiation with heat combination treatment on the shelf life and quality of mango puree was studied. Thermal inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme at 80 degree C and 15 min. was used as a measure of adequacy of pre-heat treatment. Irradiation of mango puree after heat treatment at dosage of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy showed no change in mc, pH, acidity, and TSS but during storage, growth of microorganisms brought changes in these values. Irradiation in combination with low temperature (5 degree C) reduced discoloration and darkening rate during storage. Irradiation dose from 0 to 8 kGy resulted in log linear reductions in microorganism levels but at 6 and 8 kGy, there was no growth of microorganisms. Products irradiated at 8 kGy showed no microorganism growth at both temperatures

1996-12-01

176

Effect of mango seed kernel extract on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in rats fed a high fat diet  

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Full Text Available Mangoes (Mangifera indica L. are one of the most important tropical foods. The seed is one of the main by-products of mango processing. Therefore, it is important to find an economically viable use for this waste (e.g., as a food additive or supplement with high nutraceutical value. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of mango seed kernel extract with hot water (MSKE-W in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in a high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity rat model. MSKE-W caused a significant decrease in the activity of glycerol 2-phosphate dehydrogenase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without eliciting cell cytotoxicity and inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through down-regulation of transcription factors such as PPAR? and C/EBP?. In the animal model, rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W gained less weight than rats fed an HFD alone. The visceral fat mass in rats fed an HFD containing 1% MSKE-W tended to be lower than that in rats fed an HFD alone. Furthermore, histological examination of rat livers from an HFD showed steatohepatitis. However, rats on an HFD containning 1% MSKE-W showed no histopathological changes in liver tissue. Our results indicate that MSKE-W influences anti-obesity effects, both in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that MSKE-W provides a novel preventive potential against obesity.

Akiko Kojima-Yuasa

2013-08-01

177

Sorbents based on carbonized rice peel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process receiving of sorbents based on carbonized rice peel (RP) was received and their sorption properties were investigated. Processing carbonization of samples leading on station, this was developed in laboratory of hybrid technology. Carbonization of samples was realized in nitric atmosphere on 400-8000 deg. C. On raising temperature of carbonization content of carbon in samples is rice, hydrogen and oxygen is reduce as a result isolation of volatility products is discover. The samples carbonized on 650 deg. C (910 m2/g) owners with maximum removed surface is discover. On carbonization temperature 600-800 deh. C the sorption of ions, which carbonized by sorbents based on rice peel is run to 95-100 %. Electron-microscopic investigation of samples leaded on EM-125 mechanism by accelerating pressure 100 kV. From electron-microscopic print of original samples of RP it is evident, that sample consists of carbonic fractions of different species: carbonic fiber of rounded fractions, fractions of ellipsoid form and of more thickly carbonic structure. Increasing sizes of pores and modification structure of synthesized sorbent is occur during carbonization process. The RP-samples, which carbonized by 650 deg. C has the higher specific surface. Samples consist of thin carbonic scum and reducing specific surface, by higher temperature

2004-01-01

178

Control of mango anthracnose by hot water and fungicides treatment  

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Following harvest, mango (cv. Dashehari) fruits were treated with hot water at 52

Pandey, Om Prakash And B. K.

2012-01-01

179

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

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Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative prom...

Davenport, Thomas L.

2007-01-01

180

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments

1979-01-01

182

Dynamics of the peel front and the nature of acoustic emission during peeling of an adhesive tape  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the peel front dynamics and acoustic emission of an adhesive tape within the context of a recent model by including an additional dissipative energy that mimics bursts of acoustic signals. We find that the nature of the peeling front can vary from smooth to stuck-peeled configuration depending on the values of dissipation coefficient, inertia of the roller, mass of the tape. Interestingly, we find that the distribution of AE bursts shows a power law statistics with two scaling regimes with increasing pull velocity as observed in experiments. In this regimes, the stuck-peeled configuration is similar to the `edge of peeling' reminiscent of a system driven to a critical state.

De, R; De, Rumi

2006-01-01

183

Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirotetramat is a unique insecticide having both phloem and xylem mobility and imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is one of the most widely used in the world. The combination formulation is very effective against sucking pests of mango. Residue dynamics of spirotetramat and imidacloprid in/on mango and soil was studied following application of the combination formulation, spirotetramat 12% + imidacloprid 12% (240 SC) at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1). Spirotetramat residues in/on mango fruits were 0.327 and 0.483 mg kg(-1) after giving 3 applications at 90 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. The residues remained on mango fruits for 7 days and dissipated with the half-life of 3.3 and 5.2 days, respectively. Residues of spirotetramat-enol, the major metabolite of spirotetramat in plant, were not detected in mango fruits. Initial residues of imidacloprid on mango fruits from the two treatments were 0.329 and 0.536 mg kg(-1), respectively. Imidacloprid residues remained on mango fruits beyond 15 days and dissipated with the half-life of 5.2 and 8.2 days. The residues of spirotetramat, spirotetramat-enol and imidacloprid were found below quantifiable limit of 0.05 mg kg(-1) in mature mango fruits and field soil at harvest. PMID:22872376

Mohapatra, Soudamini; Deepa, M; Lekha, S; Nethravathi, B; Radhika, B; Gourishanker, S

2012-10-01

184

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

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Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w) from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equ...

Javier Telis-Romero; Kohayakawa, Ma?rcio N.; Vivaldo Silveira Jr; Pedro, Maria A. M.; Gabas, Ana L.

2005-01-01

185

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

2010-01-01

186

The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

2010-01-01

187

Pomegranin, an antifungal peptide from pomegranate peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new antifungal peptide designated as pomegranin, with an N-terminal sequence resembling that of rice disease resistance NB-S-LRR-like protein, was isolated from fresh pomegranate peels by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Pomegranin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited a molecular mass of 11 kDa in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) of 2 microM and 6.1 microM, respectively. It was devoid of hemagglutinating, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease and protease inhibitory activities. PMID:19149678

Guo, Guang; Wang, He Xiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2009-01-01

188

Potato peel extract as a natural antioxidant in chilled storage of minced horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus): Effect on lipid and protein oxidation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present work was undertaken to examine the utilisation of potato peel, a waste material, as a source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince with two different concentrations (2.4 or 4.8g/kg) of water or ethanol extracts of potato peel and a control with no added extracts were prepared. The samples were stored at 5°C for 96h and the sampling was done at time points 0, 24, 48 and 96h. The ethanol extracts, which contained high a...

Farvin, Sabeena; Grejsen, Helene Drejer; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2011-01-01

189

Qualidade de mangas cv. Palmer após armazenamento sob baixas temperaturas / Quality of mangoes cv. Palmer after their storage under low temperatures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a qualidade de mangas 'Palmer' previamente armazenadas em baixas temperaturas, após sua transferência para a condição de ambiente. Frutos colhidos no estádio de maturação fisiológica foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ta [...] manho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida, antes de serem armazenados a 2ºC (75,7% UR), 5ºC (73,8% UR) e 12°C (82% UR), por 7; 14 e 21 dias. Ao final de cada período, os frutos foram transferidos para temperatura ambiente (22,9°C; 62,3% UR), onde foram mantidos por 1; 3; 5 e 7 dias, simulando o período de comercialização, e avaliados quanto à ocorrência de injúrias e podridões, coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e de ácido ascórbico, além da atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. Os resultados indicaram que as mangas 'Palmer' podem ser conservadas a 12ºC por 21 dias, sem prejuízos ao amadurecimento, porém com limitações devido à ocorrência de podridões. O armazenamento a 2ºC e a 5ºC foi limitado pela ocorrência de injúrias na casca, porém na temperatura de 2ºC estes sintomas foram mais severos e comprometeram o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da casca. Entretanto, o amadurecimento da polpa destes frutos não foi prejudicado, mas este processo ocorreu com menor intensidade que nas mangas mantidas a 12ºC. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 'Palmer' mangoes previously stored at low temperatures, after their transference to the environmental condition. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were carefully transported to the Laboratory where they were selected, standardized as the color, si [...] ze and absence of injuries and treated with fungicide before they were stored at 2ºC (75.7% RH), 5ºC (73.8% RH) e 12°C (82% RH) for 7, 14 and 21 days. At the end of each period, the fruits were transferred to environmental condition (22.9°C; 62.3% RH), where they were kept for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days, simulating the trading period, and evaluated for the occurrence of injuries and rottenness; peel and pulp color; firmness; contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid, as well as, the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. The results indicated that 'Palmer' mangoes can be stored at 12ºC for 21 days without damage to ripening, but with limitations due to the occurrence of decay. The storage at 2°C and 5°C was limited by the occurrence of injuries in the peel, but at the temperature of 2°C these symptoms were more severe and compromised the development of the characteristic color of the peel. However, the ripening of the pulp was not harmed, but this process occurred with less intensity than in mangoes maintained at 12°C.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; José Carlos, Barbosa; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado.

190

Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

Okojie L. O.

2014-02-01

191

Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax e controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix, porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga.The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax and control (without film. The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

Luciana Bittencourt Pfaffenbach

2003-12-01

192

First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ethylene in pure culture of F. mangiferae obtained from mango. The study also revealed that all the isolates dissected from mango acquire morphological features of F. mangiferae showing most similarity to the features of species with accepted standard features. The isolates of F. mangiferae from mango were observed to produce ethylene in significant amounts, ranging from 9.28-13.66 n mol/g dry wt/day. The findings presented here suggest that F. mangiferae could contribute to the malformation of mango by producing ethylene and probably stimulating stress ethylene production in malformed tissue of mango. Ethylene might be produced through 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase-type ethylene-forming-enzyme (EFE) pathway in Fusarium sp, which needs to be investigated. PMID:23221756

Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-01-01

193

Novel Postharvest Treatment Reduces Ascorbic Acid Losses in Mango (Mangifera indica L. Var. Kent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Mango is a tropical fruit that ripens very quickly; for this reason, there has been a continuous effort to develop postharvest technologies to extend its shelf life and quality. Among them, 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP is widely used because it inhibits the action of ethylene receptors. Approach: Changes in physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and cell wall degrading activities were evaluated during storage and ripening of fresh whole mangoes treated with 1-MCP (750 nL L-1. Mature-green mangoes, cultivar Kent, untreated or treated with 1-MCP were evaluated for external quality, phytochemicals, Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methylesterase (PME enzymatic activities during storage at 20°C for 2 weeks. Results: Concentration of ascorbic acid decreased during fruit ripening but 1-MCP-treated mangoes had reduced losses. Polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase activities were reduced in the treated fruits as compared to untreated mangoes. Small changes in ?-carotene were observed between treated and untreated fruits. Conclusion: 1-MCP affected the ripening process in Kent mango, reducing losses of ascorbic acid, this treatment is justified since it helps to maintain mangos nutritional value during its shelf life.

Maria A. Islas-Osuna

2010-01-01

194

Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. PMID:24907732

Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

2014-08-01

195

Insecticidal properties of volatile extracts of orange peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Statistical studies using the randomised complete block design with four replicates showed that volatile extracts of two species of orange peel--Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) had insecticidal activity against mosquito, cockroach and housefly. Insecticidal activity was better after 60 min than at 30 min spraying of rooms. Volatile extracts of C. sinensis showed greater insecticidal potency, while the cockroach was the most susceptible to the orange peels among the three insects studied. PMID:11198181

Ezeonu, F C; Chidume, G I; Udedi, S C

2001-02-01

196

Reduced peeling losses in Mexican pine, after gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Centro de Estudios Nucleares UNAM, a wood-chip irradiation method was developed on the hypothesis that gamma irradiation would result in higher Kraft pulp yields. The effects of irradiation on the susceptibility of wood hemicellulose to alkaline peeling degradation were investigated by peeling loss test. Maximum pulp yields were obtained at 0.025 Mrad for irradiated air-dried wood meal, and at 0.012 Mrad for saturated humidity wood meal

1976-01-01

197

Thermomechanical process intensification for oil extraction from orange peels.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the intensification and improvement of oil extraction from orange peel through a thermomechanical process: the Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (briefly D.I.C process). This process involves subjecting orange peel for a short time to steam pressure, followed by an instantaneous decompression to vacuum at 50 mbar. Central composite design was used to study the combined effects of processing steam pressure (1–7 bar; which corresponds to a temperature ranging betwe...

Rezzoug, Sid-ahmed; Louka, Nicolas

2009-01-01

198

Antioxidant properties of different fruit seeds and peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the investigations performed was to assess the antioxidant properties of the seeds and peels of selected fruits. The antioxidant activity as well as total polyphenol and tannin content were determined. The results obtained revealed essential diversities of the analysed parameters among the material examined. The peels were characterized by higher ability to scavenge free radicals and higher polyphenols concentration than the seeds, particularly those of citrus fruits imported...

2007-01-01

199

Peeling químico médio em lesões papulonodulares de rosácea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A rosácea é doença cutânea prevalente, de curso crônico e recidivante. Seu tratamento é,muitas vezes, desafiador.Com frequência, é necessário lançar mão de tratamentos não padronizados para conseguir resultados satisfatórios.Relata-se, em 15 pacientes, o uso de peeling médio com solução de Jessner seguido de ácido tricloroacético a 35%, em sessão única, alcançando bom resultado clínico, acompanhado de melhora histopatológica. O uso do peeling médio deve, portanto, ser ...

2010-01-01

200

Determination of Pesticides Residues in Selected varieties of Mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to access the residue of commonly used pesticides viz Cypermethrin, Methamedophos, Monocrotophos, Cyfluthrin, Dialdrin and Methyl Parathian respectively in three varieties of Mango being collected from the grower fields in Multan division. The samples were treated with organic solvent Cyclohexane and ethylacetate (1:1, cleaned on Gel Permeation Chromatograph (GPC and analyzed on auto system Gas Chromatograph (GC with electron capture detector (ECD. All the samples were found to be contaminated with a degree of variation of pesticides residue studied. However, all the samples were within permissible limits being set by FAO/WHO with reference to public health.

Saqib Hussain

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemica [...] l, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

Ana Luiza, Pinheiro; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Maria Cecília de, Arruda; Ricardo Alfredo, Kluge.

202

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA, produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

2012-04-01

203

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos / Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo [...] deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA). Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa. Abstract in english The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective [...] of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA), produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Silva, Danielle Fabíola Pereira da; Siqueira, Dalmo Lopes de; Rocha, Aline; Salomão, Luiz Carlos Chamhum; Matias, Rosana Gonçalves Pires; Struiving, Tiago Barbosa.

204

A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a reduction in the potency of cyanide in the peel thereby making it a safe and possible candidate in the production of chicken feeds. PMID:24555165

Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

2014-01-01

205

Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

1996-01-01

206

Mango Malformation: I. Toxin Production Associated with Fusarium Pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eight Fusarium species i.e. F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum, F. monili-forme, F. avena and F. chlamydspore isolated from mango malformed disease were tested for their ability to cause mango malformation disease and their production of moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 using HPLC. A evaluated for moniliformin production, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.51 to 8.90 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by Fusarium subglutinans (8.51 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of moniliformin was produced by F.moniliforme (6.90 µg/ml, F. oxysporum (6.30 µg/ml, F. proliferatum (4.10 ?g/ml and F. sterilihyphosum (1.10 ?g/ml. Separation and identification of Fumonisin that was isolated from the pathogen- causing disease are made by (HPLC. A evaluated for total fumonisin production (FB1 + FB2, seven isolates were toxin producers, the production levels ranging from 0.10 to 8.30 µg/ml. The higher levels were produced by F. monili-forme (8.30 µg/ml. Moderate concentrations of fumonisin was produced by F .proliferatum (0.64 µg/ml and F. subglutinans (0.50 µg/ml. Strong positive correlations between moniliformin and total fumonisins (FB1 + FB2 activities and malformation disease incidence by F. subglutinans, F. solani, F. oxyspoum, F. sterilihyphosum, F. proliferatum was observed.

Abd El-Wahab M.

2011-06-01

207

Studies on fruit-bud differentiation in Mango (Mangifera indica  

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Full Text Available The time of fruit-bud-differentiation in mango is known to be governed by localweather conditions, which varies from place to place. To some extent, it also varies withvarieties grown under the same climatic conditions. The knowledge of the time of fruit-buddifferentiationunder a particular set of climatic conditions for a given variety would enablethe orchardists to schedule the manuring, irrigation and other cultural operations to havebetter yield. The fruit-bud-differentiation is a crucial event in the growth and developmentof mango, as it marks the change in partitioning and transport of metabolites from source tosink between the vegetative and reproductive organs which are governed by the growthhormones. The physiological and biochemical factors governing fruit-bud-differentiation inmango have not been adequately studied. Little is known about the role of naturallyoccurring growth substances and other metabolites involved in fruit-bud-differentiation.Need for such studies is all the more important, since these naturally occurring growthsubstances are now recognized as important factors controlling the ontogeny of flowering inhigher plants.

P. Deepa Sankar

2011-10-01

208

Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

Zac Tchoundjeu

2005-01-01

209

Chemical Studies of the Peel of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Tannia Cocoyam  

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Full Text Available The peels of xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam which is locally called kunkoro in Nupe land from four farms; randomly sampled to represent the four geographical areas in Bida, Niger State of Nigeria, were analyzed for their nutritive and anti-nutritional contents using standard analytical methods. The nutritive content of the peel and its effect on the period of sampling was also investigated, as a first step in their possible modification for use as animal feed. The results obtained show that samples collected during dry season contained more nutrients (proteins, lipid, etc. than those collected during the wet season. Macro-minerals (Na, K, Ca and P being the highest while the micro-mineral nutrients such as Mg, Zn, Fe and Cu etc were found to be generally lower than the dietary mineral requirement for animal feeds. The protein content of the peel ranged between 6.30-17.6%, while fibre and carbohydrate contents were 10.7-19.7% and 41.2-46.0% respectively. The lipid content was generally low and ranged between 0.70-2.14%. The peels collected during dry season contained lower concentration of phytate which ranged between (1.26-1.43%, hydrogen cyanide (3.17-3.20%, soluble oxalate (1.18-1.69% and tannin (1.43-8.24% than the peels collected during wet season, with the exception of sample CYD. These anti-nutritional factors in all the cocoyam peel studied were generally low, yet critical to the safety of the consumer as it affects bioavailability of some essential minerals. The proximate analysis of the peels suggests that they could serve as supplementary sources of essential nutrients for livestock production, especially with their low levels of anti-nutritional factors.

J.J. Bonire

2013-01-01

210

Peel testing behavior of mushroom-top terminated structured adhesives  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthetic structured surfaces have been created based on the extraordinary adhesive ability exhibited by insects, spiders, and geckos. The adhesion of synthetic and natural structured adhesives is attributed to the cumulative addition of van der Waals forces acting on the structures of the surface. It has been shown that for synthetic surfaces a "mushroom top" or "flanged" terminating structure exhibits the highest adhesion. Unfortunately, due to the variety of testing and fabrication techniques and the small scale of previous studies, the detachment behavior of these structures is not well understood. This research systematically investigated the effect of peel angle, pillar diameter, flange diameter, and pillar aspect ratio on the force required for peeling. Explicit emphasis was placed on relatively large pillar structures to allow for in situ optical visualization in order to gain insights into fundamental mechanisms which dictate peeling. Traditional molding techniques were used to fabricate optical-scale mushroom terminated structures with pillar diameters of 1mm and 400microm and aspect ratios of 1, 3, and 5. Results were quantitatively compared to peel testing theory for conventional adhesives. It was convincingly demonstrated that the adhesive energy of a patterned surface changes as function of angle, and cannot be treated as a constant. The variability in the energy was linked to mechanistic differences in detachment through in situ observations and finite element analysis. Experimental results show that smaller pillars do not necessarily lead to higher adhesion during peeling, aspect ratio plays little role in peeling adhesive behavior, and pillar flange size is critical to adhesion. The conclusions from this study outline design parameters for mushroom topped dry adhesives in peeling applications.

Hossfeld, Craig Kenneth

211

Disinfestation by Irradiation of Mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and Oranges (Citrus Sinensis O.) Valencia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiologic...

M. E. Bustos Ramirez

1987-01-01

212

Mango malformation: II. mangiferin changes associated with fusarium pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone-C2-b-D-glucoside) promoted vegetative growth and exhibited inhibitory role on the occurrence of malformation. Mangiferin changes associated with mango malformation pathogens were followed after inoculated mango seedlings (three years) with malformation pathogens i.e. Fusa-rium subglutinans, F. sterilihyphosum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Mangiferin remained at lower level in leaves of malformed shoots as compared to healthy one. The floral malfo...

Haggag, Wafaa M.; Mahmoud Hazza; Abd El-wahab, Mohamed E.

2011-01-01

213

Host status of commercial mango cultivars to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the host status of commercially cultivated mango fruit, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) to Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in South Africa. T. leucotreta was monitored with parapheromone traps in mango orchards in Limpopo and Mpumalanga from 2007 to 2010. Fruit were inspected for the presence of T leucotreta eggs in mango orchards. Mango fruit of the cultivars 'Tommy Atkins', 'Kent', 'Keitt', and 'Sensation' were artificially infested with T. leucotreta eggs on the tree to determine if the larvae were able to develop in fruit. Mature fruit of these cultivars were harvested and were then exposed to T leucotreta eggs and the larval development monitored. Before harvest, fruit were inspected for natural infestations and a packhouse survey was conducted during the 2009-2010 season to determine if any infested fruit were present. T. leucotreta was present in all mango orchards where monitoring was done with traps but no eggs were found on the fruit, which suggests the presence of antixenosis. Development occurred in mature harvested fruit of all cultivars that had been exposed to T. leucotreta eggs. Depending on the cultivar, between 0 and 5.05% of immature fruit on the tree supported development and demonstrate antibiosis. No naturally infested fruit were found in the orchards or during the packhouse survey. Mango in South Africa is not a natural host for T. leucotreta. Mature mango fruit is an acceptable host for T. leucotreta larval development under artificial conditions. The latex plays an important role in the resistance mechanism of mango fruit to T. leucotreta. PMID:23356058

Grové, T; De Beer, M S; Joubert, P H

2012-12-01

214

Nitrogen Concentration at Various Growth Stages of Mango and Effect of Calcium Carbide on Fruit Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research work to investigate nitrogen concentration in leaf blades and petiole of bearing mango trees were carried out during 1996-97, 1997-98. Further more, effect of nitrogen and calcium carbide on quality of mango fruit were also studied. In fertilized trees, concentration of nitrogen remained significantly higher in leaf blades than those of the unfertilized trees. The same behavior came into evidence in case of nitrogen concentration in leaf petiole. Higher concentration of nit...

Hafiz Riaz Ali Shah Ghulam Abbas Chatta; Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz; Saeed Ahmad; Mahmood Khan

2002-01-01

215

Evaluation of different formulations of Bacillus licheniformis in mango pack house trials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Different formulations of Bacillus licheniformis were evaluated on their own and in combination with prochloraz and stroburilin for their ability to reduce mango post-harvest fruit diseases (anthracnose and stem-end rot (SR)) when applied as a dip treatment in a mango pack house. Untreated fruit and fruit treated with either prochloraz or stroburilin alone served as controls. In these trials treatments integrating chemical pesticides with B. licheniformis controlled anthracnose and SR as effe...

Govender, V.; Korsten, Lise

2006-01-01

216

Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

1976-01-01

217

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limited. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To ...

Adriana de Godoy; Morita, Rodrigo J.; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R.; Lajolo, Franco M.; Do Nascimento, Joa?o Roberto O.

2009-01-01

218

The effects of irradiation and hot water dip treatment on Philippine mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study showed that irradiation at 50 krad can prevent the hatching of the eggs of the Oriental fruitfly (Dacus Dorsalis Hendel) and can extend the postharvest shelf-life of Carabao mangoes by two days. Irradiation at 50 krad in combination with hot water dip at 50 degC for five minutes gave a shelf life extension of four days. No undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the treated mangoes were observed. (RTD)

1982-01-01

219

Effect of Various Coating Materials on Keeping Quality of Mangoes (Mangifera indica) Stored at Low Temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango fruits (cv. Chausa) were treated with different concentrations of CMC, calcium chloride and beeswax. The mangoes were then placed in boxes, each with a sponge soaked in KMnO4.The mangoes were then stored at refrigerated temperature (8-10°C). The physico-chemical analysis were repeated after seven days interval. Fruits treated with 2% CMC, showed best behaviour through out storage period with minimum loss of weight, increased ascorbic acid content and was able to conserve bet...

2006-01-01

220

Mineral Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Mono-Culture Fungal Fermented Mango (Mangifera Indica) Kernel Cake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of mono-culture fungal fermentation on mineral composition and amino acid profile of mango
(Mangifera indica) kernel cake was investigated. Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and
Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from decomposed mango kernels and then used to ferment mango kernel
cake (MKC) for 168hrs. After fermentation the resulted MKC was dried at 600C before analysis for minerals and
amino acid profiles. ...

Kayode, R. M. O.; Sani, A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This text-book consist of two parts: (I) Treatment of solid non-active wastes (totally of nine chapters), and (II) Radioactivity and treatment of radioactive wastes (one chapter). This text-book is assigned for university students of the environment protection as well as for students of nuclear chemistry and related sciences

2008-01-01

222

Biological fixation and nitrogen transfer by three legume species in mango and soursop organic orchards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and the N transfer derived from BNF of the legume species - Gliricidia sepium (gliricidia), Crotalaria juncea (sunnhemp) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) - for an intercropped organic orchard with mango and soursop, through the 15N natural abundance method. The following inter cropping systems were evaluated: mango and soursop with gliricidia; mango and soursop with sunnhemp; mango and soursop with pigeon pea; and mango and soursop as control. Gliricidia showed the highest BNF potential (80%) , followed by sunnhemp (64.5%) and pigeon pea (45%). After two sunnhemp prunes, 149.5 kg ha-1 of N per year were supplied, with 96.5 kg derived from BNF. After three annual prunes, gliricidia supplied 56.4 and 80.3 kg ha-1 of N per year, with 45 and 64 kg derived from BNF, in two consecutive years. The quantity of N supplied to the system was higher than the mango and soursop requirements. Variations in the natural abundance of 15N were found only in soursop leaves. Gliricidia and sunnhemp were prominent in N transfer, with approximately 22.5 and 40% respectively. Green manuring using gliricidia permits fractioning of the N supply, which is an advantage in N obtention by the fruit trees (author)

2009-12-01

223

PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of genetic diversity among Fusarium isolates collected from malformed mango tissues. Two texon selective primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r, were used for quick identification of Fusarium spp. The fungal genomic DNA was extracted from using CTAB method and was utilized as template for PCR amplification. Total 224 bands were amplified by 18 RAPD primers at an average of 12.44 bands per primer. The size of the obtained amplicons ranged from 0.264?kb (minimum) to 3.624?kb (maximum). Data scored from 25 isolates of Fusarium sp. with 18 RAPD primers were used to generate similarity coefficients. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.17 to 0.945. Based on DNA fingerprints, all isolates were categorized into two major clusters. This study indicated a wide variability among different isolates of Fusarium. PMID:21350657

Arif, M; Pani, D R; Zaidi, N W; Singh, U S

2011-01-01

224

The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

2013-10-30

225

Lemon peel and Limoncello liqueur: a proteomic duet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) have been adopted for investigating the proteomes of lemon peels and pulp, of a home-made alcoholic infusion of peels and of a very popular Italian liqueur called "Limoncello", stated to be an infusion of the flavedo (the outer, yellow skin of lemons). The aim of this study was not only to perform the deepest investigation so far of the lemon peel proteome but also to assess the genuineness of the commercial liqueur via a three-pronged attack. First, different extraction techniques have been used for the characterization of the peel (and additionally of the pulp) proteome, secondly a home-made infusion has been analysed and finally the proteome of the commercial drink was checked. The peel (the flavedo, not the underlying layer called albedo) proteome has been evaluated via prior capture with CPLLs at different pH values (2.2 and 7.2). Via mass spectrometry analysis of the recovered fractions, after elution of the captured populations in 4% boiling SDS, we could identify a total of 1011 unique gene products in the peel extracts and 674 in the pulp, 264 proteins in the home-made infusion and just 8 proteins (and protein fragments), together with 12 peptides, in one Italian Limoncello produced in the Sorrento Region, thus proving the genuineness of this product. On the contrary, cheaper Limoncellos were devoid of any protein/peptide, casting doubts on their production from vegetable extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the genuineness and natural origin of commercial drinks in order to protect consumers from adulterated products. PMID:23681105

Fasoli, Elisa; Colzani, Mara; Aldini, Giancarlo; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2013-08-01

226

Trace element concentrations in the fruit peels and trunks of Musa paradisiaca.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical analyses for the elementary compositions of the ashes of the fruit peels and trunks of the tropical plantain Musa paradisiaca have been undertaken. The elements, categorized as trace elements, generally are found to have higher mean concentrations in the fruit peels than in the trunks (except in the case of Zn). Their peel-trunk uptake ratios have been calculated and range between 1 and 4, showing normal levels of accumulations in the fruit peels over the trunks. PMID:8783837

Selema, M D; Farago, M E

1996-08-01

227

Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

1985-01-01

228

Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced spotting, but holding the fruit at 12 °C completely prevented it. The 12 °C treatment resulted in a lower level of total free phenolics, but had no effect on PAL or PPO activity. Transfer of ba...

Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W. G.

2006-01-01

229

The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%, melasma (36.5%, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12% and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%. A final evaluation done at 16 weeks revealed that this modality is useful especially in superficial scarring and melasma, moderately successful in acne patients with no response in dermal pigmentation. No significant untoward effects were seen.

Grover C

2003-03-01

230

Peeling properties of lightlike signals in General Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

The peeling properties of a lightlike signal propagating through a generalBondi-Sachs vacuum spacetime and leaving behind another Bondi-Sachs vacuumspace-time are studied. We demonstrate that in general the peeling behavior isthe conventional one which is associated with a radiating isolated system andthat it becomes unconventional if the asymptotically flat space-times on eitherside of the history of the light-like signal tend to flatness at future nullinfinity faster than the general Bondi-Sachs space-time. This latter situationoccurs if, for example, the space-times in question are static Bondi-Sachsspace- times.

Bressange, G F

1999-01-01

231

Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

2010-01-01

232

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano.

Thomas L. Davenport

2007-12-01

233

Reproductive physiology of mango / Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de inicia [...] ção independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano. Abstract in english Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently [...] from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.

Thomas L., Davenport.

234

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized conditions showed that the invertase activity was high in the SSF using papaya peel as substrate, incubated for 6 days at temperature of 35°C, pH 7, with 2.25gms/100ml of Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source and 10gms/100ml of sucrose as carbon source. Hence the agro wastes from industries can be recycled by using it as substrate in SSF for high invertase enzyme production which finds applications in many fields.

Brindha Chelliappan

2013-12-01

235

Methane fermentation of agricultural wastes and domestic animal's wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cattle and pig wastes, orange peels, compost, and grain husks were hydrolyzed in an alkaline medium to investigate the CH4 generation capacity. The respective CH4 production capacities from pig wastes and rice hulls were approximately 1 and approximately 0.1 L/g. The CH4 produced can be used to supplement energy requirements of farms.

Kato, A.

1981-01-01

236

PRODUCTION AND OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CONDITIONS FOR INVERTASE ENZYME BY ASPERGILLUS SP., IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION (SSF) USING PAPAYA PEEL AS SUBSTRATE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Invertase enzymes are produced mainly by plants, some filamentous fungi, yeast and many other microorganisms which finds applications in food industries, confectionaries, pharmaceuticals, etc., The present work deals with the production of Invertase by Aspergillus sp., isolated from various soil samples in solid state fermentation using papaya peel waste as substrate. Enzyme activity was checked using Fehling’s reagent and assay was carried out by DNSA method. The results of optimized condi...

2013-01-01

237

Kids on the move in Halton and Peel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project examined a variety of ways to make children's mobility more environmentally sound, safer, healthier, more helpful, and more enriching. It took place over the period March to September 2003 in the Halton-Peel region, Ontario. The objective was to determine whether the manual prepared for the European Union entitled Kids on the Move, should be adapted for use in North America, and if so, how the adaption should be made. It was concluded that adaptation of the manual was not required, but that it should be published as several shorter booklets on children and transportation, with specific audiences being targeted. The project also served to identify measures that could be taken in Halton-Peel and elsewhere for improved children's mobility. Approximately 300 people were consulted, mostly in Halton-Peel, identifying challenges, barriers to improvement, and means of overcoming barriers regarding children and transportation. The development of the booklets will require additional work. Increased consideration of children's needs in land use and transportation planning will also be required. An overview of recent work on the health impacts of transportation on children was presented. A presentation of available data on children's travel in Halton-Peel was included. refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

O' Brien, C.; Gilbert, R.; Schmied, B.; Cormier, A.

2003-10-01

238

Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Pectin Extracted from Orange Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Citrus juice and concentrate are among the major industrial products in Iran. Large quantities of citrus peels with considerable amounts of pectin are also produced. Pectin could be extracted from the peels to be used as a gelling agent in some food products. Unfortunately, all pectin used in the food industry is imported. This study was carried out to find the best conditions of pectin extraction from orange peels. Samples of orange peels were collected from a concentrated orange juice factory. Pectin was extracted by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids. Certain qualitative and quantitative tests, such as yield of extraction and cost of extraction were determined. Also, food safety aspects as a result of using the above acids were considered. Hydrochloric acid was found to be the most suitable acid. In the second part of the research, the effects of temperature (85 and 90?C, time (40, 50 and 60 minutes and pH (1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 on the yield of extraction, purity, gelling ability, percentage of methoxylation and degree of esterification of the extracted pectins were measured. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the best conditions for the extraction of pectin include a pH level of 1.6, a temperature of 90?C and a period of 50 minutes.

G. H. Kabir

2003-01-01

239

Nutritional control of regreening and degreening in citrus peel segments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for reversibly regreening and degreening citrus epicarp in vitro using peel segments was developed.Peel segments from mature degreened fruit promptly regreened when kept in light upon agar medium containing low (15 millimolar) concentrations of sucrose. Higher concentrations of sucrose inhibited this regreening, but NO(3) (-) and certain amino acids included in the media overcame the inhibition by sucrose. However, l-serine strongly inhibited regreening. In the presence of nitrogen, sucrose promoted regreening.Peel segments from green fruit remained green on media with low concentrations of sucrose and on media with high concentrations of sucrose and 60 millimolar KNO(3), but degreened in response to high concentrations of sucrose in the absence of nitrogen. Nitrate overcame the degreening effects of high sucrose concentrations in both light and dark. Peel segments were reversibly degreened and regreened by transferring the segments between appropriate media.Nitrate in the media markedly reduced the levels of endogenous sugars in the epicarp and increased endogenous amino acid levels. Sucrose in the media increased endogenous sugar levels and, in the presence of nitrate, increased endogenous amino acid levels. In the absence of nitrogen, high sucrose concentrations reduced endogenous amino acid concentrations. PMID:16663202

Huff, A

1983-10-01

240

Effect of Scuffing Damage and Curing on Diffusion Rate of CO2 Through Citrus Fruit Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available These studies were initiated to observe the effect of curing on the shelf life of damaged citrus fruits by reducing diffusion rate of CO2. The damaged peel had a higher diffusion rate of CO2 than undamaged fruit peel before curing. The effect of curing on peel was that the diffusion rate of CO2 through damaged and undamaged peel was reduced after curing. The peel of cured fruits did not show any change in diffusion rate of CO2 after 30 days of storage. Curing could be useful to reduce respiration/exchange of gases and in extending the storage life of damaged citrus fruit.

Muhammad Akram Tariq

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Identification of odors from overripe mango that attract vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioassays with a variety of overripe fruits, including mango, plum, pear, and grape, and their extracts showed that odors from overripe mango were most attractive to adult vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster. Combined gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Tenax extracts of overripe mango odors showed that several volatile compounds, including ethanol, acetic acid, amyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol, and phenylethyl acetate elicited significant EAG responses from antennae of female flies. Most of the volatile compounds in the extracts were identified by mass spectral and retention index comparisons with synthetic standards. In cage bioassays, lures with a blend of ethanol, acetic acid, and 2-phenylethanol in a ratio of 1:22:5 attracted six times more flies than any single EAG-active compound. This blend also attracted four times more flies than traps baited with overripe mango or unripe mango. However, in field trials, the blend was not as attractive as suggested by the laboratory bioassay. PMID:12775150

Zhu, Junwei; Park, Kye-Chung; Baker, Thomas C

2003-04-01

242

Water, Waste and Quality Manageme nt During Preparation and Processing of Vegetables.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effluent from vegetable processing plants in the Ozark region was monitored to test and develop new systems of washing, peeling and blanching; to develop methods for utilization of solid wastes; and to reduce effluent wastestrength without affecting veget...

W. A. Sistrunk

1979-01-01

243

UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

Moreno Bermúdez, Adolfo; Ballesteros Padilla, Deimer; Sánchez Torres, Germán.

244

Value of internal limiting membrane peeling in surgery for idiopathic macular hole stage 2 and 3: a randomised clinical trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: To determine the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on anatomical and functional success rates in stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole surgery (MHS). METHODS: Randomised clinical trial of stage 2 and 3 idiopathic macular hole without visible epiretinal fibrosis and with less than 1 year's duration of symptoms. Eyes were randomised to (1) vitrectomy alone without retinal surface manipulation, (2) vitrectomy plus 0.05% isotonic Indocyanine Green (ICG)-assisted ILM peeling or (3) vitrectomy plus 0.15% Trypan Blue (TB)-assisted ILM peeling. Main outcomes were hole closure after 3 and 12 months and best-corrected visual acuity after 12 months. RESULTS: 78 eyes were enrolled. Primary closure rates were significantly higher with ILM peeling than without peeling for both stage 2 holes (ICG peeling 100%, non-peeling 55%, p = 0.014) and for stage 3 holes (ICG peeling 91%, TB peeling 89%, non-peeling 36%, p

Christensen, U C; Krøyer, K

2009-01-01

245

Microenxertia em cultivares de manga / Micrografting in mango cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático d [...] o porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido. Abstract in english This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meris [...] tem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an antioxidant solution composed of ascorbic acid, citric acid and cistein, to avoid the oxidation of the fenolic compounds. The apex meristem was cut with 2 mm length. The apex meristem and leaves of the rootstock were also cut off then the apex meristem of Tommy Atkins was placed on the extremity of the rootstock, being covered with ParafilmR. It was demonstrated that micrografting technique may develop matrix plants to implant a cloned garden in the protected greenhouse conditions.

Ronaldo Posella, Zaccaro; Luiz Carlos, Donadio; Eliana Gertrudes Macedo, Lemos.

246

Microenxertia em cultivares de manga Micrografting in mango cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a finalidade de se testar a viabilidade do método de microenxertia para produzir mudas de mangueira livres do fungo Fusarium subglutinans, agente causal da malformação, foram realizados experimentos utilizando-se do ápice meristemático da cultivar Tommy Atkins. Retirou-se o ápice meristemático do porta-enxerto e colocou-se o ápice meristemático da cultivar-copa, denominando-se essa metodologia de "microenxertia por substituição de ápice meristemático", na qual foram utilizadas as cultivares Coquinho, Espada, Ouro e Ubá como porta-enxertos. O material de propagação utilizado foi retirado de uma planta-matriz da cultivar Tommy Atkins sem sintomas de malformação. Primeiramente, a parte apical dos ramos foi cortada com aproximadamente 3 cm de comprimento. Os meristemas foram colocados em uma solução antioxidante composta de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e L-cisteína, para evitar a oxidação dos compostos fenólicos existentes na manga. Os meristemas apicais foram cortados com comprimento de 2 mm. Em seguida, efetuou-se o corte do meristema apical e de folhas do porta-enxerto, colocando-se o meristema apical sobre o corte do porta-enxerto, recobrindo-se com Parafilm®. Demonstrou-se com a técnica de microenxertia a possibilidade de formação de plantas-matrizes, para implantação de jardim clonal em condições de viveiro protegido.This research was carried out with the purpose to produce mangoes trees free of fungus Fusarium subglutinans, causal agent of mango malformation by using the apex meristem to substitute it for the meristem of the commercial cultivar Tommy Atkins. This micrografting methodology was denominated "meristem substitution" through which the cultivars Coquinho, Espada, Ouro and Ubá were used as rootstocks. The micrografts were collected from 'Tommy Atkins' mother plant without malformation symptoms. Firstly, branch apexes were cut off having length of 3 cm. Each apex meristem was placed in an antioxidant solution composed of ascorbic acid, citric acid and cistein, to avoid the oxidation of the fenolic compounds. The apex meristem was cut with 2 mm length. The apex meristem and leaves of the rootstock were also cut off then the apex meristem of Tommy Atkins was placed on the extremity of the rootstock, being covered with ParafilmR. It was demonstrated that micrografting technique may develop matrix plants to implant a cloned garden in the protected greenhouse conditions.

Ronaldo Posella Zaccaro

2006-12-01

247

Mango malformation: II. mangiferin changes associated with fusarium pathogens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone-C2-b-D-glucoside promoted vegetative growth and exhibited inhibitory role on the occurrence of malformation. Mangiferin changes associated with mango malformation pathogens were followed after inoculated mango seedlings (three years with malformation pathogens i.e. Fusa-rium subglutinans, F. sterilihyphosum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Mangiferin remained at lower level in leaves of malformed shoots as compared to healthy one. The floral malformation was observed to be associated with the reduction of mangiferin. Strong positive correlations between mangiferin activity and malformation incidence were observed. Mangiferin level at panicle initiation may give a possible estimate of malformation incidence in mango.

Wafaa M. Haggag

2011-08-01

248

Comparison of microwave-assisted and conventional extraction of mangiferin from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is the main bioactive component in mango leaves, which possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and antitumor activities. In the present study, a microwave-assisted extraction method was developed for the extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, microwave power, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 45% ethanol, liquid-to-solid ratio of 30:1 (mL/g), and extraction time of 123 s under microwave irradiation of 474 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 36.10 ± 0.72 mg/g, significantly higher than that of conventional extraction. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of mango leaves and also indicate that microwave-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:23929791

Zou, Tangbin; Wu, Hongfu; Li, Huawen; Jia, Qing; Song, Gang

2013-10-01

249

Extraction and Characteristics of Seed Kernel Oil from Mango (Mangifera indica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Congo mango seeds w ere collected and the kernels were separated and dried. This study was carriedout on mango seed kernels to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oilincluding unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Mango seed kernels contained a considerableunsaponifiable matter, and a low amount of crude protein. Stearic acid w as the m ain saturated fatty acid, w hileoleic acid w as the m ajor unsaturated fatty acid in all lipid classes. Mangifera indica seeds kernels have ashcontent of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: Ca, K, Na, Mg and P. This oil is very rich inunsaponifiable matter and can thus find its application in cosmotic industry.

J.M. Nzikou

2010-01-01

250

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

1990-01-01

251

Improvement of shelf-life and quality of mangoes by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the studies on low dose gamma irradiation of mangoes in the dose range 10 to 200 krad alone or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments (i.e. hot water dipping and skin coating with 9 percent emulsion of acetylated monoglyceride) show that physiological, pathological and entomological factors can be controlled to extend the shelf-life of mangoes by one to two weeks. Organoleptic qualities of treated fruits are found to be comparable to those of unirradiated control mangoes. Texture qualities of the treated fruits are also retained at the end of 15 days after their transport over long distance. Irradiated fruits have the added advantage of disinfestation and reduction of stem end rot and anthracnose during ripening. Doses exceeding 75 krad are, however, found to be injurious to the fruits. (M.G.B.)

1976-03-07

252

COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN MICHOACÁN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos.

N. K. De la Trinidad-Pu00E9rez

2009-01-01

253

Os insetos como agentes polinizadores da mangueira / Insets as pollinizing agents on mango trees (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in english The authors study the insect population that visit the mango trees and search for their pollinizing activity. Prior operations showed that very few bees (Apis mellifera) visited the flowers of mango trees. It was known that the percentage of fecundation is low (Simão 1955), Popenoe (1929), Spencer a [...] nd Kennard (1955), Lynch and Mustard (1955), Ruehle and Ledin (1955), so that the authors wented to Know if insects could be responsible for this. Insects were collected from mango trees, belonging to 10 orders, which, on the whole are not pollinizing agents. Bees were not collected, 21% were Hymenoptera, 20% were Diptera, 13% Hemiptera, 10% Coleoptera, 3% Blattariae and smoller percentages belonged to other orders.

Simão, Salim; Maranhão, Zilcar C..

254

Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L.) var. rosa com açúcares / Mango (Mangifera indica l.) cv. rosa saturation with sugars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Mangas (Mangifera indica L.) var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm) e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após [...] resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose), sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR) na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada. Abstract in english Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm), treated in hot w [...] ater in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose) and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

Margarida Sabino, RIBEIRO; Armando U.O., SABAA-SRUR.

255

Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L. var. rosa com açúcares Mango (Mangifera indica l. cv. rosa saturation with sugars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangas (Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose, sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada.Mango (Mangifera indica L cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm, treated in hot water in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

Margarida Sabino RIBEIRO

1999-01-01

256

Producing a solid fuel from agricultural wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Agricultural wastes, in particular, the peels and seeds of mandarine oranges, used for canning, were ground, dried, mixed with a binder, molded in cylindrical or pyramidal forms of a piece of the desired size, heated and impregnated with a water repellant substance, for instance, paraffin. A material is produced with a d = 1. PVA was used as the binder. The wastes were partially gasified and the obtained gas was used as a heat source in drying the wastes.

Khigasikuni, T.; Fudziki, A.; Koisi, K.

1982-08-21

257

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

2012-08-01

258

Optimization of productions of cellulolytic enzymes by Aspergillus niger using residue of mango a substrate Otimização da produção de enzimas celulolíticas obtidas de Aspergillus niger utilizando o resíduo da manga como substrato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper analyses the effects of water activity (0.88, 0.94 and 0.97) and of fermentation time (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours) on the kinetic activity of enzymes cellulolytic, produced during the solid state fermentation of waste from the improvement of mango, with the aid of fungus species Aspergillus niger. Solid state fermentation was carried out at 35°C inside a bacteriological incubator. The statistical results indicated that the best activity for enzyme CMCase was 7.26U g-1 ...

Tamires Carvalho dos Santos; Ingrid Souza Cavalcanti; Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo; Nivio Batista Santana; Marcelo Franco

2011-01-01

259

Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

2006-01-01

260

Growth Performance and Some Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Fed Raw or Boiled Mango Kennel Meal  

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In a 63-day experiment the effect of replacing maize with raw or cooked mango kennel meal on the growth and blood parameters of broiler chickens was investigated. One hundred and eighty (180) day-old Anak, 2000 broiler chicks (mixed sex) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments containing 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. The diets consisted of a maize - based (control) diet and 2 other diets containing 20% of either raw (RMK) or boiled mango kernel (BMK) meal as a replacement for maize. ...

Diarra, S. S.; Usman, B. A.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Purification and Properties of Invertase from Mango Fruit  

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Full Text Available A mango invertase was purified from the flesh of Himsagar variety to an electrophoretically homogeneous state, by successive ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 68 kDa in gel filtration chromatography and 65.5 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed four bands, indicating that the enzyme was a tetramer. The enzyme was a glycoprotein as it gave yellow-orange colour in the presence of phenol sulphuric acid. The optimum pH for the enzyme was 4.5 and the enzyme was found to be stable from pH 2.5 to 8. The optimum temperature for enzyme was 75?C and the enzyme was stable between 10 - 75?C. The Km for sucrose was 5.25 mM (pH 4.5. The activities of enzyme were remarkably enhanced by Cu++, K+, Ca++ whereas, completely ceased by Hg++ and sodium dodecylsulfate.

M. Habibur Rahman

2001-01-01

262

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica Almond Seed Fat  

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Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8?C and 10.9 min at 12?C. The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8?C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12?C, respectively and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

J.A. Solis-Fuentes

2007-01-01

263

Cambios fisicoquímicos y sensoriales limitantes de la vida de anaquel de mango fresco cortado / Physicochemical and sensory changes that limit shelf-life of fresh-cut mangoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frutos de mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. 'Haden' fueron procesados mínimamente y almacenados a 5 °C durante 14 d. A intervalos de 2 d se determinaron las variables fisicoquímicas de color [L*, a* y b*, y los valores derivados: croma (C*), ángulo de matiz (h°) y diferencia total de color (?E*)] [...] , así como sólidos solubles totales (SST), firmeza y pH. También se evaluaron los atributos sensoriales de olor característico, apariencia, brillo, color, sabor, textura, acidez y dulzor, mediante un panel entrenado. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y análisis de regresión, para identificar las variables con mayor variabilidad durante el almacenamiento y estimar la tasa de cambio tanto de diferentes atributos sensoriales como de variables fisicoquímicas. El ACP indicó que la menor variabilidad del mango fresco cortado fue con respecto a h° y SST. Los atributos sensoriales con menor cambio fueron acidez, textura, dulzor y olor. El análisis de regresión indicó que el brillo presentó la mayor tasa de cambio, mientras que el olor característico tuvo la mayor duración en el producto durante el almacenamiento. Entre las variables fisicoquímicas, las de mayor y menor tasa de cambio fueron croma (C*) y firmeza, respectivamente. Los cambios fisicoquímicos y atributos sensoriales con mayor variabilidad y mayor tasa de deterioro, cambios críticos durante el almacenamiento, pueden usarse como indicadores del deterioro en estudios de vida de anaquel del mango fresco cortado. Abstract in english 'Haden' mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were minimally processed and stored at 5 °C during 14 d. At 2 d intervals, processed fruits were sampled to evaluate physicochemical variables of color [L*, a*, b*, and derived values: chroma (C*), hue angle (h°) and total color difference (?E*)], as w [...] ell as sensory attributes: sweetness, texture, brightness, color, flavor, odor and appearance, as perceived by a trained panel. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to assess changes physicochemical variables and sensory attributes during storage. Principal components analysis indicated that hue angle (h°) and total soluble solids (TSS), and the sensory attributes of acidity, texture, sweetness and odor, showed a slight relevance on the variability observed on the sliced mango units during storage. Regression analysis indicated that brightness had the highest deterioration rate, whereas odor was the attribute with less change during storage. In the same way, C* was the physicochemical variable with the highest deterioration rate while the lowest deterioration was for firmness. Physicochemical and sensory changes with the largest variability and with the highest deterioration rates, are critical changes that can be used as spoilage indicators in shelf-life studies of fresh-cut mangoes.

Salinas-Hernández, Rosa Ma; Pirovani, María Élida; Gardea-Béjar, Alfonso A.; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A..

264

Laserpeel: a peeling concept revolution with laser resurfacing protocols  

Science.gov (United States)

The author who is inventor of EasyPeel then Laserpeel wants to introduce new ways to choose the right indications for patients asking for cosmetic surgery. A lifting is as if you take a shirt and want to reduce its size cutting it. A resurfacing is as if you put a shirt and want to iron it. A peeling was as if you changed the color and grain of the shirt. Laserpeel is as if you iron the shirt treated with amidon, transform the second hand shirt as new, up to date on with glance effect sand give it then a stretching disco new wave effect. So, indications of facial lifting decrease at the same speed at the increase of indications of 'LASERPEEL'. Laser CO2 resurfacing should reborn because the post redness appearance decreases in intensity and duration due to LASERPEEL. LASERPEEL should be considered too as a preventive therapy coupled with preventive treatment resulting from longevity tests.

Tenenbaum, Alain

2000-06-01

265

Experimental study of the drying kinetics of oranges peels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study deals with the kinetic determination of drying in thin layers of oranges peels, it is carried out in a blowing at controlled aero-thermal conditions. The sorption isotherms of this product were obtained thanks to the balance method by sulphuric acid. Through the analysis of the influence of the main climatic parameters on the drying velocity, the results obtained point out that the drying air temperature is a determining factor of this kinetic. A characteristic curve of dying was established, from which we correlated the drying velocity versus the temperature and the average humidity of the product. On the other hand, we represent this kinetic by determining an internal mass transfer coefficient of the oranges peels. (Authors). 6 refs., 8 figs.

Belahmidi, E.; Belghit, A.; Mir, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Marrakech (Morocco); Kaoua, M. [Laboratoire d`Energie Solaire, Marrakech (Morocco)

1993-12-31

266

Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

2014-06-01

267

Process optimization for supercritical concentration of orange peel oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work addresses modeling, simulation and optimization of countercurrent deterpenation of orange peel oil, modeled as a model mixture of limonene-linalool, with supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Binary and ternary systems are modeled with a group contribution equation of state, and vapor-liquid equilibria and selectivity predictions are compared to experimental data from different sources. A nonlinear programming model is proposed for the maximization of net profit. Process simulati...

Espinosa, S.; Diaz, M. S.; Brignole, E. A.

2005-01-01

268

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Peni...

Rodri?guez, Ana; Andre?s, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alque?zar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose?; Rodrigo, Mari?a; Zacari?as, Lorenzo; Palou, Llui?s; Lo?pez, Mari?a M.; Castan?era, Pedro; Pen?a, Leandro

2011-01-01

269

Determination of Flavonoids in Pulp and Peel of Mandarin Fruits  

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The aim of this study was to determine total flavonoids and individually flavanon glycosides as well as antioxidant capacity in pulp and peel of two mandarin groups, namely Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) cv. Saigon and Clementine (Citrus reticulate var. clementine) cv. Corsica SRA 63. Total flavonoids content was measured using colorimetric method, whereas HPLC-PDA detection was used for the analysis of individual flavanone glycosides (narirutin, naringin and hesperidin). In addition FRAP...

2009-01-01

270

Patterning PEDOT:PSS with Parylene Peel-off Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed and characterized a technique of patterning PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate) film with a Parylene peel-off method. PEDOT:PSS has characteristics of transparency and high conductivity which are expected to replace transparent ITO (indium tin oxide) electrodes for flat panel displays. But existing technology of inkjet printing decreased its conductivity by mixing a binder, while the other method with electrochemical etching could not completely remove PEDOT:PSS film. To solve these problems, we proposed a process which consisted of negative patterning of Parylene film, coating of PEDOT:PSS and peeling off of Parylene film with the undesired-area of PEDOT:PSS. To peel off the Parylene from the substrates, the control of heating process of PEDOT:PSS under Parylene glass transition temperature was found to be required. The proposed process revealed that the conductivity was almost the same even after the process and its resolution reached down to 20 ?m. Finally, the 300-?m-wide electrodes were fabricated through the process, which leads to replacement of ITO for displays.

Takamatsu, Seiichi; Takahata, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

271

Bioflavour production from orange peel hydrolysate using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rising trend of bioflavour synthesis by microorganisms is hindered by the high manufacturing costs, partially attributed to the cost of the starting material. To overcome this limitation, in the present study, dilute-acid hydrolysate of orange peel was employed as a low-cost, rich in fermentable sugars substrate for the production of flavour-active compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With this purpose, the use of immobilized cell technology to protect cells against the various inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate was evaluated with regard to yeast viability, carbon and nitrogen consumption and cell ability to produce flavour active compounds. For cell immobilization the encapsulation in Ca alginate beads was used. The results were compared with those obtained using free-cell system. Based on the data obtained immobilized cells showed better growth performance and increased ability for de novo synthesis of volatile esters of "fruity" aroma (phenylethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, octanoate, decanoate and dodecanoate) than those of free cells. The potential for in situ production of new formulations containing flavour-active compounds derive from yeast cells and also from essential oil of orange peel (limonene, ?-terpineol) was demonstrated by the fact that bioflavour mixture was found to accumulate within the beads. Furthermore, the ability of the immobilized yeast to perform efficiently repeated batch fermentations of orange peel hydrolysate for bioflavour production was successfully maintained after six consecutive cycles of a total period of 240 h. PMID:23995224

Lalou, Sofia; Mantzouridou, Fani; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Bugarski, Branko; Levic, Steva; Nedovic, Victor

2013-11-01

272

Antioxidant-mediated protective effect of potato peel extract in erythrocytes against oxidative damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peels are waste by-product of the potato processing industry. They are reportedly rich in polyphenols. Our earlier studies have shown that extracts derived from potato peel (PPE) possess strong antioxidant activity in chemical and biological model systems in vitro, attributable to its polyphenolic content. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ability of PPE to protect erythrocytes against oxidative damage, in vitro. The protection rendered by PPE in erythrocytes was studied in terms of resistance to oxidative damage, morphological alterations as well as membrane structural alterations. The total polyphenolic content in PPE was found to be 3.93 mg/g powder. The major phenolic acids present in PPE were predominantly: gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. We chose the experimental prooxidant system: FeSO(4) and ascorbic acid to induce lipid peroxidation in rat RBCs and human RBC membranes. PPE was found to inhibit lipid peroxidation with similar effectiveness in both the systems (about 80-85% inhibition by PPE at 2.5 mg/ml). While PPE per se did not cause any morphological alteration in the erythrocytes, under the experimental conditions, PPE significantly inhibited the H(2)O(2)-induced morphological alterations in rat RBCs as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Further, PPE was found to offer significant protection to human erythrocyte membrane proteins from oxidative damage induced by ferrous-ascorbate. In conclusion, our results indicate that PPE is capable of protecting erythrocytes against oxidative damage probably by acting as a strong antioxidant. PMID:18452909

Singh, Nandita; Rajini, P S

2008-05-28

273

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a análise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR, 5 °C (75,4% UR e 12 °C (76,4% UR, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia.This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH, 5 °C (75,4% RH and 12 °C (76,4% RH for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

2011-10-01

274

Evaluación de trampas de colores para trips del mango Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas Evaluation of color traps for the mango Ataulfo thrips in the Soconusco, Chiapas  

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Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluaron trampas de colores para capturar trips en árboles de mango cv. Ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México. Se compararon trampas pegajosas de color azul, amarillo y violeta. Se colocó una trampa de cada color por árbol y se evaluaron en 5 árboles. Los resultados mostraron que se capturaron significativamente más trips en las trampas de color violeta.In this paper colored traps were evaluated to capture thrips in mango cv. Ataulfo trees in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. Sticky traps were compared in different colors: blue, yellow and violet. It was placed a trap of each color per tree and they were evaluated in five trees. The results showed that significantly more thrips were caught in violet traps.

Armando Virgen Sánchez

2011-08-01

275

Effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was investigated. Orange peel oil was added in various amounts to determine its effects on ethanol production. Fermentation of model sugar solutions was conducted at 30 and 37 C. The minimum orange peel oil concentration that inhibited ethanol production by Z. mobilis was determined after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for both temperatures. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 30 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, 0.15% after 72 h, and 0.20% after 96 h. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 37 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, and 0.20% after 72 h. Orange peel oil did not inhibit ethanol production after 96 h at a temperature of 37 C. (author)

Wilkins, Mark R. [Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 111 Agricultural Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

2009-03-15

276

Antioxidant ability of fractionated apple peel phenolics to inhibit fish oil oxidation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyphenols isolated from frozen and dried apple peels were studied as potential natural antioxidants to stabilize omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (?3 PUFA) enriched fish oil. The ethanolic extracts of apple peels were fractionated by reversed phase chromatography using gradient elution of 20-100% aqueous ethanol. The collected fractions were analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of each fraction were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assays. Inhibition of fish oil oxidation was studied using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Polyphenols fractionated using frozen apple peel extract had significantly higher FC, FRAP and DPPH(·) scavenging values than those of dried apple peel (ppolyphenols from both dried and frozen apple peel showed higher inhibition of lipid oxidation compared to ?-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene and crude apple peel extracts. PMID:23578632

Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Warnakulasuriya, Sumudu N; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Shahidi, Fereidoon

2013-09-01

277

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

1990-01-01

278

Potential of Fruit Wastes as Natural Resources of Bioactive Compounds  

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Fruit wastes are one of the main sources of municipal waste. In order to explore the potential of fruit wastes as natural resources of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant potency and total phenolic contents (TPC) of lipophilic and hydrophilic components in wastes (peel and seed) of 50 fruits were systematically evaluated. The results showed that different fruit residues had diverse antioxidant potency and the variation was very large. Furthermore, the main bioactive compounds were identified...

Gui-Fang Deng; Chen Shen; Xiang-Rong Xu; Ru-Dan Kuang; Ya-Jun Guo; Li-Shan Zeng; Li-Li Gao; Xi Lin; Jie-Feng Xie; En-Qin Xia; Sha Li; Shan Wu; Feng Chen; Wen-Hua Ling; Hua-Bin Li

2012-01-01

279

Peeling Single Stranded DNA from Graphite Surface to Determine Oligonucleotide Binding Energy by Force Spectroscopy  

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We measured the force required to peel single-stranded DNA molecules from single-crystal graphite using chemical force microscopy. Force traces during retraction of a tip chemically modified with oligonucleotides displayed characteristic plateaus with abrupt force jumps, which we interpreted as a steady state peeling process punctuated by complete detachment of one or more molecules. We were able to differentiate between bases in pyrimidine homopolymers – peeling forces were 85.3±4.7 pN fo...

Manohar, Suresh; Mantz, Amber R.; Bancroft, Kevin E.; Hui, Chung-yuen; Jagota, Anand; Vezenov, Dmitri V.

2008-01-01

280

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peels  

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The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME) of peels had higher yield (45.4%) and total phenolics (27.4%) than water (WE) or ether extracts (EE). The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05) than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

Shiban, Mutahar S.; Al-otaibi, Mutlag M.; Al-zoreky, Najeeb S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

1979-12-05

282

Selection of Yeasts Antagonists as Biocontrol Agent of Mango Fruit Rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae  

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Full Text Available Fruit rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae is one of the most important post harvest disease of mango in Indonesia. Study on biological control on the disease is required to develop environmentally-sound control technology. The research objectives were to study the potency of yeasts in controlling post harvest mango disease i.e. fruit rot caused by B. theobromae and mechanism involve in the biocontrol. Total yeast isolates used for screening were twenty one, four from collection of Plant Clinic of Institut Pertanian Bogor, and twenty one isolated from healthy mango skin. All of yeast isolates were characterized and identified using BIOLOG. Bioassay on antagonistic activity of yeasts against fruit rot, in-vitro dual culture test and chitinolytic activity were carried out. Cryptococcus albidus var. aerius WSW1, Pichia guilliermondii K1, and Debaryomyces hansenii K12 were the three most effective antagonistic yeasts against B. theobromae with effectiveness of 70.83%, 45.83%, 37.50% respectively. In vitro bio-assay showed that C. albidus var. aerius WSW1, C. albidus WSW2, C. albidus K6, C. terreus YSW1, Candida edax OSW1, Candida edax K13, and Cryptococcus luteolus K2 had high antibiosis activity. Biocontrol activity of tested yeasts against fruit rot of mango did not correlate to its antibiosis and chitinolytic activity

DWI SUGIPRIHATINI

2011-12-01

283

Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica  

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Full Text Available Majumder DAN, Hassan L, Rahim MA, Kabir MA. 2011. Development of an efficient protocol for genomic DNA extraction from mango (Mangifera indica. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 105-111. A simple and efficient method for genomic DNA extraction from woody fruit crops containing high polysaccharide levels has been described here. In the present study, three kinds of plant DNA extraction protocols were studied and the target was to establish the water-saturated ether (WSE with 1.25 M NaCl method as the most efficient protocol for removing the highly concentrated polysaccharides from genomic DNA of woody fruit crops. This method involves the modified CTAB or SDS procedure employing a purification step to remove polysaccharides using the WSE method. Precipitation with an equal volume of isopropanol caused a DNA pellet to form. After being washed with 70% ethyl alcohol, the pellet became easily dissolved in TE buffer. Using these three methods, DNA was extracted from samples of 60 mango genotypes, including young, mature, old, frosted old and withered old leaves. Compared with the three studied DNA extraction protocols of mango, it was found that the WSE method with NaCl had the highest value of average percentage (85.44% in DNA content of the mango genotypes. The average yield of DNA ranged from 5.05 µg/µL to11.28 µg/µL. DNA was suitable for PCR and RAPD analyses and long-term storage for further use.

MOHAMMAD AHSANUL KABIR

2011-11-01

284

Standardization of Time and Grafting Techniques in Mango under Bangladesh Condition  

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Propagation of mango by modified cleft grafting during 15 June showed higher percentage of survival in compare with cleft and veneer grafting irrespective of varieties. The percentage of success was, however, higher in June by modified cleft grafting but in August by veneer grafting. Propagation of plants during June by modified cleft grafting showed highest scion growth with highest number of leaves and shoots.

2004-01-01

285

The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided.

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md.

2012-01-01

286

The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

2012-05-01

287

MACROFAUNA EDÁFICA ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES DE MANGO Y CAÑA DE AZÚCAR  

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Full Text Available Este estudio describe la calidad del suelo en términos de macrofauna edáfica en agroecosistemas de mango y caña de azúcar (reciente y persistente en la región central del estado de Veracruz, México. Se realizaron muestreos no destructivos, mediante conteos por observación directa. Los parámetros medidos fueron: abundancia y riqueza de invertebrados, índices de diversidad de Simpson y Shannon y características físico y químicas del suelo. La mayor frecuencia de invertebrados se presentó en mango (40% y en caña persistente (37% fue menor en caña reciente (24%. Existió una correlación positiva entre riqueza de invertebrados con materia orgánica del horizonte A (r = 0.60, P ³ 0.031. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticas entre diversidad y abundancia (de hormigas y anélidos debido a que la macrofauna fue tolerante a condiciones de manejo de la caña. Se concluye, que el tipo de agroecosistema (mango o caña de azúcar no tuvo efecto significativo en la incidencia y abundancia de macrofauna edáfica, especialmente en lombrices, termitas y miriápodos. Además, las lombrices en mango constituyen la principal referencia de calidad del suelo, explicado principalmente por su contenido de materia orgánica (3.98%.

Fritz Paul Lang-Ovalle

2011-01-01

288

Responses of Mango (Mangifera indica L. Root Stock Seedlings to Water Stress  

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Full Text Available The present studies were aimed at investigating the effect of different watering regimes on the gas exchange parameters (stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates and chlorophyll content of young Mango (Mangifera indica rootstock seedlings. The hypothesis was that different levels of water deficit affect the gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll content of the mango rootstock seedlings. Six-month-old Mango (Mangifera indica L. rootstock seedlings were grown in polythene pots in a greenhouse at Maseno University, Kenya from December 2003 to March 2004 and subjects to four different watering regimes (namely daily, twice in a week, once in a week and once in two weeks. These treatments were in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. The parameters determined were stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, CO2 assimilation rate and intercellular CO2 concentration. All the gas exchange parameters were determined by infra Red Gas Analyser (PP systems. The results showed that increasing water stress reduced the physiological parameters particularly at the later days of plant growth due to stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Leaf chlorophyll content however was slightly increased since the chlorophyll pigments may have been resistant to dehydration. It is concluded that increase in water stress (increasing level of water deficit reduces the gas exchange parameters of mango (Mangifera indica rootstock seedlings but slightly increased chlorophyll content due to an adaptive mechanism.

Elizabeth Luvaha

2007-01-01

289

Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

Sullivan, M. Alayne

2007-01-01

290

Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

2009-01-01

291

Design and Development of an Apparatus for Grating and Peeling Fruits and Vegetables  

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Full Text Available Fruit grater and peeler are needed in the processing of fruits in order to reduce the time required for fruits grating and peeling. Grating is important especially to make salad and for decoration purpose. A suitable grater is needed for specific decoration process. It is crucial for food (processing industry to operate at minimal operating cost. Peeling using hands is time consuming and may require several workers to perform the operation and thus may increase the operating cost. Therefore in this study, a machine was designed to combine the process of grating and peeling in one device. This new designed machine is suitable to be used domestically. The machine is small-sized and lightweight and is convenient to carry and store. It is comprised of a clamping mechanism, grater, peeling blade, movable arm and also a pair of end-cutting blade. The prototype was tested for automatic grating and peeling process and manual peeling was also performed to peel the skin of selected fruits and vegetable. The prototype was able to grate several fruits and vegetables and also reduce the peeling time by 94% when compared to manual peeling.

W.H. Wan Zuha

2010-01-01

292

Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realiz [...] adas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta. Abstract in english Mango is one of the most consumed fruit in the world and the most exported by Peru. At present, Peru is the sixth largest exporter in the world. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of mango exports by Peru by making more focus to the main target markets, namely the [...] United States and the European Union for the period from 2000-2011. For this end, we used the model of Vector Error Correction. The choice of model is discussed in the methodology. The variables used to explain the determinants of mango exports are domestic prices, wholesale prices in the United States and the European Union, the internal income of the United States and the European Union and the exchange rate euro / dollar. The results show that international prices and income in the United States are determinant to explain exports of this fruit. The results show that the international prices and the income of importers markets are determinant to explain the export of this fruit.

Jorge Luis Sánchez, Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de, Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de, Araújo.

293

Presencia de Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) en inflorescencias de mango ataulfo en el Soconusco, Chiapas, México / Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) presence on "Ataulfo" mango inflorescences in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in english The pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Say) was found for the first time in the inflorescences of mango cultivar Ataúlfo in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. [...

SANTIESTEBAN-HERNÁNDEZ, Antonio; VIRGEN-SÁNCHEZ, Armando; HENAUT, Yann; CRUZ-LÓPEZ, Leopoldo.

294

Testing and Performance Evaluation of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Mango Orchard  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops is quite difficult due to their tallness. There are small hand tools available for harvesting and pruning. But these tools of harvesting and pruning are restricted due tree height, unavailability of trained labours for climbing and cost of operation etc. The mechanized machines are available; these are heavy and costly and are not suitable for low land holding, Indian marginal famers. Harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops with the available hand tool is very difficult. The labor has to climb on the tree by carrying these hand tools, which requires skill too. To overcome the above problems a Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE powered by tractor PTO, was tested for the mechanical harvesting and pruning of mango orchards using digital load cell, digital Vibration meter and digital Techometer for elevator stability study and pruner engine RPM measurements while in branch cutting respectively. The field performance of the above machine was carried out on plane mango plot, at Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist: -Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India. The machine was tested for the better stability at maximum reach position for harvesting and pruning of various mango varieties, like Alphanso, Totapuri etc. Approach: To reduce the harvesting /pruning cost, increase the harvesting/pruning efficiency and enhance the overall productivity of mango orchards. Also to use the traditional mechanized/ manual pruning tools with the developed tractor mounted hydraulic elevator. To develop and refine the power operated mechanism for marginal farmers. This stability study was carried out, by using strain gauge load cell (S-beam, having capacity of 2000 kg. The load cell guiding device was designed and fabricated for conducting the above experiments following standard material specifications of American society of testing material. The reaction on rear wheel of tractor was measured by using digital load cell, which converts the force acting on rear wheel of tractor into electrical signals and get it displayed on the control panel. The speed of pruner engine is measured for various mango trees branches at different heights, using digital tachometer. The vibrations of the pruning platform are measured for the respective pruner engine speed and height of Pruning Platform. The speed and vibration readings are taken for different branches of different diameter and height. The time required for pruning the branches is also measured. Results: The tractor mounted hydraulic elevator is most suitable for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards upto 12 m tree height without affecting the stability of machine with available tools. The field capacity of elevator was 0.08 h?1 for mango harvesting. The observed field capacity of the developed TMHE is 5,400 mango (1400 kg day?1 for Alphanso mango, research is underway to develop hydraulic man-positioned, which would be easier to harvest, prune tree and spraying by hand or machine. Conclusion: The overturning of the elevator is not observed, up to 12 meter height of tree from ground including 150 kg load in the lifting platform for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards. The vibrations of the lifting platform noted are in safe limit.

Kishor P. Kolhe

2011-01-01

295

The efficiency of ionizing radiation on the disinfestation of fresh mangoes (Carabao variety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, Carabao variety, were irradiated with doses found effective for fruit fly disinfestation, namely 60, 70 and 80 krad and stored at either 30deg C or 7deg C until subjection to various analyses. Parts of the fruit of varying sizes and maturity, both irradiated and non-irradiated, were exposed to varying ages and numbers of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) to study the degree of infestation. Analyses of physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of irradiated mangoes were carried out at appropriate intervals. Extension of shelf-life of mangoes irradiated with doses mentioned above could not be achieved when the fruits were stored at 30deg C. A study of factors considered important in measuring the effectiveness of radiation disinfestation showed that the degree of fruit fly infestation was significantly influenced by size and maturity of the fruits, and by the number of age of the infesting flies. Direct irradiation of different developmental stages of the fly showed that the low dose of 5 krad applied to eggs, larvae, and pupae prevented adult emergence and produced sterility in adults. A dose of 15 krad shortened survival time of adult fruit flies to 10 days. The 60 - 80 krad doses applied were found effective to extend the shelf-life of mangoes and could be used for insect disinfestation also. No significant changes in pH, texture, carotine, sugar, pectin and ascorbic acid contents were found in mangoes exposed at these dose levels. They were also found generally acceptable to judges. No significant differences between appearance, texture, odour, and flavour were found between controls and the irradiated samples by 8-10 trained judges using the Hedonic Scale

1976-01-01

296

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

2012-08-01

297

APLICACIÓN DE LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES EN LA FORTIFICACIÓN DE MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) CON CALCIO / APLICATION OF MATRIX ENGINEERING IN THE FORTIFICATION OF MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) WITH CALCIUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN: La presente investigación analiza la respuesta a la impregnación a vacío en la estructura del mango var. Tommy Atkin y cuantifica los niveles de Ca+2 alcanzados en el producto enriquecido. Se diseñó una disolución de impregnación a partir de Sacarosa y Ca+2 con las cantidades adecuadas de C [...] aCl2 que permitieran teóricamente incorporar un 20% de la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR)/200 g de mango fresco. Los parámetros de impregnación obtenidos estuvieron afectados por las interacciones del Ca+2 con el material péctico del mango, mientras que los niveles de Ca+2 en el producto impregnado fueron superiores (44 %IDR/200 g de mango fresco) al criterio de enriquecimiento teórico. Este fenómeno podría ser atribuido a que la valoración teórica del Ca+2 se realizó por diferencia de pesos antes y después del proceso de impregnación, además el vació aplicado al sistema contribuyó a la salida de líquido nativo del interior de la matriz de la fruta. Abstract in english The present investigation analyzes the vacuum impregnation response of mango (var. Tommy Atkins) structure, and shows the Ca+2 concentration reached at the enrichment product. In order to allow an adequate Ca+2 incorporation, according to the 20 % Daily Recommended Intake (IDR)/200 g of fresh mango, [...] an impregnation solution was designed with the appropriate amounts of sucrose and CaCl2. The impregnation parameters are affected by the interaction between Ca+2 and mango pectic material, whereas, Ca+2 levels are remarkable higher than the expected enrichment criterion (44% IDR /200 g fresh mango). This phenomenon could be due to Ca+2 theoretical quantification obtained after and before weights differences in vacuum impregnation process, furthermore the native liquid flows from the fruit structural matrix to the dissolution as a vacuum pulse effect.

CORTÉS RODRÍGUEZ, MISAEL; GUARDIOLA, LUÍS FERNANDO; PACHECO, ROGER.

298

Hongos endofitos en plantaciones de mango `Haden' de la planicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela / Endophytes fungi in mango Haden' orchards of Maracaibo plain, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la presencia y distribución de hongos endofitos (asintomáticos) en cuatro plantaciones de mango `Haden' sometidos a diferentes prácticas agronómicas y ubicados en la Planicie de Maracaibo (condiciones semi-áridas). Los hongos se recuperaron empleando la técnica de la triple esterilización [...] (método específico para hongos endofitos). Todos los hongos identificados son conocidos fitopatógenos del mango. En todas las plantaciones se registró la presencia de Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. y Cladosporium sp. La mayoría de los hongos estaban presentes tanto en órganos vegetativos como reproductivos, con excepción de P. mangiferae y Pestalotiopsis sp. que solo se recuperaron a partir de órganos vegetativos. Conidios de L. theobromae y Cladosporium sp. fueron detectados dentro de las anteras junto con los granos de polen. En general, se encontró que la distribución de los hongos en los órganos de las plantas hospedantes fue continua y sistemática, sin registrarse variaciones temporales. Estos resultados podrían indicar que la colonización endofítica es una importante ruta para el desarrollo de enfermedades en el mango `Haden' cultivado en la Planicie de Maracaibo. Abstract in english The presence and distribution of endophytic fungi (asymptomatic) in four `Haden' mango orchards located in the Maracaibo Plain were evaluated. The orchards were under different agronomic cultural practices where arid conditions prevail. The fungi were isolated employing triple sterilization specific [...] method for endophytes fungi. In all orchards were recorded the presence of: Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. and Cladosporium sp. Most fungi were present in vegetative and reproductive organs, except P. mangiferae and Pestalotiopsis sp. which were detected in vegetative organs only. Conidia of L. theobromae and Cladosporium sp. were detected within anthers along with pollen grains. In general, it was found that the fungi distribution in the organs of the hosts' plants was continuous and systematic, without any temporal colonization. These results could indicate that the endophytic colonization is an important way for the development of diseases in mango `Haden' orchards of Maracaibo Plain.

V, Morales-Rondón; M, Rodríguez-González.

299

Hongos endofitos en plantaciones de mango `Haden' de la planicie de Maracaibo, Venezuela Endophytes fungi in mango Haden' orchards of Maracaibo plain, Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó la presencia y distribución de hongos endofitos (asintomáticos en cuatro plantaciones de mango `Haden' sometidos a diferentes prácticas agronómicas y ubicados en la Planicie de Maracaibo (condiciones semi-áridas. Los hongos se recuperaron empleando la técnica de la triple esterilización (método específico para hongos endofitos. Todos los hongos identificados son conocidos fitopatógenos del mango. En todas las plantaciones se registró la presencia de Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. y Cladosporium sp. La mayoría de los hongos estaban presentes tanto en órganos vegetativos como reproductivos, con excepción de P. mangiferae y Pestalotiopsis sp. que solo se recuperaron a partir de órganos vegetativos. Conidios de L. theobromae y Cladosporium sp. fueron detectados dentro de las anteras junto con los granos de polen. En general, se encontró que la distribución de los hongos en los órganos de las plantas hospedantes fue continua y sistemática, sin registrarse variaciones temporales. Estos resultados podrían indicar que la colonización endofítica es una importante ruta para el desarrollo de enfermedades en el mango `Haden' cultivado en la Planicie de Maracaibo.The presence and distribution of endophytic fungi (asymptomatic in four `Haden' mango orchards located in the Maracaibo Plain were evaluated. The orchards were under different agronomic cultural practices where arid conditions prevail. The fungi were isolated employing triple sterilization specific method for endophytes fungi. In all orchards were recorded the presence of: Fusarium decemcellulare, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Alternaria alternata, Phomopsis mangiferae, Pestalotiopsis sp. and Cladosporium sp. Most fungi were present in vegetative and reproductive organs, except P. mangiferae and Pestalotiopsis sp. which were detected in vegetative organs only. Conidia of L. theobromae and Cladosporium sp. were detected within anthers along with pollen grains. In general, it was found that the fungi distribution in the organs of the hosts' plants was continuous and systematic, without any temporal colonization. These results could indicate that the endophytic colonization is an important way for the development of diseases in mango `Haden' orchards of Maracaibo Plain.

V Morales-Rondón

2006-07-01

300

Effect of gamma irradiation combined with hot water treatment on the texture, pulp color and sensory quality of ''Nahng Glahng Wahn'' mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) from Thailand of the 'Nahng Glahng Wahn' variety were irradiated with a 60 Co source at a dose of 0.63 kGy and a dose rate of 9.23 kGy/hr, with or without a hot water treatment prior to irradiation. The irradiation treatment had little effect on the texture and preserved the yellow color in the pulp. Test of sensory evaluation revealed that irradiated mango pulp was preferred for overall appearance, taste, texture and palatability. The appearance of whole irradiated mangoes was also preferred over that of the control mangoes. However, no significant differences were observed between irradiated and hot water dipped irradiated mangoes for all characteristics studied in mangoes pulp. The results showed that these treatments (hot water dip plus irradiation or irradiation alone) are useful and non-destructive methods to preserve consumer acceptability

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Enthalpy-entropy compensation based on isotherms of mango Compensação entalpia-entropia baseada nas isotermas de mango  

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Full Text Available Moisture equilibrium data of mango pulp were determined using the static gravimetric method. Adsorption and desorption isotherms were obtained in the range of 30-70 ºC, to water activities (a w from 0.02 to 0.97. The application of the GAB model to the experimental results, using direct nonlinear regression analysis, provided agreement between experimental and calculated values. The net isosteric heat of sorption was estimated from equilibrium sorption data, using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Isosteric heats of sorption were found to increase with increasing temperature and could be well adjusted by an exponential relationship. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to sorption isotherms and plots of deltaH versus deltaS provided the isokinetic temperatures, indicating an enthalpy controlled sorption process.Dados de equilíbrio da umidade da polpa de manga foram determinados utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico. As isotermas de adsorção e dessorção foram obtidas na faixa de 30-70 ºC e as atividades de água (a w de 0,02 a 0,97. A utilização do modelo de GAB nos resultados experimentais, através da análise de regressão não linear, proporcionou um bom ajuste entre os dados experimentais e os valores calculados. O calor isostérico de sorção foi estimado a partir dos dados de equilíbrio de sorção, utilizando-se a equação de Clausius-Clayperon. Notou-se que os calores isostéricos de sorção crescem com o aumento da temperatura e pode ser bem ajustado através de uma relação exponencial. A teoria da compensação entalpia-entropia foi aplicada às isotermas de sorção e gráficos deltaH versus deltaS forneceram as temperaturas isocinéticas, indicando um processo de sorção entalpicamente controlado.

Javier Telis-Romero

2005-06-01

302

75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Government of Pakistan inspectors, and found free of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae.'' To be consistent...Government of Pakistan inspectors and found free of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae.'' The mangoes...

2010-08-27

303

Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

Alikhani, Majid

2014-05-01

304

Environmentally friendly approach to postharvest quality maintenance of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. ‘Tommy Atkins’&‘Kent’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an appealing subtropical fresh fruit with a pleasant flavor and taste, high nutritional value, beneficial medicinal properties and various processing options. However, as is the case with most subtropical fruit, it is a sensitive commodity, prone to losses postharvestly. The South African mango industry is highly dependent on a hot water and cold prochloraz dip treatment, to control postharvest anthracnose and soft brown rot on fruit destined for export. How...

2012-01-01

305

Effect of Time of Operation and Age of Rootstock on the Success of Inserted Contact Grafting in Mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment on the inserted contact grafting in mango (Mangifera indica L.) was conducted to find out the best time and age of rootstock for grafting in best varieties of mango under Bangladesh condition. The experiment indicated that inserted contact grafting could be more successful in 16 May operations. The highest percentage of survived grafts (56.82%) was recorded in 16 May operation 120 days after the detachment of the grafts from the mother plant requiring less time (70....

2004-01-01

306

Activation of ethylene-responsive p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase leads to increased tocopherol levels during ripening in mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mango is characterized by high tocopherol and carotenoid content during ripening. From a cDNA screen of differentially expressing genes during mango ripening, a full-length p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (MiHPPD) gene homologue was isolated that encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of tocopherols. The gene encoded a 432-amino-acid protein. Transcript analysis during different stages of ripening revealed that the gene is ripening related and rapidly induced by ethylene. The increase i...

Singh, Rajesh K.; Ali, Sharique A.; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A.

2011-01-01

307

Novel Postharvest Treatment Reduces Ascorbic Acid Losses in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Var. Kent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Mango is a tropical fruit that ripens very quickly; for this reason, there has been a continuous effort to develop postharvest technologies to extend its shelf life and quality. Among them, 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is widely used because it inhibits the action of ethylene receptors. Approach: Changes in physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds and cell wall degrading activities were evaluated during storage and ripening of fresh whole mangoes treate...

Islas-osuna, Maria A.; Stephens-camacho, Norma A.; Contreras-vergara, Carmen A.; Marisela Rivera-Dominguez; Ernesto Sanchez-Sanchez; Villegas-ochoa, Monica A.; Gonzalez-aguilar, Gustavo A.

2010-01-01

308

KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of...

2012-01-01

309

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

2006-01-01

310

Peeled film GaAs solar cells for space power  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallium arsenide (GaAs) peeled film solar cells were fabricated, by Organo-Metallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (OMVPE), incorporating an aluminum arsenide (AlAs) parting layer between the device structure and the GaAs substrate. This layer was selectively removed by etching in dilute hydrofloric (HF) acid to release the epitaxial film. Test devices exhibit high series resistance due to insufficient back contact area. A new design is presented which uses a coverglass superstrate for structural support and incorporates a coplanar back contact design. Devices based on this design should have a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg.

Wilt, D. M.; Deangelo, F. L.; Thomas, R. D.; Bailey, S. G.; Landis, G. A.; Brinker, D. J.; Fatemi, N. S.

1990-01-01

311

Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Potato Peels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A response surface method was used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction parameters such as extraction time (t) (min), solvent (methanol) concentration (S) (v/v) and microwave power level (MP) for extraction of antioxidants from potato peels. Max. total phenolics content of 3.94 mg g?1 dry weight (dw) was obtained at S of 67.33%, t of 15 min and a MP of 14.67%. For ascorbic acid (1.44 mg g?1 dw), caffeic acid (1.33 mg g?1 dw), ferulic acid (0.50 mg g?1 dw) max contents were ob...

Ashutosh Singh; Kebba Sabally; Stan Kubow; Donnelly, Danielle J.; Yvan Gariepy; Valérie Orsat; Raghavan, G. S. V.

2011-01-01

312

Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15 min delayed peel blackening during cold storage by about 4 days in cv. Gros Michel and by 2 days in cv. Namwa. In both cultivars the delay of blackening was correlated with an increase in the ratio...

Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W. G.

2008-01-01

313

Eliminating Premature End Peeling of Flexurally Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents the results of an experimental study investigating the effect of U-shaped end anchors on flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams for the prevention of premature end peeling. A simple design guideline for the anchorage length of end anchor is proposed. A total of five beams, each 2300 mm long, 125 mm wide and 250 mm deep with a tension steel reinforcement ratio of 0.73%, was cast and tested. One beam was left un-strengthened and used as a control, two beams ...

Alam, M. A.; Jumaat, M. Z.

2009-01-01

314

Investigation of Heat Stablity of Pomegranate Peel Extract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum peel extract (PPE, extracted by either methanol or ethanol solvent, was studied by phosphomolybdenum method. Antioxidant activity of methanolic PPE was higher than the other. To evaluate heat stability of PPE in sunflower oil, the rancidity rate of the oil was compared at 90, 120, and 150ºC with those containing ?-tocopherol and synthetic BHT, using rancimat method. A sample including 1000 ppm PPE had the highest induction period at 90,120 ,150ºC. The use of PPE had no adverse effect on sensory characteristics of potato chips as judged by the taste panel.

M Mohanadi Jafari

2009-04-01

315

High Pressure Extraction of Antioxidants from Solanum stenotomun Peel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the work described here, two techniques for the recovery of anthocyanins from potato peel were studied and compared. One of the techniques employed was supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 or with CO2 and ethanol as cosolvent and the other technique was pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), where the solvent used was ethanol in water acidified to pH 2.6. The effects of pressure and temperature were studied and the anthocyanin contents obtained were statistically analyzed. In S...

Lourdes Casas Cardoso; Casimiro Mantell Serrano; Edwin Torrez Quintero; Clara Pereyra López; Ruder Medrano Antezana; Marti?nez La Ossa, Enrique J.

2013-01-01

316

Ventricular catheter exchange using a peel-away outer catheter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ventricular catheter replacement can be challenging, especially in patients with small ventricles. Shunt malfunction due to ventricular catheter obstruction can occur without ventricular enlargement, such as in the setting of slit-ventricle syndrome or benign intracranial hypertension. The authors describe a simple technique for ventricular catheter exchange using a peel-away catheter. In the limited initial experience of the senior author (G.S.C.), this technique appears to be safe and effective. To the authors' knowledge, this method has not been described in the neurosurgical literature before. PMID:21599450

Omahen, David A; Hentschel, Stephen J; Cameron, G Stuart

2011-09-01

317

Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

2012-02-01

318

Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expe [...] ctations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV), transparent without vacuum (TWV), transparent under vacuum (TV), and laminated under vacuum (LV); they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

Mendes, Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues; Gomes-Ruffi, Cristiane Rodrigues; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Becker, Fernanda Salamoni; Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado de; Silva, Flávio Alves da; Damiani, Clarissa.

319

Composição centesimal e de minerais em cascas de frutas / Centesimal composition and minerals in peels of fruits  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Informações sobre a composição de alimentos de origem agrícola cultivados em solos brasileiros são escassas, e mais ainda de alimentos provenientes do Nordeste. O desconhecimento dos princípios nutritivos dos alimentos induz ao mau aproveitamento, o que ocasiona o desperdício de toneladas de recurso [...] s alimentares. Com o objetivo de incentivar o reaproveitamento de alimentos e oferecer uma alternativa nutritiva de dieta a baixo custo, foram analisadas as cascas de algumas frutas que normalmente são desprezadas. No presente trabalho, foi determinada a composição centesimal de 7 elementos minerais com importância nutricional (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn) em 7 tipos diferentes de cascas de frutas: abacate, abacaxi, banana, mamão, maracujá, melão e tangerina, cultivadas no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. As análises químicas mostraram que as cascas das frutas apresentam, em geral, teores de nutrientes maiores do que os das suas respectivas partes comestíveis, conforme verificado na literatura. Desta forma, pode-se considerar que as cascas das frutas analisadas podem ser úteis como fontes alternativas de alimento ou como ingredientes para obtenção de preparações processadas. Abstract in english Information on the composition of Brazilian foods is scant, mainly of Northeastern origin. Still, the ignorance of the nutritious principles of the foods, as well as improper use, cause the waste of tons of alimentary resources. With the objective of motivating the reuse of foods and offering a nutr [...] itious alternative of diet at a low cost, the peels of some fruits were analyzed, which are usually discarded. In the present work, it was determined the centesimal composition and 7 mineral elements with nutritious importance (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn) in 7 different types from peels of fruits: avocado, pineapple, banana, papaya, passion fruit, melon and tangerine, cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State. The chemical analyses showed that the peels of the fruits present, in general, larger content of nutrients than the respective edible parts verified in the literature. This way, it can be considered that the peels of the analyzed fruits can be used as alternative source of food or as ingredients as to obtain processed preparations.

Jussara A. Melo, Gondim; Maria de Fátima V., Moura; Aécia S., Dantas; Rina Lourena S., Medeiros; Klécia M., Santos.

320

Composição centesimal e de minerais em cascas de frutas Centesimal composition and minerals in peels of fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Informações sobre a composição de alimentos de origem agrícola cultivados em solos brasileiros são escassas, e mais ainda de alimentos provenientes do Nordeste. O desconhecimento dos princípios nutritivos dos alimentos induz ao mau aproveitamento, o que ocasiona o desperdício de toneladas de recursos alimentares. Com o objetivo de incentivar o reaproveitamento de alimentos e oferecer uma alternativa nutritiva de dieta a baixo custo, foram analisadas as cascas de algumas frutas que normalmente são desprezadas. No presente trabalho, foi determinada a composição centesimal de 7 elementos minerais com importância nutricional (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn em 7 tipos diferentes de cascas de frutas: abacate, abacaxi, banana, mamão, maracujá, melão e tangerina, cultivadas no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. As análises químicas mostraram que as cascas das frutas apresentam, em geral, teores de nutrientes maiores do que os das suas respectivas partes comestíveis, conforme verificado na literatura. Desta forma, pode-se considerar que as cascas das frutas analisadas podem ser úteis como fontes alternativas de alimento ou como ingredientes para obtenção de preparações processadas.Information on the composition of Brazilian foods is scant, mainly of Northeastern origin. Still, the ignorance of the nutritious principles of the foods, as well as improper use, cause the waste of tons of alimentary resources. With the objective of motivating the reuse of foods and offering a nutritious alternative of diet at a low cost, the peels of some fruits were analyzed, which are usually discarded. In the present work, it was determined the centesimal composition and 7 mineral elements with nutritious importance (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Zn in 7 different types from peels of fruits: avocado, pineapple, banana, papaya, passion fruit, melon and tangerine, cultivated in Rio Grande do Norte State. The chemical analyses showed that the peels of the fruits present, in general, larger content of nutrients than the respective edible parts verified in the literature. This way, it can be considered that the peels of the analyzed fruits can be used as alternative source of food or as ingredients as to obtain processed preparations.

Jussara A. Melo Gondim

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Using Apple Peel Sections To Study Plant Cells and Water Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suggests the cells of an apple peel as a plant species that can further enhance the plant cell laboratory. Describes the structure of apple peel cells and the benefits of including them in studies of plant cells. Suggests questions to stimulate further investigations for open-ended laboratories or independent studies. (PVD)

Silvius, John E.; Eckart, Christopher P.

1997-01-01

322

The boiled potato peel as a burn wound dressing: a preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the suitability of potato peel as a burn wound dressing in developing countries. Clinical trials have demonstrated that epithelial growth occurs under the potato peel dressing in superficial partial thickness skin loss burns. In deep partial, full skin thickness burns and in the late granulating burn wound the results are not so favourable. More experience is required. PMID:3986648

Keswani, M H; Patil, A R

1985-02-01

323

The Pre-set Peeling Testing Method of the Hydroetangling Wood Pulp-PET Fiber Composite Web Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydroetangling wood pulp-PET fiber web, which is an excellent wipe material. But some fate short coming-particle
peeling, arising when it used as wipes, and the peeling particle would do harm to some devices. Therefore, this case
even worse when the fabric damping. The four pre-set peeling tests have been signed for this phenomenon, which have
imitated some situations of the pre-set peeling under the mechanics functions. The statistics from these tests, com...

2009-01-01

324

Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and polyphenoloxidase in mango nectar treated with UV light.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh mango nectar was processed by UV light at five flow rates (0.073 to 0.451 liter/min) and five UV light doses (75 to 450 kJ/m2) to evaluate total microbial load, Saccharomyces cerevisiae survival, and polyphenoloxidase activity. UV systems containing an inner mercury lamp (254 nm) each with intensity of 25 mW/cm2 were used as germicidal sources. In addition, mango nectar was treated for 15 min at 0.073 and 0.451 liter/min, stored at 3 degrees C, and evaluated periodically for total microbial count, yeast count, color, and polyphenoloxidase activity. The first-order kinetics modeling found that DUV-values in mango nectar ranged from 27.9 to 10.9 min (R2 > 0.950) and 26.0 to 11.8 min (R2 > 0.962) for total microbial count and yeast count, respectively. The maximum log reduction (CFU per milliliter) was 2.71 and 2.94 for total microbial count and yeast count, respectively, after 30 min of UV treatment at 0.451 liter/min. DUV-values ranging from 156 to 204 min were observed for polyphenoloxidase activity. The remaining polyphenoloxidase activity after 30 min of UV treatment at 0.451 liter/min was 19 +/- 4%. Initial microbial load and yeast in stored mango nectar were reduced in the range 2.86 to 3.41 and 1.82 to 1.97 log (CFU/ml) cycles, respectively. No substantial microbial growth was observed prior to 20 days of storage. Averages of 1,055 +/- 32, 803 +/- 32, and 710 +/- 37 enzyme activity units were observed in mango nectar UV processed at 0, 0.073, and 0.451 liter/min, respectively, during the entire storage period. However, mango nectar treated at 0.073 and 0.451 liter/min maintained a yellow and yellow-orange color, respectively, after 26 days of storage. PMID:16496577

Guerrero-Beltrán, José A; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V

2006-02-01

325

Assessment Of Production Potentials And Constraaints Of Mango (Mangifera INDICA At Bati, Oromia Zone, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production potentials and constraints of mango were assessed at Bati wereda, Oromiya zone, Ethiopia in 2013 using data from sixty randomly selected mango producers in the area. Data were collected using questionnaire and focus group discussion. The result revealed that most of the producers belonged to the age group of 41-50 (28.3% and 31-40 (266.7%. 95% of the producers were male and the rest 5% were female. Analysis of production system revealed that 90% of the respondents do not use fertilizer; the only 10% of the respondents do use organic fertilizer. All of the respondents use irrigation water; however the source, quantity and quality differ from farm to farm. 85% of the respondents replied that they did not control diseases except birds during the time of fruit maturation. Most of the respondents (95% did not practice pruning. The orchards branch is so large and weak to support the fruit. Fifty percent of the respondent replied that they harvest the fruit at peak maturity but 33.33% of the respondents replied that the fruit harvest before peak maturity and only 16.67% response that the fruit harvest after peak maturity. The majority of the respondents (46.67 replied that all the listed factors (irrigation water scarcity, pest and disease and technology limitation can influence the production of mango. The majority of the respondents (66.67 replied that hand picking method of harvesting produce and maintains good quality of fruit and protects the fruit from mechanical damage. Most of the respondents (30% replied that all the listed (birds, wind, wounding, maturity stage and micro organisms are major causes of mango production loss. 26.67%, 23.33%, 6.67%, 8.33% and 5% of the respondents response that birds, wind, wounding, microorganisms and maturity stage are the main causes of loss on mango respectively. Most of the respondents (45.00% replied that major lost of mango occurs during harvesting and before harvesting. The majority (35 of the respondents use both pack animal and human back and shoulder to transport their produce. Most of the respondents (96.67% sell their products at nearby local market.

Seid Hussen

2013-06-01

326

Evaluation of antioxidant potential of citrus peel extracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts of three different locally grown citrus varieties; grape fruit, lemon and mussambi, was assessed using some antioxidant assays like estimation of total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoids contents (TFC), percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging capacity. The yield of extracts was found in the range of 17.92-30.8%. TPC, TFC, percent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and DPPH radical scavenging capacity of different citrus peel extracts were found in range of 2.72 - 3.77 g/100g as Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), 2.20-2.98 g/100g as Catechine Equivalent (CE), 68.20 - 91.78% and 19.53 - 41.88 mg/mL, respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant (p < 0.05) variations in the yield and antioxidant potentials of the extracts with respect to different species and solvent systems. From the results it is reasonable to say that methanolic extracts of citrus peels have exhibited varying degree of antioxidant potentials. (author)

2011-01-01

327

Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m"3) and sp"2+sp"3 bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C_6_0, glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

1997-01-01

328

Combined HRTEM and PEELS analysis of nanoporous and amorphous carbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both the mass density (1.37 kgm/m{sup 3}) and sp{sup 2}+sp{sup 3} bonding fraction (0.15) were determined for an unusual nanoporous amorphous carbon consisting of curved single graphitic sheets. A combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was used. The values of these two parameters provide important constraints for the determination of the structure of this relatively low density variety of nanoporous carbon. The results are relevant also in the search for negatively-curved Schwarzite-related carbon structures. New date are also presented for highly-oriented pyrollytic graphite (HOPG), chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond, C{sub 60}, glassy carbon (GC) and evaporated amorphous carbon (EAC); these are compared with the results for NAC. Kramers-Kronig analysis (KKA) of the low-loss PEELS data shows that the band gaps of both NAC and EAC are collapsed relative to that of CVD diamond. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Peng, J.L.; Fan, X. D.; Bursill, L.A.

1997-06-01

329

Transformación de embriones somáticos de mango por biobalística  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de transformar geneticamente manga mediante biobalística, se bombardearam embriões somáticos das variedades Haden, Madame Francis e Kent. Determinou-se a dose máxima de PPT em que os embriões somáticos sobrevivem, cultivando-os no meio Gamborg, Miller e Ojima em concentrações de 0; [...] 0,5; 1 e 2mg/l de PPT durante 3 meses e sub cultivando mensalmente para avaliar peso fresco e seco. Os embriões somáticos foram bombardeados com o plásmido CAMBIA 3201 que contêm os gens GUS e BAR, com dois tamanhos de partículas de tungstênio (0,7 e 1,3µm), pressão de 80psi, duas distâncias de bombardeio (10,0 e 16,5cm) e 5µg de ADN. Se selecionaram os embriões transformados em meio Gamborg, Miller e Ojima com 0,5mg/l de PPT. As condições de bombardeio escolhidas foram o tamanho de partícula de 0,7µm e a distância de bombardeio de 16,5cm. Depois de três meses de seleção nas concentrações de PPT utilizadas se fez evidente a sobrevivência dos embriões transformados na variedade Kent, enquanto que os embriões não transformados sobreviveram em concentração de 0,5mg/l. As variedades Haden e Madame Francis foram sensíveis às condições de bombardeio e seleção subministrados, morrendo depois deste processo. Se conseguiu uma sobrevivência de 4% e a regeneração de 3 clones por 0,5g de tecido bombardeado. Se evidenciou a atividade enzimática da expressão transitória do gene GUS mas não a estável e a incorporação dos gens GUS e BAR mediante PCR. Abstract in spanish Con la finalidad de transformar genéticamente mango mediante biobalística, se bombardearon embriones somáticos de las variedades Haden, Madame Francis y Kent. Se determinó la dosis máxima de PPT en que los embriones somáticos sobreviven, cultivándolos en el medio Gamborg, Miller y Ojima en concentra [...] ciones de 0; 0,5; 1 y 2mg/l de PPT durante 3 meses y subcultivando mensualmente para evaluar peso fresco y seco. Los embriones somáticos fueron bombardeados con el plásmido CAMBIA 3201 que contiene los genes GUS y BAR, con dos tamaños de partículas de tungsteno (0,7 y 1,3µm), presión de 80psi, dos distancias de bombardeo (10,0 y 16,5cm) y 5µg de ADN. Se seleccionaron los embriones transformados en medio Gamborg, Miller y Ojima con 0,5mg/l de PPT. Las condiciones de bombardeo escogidas fueron el tamaño de partícula de 0,7µm y la distancia de bombardeo de 16,5cm. Después de tres meses de selección en las concentraciones de PPT utilizadas se hizo evidente la sobrevivencia de los embriones transformados en la variedad Kent, mientras que los embriones no transformados sobrevivieron en concentración de 0,5mg/l. Las variedades Haden y Madame Francis fueron sensibles a las condiciones de bombardeo y selección suministrados, muriendo después de este proceso. Se logró una sobrevivencia de 4% y la regeneración de 3 clones por 0,5g de tejido bombardeado. Se evidenció la actividad enzimática de la expresión transitoria del gen GUS pero no la estable y la incorporación de los genes GUS y BAR mediante PCR. Abstract in english In order to genetically transform mango by biobalistic, somatic embryos of the varieties Haden, Madame Francis and Kent were bombarded. The maximum dose of PPT that somatic embryos survive was determined by exposing them in Gamborg, Miller y Ojima media containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2mg/l PPT during 3 mo [...] nths and subculturing every month to evaluate fresh and dry weight. The embryos were bombarded with the plasmid CAMBIA 3201 with genes GUS y BAR, using two tungsten particle sizes (0.7 and 1.3µm), pressure of 80psi, bombardment distances of 10 and 16.5cm, and 5µg of DNA. Embryos were selected using 0.5mg/l PPT as selective agent. Particle size of 0.7µm and the bombardment distance of 16.5cm were selected. After 3 months of selection in the indicated PPT concentrations, selected clones of the Kent variety survived all concentrations, while non-transformed embryos survived only at 0.5mg/l. Haden and Madam

Marleny, Chavarri; Ariadne, Vegas; Asia Y., Zambrano; Jhonny R., Demey.

330

Biogas Yield Potential Research of the Wastes from Banana Manufacturing Process under Mesophilic Anaerobic Fermentation  

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In this study is to verify the feasibility of the biogas yield potential of the wastes from banana manufacturing process and the feasibility of practical application through testing the fermentation performance of banana stalk and peel respectively at mesophilic temperature (35°C) under different concentration of fermentation. The research results indicated that the banana stalk and peel could be used as raw materials of anaerobic fermentation. The effect of gas production of low concentrati...

2013-01-01

331

An Improved Method of Optimizing the Extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase from Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has an objective to optimize the extraction of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. peel. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to design experiments and study the effect of six influential extraction parameters: extraction buffer concentration (100-500 mM, pH of extraction buffer (4.5-8.5, time (1-12 hours, temperature (4-40?C, concentration of PMSF (1-5 mM and volume of extraction buffer (200-1000 ml on the extraction of PPO. The dependent variable was considered as response function which was specific activity (SA of extracted PPO. ANOVA was performed to obtain the regression equation that could predict the responses within given range. From RSM generated model, the optimum conditions for the maximum extraction of PPO were phosphate buffer concentration of 100 mm, buffer pH of 4.5, extraction time of 1 hour, 40?C temperature, PMSF concentration of 5 mM and buffer volume of 200 ml. Finally, this study illustrates a cost effective and less time consuming method to maximize the extraction of PPO from a vegetable waste.

Suprabhat MUKHERJEE

2012-02-01

332

Application potential of grapefruit peel as dye sorbent: Kinetics, equilibrium and mechanism of crystal violet adsorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study reports the sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye by grapefruit peel (GFP), which has application potential in the remediation of dye-contaminated wastewaters using a solid waste generated by the citrus fruit juice industry. Batch adsorption of CV was conducted to evaluate the effect of initial pH, contact time, temperature, initial dye concentration, GFP adsorbent dose, and removal of the adsorbate CV dye from aqueous solution to understand the mechanism of sorption involved. Sorption equilibrium reached rapidly with 96% CV removal in 60 min. Fit of the sorption experimental data was tested on the pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics mathematical equations, which was noted to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetics better, with coefficient of correlation ?0.992. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum sorption capacity of 254.16 mg g-1. The GFP was regenerated using 1 M NaOH, with up to 98.25% recovery of CV and could be reused as a dye sorbent in repeated cycles. GFP was also shown to be highly effective in removing CV from aqueous solution in continuous-flow fixed-bed column reactors. The study shows that GFP has the potential of application as an efficient sorbent for the removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

2010-07-15

333

Hongos asociados a pudrición del pedúnculo y muerte descendente del mango (Mangifera indica L.) / Fungi associated to stem-end rot and dieback of mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las pudriciones del pedúnculo de frutos y muerte descendente de ramas de mango (Mangifera indica L.) son asociadas con hongos de la familia Botryosphaeriaceae. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron identificar morfológica y filogenéticamente diferentes cepas de hongos aisladas de frutos con pudrición [...] del pedúnculo y ramas con muerte descendente de los cultivares Ataulfo, Kent y Tommy Atkins, de cinco estados productores de México, y determinar su asociación con ambas enfermedades. Las muestras se recolectaron entre marzo del 2010 y junio del 2011. Los hongos asociados con la pudrición del pedúnculo correspondieron a Lasiodiplodia theobromae y Neofusicoccum parvum, y se detectó también a Neofusicoccum sp.; los hongos asociados con la muerte descendente de ramas correspondieron a L. pseudotheobromae y N. parvum. Se identificó la posible asociación de pudrición del pedúnculo con muerte descendente, ya que los hongos asociados fueron patogénicos al inocularlos en los pedúnculos de frutos de Ataulfo, Kent y Tommy Atkins. Este sería el primer estudio que identifica pudrición del pedúnculo o muerte descendente de ramas de mango en México por L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae y N. parvum. Abstract in english Stem-end rot of fruits and dieback of branches in mango (Mangifera indica L.) are associated with fungi of the family Botryosphaeriaceae. The objectives of the present study were to identify morphologically and phylogenetically different strains of fungi isolated from fruits with stem-end rot and br [...] anches with dieback of the cultivars Ataulfo, Kent and Tommy Atkins, of five producing states of México, and to determine their association with both diseases. The samples were collected between March of 2010 and June of 2011. The fungi associated with stem-end rot corresponded to Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Neofusicoccum parvum, and Neofusicoccum sp. was also detected; the fungi associated with dieback of branches corresponded to L. pseudotheobromae and N. parvum. The possible association of stem-end rot with dieback was identified, given that the associated fungi were pathogenic when inoculated in the stems of fruits of Ataulfo, Kent and Tommy Atkins. This would be the first study that identifies stem-end rot or dieback in branches of mango in Mexico from L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae and N. parvum.

Sandoval-Sánchez, Maricarmen; Nieto-Ángel, Daniel; Sandoval-Islas, J. Sergio; Téliz-Ortiz, Daniel; Orozco-Santos, Mario; Silva-Rojas, H. Victoria.

334

Evaluación de dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones de mango / Evaluation of two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango (Mangifera indica L.) es un fruto muy difundido en Venezuela que puede ser considerado como una fuente alternativa no convencional para la producción de almidón. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar dos métodos de extracción de almidón a partir de cotiledones del mango tipo Hilacha [...] . Los cotiledones fueron molidos hasta harina, la cual fue sometida a dos tratamientos independientes de inmersión: (I) agua destilada, y (II) solución acuosa de NaOH 0,25 N. A los productos obtenidos se les determinó la composición química proximal (humedad, almidón, azúcares totales, grasa, cenizas, taninos y fibra cruda), las propiedades funcionales (índice de absorción de agua IAA e índice de solubilidad IS), color Hunter y perfil viscoamilográfico. La composición proximal de los productos presentó diferencias significativas (P?0,05), a excepción del contenido de azúcares totales, amilosa y amilopectina (P>0,05). El tratamiento con agua fue más eficiente en la extracción de los almidones pero éstos tuvieron menor pureza. El perfil viscoamilográfico registró 78,5 ºC como temperatura de gelatinización en ambos tratamientos. La baja resistencia reflejada en los valores amilosa sugieren que los almidones presentaron bajo poder de gelatinización. Abstract in english The mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit is widespread in Venezuela and it may be considered an unconventional alternative source for starch production. The objective of this research was to evaluate two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango (Mangifera indica L. type Hilacha). Cotyledons w [...] ere ground to flour, and submitted to immersion in either (I) distillated water, or (II) aqueous solution of NaOH 0.25 N, for starch extraction. Chemical composition (moisture, starch, total sugars, fat, ash, tannins, crude fiber, amylose, and amylopectin), functional properties (water absorption index, and solubility indexI), color (Hunter) and viscoamylographic profile of the products were determined. Significant difference (P?0.05) in the chemical composition were found, except for total sugars, amylose and amylopectin content (P>0.05). The major yield in starch obtained was found in the water treatment, although the product showed lower purity. The viscoamylographic profile showed that gelatinization temperature was 78.5 ºC in both products. The low resistance according to the amylose values suggests that the obtained starch had low gelatinization power.

Carlos, Medina; Alison, Paredes; María E, Rodríguez; Mario, Moreno; Douglas, Belén-Camacho; David, García; Carlos, Ojeda.

335

Cinética de degradação de vitamina c em mangas 'palmer' minimamente processadas armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas Kinects of vitamin C degradation of 'palmer' mangoes (Mangifera indica L. stored at different temperatures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de utilizar parâmetros cinéticos para avaliar a degradação de vitamina C sobre a vida útil de mangas (Mangifera indica L. minimamente processadas e armazenadas em diferentes temperaturas. Mangas 'Palmer' foram lavadas em água corrente, sanificadas, descascadas, novamente sanificadas e fatiadas manualmente. O produto foi embalado em embalagem de polietileno com tampa e armazenado a 0ºC, 6ºC e 12ºC (85-90% UR. Para o acompanhamento da sua vida útil, a cada 2 dias foram feitas as seguintes análises: valores L* a* e b*, perda de massa, pH, firmeza, sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e teor de vitamina C. As mangas minimamente processadas armazenadas à 0ºC e 6ºC apresentaram vida útil de 10 dias contra 4 dias das mangas armazenadas à 12ºC. Os dados obtidos por meio de regressão linear com os valores do logaritmo neperiano do teor de ácido ascórbico pelo tempo de armazenagem (dias mostram que a reação de degradação da vitamina C se ajusta ao modelo cinético de 1ª ordem. O Modelo de Arrhenius foi aplicado às velocidades de reação (k nas diferentes temperaturas estabelecendo energia de ativação (Ea de 34,32 kcal mol-1. A degradação de vitamina C foi mais lenta (t1/2 = 63,6dias; e k = 0,0109 dias-1 à 0ºC o que proporcionou maior retenção de seus teores (89% durante 10 dias de armazenamento. As frutas armazenadas à 12ºC apresentaram maior velocidade de degradação (k = 0,1729 dias-1 e, consequentemente, t1/2 inferior às demais temperaturas (apenas 4 dias.This work was used to evaluate the kinetic parameters for degradation of vitamin C on the shelf-life of minimally processed mangoes (Mangifera indica L. stored at different temperatures. 'Palmer' Mangos were washed in running water, sanitized, peeled, manually sliced and again sanitized. The product was packaged in polyethylene packaging with lid and stored at 0ºC, 6°C and 12 °C (85-90% RH. To monitor its shelf-life, the following tests were done every two days: values L* a* b*, weight loss, pH, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA and content of vitamin C. The minimally processed mangoes stored at 0ºC and 6ºC showed shelf-life of 10 days, whereas the shelf-life of mangoes stored at 12°C was 4 days. The data obtained by linear regression with the values of the Neperian logarithm content of ascorbic acid by the time of storage (days show that the reaction of degradation of vitamin C fits the kinetic model of 1st order. The Arrhenius model was applied to the speed of reaction (k at different temperatures by setting the activation energy (Ea of 34,32 kcal.mol-1. The degradation of vitamin C was slower (t1 / 2 = 63.6 days, and k = 0.0109 days-1 at 0°C, which provided greater retention of its contents (89% during 10 days of storage. Fruits stored at 12°C showed a higher rate of degradation (k = 0.1729 days-1 and, consequently, t1 / 2 less than the other temperatures (only 4 days.

Juliana Alvarenga Alves

2010-06-01

336

Optimization and production of antifungal hydrolysis enzymes by streptomyces aureofaciens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We isolated naturally occurring actinomycetes with an ability to produce metabolites having antifungal property against, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of mango anthracnose. One promising strain was strong antifungal activity, was selected for further studies. Based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial strain was identical to Streptomyces aureofaciens. Culture filtrate collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of fungus tested, indicating that growth suppression was due to extracellular antifungal metabolites present in culture filtrate. Isolate highly produced extracellular chitinase and ?-1,3-glucanase during the exponential and late exponential phases, respectively. In order to standardize the metabolite production some cultural conditions like different incubation time in hours, pH, carbon sources and concentrations and nitrogen source were determined. During fermentation, growth, pH and hydrolysis enzymes production were monitored .Treatment with bioactive components exhibited a significantly high protective activity against development of anthracnose disease on mango trees and increased fruit yield.

Ahamed Mohamed El Azzazy

2011-05-01

337

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials. PMID:24473205

Zou, Tang-Bin; Xia, En-Qin; He, Tai-Ping; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen

2014-01-01

338

Irradiation in combination with low temperature storage for preservation of semi-dried mango and longan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Semi dried mango (30% m.c.) and longan (16% m.c.) packed in low density polyethylene were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy using Cobalt-60 and stored at 14 degree C and 30 degree C. Irradiation had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on acidity, total and reducing sugars, total carotenes, vitamin C content and sensory quality of the product. An irradiation dose of 2 kGy was sufficient to prevent the growth of microorganisms but a high dose of 8 kGy failed to reduce the viable yeast-mold count to neutrality. Irradiation of semi-dried mango and longan at a minimum dose of 2 kGy and subsequent storage at 14 degree C prolonged the shelf life without significant changes in quality

1996-12-01

339

Transport simulation of mangoes irradiated for exportation; Simulacao do transporte de mangas irradiadas para exportacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It had been studied the effect of the ionizing radiation (gamma) in mangoes for exportation, simulating the stage of preservation of the fruit during its transport, through the refrigeration in cold chamber. In a first stage they had been analyzed through loss of weight, pH, treatable acidity, soluble solid, texture and decomposition. Later, sensorial analyses had been become fulfilled (alterations of color, odor, flavor, texture). The assays had been carried through in two stadiums of maturation of the fruits, that is, 2 and 3, with the intention of studying optimum point of harvest for the best dosage of irradiation. The results disclose together that the treatment of the mangoes Tommy Atkins in the dose of 0,75 kGy was significant, with the fruit in stadium 2, for the retardation of the matureness and consequent profit of time for the exportation. (author)

Broisler, Paula Olhe

2007-07-01

340

Effect of Fungicides and Plant Extracts on the Conidial Germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Causing Mango Anthracnose.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Northern Bangladesh, generally mango trees are planted as agroforest that gives higher Net Present Value (NPV) than traditional agriculture. Mango anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is seen as a very destructive and widely distributed disease, which results in poor market value. Five fungicides such as Cupravit, Bavistin, Dithane M-45, Thiovit and Redomil were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Dithane M-45 and Redomil were the most effective when the conidia were immersed for 10~20 minutes at 500~1000 ppm concentrations. Antifungal activities of 13 plant extracts were tested against conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides. Conidial germination of C. gloeosporioides was completely inhibited in Curcuma longa (leaf and rhizome), Tagetes erecta (leaf) and Zingiber officinales (rhizome) after 15 minutes of incubation respectively. PMID:24049501

Imtiaj, Ahmed; Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Alam, Shahidul; Parvin, Rehana; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda; Kim, Sang-Beom; Lee, Tae-Soo

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ? rs ? 0.63), high and significant (rs ? 0.91; P stress (-1.9 ? S ? 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the. PMID:22535394

Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X

2012-01-01

342

Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. III. Tropical fruits: bananas, mangoes, and papayas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current status of research on the use of ionizing radiation for shelf life improvement and disinfestation of fresh tropical fruits like bananas, mangoes, and papayas are reviewed. The aspects covered are influence of maturity and physiological state of the fruits on delayed ripening and tolerance to radiation; varietal responses; changes in chemical constituents, volatiles, respiration, and ethylene evolution; biochemical mechanisms of delayed ripening and browning of irradiated fruits; and organoleptic quality. The efficacy of the combination of hot water dip and radiation treatments for control of postharvest fungal diseases are considered. The immediate potential of radiation as a quarantine treatment, in place of the currently used chemical fumigants, for disinfestation of fruit flies and mango seed weevil are discussed. Future prospects for irradiation of tropical fruits are discussed in the light of experience gained from studies conducted in different countries.146 references

1986-01-01

343

Determinação da difusividade térmica da polpa de manga Thermal diffusivity of the mango pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a difusividade térmica foi determinada para quatro amostras diferentes de polpa de manga. Foi verificada a influência dos sólidos solúveis e insolúveis em amostras de polpa de manga através do método utilizado por Silva (1997. Não foi verificada nenhuma influência dos sólidos insolúveis na difusividade térmica da polpa de manga, e com o aumento da concentração de sólidos solúveis a difusividade térmica mostrou ser menor do que para a polpa integral.Thermal diffusivity was of four samples of the mango pulp was determined by method suggested by Silva (1997. Different quantities of insoluble and soluble solid were taken into account for each sample. The authors didn’t detect any influence of the insoluble solid in the thermal diffusivity of the mango pulp. The more the concentration of soluble solids in the pulp was increased, the less was the thermal diffusivity.

Márcia Regina Simões

2000-05-01

344

Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Anti Nutritional Contents of Some Varieties of Mango (Mangifera indica in Kaduna Metropolis-Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Three varieties of mangoes (Mangifera indica namely; Adansonia digitata (Durshea big seed, Durio zubethinus murr (Peter middle seeded, Foetide lour (Julie collected within Kaduna metropolis were subjected to proximate analysis. Analysis of the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the three varieties of mangoes revealed that moisture content, crude protein, carbohydrate, crude fat, ash content and vitamin c were 79.17, 1.97, 7.16, 1.89, 9.81 and 34.12% respectively for Durshea variety. The findings revealed that Peter (Middle Seeded mango proximate values for all the nutrients analyzed were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the values obtained from Durshea result. The Julie (Small Seeded mango’s moisture content (72.04% and carbohydrate contents (16.59 mg/100 g were significantly (p<0.05 different from Durshea and Peter varieties. The findings also revealed that calcium contents were 0.15, 0.10 and 0.13% for durshea, peter and Julie, respectively. Iron and magnesium contents were present in small amount for all the three variaties. The contents of cyanogenic glycosides (0.28 mg/100 g, oxalates (1.60 mg/100 g and phytate (0.62 mg/100 g for durshea were not significantly different from peter and jullie varieties of the mango. The findings revealed that the three varieties of mango contain appreciable amounts of nutrients that the body required for its normal metabolic functions .The anti nutrients contents is negligible. The Durshea variety is the most recommended for human consumption because of its high lipids and calcium contents.

S. Sarkiyayi

2013-04-01

345

Occurrence and Distribution of Colletotrichum spp. on Mango (Mangifera indica L. in Puerto Rico and Florida, USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An extensive survey of anthracnose in mango caused by Colletotrichum spp. was conducted in seven locations from western, central and eastern, Florida, USA and five locations from western and southern, Puerto Rico. Morphological, serological and molecular characteristics of 183 Colletotrichum spp. isolates was determined. Ninety three percent of the isolates from Puerto Rico and Florida, USA were identified as C. gloeosporioides, while only 5% (eight isolates as C. acutatum. Another 2% (3 isolates from the same host were negative for both species. Pathogenicity tests conducted on detached mango leaves showed that both species were pathogenic. Necrotic lesions produced orange to salmon conidial masses on acervuli 7 days after inoculation. Colonies of isolates producing aerial mycelia were white, gray and/or dark gray, often with conidial masses on acidified potato dextrose agar. Conidia of isolates were hyaline, one-celled, ovoid to oblong, straight or slightly curved and ranged from 12 to 20 x 3.5 to 6 ?m for C. gloeosporioides and 8 to 13 x 2 to 5 ?m for C. acutatum. ELISA and PCR assays were used complementary to morphological results and confirmed C. acutatum causing anthracnose in mango`s flower, peduncles and immature fruit in Homestead, Florida. Colletotrichum acutatum was neither found during this survey and has never been reported on mango in Puerto Rico. Colletotrichum spp. identification is essential in the development of control strategies of anthracnose disease because of differences within species to benomyl and azoxystrobin. Other fungi isolated from necrotic lesions in mango were identified as Phomopsis sp., Cladosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium pallidoroseum, Pestalotiopsis sp., Alternaria infectoria and Nigrospora sp. Pathogenicity tests also indicated that A. infectoria, F. pallidoroseum and Pestalotiopsis sp. were pathogenic to detached mango leaves under laboratory conditions.

Lydia I. Rivera-Vargas

2006-01-01

346

Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract  

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The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the ...

Saruth Nithitanakool; Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Rapepol Bavovada; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

2009-01-01

347

Molecular Docking Studies and Anti?Snake Venom Metalloproteinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract  

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Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’) (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose?dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecu...

Pimolpan Pithayanukul; Jiraporn Leanpolchareanchai; Patchreenart Saparpakorn

2009-01-01

348

Augmentation of Chrysoperla spp. for Control of Citrus Thrips in Mangos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The predatory effect of two species of Chrysoperla [Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and C. rufilabris (Burmeister)] was evaluated against citrus thrips, Scritothrips citric (Moulton), at the Three Flags Mango Ranch near Salton City, California, U. S. A. For both species the early release of 50 larvae/ tree failed to cause any reduction in thrips number but treatment of 100 and 200 larvae/ tree for both species and 1,000 eggs of C. rufilabris resulted in significantly lower ...

Inamullah Khan; Morse, J. G.

2001-01-01

349

A STUDY ON IN VITRO INTERACTION OF CEPHRADINE WITH MANGO JUICE AT LOWER pH  

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Cephradine is a first generation semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic, is widely used in clinics for its activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, respiratory tract infections and otitis media. Interaction of cephradine with mango juice were investigated by UV-spectrophotometer in simulated gastric juice (pH 1.2 & 3.2). In this research work, cephradine capsules were col...

2012-01-01

350

Environmentally friendly treatment alternatives to Bordeaux mixture for controlling bacterial apical necrosis (BAN) of mango  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial apical necrosis (BAN), caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss), is currently the most limiting disease affecting the mango crop in the Mediterranean area. The copper-based compound Bordeaux mixture (BM) is considered to be the conventional treatment against BAN, but it does not act as a bactericide. Alternative experimental treatments to BM that are compatible with organic farming were tested for their ability to control BAN disease. Field trials were conduct...

Gutie?rrez-barranquero, J. A.; Arrebola, E.; Bonilla, N.; Sarmiento, D.; Cazorla, F. M.; Vicente, A.

2011-01-01

351

Muslims in Mango (Northern Togo) : some aspects: writing and prayer : some notes on a film  

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The film 'Muslims in Mango', which was made during fieldwork among the Anufom in the period 1969-1971, gives an impression of how Islam manifests itself in northern Togo. It centres upon two aspects, writing and prayer. The present report deals briefly with the origins of the Anufom, literacy and writing, the degree of Islamization among the Anufom, the influence of Islam on daily life, Koran schools, 'Islamic magic', the use of written Arabic texts as magic, prayers, mosques, Friday services...

1986-01-01

352

FTIR aplicada durante la deshidratación osmótica de mango Ataulfo (Magnífera indica L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue implementar un método para observar los cambios en la estructura molecular de mango Ataulfo (Magnífera indica L.) durante su deshidratación osmótica con una solución de sacarosa (45%) a 60° C. La técnica utilizada fue FTIR, en un equipo Perkin Elmer (Spectrum one), an [...] alizando las muestras deshidratadas a diferentes tiempos, como pastillas con KBr, entre 400-4000 cm-1 y 4 cm-1 de resolución. También fueron obtenidos los espectros de los sólidos insolubles en alcohol (AIS) extraídos del mango, así como de los compuestos puros de referencia: pectina, sacarosa, glucosa, fructosa y celulosa. Una vez obtenidos los espectros correspondientes al seguimiento de la deshidratación osmótica, estos fueron analizados en las frecuencias típicas de vibración para los átomos constituyentes de las moléculas de sacarosa y se obtuvo la cinética de difusión de la misma durante el proceso. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to implement a method to observe changes in Ataulfo mango (Magnífera indica L.) molecular structure, during osmotic dehydration with a sucrose solution (45%) at 60° C. The samples dried at different process times were analyzed, such as using KBr pellets, on a FTIR Perkin El [...] mer (Spectrum one), between 400-4000 cm-1 and 4 cm-1 resolution. Moreover, with this technique were obtained reference spectra for pure compounds of pectin, sucrose, glucose and cellulose, as well as the fresh mango and its extracted alcohol insoluble solids (AIS). Once the spectrums were obtained from the osmotic dehydration monitoring, these were analyzed over constituent atoms characteristic vibration frequencies of the sucrose molecules and were obtained its diffusion kinetic during the process.

M. E., Rosas Mendoza; J. L., Fernández Muñoz.

353

Comparison of quarantine treatments on skin and pulp color of mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango (Mangifera indica L.) has shown the highest growth rates among the fruit exported by Brazil. This exportation implies specific treatments to attend phytosanitary requirements to attend USA and Europe market. Among them there are thermal treatments (hot water dip or vapor treatment) or irradiation witch it has ability to promote disinfestations and delaying the ripening of the mango. The main objective of this paper was to report the color behavior among treatments covering irradiation alone, thermal treatment combined with irradiation and control. The mangoes were irradiated in a Multipurpose Gamma Source from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP and divided in four groups - the control (C) , dose 0,75 KGy (I), dose 0,75 KGy with hot water dip (46 deg C during 70 min) (2A) and dose 0,75KGy with hot water dip (52 deg C during 5 min) (2B). All fruits were stored at 11 deg C in acclimatized chamber during 14 days, after this period the fruits were kept at environmental conditions (25 deg C) during more 14 days. The results showed that the group 2A had the color of the skin delayed by treatment, not reaching stage 4 on the 26th. This group showed significant difference compared to groups C (p ? 0.05) however there was no difference among the others groups (2B and I). In general, these results indicate that the group 2A showed satisfactory results, concluding that combined treatment was beneficial for the mango, prolonging the process of development of its color. (author)

2009-10-02

354

Genomic Variability of the Xanthomonas Pathovar mangiferaeindicae, Agent of Mango Bacterial Black Spot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The genetic diversity of 138 strains of the Xanthomonas pathovar mangiferaeindicae, which were isolated from three different hosts (mango, ambarella, and pepper tree) in 14 different countries, was assessed with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. An analysis of patterns obtained by hybridization with an hrp cluster probe from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae separated 11 of the strains from all of the other strains, which suggested that these 11 strains may not be Xanthomonas pv. ...

Gagnevin, L.; Leach, J. E.; Pruvost, O.

1997-01-01

355

TRATAMIENTOS PARA REDUCIR LOS DAÑOS POR LÁTEX EN MANGO (Mangifera indica)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar tratamientos alternativos para reducir las manchas de látex en mango. Se utilizaron frutos del cultivar Amarilla y soluciones (1% en agua) de eter lauril sulfonato de sodio (ELSS), ácido sulfónico (AS), amida de coco (AC) y nonil fenol etoxilado (NFE); hipoclorito de sodio (100 y 200 mg l-1 en agua); agua; con 3 tratamientos testigo (deslechado en seco y manchado intencional con limpieza posterior y sin ella). Se midió la incidencia y severidad de l...

2005-01-01

356

Training as a Factor Influencing Adoption of Innovations along Mango Value Chains in Meru County, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study has used a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Meru County. The study area was limited to the lower part of Meru County whose climatic condition is suitable for mangoes production. This study adopted a likelihoodselection method for getting the respondents. Out of 13,442 farmers, traders and exporters, 447 farmers, 12 traders and 2 exporters were randomly selected for interview. Secondary data used in the study was collected from the Ministry of Agriculture Of...

Isaiah Gitonga Imaita

2013-01-01

357

An overnight chill induces a delayed inhibition of photosynthesis at midday in mango (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a cold night on photosynthesis in herbaceous chilling-sensitive crops, like tomato, has been extensively studied and is well characterized. This investigation examined the behaviour of the sub-tropical fruit tree, mango, to enable comparison with these well-studied systems. Unlike tomato, chilling between 5 degrees C and 7 degrees C overnight produced no significant inhibition of light-saturated CO(2) assimilation (A:) during the first hours following rewarming, measured either under controlled environment conditions or in the field. By midday, however, there was a substantial decline in A:, which could not be attributed to photoinhibition of PSII, but rather was associated with an increase in stomatal limitation of A: and lower Rubisco activity. Overnight chilling of tomato can cause severe disruption in the circadian regulation of key photosynthetic enzymes and is considered to be a major factor underlying the dysfunction of photosynthesis in chilling-sensitive herbaceous plants. Examination of the gas exchange of mango leaves maintained under constant conditions for 2 d, demonstrated that large depressions in A: during the subjective night were primarily the result of stomatal closure. Chilling did not disrupt the ability of mango leaves to produce a circadian rhythm in stomatal conductance. Rather, the midday increase in stomatal limitation of A: appeared to be the result of altered guard cell sensitivity to CO(2) following the dark chill. PMID:11113167

Allen, D J; Ratner, K; Giller, Y E; Gussakovsky, E E; Shahak, Y; Ort, D R

2000-11-01

358

Bioethanol production from leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) involving naturally isolated and recombinant enzymes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study describes the usage of dried leafy biomass of mango (Mangifera indica) containing 26.3% (w/w) cellulose, 54.4% (w/w) hemicellulose, and 16.9% (w/w) lignin, as a substrate for bioethanol production from Zymomonas mobilis and Candida shehatae. The substrate was subjected to two different pretreatment strategies, namely, wet oxidation and an organosolv process. An ethanol concentration (1.21 g/L) was obtained with Z. mobilis in a shake-flask simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) trial using 1% (w/v) wet oxidation pretreated mango leaves along with mixed enzymatic consortium of Bacillus subtilis cellulase and recombinant hemicellulase (GH43), whereas C. shehatae gave a slightly higher (8%) ethanol titer of 1.31 g/L. Employing 1% (w/v) organosolv pretreated mango leaves and using Z. mobilis and C. shehatae separately in the SSF, the ethanol titers of 1.33 g/L and 1.52 g/L, respectively, were obtained. The SSF experiments performed with 5% (w/v) organosolv-pretreated substrate along with C. shehatae as fermentative organism gave a significantly enhanced ethanol titer value of 8.11 g/L using the shake flask and 12.33 g/L at the bioreactor level. From the bioreactor, 94.4% (v/v) ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21% purification efficiency. PMID:23768115

Das, Saprativ P; Ravindran, Rajeev; Deka, Deepmoni; Jawed, Mohammad; Das, Debasish; Goyal, Arun

2013-01-01

359

Evaluation of quality of mango cultivar Tommy Atkins radiated with greater degree of maturity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of ionizing radiation at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy were evaluated in mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when harvested at maturation stage showing yellow flesh and skin color more red than green, representing four degree of maturation at commercial scale. The fruits were stored for 21 days at 12 degree C and sensory evaluated after that period as its external appearance, internal appearance, acidic taste, sweet taste, mellow flavor, aroma, texture and succulence of the flesh, by a team of ten trained judges. Physic chemical analysis of the main characteristics of fruits quality were also performed in the pulp at the end of storage. The results of sensory analysis revealed that the doses used did not damaged the sensory characteristics of mango fruit and that they received a dose of 0.5 kGy showed higher acceptance for most sensory attributes evaluated. The physic chemical characteristics showed no significant differences between the doses, except the amount of ascorbic acid that decreased progressively with increasing doses. Application of this method is viable for mango cultivar Tommy Atkins when taken with a higher degree of maturity and was safe for the external market and sensory acceptable. (author)

2011-10-24

360

Physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of chemically preserved mango pulp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) and potassium metabisulphite (PMS) at various concentrations on chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of mango pulp during storage was assessed. Inhibitory activity of the chemical preservatives and their effect on chemical and sensory attributes was tested periodically by simulating the industrial mango pulp storage in the lab (30-42 deg. C in the dark), for a period of 90 days. Protein, fats, decreased while ash content and total soluble solid (TSS) increased during the storage period. A slight progressive decline in pH was observed with a proportional increase (p<0.05) in the acidity of the stored pulp samples. Significant inhibition of the total bacterial count (TBC) was observed on applying the specified concentrations, however PMS was shown to be more inhibitory. Storage time significantly (p<0.05) increased the CFU/g of the pulp samples as the maximum growth was observed after 90 days of storage. Sensory characteristics of the juice prepared from treated mango pulp samples were affected negatively on addition of preservatives however, the samples were accepted by the judges even after three months of storage. (author)

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Mango resistance to fruit flies. II - resistance of the alfa cultivar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The percentage of infested mango fruits of five selected mango varieties was evaluated during three years under field conditions. Three varieties with field resistance to fruit flies had less then 10% of fruits infested. Tommy Atkins, the susceptible commercial check, had 42,9% and the susceptible check had 98.9 % of infested fruits. The three field resistant varieties plus the susceptible commercial check, Tommy Atkins, were further tested in laboratory, under caged conditions, with artificial infestation of Anastrepha obliqua. The attempts of oviposition and the number of pupae developed from each fruit were evaluated. Under caged conditions, the cultivar Alfa maintained its field resistance and Espada Stahl and IAC 111 lost the field resistance and were as susceptible as Tommy Atkins. The attempts of oviposition were positively and highly correlated with the number of pupae developed in the fruits. Non preference for oviposition was confirmed as the main mechanism of resistance of mango fruits to fruit flies. In the absence of a more susceptible variety (no choice test) the cultivar Alfa has kept the resistance (author)

2006-09-10

362

Effect of the lactoperoxidase system against three major causal agents of disease in mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibacterial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (LPS) on the growth of Xanthomonas campestris, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mangoes, Botryodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of stem-end rot disease in mangoes, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthracnose disease in mangoes, was determined during culture at 30 degrees C and at several pH values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5). When the results of using the LPS were compared with those from control cultures without the LPS reagents, the growth of the three microorganisms was totally inhibited in all of the conditions tested. Viability tests enumerating cultivable cells of X. campestris showed that the LPS had a bactericidal effect, whatever the pH value. This effect is faster at pH 5.5, corroborating the results reported in the literature (optimal pH for the LPS efficiency). Further, we proved that hydrogen peroxide alone had little inhibition effect on the growth of the microorganisms studied. This compound is essentially used to convert thiocyanate into hypothiocyanate during the lactoperoxidase reaction. The potential of the LPS for the postharvest treatment of the fruits for controlling microbial diseases was thus demonstrated. Nevertheless, further studies are needed on fresh fruits before envisaging any application. PMID:16013395

Le Nguyen, Doan Duy; Ducamp, Marie-Noelle; Dornier, Manuel; Montet, Didier; Loiseau, Gérard

2005-07-01

363

Vinegar Production from Togolese Local Variety Mangovi of Mango Mangifera indica Linn. (Anacardiaceae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to access for the physiochemical parameters of vinegar production through Togolese local variety Mangovi of mango Mangifera indica juice fermentation. The juice was fermented successively by Saccharomyces cerevisisae and acetic bacteria. The levels of ethanol and acetic acid in the juice during the production of vinegar were monitored by gas chromatography and titrimetry methods, respectively. The physiological state of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2056 was determined by flow cytometry using a dual fluorescent labeling of diacetate carboxy-fluorescein (CFDA and propidium iodide. The results indicated that 200 mL of mango juice, sugar content 20 Brix, set in alcoholic fermentation with 106 yeast cells produced 22.4 g L-1 ethanol in 72 h. Acetic fermentation transformed 93% of this ethanol to acetic acid in 288 h. Twenty-four hours after the beginning of alcoholic fermentation, 91% of cells were viable, 8.85% were stressed and 0.05% died. After 24 h of acetic fermentation, viable, stressed and dead cells were 45, 12 and 39%, respectively; corresponding to the passage of acetic vinegar level from 0.9 to 2.1°. At the end of the acetic fermentation, dead cells were estimated to 98% at and acetic acid to 4.7°. Using consecutive fermentations is suitable technique for vinegar production from mango juice. The application of the present results may contribute to avoid fruits post harvest losses.

Y. Ameyapoh

2010-01-01

364

An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits. PMID:24133645

Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

2013-01-01

365

The effectiveness of weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) biocontrol in Southeast Asian citrus and mango  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oecophylla ants may protect tropical plantation crops against pests. Cost-benefit studies comparing ant-based protection with conventional methods are needed to assess whether it is economically viable. Here we contrast profits in ant and chemically protected plots in a Thai and a Vietnamese citrus plantation and in a Thai mango plantation. In Thai pomelo and Vietnamese mixed pomelo/orange, ants and chemical pesticides lead to equal fruit yields. Lower costs in ant treatments, though, generated profit increases of 15 and 47 %, respectively, in ant plots compared with pesticide plots, though only the 47 % increase in the Vietnamese plantation was statistically significant. In contrast, ant protection was ineffectual in Thai mango. Here, the profit in ant plots was negative, and 125 % higher than in chemical plots, due to failed fruit set on ant-trees. This was mainly due to the leafhopper Idioscopus clypealis, which destroyed the mango flowers in the weaver ant treatments, and a result of weaver ants protecting this leafhopper to obtain its honeydew. Thus, weaver ants alone may work effectively in some settings whereas in other cases ant control need to be supplemented with additional IPM control measures to provide a viable alternative to chemical pest control.

Offenberg, Joachim; Cuc, Nguyen Thi Thu

2013-01-01

366

Ceratocystis omanensis, a new species from diseased mango trees in Oman.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango (Mangifera indica) sudden decline is an important disease in Oman, which is closely associated with infections by Ceratocystis fimbriata and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Another Ceratocystis species has also been found associated with symptoms on diseased trees. In this study, we identify that Ceratocystis based on morphology and DNA sequences. Morphological comparisons showed that the fungus from dying mango trees in Oman is similar to C. moniliformis. Both fungi have distinct hat-shaped ascospores, disc-shaped plates at the bases of the ascomatal necks and spines on the ascomatal bases. However, comparison of DNA sequences for ITS1-2, the 5.8S RNA gene, the beta-tubulin gene, and Transcription Elongation Factor (EF1-alpha) gene, confirmed that the fungus from Oman is distinct from C. moniliformis and other related species. Phylogenetically, this fungus formed one of four strongly supported sub-clades. The other sub-clades included isolates of C. bhutanensis, C. moniliformis and C. moniliformopsis, respectively. Based on morphological characteristics and differences in DNA sequences for three gene regions, we conclude that the Ceratocystis sp. from wounds on mango in Oman is a new species, for which we provide the name Ceratocystis omanensis sp. nov. PMID:16388939

Al-Subhi, Ali M; Al-Adawi, Ali O; Van Wyk, Marelize; Deadman, Michael L; Wingfield, Michael J

2006-02-01

367

Low temperature stress ethylene and not Fusarium, might be responsible for mango malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.). The etiology of the disease has not yet been successfully resolved. Here, we quantified the endogenous ethylene content in malformed and healthy vegetative and floral tissues of mango cultivars viz., Amrapali, Bombay green, Chausa, Dushehri and Mallika. Levels of ethylene were higher in malformed vegetative and floral tissues as compared with that of healthy tissues at both prior to full bloom and full bloom stages. The study also revealed that isolates of Fusarium dissected from mango exhibited most morphological similarities to the accepted standard features of Fusarium mangiferae. The growth dynamic of F. mangiferae were evaluated with varying temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 °C. Temperatures of 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C were better suited for growth of F. mangiferae than temperatures of 20 °C or 40 °C. Conidium germination of F. mangiferae was maximum at 30 °C and minimum at Stress ethylene level is higher in diseased tissue at the same temperature range where growth of Fusaria is found to be completely restricted. The present study provides direct evidence that low temperature induced 'stress ethylene' is potentially responsible for the disease while on the other hand Fusarium role in the disease either through toxic principle or malformation inducing principle is not conclusive at <15 °C and is rather out of question. PMID:23707883

Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Bains, Gurdeep; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-08-01

368

Interaction of the mite Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying conidia of Fusarium mangiferae, vectoring them into potential infection sites, and assisting fungal infection and dissemination was studied. Following the mite's exposure to a green fluorescent protein-marked isolate, conidia were observed clinging to the mite's body. Agar plugs bearing either bud mites or the pathogen were placed on leaves near the apical buds of potted mango plants. Conidia were found in bud bracts only when both mites and conidia were co-inoculated on the plant, demonstrating that the mite vectored the conidia into the apical bud. Potted mango plants were inoculated with conidia in the presence or absence of mites. Frequency and severity of infected buds were significantly higher in the presence of mites, revealing their significant role in the fungal infection process. Conidia and mite presence were monitored with traps in a diseased orchard over a 2-year period. No windborne bud mites bearing conidia were found; however, high numbers of windborne conidia were detected in the traps. These results suggest that A. mangiferae can carry and vector conidia between buds and assist in fungal penetration but does not play a role in the aerial dissemination of conidia between trees. PMID:19159307

Gamliel-Atinsky, E; Freeman, S; Sztejnberg, A; Maymon, M; Ochoa, R; Belausov, E; Palevsky, E

2009-02-01

369

Potential of fusarium mangiferae as an etiological agent of mango malformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Taxonomy of the causal fungus of mango malformation (MM) disease has passed through different phases. The fungus at first named as F. moniliforme was elevated to species level as F. subglutinans. Two new species viz. Fusarium mangiferae and F. sterilihyphosum Britz. found responsible for causing MM have been characterized in South Africa in the year 2002. Presence of F. mangiferae in Asian clade emphasized the need to confirm the specific species in the mango orchards of Pakistan. The assay of malformed parts of mango varieties obtained from five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan revealed the association of four fungi viz., F. mangiferae, F. pallidoroseum, F. equiseti and Alternaria alternata while F. mangiferae proved to be the major infecting fungus. The colonies of F. mangiferae were tinged with purple and rosy buff color on Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. Macroconidia were four celled with dorsal and ventral surfaces almost parallel. Maximum within tissue infection (40.53%) in five districts was caused by F. mangiferae. The present studies reveal the infectivity and dominant association of F. mangiferae with malformed tissues of diverse origins. (author)

2010-02-01

370

Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Shared, segmented, on-chip interconnection networks, known as networks-on-chip (NoC), may become the preferred way of interconnecting intellectual property (IP) cores in future giga-scale system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A NoC can provide the required communication bandwidth while accommodating the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics (clockless implementation, standard socket access points, and guaranteed communication services) make MANGO suitable for a modular SoC design flow is explained. Among the advantages of using clockless circuit techniques are inherent global timing closure, low forward latency in pipelines, and zero dynamic idle power consumption. Time division multiplexing, generally used to provide bandwidth guarantees in clocked NoCs, however, is not possible in a clockless environment. MANGO provides an alternative, high-performance solution to providing hard, connection-oriented service guarantees, using clockless circuit techniques. In-depth circuit details are presented, and the 0.13 /spl mu/m standard cell implementation of a 5/spl times/5 routing node, for use in a mesh type NoC, is described.

Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

2006-01-01

371

Training as a Factor Influencing Adoption of Innovations along Mango Value Chains in Meru County, Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study has used a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Meru County. The study area was limited to the lower part of Meru County whose climatic condition is suitable for mangoes production. This study adopted a likelihoodselection method for getting the respondents. Out of 13,442 farmers, traders and exporters, 447 farmers, 12 traders and 2 exporters were randomly selected for interview. Secondary data used in the study was collected from the Ministry of Agriculture Offices. To ensure validity and reliabity questionnaires were pretested and the researcher supervised data collection. Quantitative data obtained from the field was analyzed using descriptive and inferential techniques. The descriptive techniques adopted were means and frequencies while the inferential technique used were regression and correlation to establish relationship between variables in the study and inferences made. Frequency tables and charts were used to present the findings. The study found out that lack of training was an hindrance in innovation adoption.The more the training the more the adoption of innovation.Chi-square results show that training has a significant association with innovation in Mango value chain as shown by a value of 39.139 at (p?0.05. The researcher concludes that lack of organizations/institutions support has also undermined innovation adoption in mango supply chain. There is need to establish good linkages between farmers and research development systems which offer training on new technologies or innovations as well as assisting farmers in accessing markets for their products.

Isaiah Gitonga Imaita

2013-02-01

372

FLUCTUACIÓN POBLACIONAL Y DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA ESCAMA BLANCA DEL MANGO (Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead EN NAYARIT, MÉXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los estudios se desarrollaron de 2003 a 2005 en huertos comerciales de tres cultivares de mango en Las Varas, Nayarit, México, con los objetivos siguientes: a generar información sobre la fluctuación poblacional anual y b la distribución dentro de los árboles de la escama blanca del mango. Se determinó que Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Hemiptera: Diaspididae es la especie que ataca al mango en Nayarit. Ocurrieron tres fases en el crecimiento poblacional durante el año. Una de baja densidad, desde el final de las lluvias (septiembre hasta diciembre, otra de incremento poblacional de marzo hasta inicio de lluvias (julio y la tercera de drástica reducción de poblaciones durante el periodo de lluvias (julio-agosto. La presencia de escama blanca en follaje fue más abundante en 'Tommy Atkins' y en 'Ataulfo' que en 'Haden'. Respecto a los frutos, las escamas fueron más abundantes en 'Tommy Atkins' y en menor cantidad en 'Ataulfo'. A. tubercularis se distribuyó con mayor densidad en la parte sur y en menor proporción en la parte oeste de los árboles. Se localizó en mayor cantidad en el penúltimo flujo vegetativo (brote interno que en el último flujo (externo de los árboles y también fue más abundante en el haz que en el envés de las hojas.

V. Vu00E1zquez-Valdivia

2010-01-01

373

A new design for high-throughput peel tests: statistical analysis and example  

Science.gov (United States)

The peel test is one of the most common techniques to investigate the properties of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs). As the demand increases for combinatorial tools to rapidly test material performance, designing a high-throughput peel test is a critical improvement of this well-established technique. A glaring drawback to adapting conventional peel tests to study combinatorial specimens is the lack of sufficient statistical information that is the foundation of this type of measurement. For example, using a continuous gradient of sample properties or test conditions in the peel direction implies that each data point (force) corresponds to a given test condition, thus prohibiting the average force to be calculated for a given condition. The aim of this paper is both to highlight the potential problems and limitations of a high-throughput peel test and suggest simple experimental solutions to these problems based on a statistical analysis of the data. The effect of the peel rate on the peel force is used to illustrate our approach.

Chiche, Arnaud; Zhang, Wenhua; Stafford, Christopher M.; Karim, Alamgir

2005-01-01

374

Imaging the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape under a constant load  

CERN Multimedia

Using a high speed camera, we study the peeling dynamics of an adhesive tape under a constant load with a special focus on the so-called stick-slip regime of the peeling. It is the first time that the very fast motion of the peeling point is imaged. The speed of the camera, up to 16000 fps, allows us to observe and quantify the details of the peeling point motion during the stick and slip phases: stick and slip velocities, durations and amplitudes. First, in contrast with previous observations, the stick-slip regime appears to be only transient in the force controlled peeling. Additionally, we discover that the stick and slip phases have similar durations and that at high mean peeling velocity, the slip phase actually lasts longer than the stick phase. Depending on the mean peeling velocity, we also observe that the velocity change between stick and slip phase ranges from a rather sudden to a smooth transition. These new observations can help to discriminate between the various assumptions used in theoretical...

Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic

2007-01-01

375

Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370

Kosi?ska, Agnieszka; Karama?, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

2012-05-01

376

PELADO QUIMICO Y TERMOFISICO DE ESPARRAGOS CHEMICAL AND STEAM PEELING OF ASPARAGUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el pelado químico y termofísico en una etapa de espárragos de la variedad Argentuil. Para el pelado químico se utilizó la Metodología de la Superficie de Respuesta, evaluando el efecto que las variables concentración del baño de NaOH (20, 40, 60 g/kg, temperatura del baño (55, 70, 85ºC y tiempo de pelado (30, 75, 120 segundos tienen sobre el rendimiento de la operación y la calidad del pelado. Para el pelado termofísico se estudió el efecto que el tiempo de pelado (10, 20, 30 segundos y el tamaño del espárrago ejercen sobre las respuestas mencionadas. Se determinó que los modelos estadísticos obtenidos para el pelado químico fueron apropiados, encontrándose que la mejor calidad de pelado y más altos rendimientos se ubican para condiciones de baja concentración de NaOH, corto tiempo y alta temperatura. En el pelado termofísico el tiempo óptimo de procesamiento, para ambos tamaños de espárragos, fue de 20 segundos, para una presión de trabajo de 5,1 kg/m2.One stage chemical and steam peeling of asparagus, Argentuil variety, has been studied. Response Surface Methodology was used to evaluate the effect of the variables, NaOH concentration of bath (20, 40, 60 g/kg, bath temperature (55, 70, 85ºC and the peeling time (30, 75, 120 seconds on yield and peeling quality. For steam peeling process the effect of peeling time (10, 20, 30 seconds and asparagus size on the mentioned responses was also studied. Statistical models developed for chemical peeling of asparagus were appropriate; processing conditions for optimum peeling quality and highest yield were found in regions of low NaOH bath concentration, short peeling time and high bath temperature. The optimum steam peeling time, for both asparagus sizes, was 20 seconds, for a steam pressure of 5.1 kg/cm2.

Raúl L. GARROTE

1998-08-01

377

Creep of a fracture line in paper peeling  

CERN Multimedia

The slow motion of a crack line is studied via an experiment in which sheets of paper are split into two halves in a ``peel-in-nip'' (PIN) geometry under a constant load, in creep. The velocity-force relation is exponential. The dynamics of the fracture line exhibits intermittency, or avalanches, which are studied using acoustic emission. The energy statistics is a power-law, with the exponent $\\beta \\sim 1.8 \\pm 0.1$. Both the waiting times between subsequent events and the displacement of the fracture line imply complicated stick-slip dynamics. We discuss the correspondence to tensile PIN tests and other similar experiments on in-plane fracture and the theory of creep for elastic manifolds.

Koivisto, J; Alava, M J

2007-01-01

378

Antifungal properties of yam (Dioscorea alata) peel extract.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extraction of natural antifungal compounds from the peels of yam (Dioscorea alata) and the effect of these compounds on both the vegetative and reproductive structures of some yam not pathogens were studied. Four prominent antifungal components were obtained; one of the components was fully characterized and identified as beta-sitosterol. The antifungal activity of the compounds toward the germination of spores of two yam pathogens showed an inhibition of less than 57% at a concentration of 50 mg/L while inhibition on the elongation of germ-tubes of Fusarium moniliforme was as high as 82% at the same concentration. However, the ED50 for inhibition of germ-tube elongation in the yam compounds for the same organism was below 32 mg/L. The role of the yam compounds at high concentrations in disease resistance is discussed. PMID:9173001

Aderiye, B I; Ogundana, S K; Adesanya, S A; Roberts, M F

1996-01-01

379

Production of biomass from untreated orange peel by fusarium avenaceum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth behaviour of Fusarium avenaceum (Sect. Roseum Wr.) in slurry fermentation systems using untreated orange peel as substrate was studied in a laboratory-fermenter scale to reproduce the results obtained in a shaken-flask fermenter. The eventual effect of impeller speed on mechanical disruption of mycelial hyphae was then assessed by determining mycelial growth, total reducing sugars consumption, TOC reduction, carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen absorption rates. In particular, the main biomass yield coefficient, as well as the apparent specific growth rate, appeared to be independent of the impeller speed, at least within the experimental range of 450 and 900 min/sup -1/ (equivalent to peripheral impeller speeds of 3.8-7.5 m sec /sup -1/.

Moresi, M.; Clementi, F.; Rossi, J.; Vinti, G.L.; Medici, R.

1987-10-01

380

Process optimization for supercritical concentration of orange peel oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english This work addresses modeling, simulation and optimization of countercurrent deterpenation of orange peel oil, modeled as a model mixture of limonene-linalool, with supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Binary and ternary systems are modeled with a group contribution equation of state, and vapor-l [...] iquid equilibria and selectivity predictions are compared to experimental data from different sources. A nonlinear programming model is proposed for the maximization of net profit. Process simulations are carried out at conditions reported in the literature and component purity and recovery in the output streams are contrasted against laboratory-scale process results. Optimization results provide operating conditions and equipment size to maximize net profit.

Espinosa, S.; Diaz, M. S.; Brignole, E. A..

 
 
 
 
381

Sliding and peeling of histone during chromatin remodelling  

CERN Multimedia

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CRE) are bio-molecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific stretches of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp $\\sim$ 50 nm of a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. We investigate the mechanism of peeling of the histone spool, and its complete detachment, from the dsDNA by a CRE. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechano-chemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean times for histone detachment. Our predictions on the ATP-dependence of the measurable quantities can be tested by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments.

Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish

2011-01-01

382

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

2009-06-08

383

Fabrication of multilayer graded density peeled-carbon-aerogel target  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} 5-Layer graded density (50-400 mg cm{sup -3}) carbon aerogel target was fabrication. {yields} Ultra-low density (10 mg cm{sup -3}) SiO{sub 2} aerogel as a bonding agent. {yields} Thickness of each unit sheet ranged from 100 to 580 {mu}m. {yields} Several surface micro-treatments were used to peel off the 150 nm dense layer. {yields} As a potential target for shock wave experiments. -- Abstract: As a potential target for shock wave experiments, the multilayer graded density carbon aerogel target was prepared. Firstly, carbon aerogel sheets with varying thickness and density were fabricated by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde by a self-made flexible micro-mould. Secondly, with ultra-low density (10 mg cm{sup -3}) SiO{sub 2} aerogel as a bonding agent, a 5-layer graded density carbon aerogel target was obtained. The thickness of each unit sheet ranged from 100 to 580 {mu}m, and the density ranged from 50 to 400 mg cm{sup -3}{sub .} We focused on fabrication of unit sheets, peeling off their dense layers (about 150 nm) and research of C/SiO{sub 2} aerogel interface microstructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray phase contrast imager and surface profiler were used to observe the multilayer structure and characterize the surface and internal microstructure of unit sheets. The results showed that the target fabricated by such method possessed multilayer graded density structure with homogeneous C/SiO{sub 2} interface and excellent formability.

Zhong Yanhong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou Bin, E-mail: zhoubin863@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Gui Jiayin; Du Ai; Zhang Zhihua; Shen Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2011-03-15

384

Radioactive waste solidification material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH)2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

1990-11-26

385

Honey dressing versus boiled potato peel in the treatment of burns: a prospective randomized study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey dressing was compared with boiled potato peel dressings as a cover for fresh partial-thickness burns in two groups of 50 randomly allocated patients. In the 50 patients treated with honey, 90 per cent of wounds were rendered sterile within 7 days. In the 50 patients treated with boiled potato peel dressings, persistent infection was noted within 7 days. Of the wounds treated with honey, 100 per cent healed within 15 days as against 50 per cent in the wounds treated with boiled potato peel dressings (mean 10.4 vs. 16.2 days). PMID:8884013

Subrahmanyam, M

1996-09-01

386

Inhibitory Effect of Citrus Peel Essential Oils on the Microbial Growth of Bread  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of citrus peel essential oils on the microbial growth and sensory characteristics of bread. Citrus peel essential oils extracted by cold expression from malta (Citrus sinensis and mossumbi (Citrus sinensis were applied in different forms (treatments separately. The essential oils significantly affected sensory characteristics such as symmetry of form, character of crust, colour of crumb, colour of crust, taste, texture, aroma and grain of bread. They also inhibited and delayed the microbial growth in the bread. Maximum inhibitory effect was achieved against molds and bacteria by spraying the malta peel essential oil on bread.

Salim -ur-Rehman

2007-01-01

387

[A preliminary study on bioactivity of orange and tangerine peel extracts against aphis and mites].  

Science.gov (United States)

An assay was made on the bioactivity of the extracts of tangerine peel from Cinocitrus tangerina, orange peel from Citrus sinensis and mixed tangerine peel from Cinocitrus sp. against aphis Semia phis heraclei, Aphis craccivora, Uroleucon gobonis and Myzus persicae using residual film or topical method, and against mites Tetranychus viennensis and T. trancatus using slide-dip or immersion method. Test results show that these extracts have strong bioactivity against aphids and mites. The corrected mortality regression equations and LC50 (or LD50) of these extracts to pests are presented. PMID:7576134

Fan, Y; Ding, Z; Yang, L; Xu, L; Zhang, G; Li, K

1995-07-01

388

Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjec...

Gold, Michael H.; Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

2011-01-01

389

Effect of orange peel essential oil on oxidative stress in AOM animals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The processing parameters of pump speed, inlet air temperature, outlet air temperature and homogenization pressure were evaluated. Encapsulation efficiency is high with a satisfied releasing rate. Then, acute otitis media (AOM) animal model was built and diet containing orange peel essential oil microcapsules were administrated to AOM animals. Pharmacological test showed that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease serum and cochlea malondialdehyde (MDA), immunoglobulins A (IgA), immunoglobulins G (IgG), immunoglobulins M (IgM) levels and increase antioxidant enzymes activities. It can be concluded that orange peel essential oil treatment could decrease oxidative injury in acute otitis media rats. PMID:22342737

Lv, Yun-Xia; Zhao, Su-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Zhi-Hai; Cai, Geng-Ming; Jiang, Wei-Hong

2012-05-01

390

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Fruit Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME of peels had higher yield (45.4% and total phenolics (27.4% than water (WE or ether extracts (EE. The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05 than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (% of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

Najeeb S. Al-zoreky

2012-06-01

391

Chemical Peels for Acne and Acne Scars in Asians: Evidence Based Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars, but there are very few studies on Asian populations who are more prone to develop hyper pigmentation. This article aims to summarize and evaluate the existing studies on the role of chemical peels in the treatment of acne and acne scars among Asians. An online search was conducted to identify prospective studies published in English that evaluated the use of chemical peels in active acne and acne scars in As...

2012-01-01

392

The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio was 3.75±1.08 for spectrophotometric and 3.50±0.95 for HPLC measurements. Comparison of the results of lycopene content expressed on a dry weight basis revealed that the peel from raw tomato cont...

Markovic, K.; Panjkota-krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D. D.; Vahcic, N.

2010-01-01

393

Farelo de manga na dieta de cordeiros em confinamento / Mango meal in diets of feedlot lambs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição do milho por farelo de manga em dietas para ovinos. As características avaliadas foram: consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS), da proteína bruta (PB), da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), da matéria orgânica (MO), do extrato etéreo (EE), da energ [...] ia bruta (EB), da energia digestível (ED), dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF) e dos carboidratos totais (CT). Vinte e quatro cordeiros Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, constituídos pelas porcentagens de substituição do milho pelo farelo de manga - 0, 33, 66 e 100% -, com seis repetições. A matéria seca fecal foi estimada utilizando-se o indicador LIPE®. Não houve efeito da inclusão do farelo de manga sobre o consumo dos nutrientes e nos coeficientes de digestibilidade. Os consumos de EB e ED, em kcal/gMS, aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de manga. O farelo de manga pode substituir o milho em dietas para ovinos, sem comprometer o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, indicando a possibilidade de uso na dieta desses animais como alimento alternativo. Abstract in english The effect of replacing corn meal with mango meal in diets of feedlot lambs was evaluated. Apparent digestibility and intakes of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), organic matter (OM) (EE), gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) and [...] total carbohydrates (TC) were evaluated. Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were distributed in a randomized design with four treatments, consisting of the replacement levels of corn meal by mango (0, 33, 66 and 100%) with six replicates. The fecal dry matter was estimated using LIPE ® external marker. There is no effect of mango meal inclusion levels on the intake and apparent digestibility. The intakes of GE and DE in kcal/gDM increase linearly with mango meal inclusion. The mango meal can replace corn in diets for lambs without compromising the intake and digestibility of nutrients, indicating potential as an alternative feed.

A.S.L., Aragão; L.G.R., Pereira; M.L., Chizzotti; T.V., Voltolini; J.A.G., Azevêdo; L.D., Barbosa; R.D., Santos; G.G.L., Araújo; L.G.N., Brandão.

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Analysis by RP-HPLC of mangiferin component correlation between medicinal loranthus and their mango host trees.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposes a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of mangiferin in medicinal loranthus shrubs and their mango or non-mango host trees. Mangiferin in samples was extracted with a solution of 40% methanol. Analytical determination was conducted by RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection at 258 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-SP column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) by isocratic elution with methanol-0.1% aqueous phosphoric acid (31:69, v/v). Mangiferin contents were 5.04 to 18.95 mg/g in mango trees and 0.44 to 3.72 mg/g in medicinal loranthus parasitized on mango host trees. Mangiferin could not be detected in non-mango trees and their loranthus shrubs. This study indicated that host trees could affect the quality of medicinal loranthus by transporting host-inherent components into loranthus. PMID:23247031

Zhang, Xiejun; Su, Benwei; Li, Jing; Li, Yonghua; Lu, Dong; Zhu, Kaixin; Pei, Hehuan; Zhao, Minghui

2014-01-01

395

KARAKTERISTIK PENGERINGAN CHIPS MANGGA MENGGUNAKAN KOLEKTOR SURYA KACA GANDA [Characteristics of Mango Chips Drying Using a Double Plated Solar Collector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study the characteristics of mango chips drying using a double plated solar collector. The materials used were sliced mangoes with the thickness of 3, 6, and 8 mm. The equipments used for this research were double plated solar collector, thermocouple, digital balance, thermometer, vacuum oven, and desiccators. The research parameters included the rate of heat energy absorbed by the double plated solar collector, the heat energy losses, the efficiency of the double plated solar collector and the moisture content of the chips. The results of this study suggested that the use of double plated solar collector could increase the temperature and the amount of heat energy, thus speed up the drying process of the mango chips. The energy needed to evaporate the moisture content in mango decreased in proportion to the increase in drying time. The difference in mango chips’ thickness resulted in different decrease rate in water content until it reached a constant state. The efficiency of the double plated solar collector was 77.82%.

Safrani

2012-12-01

396

Expressed Sequence Tag-Simple Sequence Repeat (EST-SSR Marker Resources for Diversity Analysis of Mango (Mangifera indica L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a collection of 24,840 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from five mango (Mangifera indica L. cDNA libraries was mined for EST-based simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. Over 1,000 ESTs with SSR motifs were detected from more than 24,000 EST sequences with di- and tri-nucleotide repeat motifs the most abundant. Of these, 25 EST-SSRs in genes involved in plant development, stress response, and fruit color and flavor development pathways were selected, developed into PCR markers and characterized in a population of 32 mango selections including M. indica varieties, and related Mangifera species. Twenty-four of