WorldWideScience
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Chemical Profiling of Different Mango Peel Varieties  

OpenAIRE

The present exploration was an attempt to investigate the therapeutic potential of mango peel extract. For the purpose, five different mango peels namely chaunsa, anwar ratol, langra, dusahri and desi were nutritionally characterized. The nutritional analysis indicated that mango peel is a good source of moisture, protein and minerals. The means elucidated highest moisture in the peel of desi mango 71.38±2.05 followed by anwar ratol, chaunsa, langra and dusahri ...

Muhammad Imran; Masood Sadiq Butt; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Javed Iqbal Sultan

2013-01-01

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Microwave-assisted extraction of pectic polysaccharide from waste mango peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This present study investigates the extraction characteristics and optimal parameters of the microwave-assisted extraction of pectin from waste mango peel (WMP). Microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio were selected as the extraction parameters and was studied by using Box-Behnken response surface design. The experimental data was analyzed by least square regression analysis method and a second order polynomial model was constructed for response from the experimental data. The constructed model was adequate to explain the relationships between independent variables and response. All studied factors had great influence on the yield of pectin by individually and interactively. The optimum microwave assisted extraction conditions for the highest pectin yield (28.86%) from WMP was found to be: microwave power of 413W, pH of 2.7, time of 134s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:18g/ml. The experimental value was well correlated with predicted value at the optimal condition. PMID:25843835

Maran, J Prakash; Swathi, K; Jeevitha, P; Jayalakshmi, J; Ashvini, G

2015-06-01

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance to norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL, it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL, a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Susy Mary Souto de Oliveira

2011-02-01

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FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal by mango peel waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd2+ and Pb2+ was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g-1, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and proton H+ from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd2+ and Pb2+ revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solution> from aqueous solution

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Modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by extract of mango (Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae) peel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In an ongoing project to evaluate natural compounds isolated from by-products or wastes from vegetables and fruits (edible plants) as modulators of antibiotic resistance, ethanol extract from mango peel was investigated using Staphylococcus aureus strains possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance t [...] o norfloxacin, erythromycin and tetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibiotics were determined by the micro dilution assay in the absence and in the presence of sub-inhibitory mango peel extract concentration. Although the extract did not display relevant antibacterial activity (MIC>2048 µg/mL), it modulated the activity of antibiotics, i.e. in combination with antibiotics (at 512 µg/mL), a four-fold reduction in the MIC values for tetracycline and erythromycin was observed. The results presented here indicates that mango peel could serve as a source of potential adjuvant of antibiotics which add value to this mango by-product.

Susy Mary Souto de, Oliveira; Vivyanne S., Falcão-Silva; José P., Siqueira-Junior; Maria José de Carvalho, Costa; Margareth de Fátima F. de Melo, Diniz.

2011-02-01

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Citrus peel waste treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Citrus peel waste from canneries are treated with an acid and an additional base then fermented by anaerobic bacteria to produce CH/sub 4/. Then the solution is aerobically treated and discharged. The excess activated sludge is recycled for fermentation. Thus, a mixture of mandarin-orange cannery waste (80% water) and 0.5% HCl was heated at 120/sup 0/ to hydrolyze the organic matter to obtain a solution containing glucose and suspended solids. The solution is then enriched with N and P for fermentation to produce 50 L of CH/sub 4/ in 5 days vs 25 L without HCl.

Yamanouchi, I.; Kuno, H.

1977-07-30

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FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

2009-05-15

8

Biomethanization of orange peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has demonstrated that orange peel waste is a potentially valuable resource that can be developed into high value products such as methane. Following a pre-treatment to extract D-limonene, the anaerobic digestion of orange peel waste was evaluated at laboratory and pilot scale under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. D-limonene removals of 70% were reached with pre-treatment. The results showed the convenience of thermophilic conditions for treating this waste as the methane production rate and biodegradability were higher than at mesophilic temperature. At pilot scale, a thermophilic continuously stirred-tank reactor working in semi-continuous mode was employed. The OLR was found to be in the range of 1.20-3.67 kg COD/m(3) d; the most appropriate range for working under stable conditions at SRT of 25 d. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.27-0.29 L(STP)CH(4)/g added COD and the biodegradability 84-90% under these conditions. However, acidification occurred at the highest OLR. PMID:20655741

Martín, M A; Siles, J A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

2010-12-01

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Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel  

OpenAIRE

Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH2PO4, and CoCl2·6H2O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The com...

Viruthagiri, T.; Muthuvelayudham, R.; Saravanan, P.

2012-01-01

10

Application of Statistical Design for the Production of Cellulase by Trichoderma reesei Using Mango Peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimization of the culture medium for cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei was carried out. The optimization of cellulase production using mango peel as substrate was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on cellulase production is achieved using Plackett-Burman design. Avicel, soybean cake flour, KH(2)PO(4), and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O were selected based on their positive influence on cellulase production. The composition of the selected components was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions are as follows: Avicel: 25.30?g/L, Soybean cake flour: 23.53?g/L, KH(2)PO(4): 4.90?g/L, and CoCl(2)·6H(2)O: 0.95?g/L. These conditions are validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced Cellulase activity of 7.8?IU/mL. PMID:23304453

Saravanan, P; Muthuvelayudham, R; Viruthagiri, T

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of extraction methods for preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioactive compounds have become very important in the food and pharmaceutical markets leading research interests seeking efficient methods for extracting these bioactive substances. The objective of this research is to implement preparative scale obtention of mangiferin and lupeol from mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) of autochthonous and Ataulfo varieties grown in Nayarit, using emerging extraction techniques. Five extraction techniques were evaluated: maceration, Soxhlet, sonication (UAE), microwave (MAE) and high hydrostatic pressures (HHP). Two maturity stages (physiological and consumption) as well as peel and fruit pulp were evaluated for preparative scale implementation. Peels from Ataulfo mango at consumption maturity stage can be considered as a source of mangiferin and lupeol using the UEA method as it improves extraction efficiency by increasing yield and shortening time. PMID:24767054

Ruiz-Montañez, G; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; Velázquez-de la Cruz, G; de León, J A Ramírez; Navarro-Ocaña, A

2014-09-15

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Aqueous extracts of mango and orange peel as green inhibitors for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In this paper, aqueous extracts of mango and orange peels were shown to be good corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in a 1 mol L- 1 HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased as the extract concentration increased over a concentration range of 200-600 mg L- 1, varying from 79 to 96% (mango) [...] and 84 to 91% (orange) using Tafel plots and from 69 to 94% (mango) and 76 to 90% (orange) using electrochemical impedance. In the presence of 400 mg L- 1 of mango and orange peel extracts, the weight loss measurements showed an increase in the inhibition efficiency with immersion time, where the best results after 24 h of immersion were 97% and 95%, respectively. The adsorption of the extract components on the surface of the carbon steel follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. With the extraction procedure used in this work, it can be surmised that it is likely that the more polar heterosides in the extracts are responsible for the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in an acid solution.

Janaina Cardozo da, Rocha; José Antônio da Cunha Ponciano, Gomes; Eliane, D& #39; Elia.

1581-15-01

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The impact of extraction with a chelating agent under acidic conditions on the cell wall polymers of mango peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to evaluate whether mango peel is a potential source of functional cell wall polymers. To reach this objective, the native pectin polymers (NPP) extracted as alcohol insoluble residue from mango peel, were characterised in terms of uronic acid content, degree of methoxylation, neutral sugar content, and molar mass and compared to citric acid (pH 2.5, 2h at 80°C) extracted polymers, mimicking industrial pectin extraction conditions. Water-solubilised NPP were highly methoxylated having two populations with a Mw of 904 and 83kDa and a degree of methoxylation of 66%. Citric acid extraction with a yield higher than H2SO4 extraction resulted in a very branched pectin with an extremely high DM (83%) and a high molar mass. Comparing the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy of extracted and native WSF showed that citric acid remained partially associated to the extracted pectin due to its chelating properties. PMID:24837941

Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Shpigelman, Avi; Kyomugasho, Clare; Van Buggenhout, Sandy; Ramezani, Mohsen; Van Loey, Ann M; Hendrickx, Marc E

2014-10-15

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EFFECT OF D-LIMONENE ON THE FERMENTATION OF CITRUS PEEL WASTE  

Science.gov (United States)

Approximately 10 million tons of oranges are processed in the US each year, producing approximately 5 million tons of citrus peel waste consisting of peel, seeds and segment membranes. Conversion of citrus peel waste into more valuable products, such as fuel ethanol, would greatly benefit the citru...

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Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

2014-07-01

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Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities. PMID:21534889

Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

2011-09-01

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Uni-dimensional double development HPTLC-densitometry method for simultaneous analysis of mangiferin and lupeol content in mango (Mangifera indica) pulp and peel during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit is one of the important commercial fruit crops of India. Similar to other tropical fruits it is also highly perishable in nature. During storage/ripening, changes in its physico-chemical quality parameters viz. firmness, titrable acidity, total soluble solid content (TSSC), carotenoids content, and other biochemicals are inevitable. A uni-dimensional double-development high-performance thin-layer chromatography (UDDD-HPTLC) method was developed for the real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol in mango pulp and peel during storage. The quantitative determination of both compounds of different classes was achieved by densitometric HPTLC method. Silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates and two solvent systems viz. toluene/EtOAC/MeOH and EtOAC/MeOH, respectively were used for optimum separation and selective evaluation. Densitometric quantitation of mangiferin was performed at 390nm, while lupeol at 610nm after post chromatographic derivatization. Validated method was used to real-time monitoring of mangiferin and lupeol content during storage in four Indian cultivars, e.g. Bombay green (Bgreen), Dashehari, Langra, and Chausa. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between of acidity and TSSC with mangiferin and lupeol in pulp and peel during storage were also observed. PMID:25624210

Jyotshna; Srivastava, Pooja; Killadi, Bharti; Shanker, Karuna

2015-06-01

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Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa, os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente reconhecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC e outro da amêndoa (FA de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC. Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos.The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC and kernel (FA extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC. In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida Arbos

2013-04-01

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Atividade antimicrobiana, antioxidante e teor de compostos fenólicos em casca e amêndoa de frutos de manga / Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in mango peel and kernel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O processamento industrial de frutos de manga gera elevada quantidade de resíduos agroindustriais, representados pelas cascas e sementes (amêndoa), os quais, sem aplicação viável, acabam sendo descartados diretamente no meio ambiente. Esses resíduos são ricos em compostos bioativos, amplamente recon [...] hecidos pelas suas propriedades promotoras da saúde e em aplicações tecnológicas. Os objetivos foram avaliar as atividades antimicrobiana e antioxidante e o teor de compostos fenólicos de dois extratos: um obtido da casca (FC) e outro da amêndoa (FA) de manga variedade 'Tommy Atkins'. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais variou de 3.123 a 6.644 mg de catequina/100 g. Os extratos FC e FA demonstraram relevante atividade antimicrobiana frente às cepas das bactérias Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Staphylococcus aureus, determinadas pelo método de difusão em disco. A ação antioxidante de FC e FA aumentou com o aumento das concentrações testadas, atingindo o valor máximo de 88% (FC). Em todas as concentrações testadas os extratos FC apresentaram ação antioxidante significativamente superior às respectivas concentrações dos extratos FA. Esses resultados sugerem potencial aplicação dos resíduos de manga como fonte de compostos fenólicos, substâncias antimicrobianas e antioxidantes, podendo ser explorados pelas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english The industrial processing of mangoes generates high amount of agroindustrial waste in the form of peel and kernel, which, without feasible application, is eventually discharged directly into the environment. These residues are rich in bioactive compounds, widely recognized for their health-promoting [...] activity and technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic composition of peel (FC) and kernel (FA) extracts from mango of variety 'Tommy Atkins' . Total phenolic compounds of the samples ranged between 3123 and 6644 mg of catequin/ 100g. The extracts FC and FA showed good antimicrobial activity against bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by the disc diffusion method. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant action of FC and FA increases with increasing concentrations, reaching a maximum value of 88% (FC). In all concentrations tested, the FC extracts showed antioxidant activity significantly higher than the respective concentrations of FA. The results suggest potential practical applications of mango residues as sources of phenolic compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant agents and should be exploited by food industry.

Kettelin Aparecida, Arbos; Pamela Caroline, Stevani; Raquel de Fátima, Castanha.

2013-04-01

20

Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

2012-05-01

21

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of limonene concentration, enzyme loading, and pH on ethanol production from simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of citrus peel waste by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied at 37 C. Prior to SSF, citrus peel waste underwent a steam explosion process combined with fla...

22

Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of alk(en)ylresorcinols using rapid ultrasound-assisted extraction of mango peels and rye grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exhaustive extraction of alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs) from biological matrices is a prerequisite for economic screening of extensive plant collections including their rapid quantitation. For this purpose, an ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol was developed to facilitate the liberation of ARs from mango peels (Mangifera indica L.) and rye grains (Secale cereale L.). While maintaining or even improving the extraction efficiency of the analytes, the duration of analytical extraction was shortened from more than 1h to only 45s as compared to previous methods. In addition, sample weight and solvent use were significantly reduced. Besides the validation of the extraction procedure, validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD-MS(n) based characterisation and quantitation method are provided. In particular, fully satisfactory recovery rates and quantitation limits were achieved, and coefficients of variation (CV) for repeatability and reproducibility were ?8 and <5%, respectively. Moreover, a high compound stability was shown for all ARs during storage in methanolic solution at room temperature for 48h and at -80°C for up to 13months. The developed method was exemplified using two mango and three rye cultivars, and the results were compared to previously published data. PMID:25236225

Geerkens, Christian H; Matejka, Anna E; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

2015-02-15

23

Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements. PMID:20093022

Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

2010-05-01

24

Pectina extraída de casca de pequi e aplicação em geleia light de manga / Extracted pectin of 'pequi' peel and application in light mango jam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre os frutos do Cerrado, destaca-se o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), que é constituído por aproximadamente 80% de casca, que é desprezada; no entanto, apresenta potencial de utilização em várias aplicações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das variáveis concentração de áci [...] do cítrico, temperatura e tempo de extração sobre o rendimento e o grau de esterificação da pectina extraída da casca de pequi e compará-la com a pectina cítrica comercial aplicada na formulação de geleia light. Obtiveram-se rendimentos de pectina entre 14,89 e 55,86 g.100g-1. A pectina obtida da casca de pequi caracterizou-se por apresentar baixo grau de esterificação (11,79-48,87%). A geleia light elaborada a partir da pectina da casca de pequi, extraída à temperatura de 84ºC por 92 minutos, na presença de 2% de ácido cítrico, obteve boa aceitação por parte dos provadores, alcançando escores médios acima de 7,0, diferindo da geleia produzida com pectina cítrica comercial apenas na aparência. Conclui-se que é viável utilizar a pectina da casca de pequi como ingrediente para formulação de geleia light de manga. Abstract in english Among the fruits of the Cerrado stands 'Pequi'(Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), which consists of approximately 80% of peel, but is ignored, however has potential for use in various applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of variables citric acid concentration, temperatur [...] e and extraction time on yield and esterification degree of pectin extracted from the pequi peel, and compares it with commercial citrus pectin applied in the light formulation jam. It was obtained yields of pectin from 14.89 and 55.86 g.100g-1. Pectin derived from peel pequi was characterized by having a low esterification degree (11.79 to 48.07%). The light jam made from the pectin extracted from the "pequi" peel at the temperature of 84 °C for 92 minutes in the presence of 2% citric acid, obtained good acceptance by the tasters, reaching mean scores above7.0, differing from jam produced with commercial citrus pectin in appearance only. It follows that it is possible to use the pectin from pequi peel as an ingredient for formulation of mango light jam.

Beatriz dos Santos, Siqueira; Letícia Dias, Alves; Pollyanna Novato, Vasconcelos; Clarissa, Damiani; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior.

2012-06-01

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Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation  

OpenAIRE

A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate for ethanol production in the ratio 4:6 (kinnow waste: banana peels)...

Sharma, Naresh; Kalra, K. L.; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Bansal, Sunil

2007-01-01

26

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water) at orchard gate was 2298 l kg-1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg-1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

Ridoutt, B. G.; Juliano, P.; Sanguansri, P.; Sellahewa, J.

2009-07-01

27

Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients. PMID:25650141

Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

2015-06-01

28

Avaliação química de geléias de manga formuladas com diferentes níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa Chemical evaluation of mango (Mangifera indica L jams formulated with different levels of peels in substitution to pulp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar a qualidade de geléias formuladas com níveis de 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 % e 100 % de cascas em substituição à polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. Os critérios de qualidade utilizados foram os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos totais, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, vitamina C, fibra insolúvel, pectina, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis nas polpas e cascas das mangas e nos diferentes tratamentos. Observou-se que nos tratamentos com substituição da polpa por cascas encontraram-se teores significativamente maiores de proteínas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e menores valores calóricos, acidez titulável, carboidratos totais e açúcares totais em relação ao controle. Os tratamentos foram semelhantes em relação ao teor de vitamina C e sólidos solúveis. Com a elevação dos níveis de cascas em substituição à polpa observou-se aumento do teor de cinzas, fibras insolúveis e sacarose e redução dos açúcares redutores. Concluiu-se que a substituição parcial ou total de polpa por cascas de manga na formulação melhora o valor nutricional e funcional das geléias apesar da diminuição do valor calórico, com benefícios econômicos e ambientais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of jams formulated with peel levels of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% in substitution to mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. cv. Haden. The quality criteria were moisture, ashes, proteins, fat, total carbohydrate, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, vitamin C, insoluble fiber, pectin, titrable fruit acidity, soluble solids contents and pH in the mango pulp, mango peels and different treatments. It was observed that in the treatments with substitution of pulp by peels, the contents of proteins, insoluble fiber and sucrose were significantly higher than the control. The caloric values, titrable fruit acidity, total carbohydrate and total sugars were lower than the control. There was no significant difference among the treatments regarding vitamin C and soluble solids contents. With the increase of levels of peels in substitution to pulp it was observed an increase in ashes, insoluble fiber and sucrose and decrease in reducing sugar contents. As a conclusion, the partial or total substitution of pulp by mango peels in the formulation improved the nutritional and functional values of the jams, in addition of a decrease in the caloric value, with economic and environmental advantages.

Clarissa Damiani

2009-02-01

29

Consumptive water use associated with food waste: case study of fresh mango in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many parts of the world, freshwater is already a scarce and overexploited natural resource, raising concerns about global food security and damage to freshwater ecosystems. This situation is expected to intensify with the FAO estimating that world food production must double by 2050. Food chains must therefore become much more efficient in terms of consumptive water use. For the small and geographically well-defined Australian mango industry, having an average annual production of 44 692 t of marketable fresh fruit, the average virtual water content (sum of green, blue and gray water at orchard gate was 2298 l kg?1. However, due to wastage in the distribution and consumption stages of the product life cycle, the average virtual water content of one kg of Australian-grown fresh mango consumed by an Australian household was 5218 l. This latter figure compares to an Australian-equivalent water footprint of 217 l kg?1, which is the volume of direct water use by an Australian household having an equivalent potential to contribute to water scarcity. Nationally, distribution and consumption waste in the food chain of Australian-grown fresh mango to Australian households represented an annual waste of 26.7 Gl of green water and 16.6 Gl of blue water. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce food chain waste will likely have as great or even greater impact on freshwater resource availability as other water use efficiency measures in agriculture and food production.

B. G. Ridoutt

2009-07-01

30

Milk Yield and Composition of Grazing White Fulani Cows Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peel Based Diets  

OpenAIRE

The influence of supplementation of poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on milk yield and composition of White Fulani (Bunaji) cows were evaluated in this study. Four cows in 2nd parity and mid-lactation stage were fed 4 concentrate diets (A, B, C, D) consecutively in a 4x4 latin square arrangement. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of dried poultry waste (DPW) and cassava peel ...

Ndubueze, A. I.; Ukachukwu, S. N.; Ahamefule, F. O.; Ibeawuchi, J. A.

2006-01-01

31

Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Bucks Fed Poultry Waste-Cassava Peels Based Diets  

OpenAIRE

The effect of feeding poultry waste-cassava peel based diets on the nutrient intake and digestibility were evaluated using four West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks. The animals were confined individually in metabolism cages and offered the treatment diets (A-D) in a 4 x 4 Latin Square Design. The diets were formulated from poultry waste, cassava peel, palm kernel cake, molasses, bone meal and common salt. The percent compositions of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) and cassava peel in the diets were 0, 5...

Ukanwoko, A. I.; Ibeawuchi, J. A.

2009-01-01

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PROPIEDADES TÉCNICO-FUNCIONALES DE LA FIBRA DIETARIA DE CÁSCARAS DE MANGO VARIEDADHILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFECTO DEL SECADO POR CONVECCIÓN / TECHNOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DIETARY FIBER FROM MANGO PEEL VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFFECT OF CONVECTION DRYING / PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS DA FIBRA DIETÉTICA DA CASCA DE MANGA VAR. HILACHA (Mangifera indica L.): EFEITO DA SECAGEM POR CONVECÇÃO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Um subproduto da produção de sumo de manga é a sua casca, que contém níveis significativos de fibra dietética que pode ser utilizado no processamento de alimentos, no entanto, não é actualmente utilizada. O processo de secagem prolonga-se a vida útil da casca e permite que seja adicionada a outros a [...] limentos. Neste estudo, CMH foi caracterizado quimicamente e avaliado o efeito da temperatura de secagem nas propriedades funcionais da fibra dietética; Capacidade inchaço (CI), capacidade de Reter Água (CRA) e Capacidade de Adsorção de Lipídeos (CAL), características determinam em grande parte a qualidade da fibra dietética (FD). Os resultados mostraram que o HMP é semelhante a outras variedades de manga, porque tem um conteúdo similar de fibra dietética total, proteína, extrato etéreo, carboidratos e fibra bruta. A casca seca da manga Hilacha (CSMH) obtido, é uma fonte promissora de DF porque a sua qualidade não afetou de forma significativa para o processo de secagem utilizado neste trabalho. Abstract in spanish Un subproducto de la obtención del jugo de mango es su cáscara; la cual contiene niveles considerables de fibra dietaria que podrían ser utilizados en la elaboración de productos alimenticios, sin embargo, actualmente no es muy aprovechado. El proceso de secado prolonga la vida útil de la cascara y [...] permite que pueda ser adicionada a otros alimentos. En este estudio, se caracterizó fisicoquímicamente la Cáscara de Mango Hilacha (CMH) y se evaluó el efecto de cinco temperaturas de secado sobre las propiedades técnico-funcionales de la fibra dietaria; Capacidad de Hinchamiento (CH), Capacidad de Retención de Agua (CRA) y Capacidad de Adsorción de Lípidos (CAL), características que determinan en gran medida la calidad de la fibra dietaria (FD). Los resultados obtenidos indican que la CMH tiene un contenido de fibra dietaria total, proteína, extracto etéreo, carbohidratos y fibra cruda similar al de otras variedades de mango. La cáscara de mango hilacha seca y molida (CSMH) obtenida, es una promisoria fuente de FD, ya que su calidad no se vio afectada significativamente por el proceso de secado empleado en este trabajo. Abstract in english A byproduct from juice extraction of mango is the peel, which contains significant levels of dietary fiber that could be used in food processing, however, is not currently utilized. The drying process extends the useful life of the peel and allows it to be added to other foods. In This work, we made [...] a chemical characterization of HMP and evaluated the drying temperature effect over functional properties of dietary fiber; Swelling Capacity (SC), Water Retention Capacity (WRC) and Lipid Adsorption Capacity (LAC), features that define, in high degree, dietary fiber (DF) quality. Results showed that the HMP is similar to other mangoes varieties, because have a similar content of total dietary fiber, protein, ether extract, carbohydrates and crude fiber. The dry peel of Hilacha mango (MDPHM) obtained, is a promising source of DF because their quality didn’t affected significantly for the drying process used in this work.

GUSTAVO ADOLFO, HINCAPIÉ LL.; DIANA CAROLINA, VÁSQUEZ O; VALERIA SOFÍA, GALICIA M; CARLOS AUGUSTO, HINCAPIÉ LL..

2014-06-30

33

Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from waste potato peel by aqueous two-phase extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel from food industrial waste is a good source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). This work illustrates the application of an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) for the extraction and purification of PPO from potato peel. ATPS was composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and potassium phosphate buffer. Effect of different process parameters, namely, PEG, potassium phosphate buffer, NaCl concentration, and pH of the system, on partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield of PPO enzyme were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized as a statistical tool for the optimization of ATPS. Optimized experimental conditions were found to be PEG1500 17.62% (w/w), potassium phosphate buffer 15.11% (w/w), and NaCl 2.08 mM at pH 7. At optimized condition, maximum partition coefficient, purification factor, and yield were found to be 3.7, 4.5, and 77.8%, respectively. After partial purification of PPO from ATPS, further purification was done by gel chromatography where its purity was increased up to 12.6-fold. The purified PPO enzyme was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), followed by Km value 3.3 mM, and Vmax value 3333 U/mL, and enzyme stable ranges for temperature and pH of PPO were determined. These results revealed that ATPS would be an attractive option for obtaining purified PPO from waste potato peel. PMID:25036474

Niphadkar, Sonali S; Vetal, Mangesh D; Rathod, Virendra K

2015-01-01

34

Preservation of mango and mango pulp by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out to investigate the following points: I- Effect of ionizing radiation alone (0-2 kGy) or in combination with hot water dip treatment (55 C/5 min.) on the shelf-life extension, chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango fruits (at mature green stage) stored at 12± 1 C. II - Effect of gamma radiation alone (0 -2 kGy) or with steam treatment (for 12 min.) on the chemical, microbiological, rheological and organoleptic properties of mango pulp stored at 3 ± 1 C. III- isolation , purification and identification of moulds associated with peel surface of mango fruits and yeasts associated with mango pulp as well as toxin production from some identified moulds

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Production of Trichoderma asperellum T8a spores by a "home-made" solid-state fermentation of mango industrial wastes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dry wastes (dw generated in processing mangoes, composed (in dry weight mainly of soluble carbohydrates (71 ± 2% and fiber (16 ± 1%, were evaluated as substrates in a “home-made” solid-state fermentation (using polyurethane foam as inert support matrix, various C:N ratios, moisture contents, and incubation periods of Trichoderma asperellum T8a, a promising biological control agent against the mango pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (causal agent of anthracnose. Highest spore production (2.5 x 106 up to 76 ± 3 x 108 spores g-1 dw occurred after 8 days of incubation [at 28 ± 1 °C, relative humidity of 85 ± 5%, photoperiod of 12h (540 Lux - 12h (20 Lux] at a C:N ratio of 26, and a moisture content of 78%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that T. asperellum T8a was able to grow on mango industrial wastes and into polyurethane foam. The extensive growth can be related to cellulases secreted by this fungus, liberating glucose from these wastes to its growth. Most (94 ± 1% of the spores grown on mango industrial wastes survived storage at 4 °C for 7 days and were equally effective as those grown on potato dextrose agar medium (86 ± 4% viable in biological control tests against C. gloeosporioides ATCC MYA 456. Results indicate the potential use of mango industrial wastes as substrates to produce T. asperellum T8a spores in situ (mango orchards under a cheap “home-made” solid-state fermentation, reducing problems associated with wastes disposal and permitting the production of a biological control agent against C. gloeosporioides.

Francisco Villaseñor-Ortega

2012-11-01

36

Process variables influence on microwave assisted extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L. peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and optimize the influence of process variables such as microwave power, pH, time and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction of pectin from waste Carcia papaya L peel. The experiments were carried out based on a four factors three level Box-Behnken response surface design. A quadratic model was developed from the experimental data in order to predict the pectin yield. The optimal condition was found to be: microwave power of 512 w, pH of 1.8, time of 140 s and solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 g/ml with maximum pectin yield (25.41%). PMID:25445679

Maran, J Prakash; Prakash, K Arun

2015-02-01

37

Anaerobic digestion of peel waste and wastewater for on site energy generation in a citrus processing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A citrus processing facility produces significant quantities of both peel waste and wastewater. A leach – bed batch anaerobic digester was operated successfully at thermophilic (55 °C) temperature for biogasification of citrus peel waste. The retention time in the digester was 25 days. The citrus processing wastewater was digested in a thermophilic DSFF (down flow stationary fixed film) anaerobic reactor fed continuously and operated for 76 days. At an average organic loading rate of 0.51 kg sCOD m?3 d?1 the hydraulic retention time was 16 days. No long term toxicity issues due to limonene were observed during digestion of both citrus waste feedstocks. Biogasification yielded, 0.116 m3 methane at STP kg?1 peel waste received and 2.1 m3 at STP m?3 wastewater received. An energy analysis showed that in a citrus processing plant handling 600 tons per day of fruits, the biogas produced from the waste streams is more than sufficient to meet all the electricity and fuel demands. Excess electricity generated from biogas may be sold generating estimated revenues of more than a $1 million annually (at electricity sale price of $0.04/kWhe). - Highlights: • Citrus peel waste digestion yields 0.116 m3 of methane at STP per kg as received. • Citrus processing wastewater digestion yields 2.1 m3 of methane at STP per m3. • 600 ton/day citrus factory can produce 3.2 MWe on site, using biogas from wastes. • Biogas can supply all the energy (electricity and fuel) needs of the plant

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Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6 t año-1 y exportador (2*10(5 t año-1 de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económica en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco. Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral.At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6 t year-1 and exporter (2*10(5 t year-1 of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization. This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los Santos-Villalobos

2011-04-01

39

Puntos críticos en el manejo integral de mango: floración, antracnosis y residuos industriales / Critical aspects on the integral management of mango: flowering, anthracnosis and industrial waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel mundial, México se ubica como un participante importante en la producción y comercio de mango fresco, destacando como productor (2*10(6) t año-1) y exportador (2*10(5) t año-1) de dicho fruto e importador de cantidades mínimas con respecto a su producción y exportación. La actividad económic [...] a en torno al mango, está integrada por un conjunto de etapas que van desde la producción del fruto hasta su consumo, a la cual se le ha llamado cadena de valor de mango; con base en el conocimiento científico y empírico en relación a este cultivo, los puntos críticos de mayor impacto sobre esta cadena de valor en México que hemos detectado, con repercusiones negativas para la economía de los fruticultores, se ubican en las etapas de: producción (floración y antracnosis) e industrialización (aprovechamiento de los residuos vegetales generados en el proceso de industrialización del mango fresco). Esta revisión presenta un análisis global de las etapas que ponen en riesgo a esta cadena de valor en México, así como las causas y posibles soluciones a éstas, mediante alternativas que optimicen su manejo integral. Abstract in english At world level, Mexico is located as an important participant in fresh mango production and trade, standing out as producer (2*10(6) t year-1) and exporter (2*10(5) t year-1) of mango and importer of minimum quantities with regard to its production and export. The economic activity around mango, is [...] integrated by a group of stages that goes from fruit production to its consumption, which has been called value chain of mango; with base in scientific and empiric knowledge in relation to this cultivation, the critical points of more impact on this value chain in Mexico that we have detected, with negative repercussions for the economy of fruit farmers, are located in stages: production (flowering and anthracnosis) and industrialization (use of vegetable residuals generated in fresh mango process of industrialization). This revision presents a global analysis of stages that put in risk to this value chain in Mexico, as well as the causes and possible solutions to these, by means of alternatives that optimize its integral handling.

Sergio de los, Santos-Villalobos; Stefan de, Folter; John Paul, Délano-Frier; Miguel Ángel, Gómez-Lim; Doralinda Asunción, Guzmán-Ortiz; Prometeo, Sánchez-García; Juan José, Peña-Cabriales.

2011-04-01

40

Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

OpenAIRE

Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water) prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon) were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel e...

Ashok Kumar, K.; Narayani, M.; Subanthini, A.; Jayakumar, M.

2011-01-01

41

Application of Gum Arabic for Coating of Dried Mango Slices  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica) fruit of kitshenar variety which is grown in wide areas in Sudan was used in this study to investigate the effect of processing treatment and storage period on the quality of dried mango slices (finger). Mango fruits of kitshenar variety were washed carefully, peeled manually and then sliced into (fingers). Mango slices were divided into three portions, the first portion coated with (25% w/v) Gum Arabic purified solution plus (5% w/v) sugar, the second portion was tre...

Inaam Awad Ismail; Mamoun Omer Abdelgader

2011-01-01

42

MANGO FRUIT DESAPPING IN RELATION TO TIME OF HARVESTING  

OpenAIRE

Sapburn injury is regarded as the most serious threat to external fruit quality of mango. When the stem (pedicel) of a mango fruit is broken, the sap exudes out; spreading over the fruit peel causes serious skin damages. This study was intended to determine the best time of harvest and desapping for maximum control of sapburn injury in mango fruits. The performance of lime [Ca(OH)2] was evaluated at different times of the day in comparison with Australian industry product “Mango Wash”. Th...

SAEED AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SHAFIQUE KHALID; ISLAM-UD-DIN; MUHAMMAD SOHAIL MAZHAR; AMAN ULLAH MALIK; MUHAMMAD AMIN

2008-01-01

43

Utilization of waste fruit-peels to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus flavus: a biotreatment of rice for safer storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifungal activity in lemon and pomegranate peels was considerable against Aspergillus flavus, higher in pomegranate (DIZ 37mm; MIC 135?g/mL). Powdered peels (5, 10, 20% w/w) were mixed in inoculated rice. The inhibitory effect on fungal-growth and production of aflatoxins by A. flavus was investigated at storage conditions - temperature (25, 30°C) and moisture (18%, 21%) for 9months. The maximum total aflatoxins accumulated at 30°C, 21% moisture and at 25°C, 18% moisture were 265.09 and 163.45ng/g, respectively in control. Addition of pomegranate-peels inhibited aflatoxins production to 100% during four month-storage of rice at 25°C and 18% moisture, while lemon-peels showed similar inhibitory effect for 3months at same conditions. However a linear correlation was observed in aflatoxins level with temperature and moisture. Studies showed that both fruit-wastes are potent preventer of aflatoxin production in rice, useful for a safer and longer storage of rice. PMID:25270080

Naseer, R; Sultana, Bushra; Khan, M Z; Naseer, D; Nigam, Poonam

2014-11-01

44

Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Citrus Fruit Peels -Utilization of Fruit Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of five different solvent extracts(ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, petroleum ether and water prepared by soxhlet extractor from two citrus fruit peel (Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon were screened against five pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the acetone peel extract of Citrus sinensis followed by the ethyl acetate peel extract of Citrus limon. The peel extract of Citrus sinensis and Citrus limon can be considered to be as equally potent as the antibiotics, such as metacillin and penicillin. MICs were tested at concentrations ranging from 50-6.25 mg/ml as wells as their MBCs. The phytochemical analysis of the citrus peel extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids

K. Ashok kumar

2011-06-01

45

Sorption kinetics and isotherm studies of a cationic dye using agricultural waste: broad bean peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, broad bean peels (BBP), an agricultural waste, was evaluated for its ability to remove cationic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solutions. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30 degrees C. Equilibrium sorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Analysis of the temportal change of q indicates that at the beginning of the process the overall rate of adsorption is controlled by film-diffusion, then at later stage intraparticle-diffusion controls the rate. Diffusion coefficients and times of transition from film to pore-diffusion control were estimated by piecewise linear regression. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The sorption isotherm data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 192.7 mg/g and the equilibrium adsorption constant Ka is 0.07145 l/mg at 30 degrees C. The results revealed that BBP was a promising sorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions. PMID:18063301

Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

2008-06-15

46

Lactic acid production with undefined mixed culture fermentation of potato peel waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato peel waste (PPW) as zero value byproduct generated from food processing plant contains a large quantity of starch, non-starch polysaccharide, lignin, protein, and lipid. PPW as one promising carbon source can be managed and utilized to value added bioproducts through a simple fermentation process using undefined mixed cultures inoculated from wastewater treatment plant sludge. A series of non-pH controlled batch fermentations under different conditions such as pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis, temperature, and solids loading were studied. Lactic acid (LA) was the major product, followed by acetic acid (AA) and ethanol under fermentation conditions without the presence of added hydrolytic enzymes. The maximum yields of LA, AA, and ethanol were respectively, 0.22 g g(-1), 0.06 g g(-1), and 0.05 g g(-1). The highest LA concentration of 14.7 g L(-1) was obtained from a bioreactor with initial solids loading of 60 g L(-1) at 35°C. PMID:25127412

Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

2014-11-01

47

Residues of 14C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 ?g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 ?g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in ped. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

48

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and th...

Ana María Torrado; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Salgado; Belén Max; Noelia Rodríguez; Bibbins, Belinda P.; Attilio Converti; José Manuel Domínguez

2011-01-01

49

Citric Acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10(3) to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications. PMID:24031646

Torrado, Ana María; Cortés, Sandra; Manuel Salgado, José; Max, Belén; Rodríguez, Noelia; Bibbins, Belinda P; Converti, Attilio; Manuel Domínguez, José

2011-01-01

50

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA by solid-state fermentation (SSF of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599 in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculum concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8 spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume, and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6 spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel, corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María Torrado

2011-03-01

51

Citric acid production from orange peel wastes by solid-state fermentation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) peel was employed in this work as raw material for the production of citric acid (CA) by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus niger CECT-2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599) in Erlenmeyer flasks. To investigate the effects of the main operating variables, the inoculu [...] m concentration was varied in the range 0.5·10³ to 0.7·10(8) spores/g dry orange peel, the bed loading from 1.0 to 4.8 g of dry orange peel (corresponding to 35-80 % of the total volume), and the moisture content between 50 and 100 % of the maximum water retention capacity (MWRC) of the material. Moreover, additional experiments were done adding methanol or water in different proportions and ways. The optimal conditions for CA production revealed to be an inoculum of 0.5·10(6) spores/g dry orange peel, a bed loading of 1.0 g of dry orange peel, and a humidification pattern of 70 % MWRC at the beginning of the incubation with posterior addition of 0.12 mL H2O/g dry orange peel (corresponding to 3.3 % of the MWRC) every 12 h starting from 62 h. The addition of methanol was detrimental for the CA production. Under these conditions, the SSF ensured an effective specific production of CA (193 mg CA/g dry orange peel), corresponding to yields of product on total initial and consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 376 and 383 mg CA/g, respectively. These results, which demonstrate the viability of the CA production by SSF from orange peel without addition of other nutrients, could be of interest to possible, future industrial applications.

Ana María, Torrado; Sandra, Cortés; José Manuel, Salgado; Belén, Max; Noelia, Rodríguez; Belinda P, Bibbins; Attilio, Converti; José Manuel, Domínguez.

2011-03-01

52

Usage of the common mango agroindustrial waste (mangifera indica L. in the destraction of fermentables sugars Aprovechamiento del residuo agroindustrial del mango común (Mangifera indica L. en la obtención de azúcares fermentables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The common mango waste (Mangifera indica L. is a vegetable material containing a high level of lignocelluloses tissue which can be used to obtain fermentable metabolites and fermentation products. In this study hydrolysis treatments were applied to the common mango in order to make the conversion of its polysaccharides to fermentable sugar units. Acid hydrolysis was applied to three different concentrations of dilute sulphuric acid. An enzymatic hydrolysis with two types of commercial enzymes to different concentrations in standard work conditions, was also applied. In addition, a thermic hydrolysis was applied at two different temperatures. At each treatment, the following tests were applied: total sugar concentration, reduced sugar concentration, and percentage of cellulose and hemicellulose residuals. Based on the data obtained from the tests, the best treatments were identified and so the best combinations of the best hydrolysis treatments were carried out. The most significant treatment for individual tests was acid hydrolysis at 0, 50% v/v sulphuric acid at 80?C for one hour. In the combined treatments the most relevant result was the treatment that combined the enzymatic hydrolysis (as pretreatment plus a thermic hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis. For security reasons in the reagents use, as well as in the elimination of collateral adverse effects for further alcoholic fermentation, a procedure involving thermic hydrolysis as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, was chosen as the main treatment with the most appropriate application in the fermentable metabolites production from common mango waste in order to produce alcohol. Further studies have allowed approaching the hydrolysis via microbial with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride, as well as the alcoholic fermentation post-treatment hydrolytic using previous studies. The simultaneous hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation, and recently performing the simultaneity of the processes, adding a recombining yeast that has the capacity to ferment sugars from five carbons.El residuo del mango común (Mangifera indica L. es un material vegetal que contiene gran cantidad de tejido lignocelulósico, el cual puede ser aprovechado para la obtención de metabolitos fermentables y productos de la fermentación. En este trabajo se aplicaron tratamientos de hidrólisis al residuo del mango común con el fin de hacer la conversión de sus polisacáridos a unidades de azúcares fermentables. Se aplicó hidrólisis ácida a tres concentraciones diferentes de ácido sulfúrico diluido. También, se aplicó hidrólisis enzimática con dos tipos de enzimas comerciales a diferentes concentraciones en las condiciones de trabajo estándar. De igual manera se aplicó hidrólisis térmica a dos temperaturas diferentes. A cada tratamiento aplicado se le efectuaron pruebas de concentración de azúcares totales, concentración de azúcares reductores, porcentaje de celulosa y hemicelulosa residual, datos con los cuales se determinaron los mejores tratamientos y se procedió a efectuar combinaciones de los mejores tratamientos de hidrólisis. El tratamiento más significativo de las pruebas individuales fue el de hidrólisis ácida a 0,50% v/v de ácido sulfúrico a 80?C por una hora. En los tratamientos combinados el resultado más significativo fue el tratamiento en el que se combinaron la hidrólisis enzimática (como pretratamiento más una hidrólisis térmica e hidrólisis ácida. Por razones de seguridad en el uso de reactivos, así como eliminación de efectos colaterales adversos para la fermentación alcohólica posterior, se seleccionó el procedimiento que involucra la hidrólisis térmica como pretratamiento y la hidrólisis enzimática como tratamiento principal, como el tratamiento de mejor aplicación en la producción de metabolitos fermentables a partir de residuos de mango común con finalidad producción de alcohol posteriormente. Estudios posteriores han permitido abordar la hidrólisis por vía microbiana con Aspergillus niger y Trichoderma v

J. E. Betancourt Gutiérrez

2007-12-01

53

Removal of Blue 56 by Orange Peel from the Waste Water  

OpenAIRE

The use of orange peel as low-cost and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This paper concerns with the removal of Blue 56 from aqueous solutions by orange peel. The effects of pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, and particle size of adsorbent, temperature and also isotherm data analysis and adsorption kinetics were investigated. A maximum removal of 96.76% was obtained at pH 2.5 for ...

Zolfi, M. R. Fat’hi And A.

2012-01-01

54

Studies on the utilization of citrus peel wastes by microorganisms. Part I. Fermentative production of pyruvic acid from citrus peel extract by Debaryomyces coudertii  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fermentative production of pyruvic acid by yeasts was studied using extracts from Citrus natsudaidai peel as a C source. Many yeasts showed good growth. Of these yeasts, Debaryomyces coudertii IFO 1381 produced pyruvic acid at high yield. Pretreatment of the peel extract with Amberlite IR-120B (Na+) led to increased production of pyruvic acid. Under optimum conditions, the accumulation of pyruvic acid reached a maximum of 970 mg/100 mL after 48 h fermentation.

Moriguchi, M.

1982-01-01

55

Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introduction of six raw agro-industrial wastes (orange, lemon, banana, pomegranate, artichoke peel wastes and wheat bran) and other synthetic carbon sources separately into the fermentation broth on PGase productivity was studied through OVAT approach. Orange peel waste as sole raw carbon source in basal medium proved to be the best PGase inducer. It promoted PGase productivity with relative specific activity of 166% comparable with the effect imposed by synthetic citrus pectin as a reference inducer. Three key determinants (orange peel waste, pH of the production medium and incubation temperature) had RSM optimal levels of 1.76% (w/v), 8.0 and 37.8°C, respectively along with maximal PGase level (2.69 ?g galacturonic acid. min(-1). mg(-1)) within 48 hrs. Moreover, SHG10 PGase exhibited activity over a wide range of pH (3-11) and an optimal activity at 50°C. Data greatly encourage pilot scale PGase production from B. licheniformis SHG10. PMID:25077057

Embaby, Amira M; Masoud, Aliaa A; Marey, Heba S; Shaban, Nadia Z; Ghonaim, Tayssir M

2014-01-01

56

Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling  

OpenAIRE

The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

Kim, So-hyun; K Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-ok; Kim, Hee-su; Hyun, Sun-hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-suk; Choi, Hyung-kyoon

2011-01-01

57

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and the individual constituents responsible for them. This review provides an insight on the phytochemical components that contribute too antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic effect, and numerous other effects of wonderful, economic, and eco-friendly pomegranate peel extract (PP). PMID:23878603

Middha, Sushil Kumar; Usha, Talambedu; Pande, Veena

2013-01-01

58

A Review on Antihyperglycemic and Antihepatoprotective Activity of Eco-Friendly Punica granatum Peel Waste  

OpenAIRE

Over the past decade, pomegranate (Punica granatum) is entitled as a wonder fruit because of its voluminous pharmacological properties. In 1830, P. granatum fruit was first recognized in United States Pharmacopeia; the Philadelphia edition introduced the rind of the fruit, the New York edition the bark of the root and further 1890 edition the stem bark was introduced. There are significant efforts and progress made in establishing the pharmacological mechanisms of peel (pericarp or rind) and ...

Sushil Kumar Middha; Veena Pande; Talambedu Usha

2013-01-01

59

Nutritive value and nutrient digestibility of ensiled mango by-products  

OpenAIRE

Mango canning by-products (seed and peel) together with ensiled mango peel were subjected to analysis of dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), nitrogen-free extract (NFE), gross energy (GE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), ADF (IVADFD) and NDF (IVNDFD) was determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in an incubator. CP content in peel, seed and p...

Sompong Sruamsiri

2009-01-01

60

Chemical and thermal characterization of potato peel waste and its fermentation residue as potential resources for biofuel and bioproducts production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growing demand for renewable fuels has driven the interest in the utilization of alternative waste materials such as potato peel waste (PPW) which contains fermentable carbohydrate. Fermentation of PPW using a mixed microbial consortium yielded about 60% unreacted PPW fermentation residue (PPW-FR). The PPW and PPW-FR were characterized by a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to quantify changes after fermentation. Fermentation of PPW resulted in fermentation of starch and concentrating lignin plus suberin and lipids in PPW-FR. TGA analysis showed that decomposition peaks differed for PPW (423 °C) and PPW-FR (457 °C). Pyrolysis-GC/MS showed an increase in phenolic and long chain fatty acid compounds with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrate derived compounds in the PPW after fermentation. Both the PPW and PPW-FR have shown potential based on properties to be converted into crude biofuel via thermochemical processes. PMID:25093245

Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

2014-08-20

61

The Effects of Briquetting Pressure on Banana-Peel Briquette and the Banana Waste in Northern Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Banana is considered as one of the most important agricultural products of Northern Thailand. A large amount of banana peel has been left as garbage after industrial processes. The raw material is plentiful and has low economic value. Therefore, the characteristics of banana-peel briquettes including banana peel properties were investigated. The briquettes were produced with pressures ranging from 3 to 11 MPa. Molasses was used as the binder. According to some standard tests, it was found tha...

Patomsok Wilaipon

2009-01-01

62

Raw agro-industrial orange peel waste as a low cost effective inducer for alkaline polygalacturonase production from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10  

OpenAIRE

The current study underlines biotechnological valorization of the accumulated and the non-efficiently utilized agro-industrial orange peel waste to produce polygalacturonase (PGase), an industrially important enzyme with augmented demands in enzymes markets, from Bacillus licheniformis SHG10. Sequential statistical optimization of PGase production was performed through one variable at a time (OVAT) approach, Plackett-Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM). The impact of introducti...

Embaby, Amira M.; Masoud, Aliaa A.; Marey, Heba S.; Shaban, Nadia Z.; Ghonaim, Tayssir M.

2014-01-01

63

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

OpenAIRE

Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM) fruit (7.49 mg/g DW). Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current...

Fenglei Luo; Qiang Lv; Yuqin Zhao; Guibing Hu; Guodi Huang; Jiukai Zhang; Chongde Sun; Xian Li; Kunsong Chen

2012-01-01

64

Biochemical studies of some non conventional sources of protein. Part 4. The proteins of mango waste stone kernels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gross chemical composition, protein content and amino acid composition of mango stone kernels of four Egyptian varieties (Ewsi, Hendi, Fonso and Timour) were investigated. Carbohydrates are the main components of the seed. The protein content varies between 5.0 and 7.2% and the ether extract ranged from 10.8% to 13.6%. High glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine content and low concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids are characteristic for the proteins of mango kernels. Lysine level is also low, the concentration of other essential amino acids is acceptable. Sulfur-containing amino acids are the first limiting ones followed by lysine and threonine. PMID:3244379

Lásztity, R; el Shafei, M A; Abdel Samei, M B; Hatour, F S; Labib, M

1988-01-01

65

Utilization of orange peel, a food industrial waste, in the production of exo-polygalacturonase by pellet forming Aspergillus sojae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) from orange peel (OP), a food industrial waste, using Aspergillus sojae was studied in submerged culture. A simple, low-cost, industrially significant medium formulation, composed of only OP and (NH4)2SO4 (AS) was developed. At an inoculum size of 2.8 × 10(3) spores/mL, growth was in the form of pellets, which provided better mixing of the culture broth and higher exo-PG activity. These pellets were successfully used as an inoculum for bioreactors and 173.0 U/mL exo-PG was produced. Fed-batch cultivation further enhanced the exo-PG activity to 244.0 U/mL in 127.5 h. The final morphology in the form of pellets is significant to industrial fermentation easing the subsequent downstream processing. Furthermore, the low pH trend obtained during this fermentation serves an advantage to fungal fermentations prone to contamination problems. As a result, an economical exo-PG production process was defined utilizing a food industrial by-product and producing high amount of enzyme. PMID:25352336

Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz; Lahore, Marcello Fernandez; Tari, Canan

2015-04-01

66

Understanding the changes in Sri Lankan mango fruits during postharvest ripening  

OpenAIRE

This is the first study to be carried out which describes changes in biochemical profile of both pre- and post-climacteric Sri Lankan mango fruits. Chemometric analysis revealed that spatial distribution of biochemical compounds between peel and pulp was the major discriminatory factor during maturation; whereas fully mature mango fruit contained the highest concentration of starch and lowest concentration of acids. Since these combined variables also responsible for the final ...

Thanaraj, Thiruchelvam

2010-01-01

67

Variations of total phenol, carotenoid, in vitro antioxidant contents, and phenolic profiles of the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit crop grown worldwide with widely attributed nutritional and health-promoting properties. Extensive studies have been made of the high concentrations of phenolic antioxidants in mango peel, seeds, and leaves, yet less is known about the phenolic antioxi...

68

Chemical Peels  

Science.gov (United States)

... to refresh the face, neck, chest or hands. Medium peel: Glycolic or trichloroacetic acid is applied to penetrate the out and middle layers of skin to remove damaged skin cells. The treatment is used to improve age spots, fine lines and wrinkles, freckles and moderate ...

69

Chilling injury in mangoes  

OpenAIRE

At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular fruits in the world market, and is considered to be a climacteric fruit, ripening rapidly after harvest, it is essential to study how storage affects the external and internal fruit quality in order...

Arafat, L. A. E. T.

2005-01-01

70

Mango extracts and the mango component mangiferin promote endothelial cell migration.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the hypothesis that mango extracts contain bioactive molecules capable of modulating endothelial cell migration, an essential step in the formation of new blood vessels or angiogenesis. The formation of new blood vessels is an important therapeutic target for diseases such as limb ischemia, coronary infarction or stroke. We examined the effect of mango peel and flesh extracts as well as the individual polyphenolic molecules, mangiferin and quercetin, on bovine aortic cell migration using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Our results show that mangiferin, and extracts rich in mangiferin, increase endothelial cell migration. The dose-effect relationship for various extracts further suggests that this action of mangiferin is modulated by other components present in the extracts. The promigratory effect of mango extracts or mangiferin was unrelated to an effect on cell proliferation, and did not involve a change in the production of matrix metalloprotease-2 or -9 by the endothelial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that mangiferin present in mango extracts may have health promoting effects in diseases related to the impaired formation of new blood vessels. PMID:20349963

Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Wilkinson, Ashley S; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J; Parat, Marie-Odile

2010-04-28

71

Production and characterization of alpha-amylase from mango kernel by Fusarium solani NAIMCC-F-02956 using submerged fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial production of enzymes using low valued agro industrial wastes is gaining importance globally. Mango is one of the major fruit processed into a variety of products. During processing 40-50% of solid waste is generated in form of peel and stones. After decortications of mango stone, kernel is obtained which is a rich source of starch (upto 60%). It was utilized as a substrate for alpha-amylase production using Fusarium soloni. Maximum alpha-amylase production (0.889 U g(-1)) was recorded using a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v), pH-4 and temperature 30 degrees C on 9th day of incubation. Supplementation of production medium with micronutrients viz., Ca2+, Fe2+ or Mg2+ improved the enzyme production while, Zn2+, B3+ or Mn2+ ions exhibited inhibitory effect. The extracellular protein was precipitated by ammonium sulphate up to 70% saturation, dialyzed and purified (27.84 fold) by gel-exclusion (Sephadex G-75) chromatography. Protein profiling on 12% SDS-PAGE revealed three bands corresponding to 26, 27 and 30 kDa molecular sizes. The optimum amylase activity was achieved at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The Michaelis constant (KM), Vmax and activation energy (-Ea) were found to be 3.7 mg ml(-1), 0.24 U mg(-1) and 42.39 kJ mole(-1), respectively. PMID:24555336

Kumar, Devendra; Yadav, Kaushlesh K; Muthukumar, M; Garg, Neelima

2013-11-01

72

Secagem convencional de casca de mandioca proveniente de resíduos de indústria de amido / Conventional drying of cassava peel from starch industry waste  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cascas de mandioca provenientes de resíduos de fecularias são altamente perecíveis. A secagem apresenta-se como alternativa na armazenagem segura e livre do desenvolvimento de micro-organismos, para a produção de farinha com aplicabilidade na alimentação humana. Este trabalho objetivou estudar a cin [...] ética e modelagem da secagem de cascas de mandioca, utilizando-se planejamento experimental central composto rotacional. Foram realizados 11 testes, empregando-se diferentes temperaturas (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC e 67ºC) e fluxos de ar (0,0159 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0166 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1; 0,0199 m³ kg-1 s-1; e 0,0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). A secagem foi realizada em secador convencional de bandejas, sendo determinados os tempos de secagem, parâmetros instrumentais de cor (luminosidade - L*; coordenadas a* e b*), acidez titulável e pH das amostras de farinha obtidas após moagem das cascas desidratadas de cada ensaio de secagem. Observou-se tendência ao clareamento do material, com o aumento da temperatura. Ocorreu pequena variação nos valores de acidez titulável e pH das amostras analisadas. A temperatura e a velocidade do ar influenciaram na cinética de secagem, pois, com o aumento de ambas, o tempo de secagem das cascas foi reduzido. O tempo mínimo de secagem (420 min.) foi obtido quando a temperatura do secador foi ajustada para 67ºC e o fluxo de ar para 0,0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. Este foi considerado o ajuste ideal, pois minimizou o tempo de processamento, sem alterar as características do produto. O modelo de Crank para geometria plana ajustou-se bem aos dados experimentais obtidos na secagem da casca de mandioca. Abstract in english Cassava peels from starch industry waste are highly perishable. The drying process is an alternative way to provide a safe storage, free from the development of microorganisms, for the production of flour destined to human consumption. This study aimed at evaluating the kinetics and modeling of the [...] cassava peels drying process, with the aid of a central composite rotational experimental design. Eleven tests were performed with different temperatures (53ºC, 55ºC, 60ºC, 65ºC and 67ºC) and air flow rates (0.0159 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0166 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1, 0.0199 m³ kg-1 s-1 and 0.0206 m³ kg-1 s-1). The drying process was carried out in a conventional dryer tray and the drying times, instrumental color parameters (lightness - L*; a* and b* coordinates), titratable acidity and pH of the flour samples obtained after grinding the dehydrated cassava peels from each drying test were evaluated. The temperature increase resulted in a tendency to bleach the material, and a slight variation was observed for titratable acidity and pH in the samples. Temperature and air flow speed affected the drying kinetics, since their increase reduced the time for drying the cassava peels. The minimum drying time (420 min.) was reached when the dryer temperature was set to 67ºC and the air flow to 0.0183 m³ kg-1 s-1. This was considered the ideal setting, because it minimized the processing time, without altering the product features. The Crank model for plane geometry fitted well the experimental data obtained from the cassava peel drying process.

Divina Aparecida Anunciação, Vilhalva; Manoel Soares, Soares Júnior; Márcio, Caliari; Flávio Alves da, Silva.

2012-09-01

73

7 CFR 1206.11 - Mangos.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mangos. 1206.11 Section 1206.11 Agriculture...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information...

2010-01-01

74

Saving Mango Street  

Science.gov (United States)

The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza, a…

Van Winkle, Katie

2012-01-01

75

Disinfestation by irradiation of mangoes (Manguifera Indica L.) Kent and oranges (Citrus sinensis O.) Valencia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives in this work were to determine the minimum dose for radiation disinfestation of mangoes and oranges infested with Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens Loew) and to evaluate the quality of the fruits by organoleptic, chemical and physiological analysis of mangoes irradiated to 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 120C during 15 days and oranges irradiated to 0.25, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy and storaged at 150C during 21 days. To inhibit the development of larvaes in mangoes the minimum dose was 0.3 kGy and for oranges the dose was 0.45 kGy. The dose for the probit 9 security test were 0.43 kGy for mangoes and 0.63 kGy for oranges. The results of sensorial analysis in mangoes, indicated that there are no significative differences for the two panels: consumers or trained judges. The differences in the physiological and chemical analysis are greater for storage fruits than for the irradiated ones. At the end of the storage period the appearance of the irradiated mangoes was better than for the control. The observed differences in irradiated oranges were the presence of dark zones on the oranges peel which affect their quality. This effect is due to the irradiation in oranges not completely ripen. (author)

76

Variation in fruit chilling injury among mango cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit of six cultivars (`Kaew', `Rad', `Okrong', `Tongdum', `Nam Dok Mai' and `Nungklangwun') were stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C (85–90?H) and randomly sampled every 5 days. Chilling injury was manifested initially as a gray to brown discoloration of the peel, followed by a color change in the pulp and the endocarp (seed coat). The seed tissue of most cultivars became brittle during storage at 4 and 8 °C for as little as 5 days, and the seeds did not germinate. In...

Phakawatmongkol, W.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, W. G.

2004-01-01

77

Irradiation of fresh Cavendish bananas (Musa cavendishii) and mangoes (Mangifera indica Linn. var. carabao). The microbiological aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

78

Irradiation of Fresh Cavendish Bananas (Musa Cavendishii) and Mangoes (Mangifera Indica Linn. var. carabao): The Microbiological Aspect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoilage-causing organisms of Cavendish bananas and Carabao mangoes were isolated by subculturing spoiled fruit tissues and their pathogenicity determined by subsequent inoculation of the organisms into healthy fruits. Isolated from bananas were species of Colletotrichum and two types of Fusarium and Thielaviopsis and from mangoes species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus. Results of in vitro radiation-resistance studies on two spoilage organisms of mangoes showed that the Colletotrichum sp., with D10 of 54 krad, is more radiation-resistant than the Aspergillus sp., which has a D10 of 25 krad. Bananas exposed to radiation doses ranging from 5 to 37 krad developed darkening of peel, softening of texture and acceleration of spoilage with increasing dose. Doses of 16 to 28 krad applied to mangoes delayed the rate of appearance of spoilage organisms and had no adverse effect on the general appearance of the fruit. (author)

79

ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

OpenAIRE

Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

Jesmine Melba, E.

2012-01-01

80

Phenological Relationship Between Mango Hoppers Idioscopus spp. and Mango Inflorescence/Fruit  

OpenAIRE

The experiment on the phenological relationship between mango hoppers and mango inflorescence/fruit was conducted at Mir. Ghulam Rasool Talpur fruit farm, Tandojam, during 1999-2000. The results showed that mango hoppers were recorded during 30th December (0.06/shoot) on all the mango varieties. The population density increased gradually on the varieties up till second fortnight of February and thereafter populations of mango hopper increased rapidly. The peak populations of mango hopper on A...

Talpur, Muzaffar A.; Rab Kino Khuhro; Nizaman, Imtiaz A.

2002-01-01

81

Screening of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for their contents of flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

With respect to their browning potential and in consideration of a combined recovery of pectin and phenolic compounds, peels of 14 cultivars and the flesh of nine cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits were analyzed for their contents of flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). While total amounts of up to 4860 mg/kg dry matter demonstrated the peels to be a rich source of phenolic compounds, only traces could be detected in the flesh. The profile of flavonol glycosides of the peels proved to be highly characteristic and may therefore serve as a tool for authenticity control of mango puree concentrate, which is often produced from unpeeled fruits and represents an important intermediate for the production of mango nectars. Two compounds were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of ESI-MS as well as NMR spectroscopy, establishing the two compounds as rhamnetin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and rhamnetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, respectively. In the peels of red-colored cultivars, cyanidin 3-O-galactoside and an anthocyanidin hexoside so far not reported in mango could tentatively be identified. The contents and degrees of esterification of pectins extracted from the lyophilized peels ranged from 12.2 to 21.2% and from 56.3 to 65.6%, respectively, suggesting mango peels also as a promising source of high-quality pectin. PMID:15740041

Berardini, Nicolai; Fezer, Ramona; Conrad, Jürgen; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

2005-03-01

82

Physico chemical characterization and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics of Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango (Magnifera indica L) is grown in the tropical and sub tropical regions of India. The fruit has a high commercial value depending on the color, flavor and pulp characteristics of the cultivar. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri cultivars grown in southern Karnataka were investigated for the physical chemical characteristics and the effect of processing on the quality characteristics. Sindura, Mallika and Totapuri mango cultivars had significantly different physico chemical and compositional characteristics. Sindura cultivar had a characteristic red color in the peel with high carotenoid content and slightly lower pulp content. Mallika contained higher pulp content with a pale yellow color in the peel and higher total soluble solids. Totapuri contained slightly lower pulp content than Mallika, lower total soluble solids and lower carotenoids among the cultivars. Sindura and Mallika pulps had significantly higher viscosity than Totapuri. Processing of the pulps resulted in significant decrease of carotenoids irrespective of the cultivar. Sensory quality of canned mango slices showed higher acceptability for Mallika followed by Sindura and Totapuri. Mango nectar prepared from Sindura was highly acceptable followed by Totapuri and Mallika. Processing of these underutilized mango cultivars into puree, nectar, juice beverages and slices, can result in value addition and popularization. PMID:25694717

Vijayanand, P; Deepu, E; Kulkarni, S G

2015-02-01

83

Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

2014-01-01

84

Chemical aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an important and very popular tropical fruit. Because of its short shelf life, however, its use is restricted to the areas of production. Since mango is a climacteric fruit, it is possible to extend its shelf life by delaying the ripening process and senescence by irradiation. The ripening process is very complex: it appears that the radiation-induced delay in ripening may be mediated through the inhibition of the enzyme(s) involved in ethylene production. The dose required for shelf-life extension is ?1.5 kGy. Higher doses can lead to scalding, flesh darkening and development of hollow pockets. This review focuses on the chemical aspects of radiation-induced shelf-life extension of mangoes. At the low irradiation doses required for this shelf-life extension (?1.5 kGy), the chemical effects are negligible. Irradiation does not affect the carotenoid levels, and has only a minor effect on the vitamin C level in a few mango varieties. No significant differences in the free and total (hydrolyzed) amino acids, or the protein content of Kent mangoes, have been detected between irradiated and unirradiated samples. During ripening of the mangoes the reducing sugar and the total sugar levels increase, but in the majority of the mango varieties these levels remain very similar in irradiated and unirradiated samples. There are some differences in the volatile compounds between irradiated and unirradiated Kent mangoes; however, these differences have no apparent effect on the taste and flavor of the irradiated mangoes

85

A comparative study of the effect on irradiation and chemical preservatives on fresh-cut mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quest for ready-to-eat fruits has resulted in cut-fruits such as pawpaw, watermelon and pineapple in the local market. However the safety and quality these products cannot be guaranteed due to the mode of preparation and packaging. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits are consumed, among other reasons, for their pleasant flavour. They are rich sources of vitamins A, B6 and C. Mango fruits are being increasingly processed into ready-to-eat products such as fresh-cut mango slices. These products have longer shelf life when properly preserved and, therefore, assure all year round availability of mango in different forms. In order to produce fresh-cut mango slices of acceptable quality, determination of the most appropriate stage of ripening of fruits for fresh-cut slices production should be known. This study determined the effects of irradiation and chemical preservatives on the safety and shelf life quality of fresh-cut mango products. The effects of gamma irradiation and chemical preservatives on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of fresh-cut mango products were evaluated. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate public perception of cut-fruits and irradiated foods. Well matured half-ripe with peel of green and a little yellow intact fruits were sampled for laboratory analysis using 2x2x5 factorial experiment. The fruits were sanitized, peeled and sliced into cubes and packaged in two sets of 30 PET jars. One set was subjected to various radjars. One set was subjected to various radiation dose levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5) kGy and a control. The second set was chemically preserved with various chemicals (sucrose, citric acid, sodium benzoate and a combination of these chemicals in equal proportions. The treated cut-mangoes were stored at 6 degrees Celsius and 10 degrees Celsius for 15 days and samples taken at 3 days interval for analysis. The pH, titratable acidity (TTA), vitamins C content, total soluble solids (TSS), microbial quality and sensory evaluations were carried out. The data was analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that consumption of fruits and cut fruits in Greater Accra is relatively low. The knowledge of food irradiation is very low as food irradiation has been associated with food radioactivity. It was observed that irradiation did not have significant (p>0.05) effect on the physicochemical parameters measured however, there were significant varietal difference (p0.05) on sensory attributes evaluated. (au)

86

Evaluation of shelf-life quality of mangoes irradiated for fruit fly disinfestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of gamma radiation at doses of 100, 250 and 350 Gy on the ripening, marketable life and sensory characteristics of export-grade 'Carabaol' mangoes was evaluated. Fruit irradiated at 350 Gy were also found to have a distinctly less perceptible mango aroma. Regardless of treatment, all fruit at the table ripe stage were still highly marketable. Pulp characteristics were not significantly affected at any of the doses evaluated. There was no significant interaction between irradiation and fruit source. However, immature fruit subjected to irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy exhibited an increased tendency to retain chlorophyll even at the table ripe stage. The hot water treatment for disease control increased the proportion of fruit turning fully yellow at the table ripe stage. Although irradiation at 250 or 350 Gy resulted in a decline in the characteristic mango flavour, it did not render the fruit unacceptable. Irradiation at 250Gy when combined with 10 deg. C storage retarded peel colour development for 20 days. This treatment combination however, resulted in pale peel and pulp colour through to ripening, although no other ripening parameters were significantly altered. Results showed that peel colour index was maintained at 3 to 4 during one month storage under 5% O2 at 10 deg. C and the table ripe stage was reached within 6-7 days at 15-17 deg. C. No decay or chill injury was noted during the 4-week storage. These effects developed only during ripeninhese effects developed only during ripening of fruit stored for 3-4 weeks. Internal breakdown was observed during on the 3rd week. Sensory evaluation indicated that fruit maintained acceptable quality during 2 weeks of storage. MA storage of mangoes at 10 deg. C indicated its potential for extending the storage life of the fruit. 10 refs, 6 figs, 12 tabs

87

Hypersensitivity manifestations to the fruit mango  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of this study are 1) To review the published data and document the current knowledge on allergic manifestations to the fruit mango 2) To highlight the two distinct clinical presentations of hypersensitivity reactions caused by mango 3) To discuss the role of cross-reactivity 4) To increase awareness of potentially life threatening complications that can be caused by allergy to mango. An extensive search of the literature was performed in Medline/PubMed with the key terms "mango...

Sareen, Richa; Shah, Ashok

2011-01-01

88

Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: chemistry and food features.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present review focuses on the nutritional, functional and anti-infective properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel (PoP) and peel extract (PoPx) and on their applications as food additives, functional food ingredients or biologically active components in nutraceutical preparations. Due to their well-known ethnomedical relevance and chemical features, the biomolecules available in PoP and PoPx have been proposed, for instance, as substitutes of synthetic food additives, as nutraceuticals and chemopreventive agents. However, because of their astringency and anti-nutritional properties, PoP and PoPx are not yet considered as ingredients of choice in food systems. Indeed, considering the prospects related to both their health promoting activity and chemical features, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of PoP and PoPx seems to be still underestimated. The present review meticulously covers the wide range of actual and possible applications (food preservatives, stabilizers, supplements, prebiotics and quality enhancers) of PoP and PoPx components in various food products. Given the overall properties of PoP and PoPx, further investigations in toxicological and sensory aspects of PoP and PoPx should be encouraged to fully exploit the health promoting and technical/economic potential of these waste materials as food supplements. PMID:25529700

Akhtar, Saeed; Ismail, Tariq; Fraternale, Daniele; Sestili, Piero

2015-05-01

89

Effects of gamma radiation on the insect mortality and fruit quality of Philippine ''Carabao'' mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research using gamma radiation for the disinfestation of oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, larvae in ''Carabao'' (''Manila Super'') mangoes and its effect on the overall quality and acceptability of the treated fruit was undertaken in the Philippines. The results showed that mature larvae of the fruit fly were the insect stage most tolerant to irradiation, with the young eggs being the most sensitive. Using more than 100,000 mature larvae in mangoes, a minimum dose of 100 Gy was required to prevent the emergence of adult fruit flies and to maintain quarantine security against the possibility of introducing this pest into the importing country. ''Carabao'' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to vapour heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed, even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose, a low, but significant, incidence of pulp discoloration was found in one trial only. Both vapour heat treatment and gamma radiation needed to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on the development of peel colour. The results of this study indicated that irradiation could be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the ''Carabao'' mango. Therefore, use of irradiation at a minimum dose of 100 Gy as a quarantine treatment for the oriental fruit fly iine treatment for the oriental fruit fly in mature green mango fruits can be recommended. however, when field infestation studies were conducted on 3200 mature green ''Carabao'' mangoes obtained from different parts of the country, a very low field infestation of 0.031% was observed. A single fruit was found to be infested with eight larvae of the oriental fruit fly. With these findings, quarantine treatment may not be required, provided proper protection from infestation is applied after harvest or before export. (author). 37 refs, 3 figs, 12 tabs

90

ECONOMICS OF MANGO PRODUCTION IN TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango is called the king of tropical fruits. It is a delicious, exotic and nutritional fruit giving vitamins A and B to the human beings. Mango is processed for preparing a host of products such as juices, pulps, squashes, jam and pickles. The total world production of mango was 255.63 lakh tones in the year 2003-2004. This paper analyses the status of mango production, constraints in cultivation of mango and the possibilities of increasing production in Tirunelveli district.

E.JESMINE MELBA

2012-02-01

91

Nutritional aspects of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, like most other fruits, constitute a small but very important part of human diet in tropical countries. Their carbohydrate content is a source of energy; however, their main importance is as a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamins A and C. Increasing the shelf life of mangoes is desirable, since on ripening they become highly perishable and have a very short shelf life. Low-dose irradiation is considered to be a good method for extending their shelf life. This literature review examines the effect of radiation processing on the nutrients in mangoes. In general, irradiation has little effect on the main nutrients, vitamin C, carotenoids and carbohydrates. There is a significant loss of vitamin C only in a few varieties of mangoes, while in the others the vitamin C level is unaffected. The extension of shelf life also depends on the storage conditions, particularly temperature. While low-temperature storage followed by ripening at room temperature leads to high vitamin C levels, it reduces the carotenoid levels in some varieties. Thus, the storage and the ripening temperatures should be optimized for each variety to obtain the maximum benefit of irradiation. Long-term, multi-generation rat feeding studies to assess the wholesomeness of irradiated mangoes have shown no adverse effects

92

Irradiation of Kensington Pride mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes (cv. Kensington Pride) exhibited delayed ripening and increased external injury (lenticel damage) following irradiation at 300 or 600 Gy but not at 75 Gy. Altering the conditions of irradiation (lower temperature, nitrogen atmosphere, lower dose rate) had no effect in alleviating that injury. Some chemical constituents were also affected to minor degrees but eating quality was not. Irradiation of mature-green, preclimacteric mangoes at doses of 300 Gy or more is not recommended; doses of 75 Gy can be used without adversely affecting marketability. (author)

93

6.RP Mangos for Sale  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A store was selling 8 mangos for \\$10 at the farmers market. Keisha said, “That means we can write the ratio 10 : 8, or \\$1.25 per mango.” Luis said, “...

94

7 CFR 1206.202 - Exemption for organic mangos.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Exemption for organic mangos. 1206.202 Section 1206.202 ...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION... § 1206.202 Exemption for organic mangos. (a) A first handler who...

2010-01-01

95

Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

2015-01-01

96

Characterization of two cellulosic waste materials (orange and almond peels) and their use for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The ability of orange peels (OP) and almond peels (AP) as adsorbents for the removal of a dyestuff, namely methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions has been studied. After their characterization by different techniques (elemental analysis, biochemical analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric a [...] nalysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry), adsorption kinetics of the dye have been investigated using common kinetic models cited in the literature: first order and pseudo-second order. The correlation coefficient has showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic equation best describes the adsorption kinetics for the tested materials. The experimental equilibrium data have been analyzed using linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to provide the best theoretical correlation of the experimental data whatever the biosorbents tested. Using the equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, various thermodynamic parameters such as ?G°, ?H°, ?S° have been calculated. The thermodynamics of MB/OP and MB/AP systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic process. It was concluded that an increase in temperature results in a higher MB loading per unit weight of OP or AP.

M, Boumediene¹; H, Benaïssa; B, George; St, Molina; A, Merlin.

97

Carotenoids in watermelon and mango  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotenoids, which impart yellow, orange, and/or red colors to many fruits, have antioxidant health properties. A series of experiments were undertaken to establish how storage affected carotenoids in cultivars of watermelon and mango in cooperation with U.S. commodity boards. Watermelon was assay...

98

A Ride Down Mango Street.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the powerful connections an English teacher and his students made with Sandra Cisneros'"The House on Mango Street." Discusses how the book invites the reader to experience racism, shares the mainstream of the American experience, and deals with growing up. Notes that the book had a powerful impact on students' writing and their desire to…

O'Malley, Thomas F.

1997-01-01

99

Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

S. H. Sengar

2012-02-01

100

Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes  

OpenAIRE

Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

Sengar, S. H.; Khandetod, Y. P.

2012-01-01

101

Developing M2M applications with Mango  

OpenAIRE

Mango is an open source alternative for Machine to Machine software. It enables users to access and control electronic sensors, devices, and machines over multiple protocols simultaneously. However, Mango was designed for the desktop. It relies heavily on JavaScript to render its graphical pages. While rendering, massive amounts of data are being transferred between the Mango server and the browser. Furthermore, because of the continuous polling for new data, it can easily hog the CPU of the ...

Juhasz, Bela

2009-01-01

102

Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits. PMID:25608953

Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

2015-03-11

103

Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. PMID:25435398

Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

2015-05-01

104

Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

2007-07-01

105

Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

106

Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3 at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1 delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untreated fruits and retained the total chlorophyll content of fruit peel. Pre-harvest spray of GA3 at 100 mg?l-1 significantly delayed the onset of the climacteric rise of CO2 production, which depicted delayed ripening over control. The treated fruits also remained firmer and maintained the freshness during storage. Treatment with 100 mg?l-1 GA3 could be a useful method to extend postharvest life and availability of mango with appreciable quality.

Md Wasim Siddiqui

2014-01-01

107

Glycolic acid peel therapy – a current review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jaishree Sharad Skinfiniti Aesthetic Skin and Laser Clinic, Mumbai, India Abstract: Chemical peels have been time-tested and are here to stay. Alpha-hydroxy peels are highly popular in the dermatologist's arsenal of procedures. Glycolic acid peel is the most common alpha-hydroxy acid peel, also known as fruit peel. It is simple, inexpensive, and has no downtime. This review talks about various studies of glycolic acid peels for various indications, such as acne, acne scars, melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and seborrhea. Combination therapies and treatment procedure are also discussed. Careful review of medical history, examination of the skin, and pre-peel priming of skin are important before every peel. Proper patient selection, peel timing, and neutralization on-time will ensure good results, with no side effects. Depth of the glycolic acid peel depends on the concentration of the acid used, the number of coats applied, and the time for which it is applied. Hence, it can be used as a very superficial peel, or even a medium depth peel. It has been found to be very safe with Fitzpatrick skin types I–IV. All in all, it is a peel that is here to stay. Keywords: acne scar, melasma, photoaging, chemical peel, alpha-hydroxy peel

Sharad J

2013-11-01

108

Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals  

OpenAIRE

There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known a...

Bartholdi, Laurent; Henriques, Andre?

2012-01-01

109

Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

2013-07-01

110

Decay control of carabao mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mangoes were irradiated at the dry gamma room of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission. They were exposed for the predetermined length of time to absorb 15, 30 and 45 kr at a dose rate of 15 kr/hr. One hundred fruits were divided into two lots for each treatment and for each radiation dose. Actual absorbed doses were determined by Fricke dosimetry. After irradiation, the fruits were stored in clean, screened cabinets at room conditions (30 +- 20C, 80-R.H.). Occurence of specific type of spoilage were noted. In inoculated fruits, only the site of inoculation was observed. Results were analyzed by the analysis of variance method. The organisms isolated and found to be spoilage causing were species of Colletotrichum, Diplodia and Aspergillus rot, respectively. Irradiation of mangoes at 15, 30 and 45 kr was found to be effective in delaying spoilage. However, the difference in effect between doses was not statistically significant. No adverse effects of irradiation were observed and the irradiated fruits were found to ripen at a slower rate than the control

111

Nutrient cycling in mango trees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimates of nutrient amounts both shedding and demanding replacement in the maintenance of productivity of fruit trees require studies on element dynamics within the many ecosystem components generally made up of nutrient cycling. Thus, it was the objective of this study to evaluate the nutrient biochemical cycling in a mango tree (Mangifera indica L. orchard, Palmer variety. Macronutrients [nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and sulfur (S] had their contents evaluated in leaves at different stages: new, mature, senescent, and litter. First exploratory analysis was performed for main components which preserve the multivariate structure shown by the data. It was possible to observe the association of new leaves with N, P, K, Mg, and S; senescent leaves and the leaves from the litter were associated to Ca, while mature leaves, to K. As a complement, taking the independent variables into consideration, Tukey test (p?0.01 showed that the averages of N, P, and Ca differ between the new and the mature leaves; average of Mg in new leaves differs from the others, and S does not differ along the stages. Also observed was the re-translocation of 41%, 63% and 57% of N, P, and K, respectively, when comparison was made among the contents of the elements in mature leaves as well as in litter, which indicates that the biochemical cycling is important for the mango tree cultivation.

Cinara Xavier de Almeida

2014-02-01

112

Current Status of Mango Malformation in India  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) occupies a pre-eminent place amongst fruit crops in India and is acknowledged as ‘King of fruits’ in the country. Malformation is the most threatening malady that causes great economic loss and limits the mango production in India and among tropical and subtropical countries around the globe. Floral malformation, in contrast to vegetative one, is very virulent and can cause the loss of the entire crop. Affected panicles either do not set fruit or abort fruit sh...

Dinesh Raj Modi; Ashok Kumar Misra; Pradeep Kumar

2011-01-01

113

Study of technical, economic and environmental feasibility of industrial scale production of nanocellulose obtained from the agroindustrial wastes from pineapple peel (Ananas comosus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical, economic and environmental study is realized to determine the feasibility of the industrial production of nanocellulose, from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple (Ananas comosus) market oriented of plastic packaging. The market bibliographical studies (national and international) and real capacities of national institutions have determined the most adequate and competitive method for the production of nanocellulose. The conditions to produce nanocellulose are described from agroindustrial wastes of pineapple in an industrial scale, according with the predominant factors in the plastic market. The equilibrium point, cost and price of nanocellulose produced are analyzed for the national market of plastics. The producing unit implemented is evaluated within the general framework of national and international economy and market to contribute the conditions that may to affect the feasibility and profitability of the project. The technical study has demonstrated to count with the adequate technology for the project execution. The economic study of the project has indicated to be economically profitable, considering the results of the NPV ($ 110 031,73), IRR (46,42%) and MARR (19,19%). The SuperPro Designer program has been used as a tool to corroborate the results in the technical-economic study and these have shown that the project has been feasible

114

Quantification and Purification of Mangiferin from Chinese Mango (Mangifera indica L. Cultivars and Its Protective Effect on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells under H2O2-induced Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mangiferin is a natural xanthonoid with various biological activities. Quantification of mangiferin in fruit peel, pulp, and seed kernel was carried out in 11 Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars. The highest mangiferin content was found in the peel of Lvpimang (LPM fruit (7.49 mg/g DW. Efficient purification of mangiferin from mango fruit peel was then established for the first time by combination of macroporous HPD100 resin chromatography with optimized high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. Purified mangiferin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS, and it showed higher DPPH free-radical scavenging capacities and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP than by l-ascorbic acid (Vc or Trolox. In addition, it showed significant protective effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC under H2O2-induced stress. Cells treated with mangiferin resulted in significant enhanced cell survival under of H2O2 stress. Therefore, mangiferin from mango fruit provides a promising perspective for the prevention of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

Kunsong Chen

2012-09-01

115

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

116

Efficiency of Mangifera indica L. (mango) Oil in Attenuating of Some Biochemical Disorders in Sodium Nitrate Treated Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the noxious actions of sodium nitrate administration on some biochemical parameters and to explore the ability of Mangifera indica L. (mango) oil, which obtained from various parts of the plant such as stem barks, leaves, flowers and peels, as a natural source of antioxidants to minimize the deleterious effects of sodium nitrate. The results showed that the level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, urea and creatinine was significantly elevated with a concomitant significant decline in the level of high density lipoprotein, total protein, albumin, total thyroxine (T4) and triiodo thyroxine (T3) after four weeks of drinking water contaminated with sodium nitrate. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in thiobarbituric reactive substances accompanied by significant drop in reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenates. The administration of mango oil to rats along with sodium nitrate resulted in a pronounced modulation in all previous mentioned parameters, suggesting its role as a hypolipidemic and kidney protective agent. In addition, mango oil stimulates thyroid function and inhibits oxidative damage that may be attributed to the presence of biologically active components and antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, especially mangiferin

117

Extratos etanólicos da manga como antioxidantes para frangos de corte / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for broiler chicken  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de extratos etanólicos na ração, obtidos do caroço e da casca da manga, sobre o desempenho de frangos e a oxidação lipídica da carne. Foram utilizados 360 pintos machos da linhagem Ross 308, de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento i [...] nteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de dez aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante (controle); ração com adição de 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca da manga (ECAS); e ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato do caroço da manga (ECAR). A adição de BHT ou dos extratos da manga não influenciou significativamente o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar. A adição de BHT e a de 400 ppm de ECAR proporcionaram maior estabilidade lipídica da carne fresca, mensurada pelas substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico antes do armazenamento. O extrato etanólico do caroço da manga, na dosagem de 200 e 400 ppm, retarda a oxidação lipídica da carne de frangos armazenada por 15 dias. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the diet inclusion of ethanol extracts, obtained from mango seed and peel, on the performance of broilers and on the lipid oxidation of meat. Three hundred and sisty one?day?old male chicks of the strain Ross 308 were distributed in a complete [...] ly randomized design, with six treatments and six replicates of ten birds. Treatments consisted of: diet without antioxidant (control); diet with addition of 200 ppm of the antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene (BHT); diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango peel (ECAS); and diet with 200 or 400 ppm extract of mango seed (ECAR). The addition of BHT or mango extracts did not significantly affect feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion. The addition of BHT and of 400 ppm of ECAR provided low lipid oxidation in fresh meat, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before storage. Ethanol extract of mango seed, at 200 and 400 ppm dosage, delays lipid oxidation of chicken meat stored for 15 days.

Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Sales, Trevisan; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; André Luís da, Cunha; Ana Lúcia Fernandes, Pereira; Virgínia Kelly, Abreu; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

1025-10-01

118

Pectinase production by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 by solid state fermentation using agricultural wastes and agro-industrial by-products  

OpenAIRE

Pectin lyase and polygalacturonase production by newly isolated Penicillium viridicatum strain Rfc3 was carried out by means of solid state fermentation using orange bagasse, corn tegument, wheat bran and mango and banana peels as carbon sources. The maximal activity value of polygalacturonase (Pg) (30U.g-1) was obtained using wheat bran as carbon source while maximal pectin lyase (Pl) (2000 U.g-1) activity value was obtained in medium composed of orange bagasse. Mixtures of banana or mango p...

Silva Dênis; Martins Eduardo da Silva; Silva Roberto da; Gomes Eleni

2002-01-01

119

ESR study of free radicals in mango  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes was performed. Mangoes in the fresh state were irradiated with ?-rays, lyophilized and then crushed into a powder. The ESR spectrum of the powder showed a strong main peak at g = 2.004 and a pair of peaks centered at the main peak. The main peak was detected from both flesh and skin specimens. This peak height gradually decreased during storage following irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose-response relationship even at 9 days post-irradiation. The side peaks therefore provide a useful means to define the irradiation of fresh mangoes.

Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammad S.; Morishita, Norio; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

2010-01-01

120

/ Chemical composition of different fruit peel Composigao centesimal de diferentes cascas de frutas / Composición aproximada de las cáscaras de diferentes frutas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aproveitamento integral dos alimentos é de suma importancia, pois permite que partes nao convencionais dos alimentos, como cascas, talos, sementes e folhas sejam aproveitadas, visando a agregacao de valor nutricional as preparacóes, além de reduzir custos e evitar o desperdicio. Desta forma, o pre [...] sente estudo teve por objetivo analisar a composicao química de 9 cascas de frutas. Os maiores teores de umidade foram para o mamao e a uva, e as frutas cítricas apresentaram menor umidade, o mamao destaca-se por ter maior teor de proteina. As frutas com maiores percentuais de carboidratos sao: a maca, bergamota, ameixa, manga e pera. A partir da composicao centesimal das cascas foi possivel perceber que elas apresentam elevados teores de nutrientes, podendo ser utilizadas em preparacóes. Além disso, com a composicao centesimal das cascas passa a ser possivel a colocacao desses alimentos nos cálculos de planos alimentares e dietas. Abstract in spanish El aprovechamiento de la comida es muy importante porque permite que las acciones de los alimentos no convencionales tales como la corteza, tallos, semillas y hojas se utilicen con el fin de agregar valor a las preparaciones nutritivas y también reducir los costos y evitar el derroche. Asi, este est [...] udio tuvo como objetivo analizar la composición quimica de nueve cáscaras de fruta. Los más altos niveles de humedad eran de la papaya y las uvas y los citricos tuvieron una menor humedad. La papaya se destaca por tener un mayor contenido proteico. Las frutas con mayor porcentaje de hidratos de carbono son: manzana, bergamota, ciruela, mango y pera. De la composición de las cáscaras fue posible percibir que tienen altos niveles de nutrientes y se puede utilizar en preparaciones. Además, con la composición de las cáscaras se hace posible colocar estos alimentos en los cálculos de planes de alimentación y las dietas. Abstract in english The integral use of food is very important because it allows the use of non-conventional foods such as bark, stems, seeds and leaves being used in order to add value to nutritional preparations and also reduce costs and avoid wasting. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of nin [...] e fruit peels. The highest levels of humidity found were for papaya and grapes, while citrus fruits had lower moisture. Papaya stands out for having a higher protein content. The fruits with the highest percentage of carbohydrates are: apple, bergamot, plum, mango and pear. The composition of the peels made it possible to perceive they have high levels of nutrients and can be used in preparations. Moreover, the composition of the peels makes it possible to place these foods in the calculations of eating plans and diets.

Claudia L, Stefanello; Claudia. S, Rosa.

2012-06-01

121

Irradiation of 'carabao' (Manila 'super') mangoes II. Comparison of the effects of gamma radiation and the vapor heat treatment on fruit quality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Carabao' mango fruits subjected to gamma radiation at 100, 150 or 250 Gy resulted in fruits of an acceptable quality. In contrast to the vapor heat treatment, no internal breakdown was observed even in fruits irradiated at 350 Gy. At this dose a low but significant incidence of pulp discoloration was found, albeit in only one trial. Both the vapor heat treatment and gamma radiation need to be supplemented with hot water treatment for effective and more consistent disease control. Although irradiation appears to delay ripening, its effect seems to be largely on peel color development. The results of this study indicate that irradiation might be an appropriate quarantine treatment for the 'Carabao' mango. (Auth.). 7 tabs., 3 figs

122

An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

123

Disinfestation of mangoes by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiosensitivity study of the different stages and ages within each stage of the Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel was undertaken to determine the minimum effective dose level for disinfecting mango fruits infected with fruit flies. It was found that the egg was most sensitive to radiation damage and the larvae, the least sensitive. With each stage, radiosensitivity decreased with increasing age. A dose of 50 krad prevented completely the emergence of any adult when mangoes inoculated with fruit fly eggs were irradiated immediately after innoculation. A dose of 75 krad prevented emergence of any fruit fly adults even if the irradiation was deferred to the sixth day after innoculation. (author)

124

Effect of Fungicides on Mango Malformation  

OpenAIRE

Present studies were carried out to observe the effect of fungicides on mango malformation. The fungicides i.e. Benlate and Topsin-M were used at the rate of 0.2 per cent. Spray was made in July with an idea to control the mango malformation which was found more frequent on late season flushes. Both the fungicides reduced the incidence of malformation during the next blooming season. More number of malformed panicles were observed on untreated plants than treated ones. Among fungicides, Benla...

Faqir Muhammad; Muhammad Ibrahim; Aslam Pervez, M.

1999-01-01

125

The role of pectin in Cd binding by orange peel biosorbents: A comparison of peels, depectinated peels and pectic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biosorption by cheaply and abundantly available materials such as citrus peels can be a cost efficient method for removing heavy metals from wastewater. To investigate the role pectin plays in metal binding by citrus peels, native orange peels, protonated peels, depectinated peels, and extracted pectic acid were compared. Kinetic experiments showed that equilibrium was achieved in 1 h. The 1st-order model was more effective in describing the kinetics than the 2nd-order model. Titrations showed two acidic sites with pK{sub a} values around 4 (carboxyl) and 10.5 (hydroxyl), respectively. The pH dependent surface charge was described well by a two-site model. Sorption isotherms were best modeled assuming a 1:2 binding stoichiometry, followed by the Langmuir and the Freundlich model. The binding capacity was highest for pectic acid (2.9 mequiv./g) followed by protonated peels and native peels, being lowest for depectinated peels (1.7 mequiv./g). This showed the importance of pectin in metal binding by citrus peels. However, even depectinated peels were still good sorbents which still provided carboxyl groups that were involved in metal binding. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in all materials and their involvement in metal binding.

Schiewer, Silke, E-mail: sschiewer@alaska.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Iqbal, Muhammad, E-mail: iqbalmdr@brain.net.pk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 755900, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

2010-05-15

126

INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the peel. The banana is nourishing, doesn’t contain fat, and can be eaten at every hour of the day because of its digestive properties. The banana contains magnesium, selenium, iron, a lot of vitamins and is recommended for salt free diet because of its low content in sodium chloride. Generally, the peel is being thrown once the pulp is eaten. These peels are eaten by animals or sometimes degraded by nature. Our aim is to extract few vital substances. The protein content of the peel was estimated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extract was injected into Clarias batrachus and its immune cells were counted. The result shows the wasted peel has both lower and higher molecular weights and has an immunological response as it showed an increase in the immune cells and there were very less cellular distortions when histopathological observations was done.

Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan, Smitha Thomas, Aruna Nair

2010-08-01

127

7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21 Section 305.21 Agriculture Regulations... § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. Mangoes may be treated using schedule T102-a:...

2010-01-01

128

USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS  

OpenAIRE

Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram en...

Manza R R, Gaikwad B. P. And Manza G. R.

2012-01-01

129

Analytical Study Of Mango Production In India With Special Reference To Mahamango Co- Operative  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: In India the production of mango is taken in large extent. In world India is number one in mango production. Uttar Pradesh state the production of mango is large compared to the other states. Also Maharashtra has different varieties of mango production. Especially the Maharashtra State Agriculture Marketing Board (MSAMB) has promoted the organization of Mango growers in the name of Mahamango. In order to boost the export of Alphonso mangoes as well as for domestic marketing, "MAHAMA...

Kadam Deepak R; Bhawsar Anil C.

2013-01-01

130

Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape. PMID:25363615

Dalbe, Marie-Julie; Santucci, Stéphane; Vanel, Loïc; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

2014-12-28

131

Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

132

Line Creep in Paper Peeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the dynamics of the separation of a sheet of paper into two halves in a peeling con?guration. The experimental setup consists of a peeling device, where a fracture front is driven along the plane of the paper, with a constant force. The theoretical picture is how an elastic line interacts with a random landscape of fracture toughness. We compare the results with theoretical simulations in several aspects. One recent ?nding concerns the autocorrelation function of the average front position. The data from the experiments produces so-called cusps or singularities in the correlation function, as predicted by the functional renormalization group theory for elastic lines. Comparisons with simulations with either a short range or a long range elastic kernel demonstrate that the latter agrees with the experimental observations, as expected.

Rosti J.

2010-06-01

133

Orange Peels and Fresnel Integrals  

CERN Document Server

There are two standard ways of peeling an orange: either cut the skin along meridians, or cut it along a spiral. We consider here the second method, and study the shape of the spiral strip, when unfolded on a table. We derive a formula that describes the corresponding flattened-out spiral. Cutting the peel with progressively thinner strip widths, we obtain a sequence of increasingly long spirals. We show that, after rescaling, these spirals tends to a definite shape, known as the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral has applications in many fields of science. In optics, the illumination intensity at a point behind a slit is computed from the distance between two points on the Euler spiral. The Euler spiral also provides optimal curvature for train tracks between a straight run and an upcoming bend. It is striking that it can be also obtained with an orange and a kitchen knife.

Bartholdi, Laurent

2012-01-01

134

Manager of Next Generation Sequencing Orders – MANGO  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functional Genomics Center Zurich (FGCZ) is a joint state-of-the-art research and training facility of the ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich. With latest technologies and expert support in genomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, the FGCZ carries out research projects and technology development in collaboration with the Zurich Life Science research community. The FGCZ offers services for different applications on the Illumina HiSeq2000, Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent, Roche 454 and PACBIO RS. At the FGCZ, we handle hundreds of NGS projects a year. A working tool is necessary to monitor and document these sequencing projects. Because of our specialized need, we conceptualized, developed and implemented the MANGO to help manage, track, monitor and document our various and diverse NGS service orders. The MANGO works in multiple levels, first, it is a web accessible sample tracking system. It can be accessed and sample data can be added in real-time through a computer, an android tablet or an Ipad. Secondly, it manages multiplexing of sequencing runs because it can detect sub-optimal index combinations from various popular commericial kits and self made indices. Thirdly, the MANGO creates well-formatted sample sheets for the various sequencers available in the FGCZ. Lastly, it can accept data in .csv format from instruments used for QC during library preparation. The MANGO is a reliable and secure cross-platform manager of our NGS service orders.

Le Carrour, Tanguy; Opitz, Lennart; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Schlapbach, Ralph; Aquino, Catharine Fournier

2013-01-01

135

An x-band peeled HEMT amplifier  

Science.gov (United States)

A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns thick peeled GaAs HEMT layer, eliminating the need for bond wires and creating a fully integrated circuit. Testing of devices indicate that the peeled device is not degraded by the peel off step but rather there is an improvement in the quantum well carrier confinement. Circuit testing resulted in a maximum gain of 8.5 dB and a return loss minimum of -12 dB.

Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1993-01-01

136

Mango Tree Response to Lime Applied during the Production Phase  

OpenAIRE

Tropical soils are usually highly acidic and this may hamper mango trees nutrition and production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of lime doses applied to the soil surface on the plant nutritional status, the production, and the technological quality of mango fruits. The study was carried out at Selviria, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in a Typic Haplustox. Thirteen year old producing mango plants of the “Heden” variety, grafted on rootstock of the “Coquinh...

Luiz de Souza Correa; Aparecida Conceicao Boliani; Renato Mello Prado; Francisco Maximino Fernandes; Eliozeas Vicente de Almeida

2012-01-01

137

Mango Supplementation Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Individuals  

OpenAIRE

This pilot study examined the effects of freeze-dried mango (Mangifera indica L.) supplementation on anthropometrics, body composition, and biochemical parameters in obese individuals. Twenty obese adults (11 males and 9 females) ages 20- to 50-years old, received 10 g/day of ground freeze-dried mango pulp for 12 weeks. Anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and body composition were assessed at baseline and final visits of the study. After 12 weeks, mango supplementation significantly redu...

Evans, Shirley F.; Maureen Meister; Maryam Mahmood; Heba Eldoumi; Sandra Peterson; Penelope Perkins-Veazie; Clarke, Stephen L.; Mark Payton; Smith, Brenda J.; Lucas, Edralin A.

2014-01-01

138

Irradiation in perspective - the significance for the mango industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper briefly describes the progress made with the irradiation of mangoes intended for sea shipment to overseas markets, over the past seven years. Highlights are given on mango radurization experiments for the period 1975-1981. Combination treatment for food preservation is discussed. This includes data on the effect of hot water plus irradiation, heated fungicide and ethylene treatments on decay development and insect damage in cold-stored sensation mangoes

139

Irradiation and storage effects on sensorial and physical characteristics of Keitt mangoes (Mangifera indica L.), quality of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation was used to determine its effect on the quality of U.S. mangoes irradiated in Canada with 60Co at a minimum dose of 0.60 and a maximum of 0.90 kGy. The sensory evaluation, the texture, the colour and total soluble solids content were assessed during 15 days storage period. Initially, the appearance of irradiated whole mangoes was preferred, but at the end of the storage period the reverse was observed. Although, the irradiation did not extend the shelf-life of mangoes, the pulp of irradiated mangoes was perferred for its colour, odour, taste and texture until day 9. The panelists preferred darker orange colour, fragrant, sweeter and soften mangoes

140

Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis peel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. As a by-product of tropical fruit juice industry, passion fruit peel is a valuable functional food. It is rich in antioxidants. To determine its potential antioxidant properties of passion fruit peel, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extraction conditions on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Methods. The extraction conditions were selected from different percentages of ethanol (0-100%, v/v, extraction times (60-300 min, and extraction temperatures (25-60°C that based on the optimal percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The selected extraction condition was applied for further determination of total phenolic content (TPC of the passion fruit peel extract using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay, while the antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching (BCB assay. The best extraction conditions were 40% ethanol, 60 min extraction time, and extraction temperature of 30°C. Results. The chosen extraction conditions have contributed to the high TPC and antioxidant activity of passion fruit peel. The levels of antioxidant activity obtained from the passion fruit peel were also lower compared to BHA and ?-tocopherol. Positive correlations were observed between TPC and antioxidant activities as assessed by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and BCB assays. Conclusion. As a waste of passion fruit consumption or by-product of fruit juice industry, its peel could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant for possible functional food and industrial applications.

Yuh Shan Wong

2014-09-01

141

Inhibitory effect of Citrus unshu peel on anaerobic digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant inhibition of methane fermentation was observed in anaerobic digestion of Citrus unshu peel at loadings above 2g/litre per day. This inhibitory effect was mainly due to peel oil, but in part to other substances present in the peel. The limiting load of peel oil to anaerobic digestion was about 65 {mu}l/litre per day. Addition of peel oil below this limit load resulted in a change in the microbial flora and in gas production greater than that of digestion with no peel oil. Citrus unshu peel did not inhibit methane fermentation after removal of peel oil by steam distillation or aeration. (author).

Mizuki, E.; Akao, T.; Saruwatari, T. (Fukushima Industrial Research Int. of Fukuoka Prefecture (JP))

1990-01-01

142

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

OpenAIRE

The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali), Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna), Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant) on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P.), its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide) for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrap...

Uddin, M. A.; Islam, M. S.; Rahman, M. A.; Begum, M. M.; Hasanuzzaman, A. T. M.

2003-01-01

143

Succinic acid production from orange peel and wheat straw by batch fermentations of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

OpenAIRE

Succinic acid is a platform molecule that has recently generated considerable interests. Production of succinate from waste orange peel and wheat straw by consolidated bioprocessing that combines cellulose hydrolysis and sugar fermentation, using a cellulolytic bacterium, Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, was studied. Orange peel contains D-limonene, which is a well-known antibacterial agent. Its effects on batch cultures of F. succinogenes S85 were examined. The minimal concentrations of limonen...

Li, Q.; Siles, Ja; Thompson, Ip

2010-01-01

144

Adsorption of remazol brilliant blue on an orange peel adsorbent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A novel orange peel adsorbent developed from an agricultural waste material was characterised and utilised for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue from an artificial textile-dye effluent. The adsorption thermodynamics of this dye-adsorbent pair was studied in a series of equilibrium experiments. T [...] he time to reach equilibrium was 15 h for the concentration range of 30 mg L-1 to 250 mg L-1. The adsorption capacity decreased with increasing temperature, from 9.7 mg L-1 at 20 ºC to 5.0 mg L-1 at 60 ºC. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models fitted the adsorption data quite reasonably. The thermodynamic analysis of dye adsorption onto the orange peel adsorbent indicated its endothermic and spontaneous nature. Thus, the application of orange peel adsorbent for the removal of dye from a synthetic textile effluent was successfully demonstrated. Abstract in english [...

M. R., Mafra; L., Igarashi-Mafra; D. R., Zuim; É. C., Vasques; M. A., Ferreira.

2013-09-01

145

Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (ppeel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme. PMID:21651339

Callaway, Todd R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Arthington, John D; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Rossman, Michelle L; Carr, Mandy A; Genovese, Ken J; Ricke, Steve C; Crandall, Phil; Nisbet, David J

2011-10-01

146

Pectinase production by Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 by solid state fermentation using agricultural wastes and agro-industrial by-products Produção de pectinases por Penicillium viridicatum RFC3 através de fermentação em estado sólido, usando resíduos agrícolas e sub-produtos agroindustriais  

OpenAIRE

Pectin lyase and polygalacturonase production by newly isolated Penicillium viridicatum strain Rfc3 was carried out by means of solid state fermentation using orange bagasse, corn tegument, wheat bran and mango and banana peels as carbon sources. The maximal activity value of polygalacturonase (Pg) (30U.g-1) was obtained using wheat bran as carbon source while maximal pectin lyase (Pl) (2000 U.g-1) activity value was obtained in medium composed of orange bagasse. Mixtures of banana or mango p...

Dênis Silva; Eduardo da Silva Martins; Roberto da Silva; Eleni Gomes

2002-01-01

147

Microbial production of pectin from citrus peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30 degrees C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the peel was extracted almost completely without macerating the peel. By this method, 20 to 25 g of pectin was obtained per kg of peel. The pectin obtained was special in that it contained neutral sugar at high levels, which was determined to have a molecular weight suitable for practical applications. PMID:16345556

Sakai, T; Okushima, M

1980-04-01

148

Integrated studies on irradiated Philippine mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of the fruitfly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, has restricted export of Philippine mangoes to Japan and other countries with strict quarantine requirements. The anticipated banning of the ethylene dibromide (EDB) as fumigant necessitated studies to find a suitable replacement. Based on the encouraging results of previous disinfestation experiments further studies utilizing irradiation and its combination with a hot water dip were undertaken. The objective of the studies was to interrelate the effects of the disinfestation method to fruit maturity, storage temperature, and some related processes, including shipping, on the shelf-life, chemical, and sensory attributes of the carabao mango. Results show that the combination treatment of 0.65 kGy and a hot water dip at 50 deg. C for 5 minutes can be a good alternative for ethylene dibromide with the added benefit of shelf life extension. The chemical, nutritive and sensory characteristics of the fruit also are retained. 32 refs, 19 tabs

149

Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Some Indian Vegetable and Fruit Peels by Decoction Extraction Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetable and fruit peels are generally thrown into the environment as waste material. If this waste can be exploited for some beneficial purpose it will be useful and helpful. With this idea it was thought of interest to evaluate the antioxidant potency of peels. Fourteen vegetables and six fruits belonging to nine different families were selected to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The extraction was done by decoction method which is a common traditional method. Antioxidant property was evaluated by superoxide anion radical scavenging assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. The extractive yield was maximum in Daucus carota. Maximum Total Phenol Content (TPC was in ripe peel of Musa paradisiaca while best and maximum superoxide anion scavenging activity was in Terminalia catappa. This activity was even better than standard gallic acid. T. catappa also showed highest FRAP. There was no correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The peel of T. catappa appears to be best agro waste which can be a promising source of natural antioxidants. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used. However, further study need to be done using other antioxidant assays.

Kalpna Rakholiya

2013-01-01

150

Spray drying of mango juice - buttermilk blends  

OpenAIRE

In India both dairy and fruit sectors face problems of lack of basic infrastructure for handling peaks in production. Mango is considered as king of the fruits, but its production is highly seasonal. Lack of adequate infrastructure in many places results in huge losses due to low keeping quality. In the dairy industry, buttermilk, a by-product of butter production, is mostly left unutilized. Buttermilk is a good source of valuable milk proteins and lactose; its high phospholipids content make...

Ramachandra H.G. Rao,; H Kumar, Arun

2005-01-01

151

Physico-chemical evaluation of the “Casturi” Mango  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangifera casturi “Casturi” mango is a tropical fruit tree about 10–30 m tall which is endemic to very small area around Banjarmasin in Southern Borneo (Indonesia). The casturi mango is believed to be first introduced to Florida by Richard Campbell in early 2000 as part of the germplasm conservat...

152

Two new promising cultivars of mango for Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango cultivars are mostly the result of random selections from open pollinated chance seedlings of indigenous or introduced germplasm. The National Germplasm Repository (genebank) at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (SHRS) in Miami, Florida is an important mango germplasm repository an...

153

PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation  

OpenAIRE

Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of...

Zaidi, N. W.; Singh, U. S.; Pani, D. R.; Arif, M.

2011-01-01

154

Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

155

Enrichment of Commercially-Prepared Juice With Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. Peel Extract as a Source of Antioxidants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ready-to eat foods meet the demands of a modern lifestyle and the number of people seeking food that is convenient and safe is increasing. The extracts of peels from four different fruits were tested as potential value-added foods to offer to consumers. Physical and chemical analyses of the peel extracts were conducted to measure total phenolic compounds, tannins, phytic acid and antioxidant activity using the 1’-1’Diphenyl-2’picrylhydrazyl, and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid methods. The result of screening the antioxidant activity showed that the pomegranate peel had higher activity than the other peels (p<0.05. In addition, flavonoids and vitamin C were measured in the pomegranate peel, and low amounts of these components were found. The pomegranate peel had a high amount of phenolic compounds and high levels of antioxidants, and this peel was used to enrich a commercially-available juice. Furthermore, the sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control and enriched juice. The product was well accepted and feasible from a technological standpoint. Because the waste is rich in bioactive compounds, value is added to the final product, as these antioxidant compounds are known to protect health and improve the quality of life of the consumers.

Zilmar Meireles Pimenta Barros

2014-07-01

156

Standard guidelines of care for chemical peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical peeling is the application of a chemical agent to the skin, which causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. Indications for chemical peeling include pigmentary disorders, superficial acne scars, ageing skin changes, and benign epidermal growths. Contraindications include patients with active bacterial, viral or fungal infection, tendency to keloid formation, facial dermatitis, taking photosensitizing medications and unrealistic expectations. Physicians? qualifications : The physician performing chemical peeling should have completed postgraduate training in dermatology. The training for chemical peeling may be acquired during post graduation or later at a center that provides education and training in cutaneous surgery or in focused workshops providing such training. The physician should have adequate knowledge of the different peeling agents used, the process of wound healing, the technique as well as the identification and management of complications. Facility : Chemical peeling can be performed safely in any clinic/outpatient day care dermatosurgical facility. Preoperative counseling and Informed consent : A detailed consent form listing details about the procedure and possible complications should be signed by the patient. The consent form should specifically state the limitations of the procedure and should clearly mention if more procedures are needed for proper results. The patient should be provided with adequate opportunity to seek information through brochures, presentations, and personal discussions. The need for postoperative medical therapy should be emphasized. Superficial peels are considered safe in Indian patients. Medium depth peels should be performed with great caution, especially in dark skinned patients. Deep peels are not recommended for Indian skin. It is essential to do prepeel priming of the patient?s skin with sunscreens, hydroquinone and tretinoin for 2-4 weeks. Endpoints in peels: For glycolic acid peels: The peel is neutralized after a predetermined duration of time (usually three minutes. However, if erythema or epidermolysis occurs, seen as grayish white appearance of the epidermis or as small blisters, the peel must be immediately neutralized with 10-15% sodium bicarbonate solution, regardless of the duration of application of the peel. The end-point is frosting for TCA peels, which are neutralized either with a neutralizing agent or cold water, starting from the eyelids and then the entire face. For salicylic acid peels, the end point is the pseudofrost formed when the salicylic acid crystallizes. Generally, 1-3 coats are applied to get an even frost; it is then washed with water after 3-5 minutes, after the burning has subsided. Jessner?s solution is applied in 1-3 coats until even frosting is achieved or erythema is seen. Postoperative care includes sunscreens and moisturizers Peels may be repeated weekly, fortnightly or monthly, depending on the type and depth of the peel.

Khunger Niti

2008-03-01

157

Development of a kolanut peeling device.  

Science.gov (United States)

A kolanut peeling machine was designed, constructed and evaluated for the postharvest processing of the seed. The peeling machine consists of a standing frame, peeling unit and hopper. The peeling unit consists of a special paddle, which mixes the kolanut, rubs them against one another and against the wall of the barrel and also conveys the kolanut to the outlet. The performance of the kolanut peeling machine was evaluated for its peeling efficiency at different moisture content (53.0, 57.6, 61.4 % w.b.) and speeds of operation of the machine. The result of the analysis of variance shows that the main factors and their interaction had significant effects (p?machine. The result also shows that the peeling efficiency of the machine increased as the moisture content increase and decreased with increase in machine speed. The highest efficiency of the machine was 60.3 % at a moisture content of 61.4 % w.b. and speed of 40 rpm. PMID:25328224

Kareem, I; Owolarafe, O K; Ajayi, O A

2014-10-01

158

Antioxidant Activity of Some Extracts from GAMMA Irradiated Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Peel and Seed  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and seed (obtained as waste from juice extraction) using different solvents as diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol 50 ?, ethanol 80?: methanol 50?, methanol 80? and distilled water. The measurements of the antioxidant activity of all extracts were carried out using a radical scavenging activity against 2,2',-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-Carotene?linoleic acid bleaching and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Moreover, the effect of gamma irradiation at dose levels of 3, 6 and 9 kGy on, antioxidant activity of the best pomegranate peel and seed samples that possessed highest antioxidant activity was investigated. Results showed that ethanolic 50? peel extract had a higher total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) in both peel and seed, (9323.17 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1, 2998.05 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) 100 g-1 and 352.09 mg GAE 100 g-1,106.78 mg QE 100 g-1 dry weight (DW), respectively than other extracts. Ethanolic 50? extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than other peel and seed extracts. In addition, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at dose level of 6 kGy extract had higher TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity compared to other doses. Thus, ethanolic 50? extract of irradiated pomegranate peel and seed at 6 kGy may be considered as a good source of natural compounds with-antioxidant activity which could be suitable as potential ingredient for food products.

159

Effect of banana peel cellulose as a dietary fiber supplement on baking and sensory qualities of butter cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Banana peels are a waste product of the banana industry that have caused an environmental problem. Conversion of banana peels to a food ingredient might be an alternative way of value-adding to this waste. This study aimed to extract cellulose from banana peels and use it as an ingredient in butter cake to increase dietary fiber content and to improve cake quality. The selection and optimization of extraction conditions of cellulose from banana peels employed chemical extractions. Banana peel cellulose (BPC was added to butter cake at 3 levels; 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5% w/w of flour compared with 3.0% commercial cellulose (CC and the control (no cellulose added. The sensory, chemical, physical and microbiological properties of the butter cakes were then determined. The odor, tenderness and moistness acceptance scores of the butter cake by 50 panelists ranged from “like moderately” to “like very much”, indicating that addition of BPC improved the sensory quality of the cake. The butter cake with added CC and BPC had significantly higher (pd”0.05 moisture and fiber contents than those of the control. Microorganism levels found in the butter cake conformed to the butter cake standard (OTOP standard product of Thailand 459/2549. The optimum concentration of added BPC was 1.5%. Thus, the addition of BPC extracted from banana peels to butter cake increased the fiber content and improve the cake quality.

Chiraporn Sodchit

2013-12-01

160

Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

161

Effect of Peeling and Cooking on Nutrients in Vegetables  

OpenAIRE

Four vegetables brinjal, bitter gourd, colocasia and tomato were subjected for total protein, crude fiber, ash calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, ascorbic acid and folic acid contents in raw peeled raw cooked and peeled cooked forms. Losses of nutrients due to peeling and cooking were determined. The loss of protein was non-significant during peeling and was significant during cooking except in colocasia. Vegetables lost crude fiber significantly during peeling, cooking caused signifi...

Sheikh, Munir A.; Khan, K. M.; Shahnaz Alvi; Muhammad Shahid

2003-01-01

162

Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for Cr(III) removal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Banana peel, a common fruit waste has been investigated to remove and preconcentrate Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. It was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The parameters pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature were investigated and the maximum sorption was found to be 95%. The binding of metal ions was found to be pH dependent with the optimal sorption occurring at pH 4. The retained species were eluted using 5 ml of 2 M HNO/sub 3/. The mechanism for the binding of Cr(III) on the banana peel surface was also studied in detail. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to describe the partitioning behavior for the system at different temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the banana peel for chromium ions were also studied. The method was applied for the removal and preconcentration of Cr(III) from industrial wastewater. (author)

163

Bio-Ethanol Production from Banana, Plantain and Pineapple Peels by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most nations, whether economically advanced or at different stages of development are faced with the problem of disposal and treatment of wastes. Wastes could be treated in several ways (e.g. by reducing its bulk or by recovering and reprocessing it into useful substance to meet sanitary standards. Ethanol fermented from renewable sources for fuel or fuel additives are known as bio-ethanol. In Nigeria, many food crops have been specifically grown for the production of bio-ethanol. However, bio-ethanol production from waste materials removed from fruits is very rare. In the present study, wastes from fruits such as banana, plantain and pineapple peels which are in abundance and do not interfere with food security were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for 7days by co–culture of Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biomass yield, cell dry weight, reducing sugar concentration and the ethanol yield were determined at 24 hours interval. The results of the study showed that after 7 days of fermentation, pineapple peels had the highest biomass yield of 1.89 (OD, followed by banana peels 1.60 (OD, while plantain peels had the least 0.98 (OD. The reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 0.27 – 0.94 mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.20 – 0.82 mg/cm3 for banana and 0.16 – 0.45 mg/cm3 The optimal ethanol yields were 8.34% v/v, 7.45 % v/v and 3.98 % v/v for pineapple, banana and plantain peels respectively. These indicate that pineapple and banana peels ethanol yields were significantly higher (P<0.05 than plantain peel ethanol yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugars can no longer be discarded into our environment, but should be converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as alternative energy source.

J. Itelima

2013-04-01

164

77 FR 71775 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes From India Into the Continental United...the regulations for the importation of mangoes from India into the continental United...For information on the importation of mangoes from India, contact Mr. William...

2012-12-04

165

75 FR 31746 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Importation of Mangoes from the Philippines AGENCY: Animal and...with regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines. DATES: We will...on regulations for the importation of mangoes from the Philippines, contact Mr....

2010-06-04

166

Automated mango fruit assessment using fuzzy logic approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In term of value and volume of production, mango is the third most important fruit product next to pineapple and banana. Accurate size assessment of mango fruits during harvesting is vital to ensure that they are classified to the grade accordingly. However, the current practice in mango industry is grading the mango fruit manually using human graders. This method is inconsistent, inefficient and labor intensive. In this project, a new method of automated mango size and grade assessment is developed using RGB fiber optic sensor and fuzzy logic approach. The calculation of maximum, minimum and mean values based on RGB fiber optic sensor and the decision making development using minimum entropy formulation to analyse the data and make the classification for the mango fruit. This proposed method is capable to differentiate three different grades of mango fruit automatically with 77.78% of overall accuracy compared to human graders sorting. This method was found to be helpful for the application in the current agricultural industry.

Hasan, Suzanawati Abu; Kin, Teoh Yeong; Sauddin@Sa'duddin, Suraiya; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Othman, Mahmod; Mansor, Ab Razak; Parnabas, Vincent

2014-06-01

167

Microbial Production of Pectin from Citrus Peel  

OpenAIRE

A new method for the production of pectin from citrus peel was developed. For this purpose, a microorganism which produces a protopectin-solubilizing enzyme was isolated and identified as a variety of Trichosporon penicillatum. The most suitable conditions for the pectin production were determined as follows. Citrus (Citrus unshiu) peel was suspended in water (1:2, wt/vol), the organism was added, and fermentation proceeded over 15 to 20 h at 30°C. During the fermentation, the pectin in the ...

Sakai, Takuo; Okushima, Minoru

1980-01-01

168

Current Scenario of Production, Area and some Important Post Harvest Disease of Mango and their Management in India: An Overview  

OpenAIRE

Mangoes account for approximately half of all tropical fruits produced worldwide. India is the largest mango producer accounting for about half of the global mango production. This research attempts to study about the production, area, productivity, disease associated with mango, management and factor which are responsible for the low production of Mango. Mango, a tropical fruit of great economic importance is generally harvested green and then commercialised after a period of storage. Unfort...

Bijendra Kumar Singh; Saurabh Singh,; Yadav, S. M.

2014-01-01

169

An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the ?-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

170

Storage Studies of Jam Prepared from Different Mango Varieties  

OpenAIRE

Six mango varieties i.e. Chaunsa, Dusehri, Langra, Anwar Ratol, Malda and Fajri were subjected to physicochemical analysis to assess their suitability for jam preparation Storage stability of jam from selected mango varieties (Chaunsa, Dusehri and Anwar Ratol) was also investigated at ambient temperature (25±3°C) and relative humidity 60±6%. Fajri mango had the highest pulp content (77.62%) while Anwar Ratol pulp had the highest total soluble solids (21.9 °Brix), brix/acid ratio (43.80), ...

Nouman Siddiqui; Tabassum Hameed; Amer Mumtaz; Muhammad Naeem Safdar; Samina Khalil; Muhammad Amjad

2012-01-01

171

Optimization of extraction of phenolic acids from a vegetable waste product using a pressurized liquid extractor  

Science.gov (United States)

Potato tubers are eaten worldwide for their nutritional value, but potato peels are often disposed as waste. This study identified the phenolic acids content in potato peels, tuber, and developed an optimized method for extraction of phenolic acids from potato peels using a pressurized liquid extrac...

172

Extratos etanólicos de manga como antioxidantes na alimentação de poedeiras / Ethanol extracts of mango as antioxidants for laying hens  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de extratos etanólicos do caroço e da casca de manga, sobre o desempenho de poedeiras e sobre a qualidade e estabilidade lipídica dos ovos. Um total de 180 poedeiras comerciais Hisex White foi distribuído ao acaso em seis tratamentos, com cinco repetiçõ [...] es de seis aves. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração sem adição de antioxidante; ração com 200 ppm do antioxidante butilato de hidroxitolueno (BHT); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato da casca de manga (Ecas); ração com 200 ou 400 ppm de extrato de caroço de manga (Ecar). Foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, a produção de ovos, o peso do ovo, a massa de ovo produzida (grama por ave por dia), a conversão alimentar e características de qualidade dos ovos. A oxidação lipídica da gema durante o armazenamento foi determinada pela quantificação das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico. As aves alimentadas com a ração sem adição de antioxidantes produziram ovos com os piores valores de unidade Haugh e maior oxidação lipídica da gema. Os teores de 400 ppm de Ecas e 200 ou 400 ppm de Ecar foram efetivos na prevenção de danos oxidativos aos ovos durante o armazenamento e podem ser utilizados na alimentação das poedeiras como substituto ao antioxidante sintético. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extracts of mango seeds and peel on laying hen performance, egg quality, and egg lipid stability. A total of 180 Hisex White hens were randomly distributed in six treatments, with five replicates of six birds. The treatments consisted [...] of: ration without antioxidant; ration with 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT); ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango peel extract (Ecas); and ration with 200 or 400 ppm of mango seed extract (Ecar). Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, produced egg mass (gram by bird per day), feed conversion, and egg quality were evaluated. Yolk lipid oxidation during storage was determined by quantification of thiobarbituric acid?reactive substances. Birds fed diet without antioxidants produced eggs with the lowest Haugh unit values and the highest lipid oxidation of yolk. Ecas at 400 ppm and Ecar at 200 or 400 ppm were effective to prevent oxidative damage of eggs during storage and may be used in the diet of laying hens as a replacement for synthetic antioxidant.

Ednardo Rodrigues, Freitas; Ângela da Silva, Borges; Maria Teresa Salles, Trevisan; André Luís da, Cunha; Nádia de Melo, Braz; Pedro Henrique, Watanabe; Germano Augusto Jerônimo do, Nascimento.

2013-07-01

173

Seca da mangueira Mango-blight  

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Full Text Available Em Campinas, a Seca do mangueira (Mangifera indica L. é causada pelo fungo Ceratostomella fimbriata, associado a Hypothenemus plumeriae, broca semelhante à do café, O inseto abre furos nos tecidos sadios e pode levor ou não o patógeno. Quando o potógeno é levado às partes mais verdes, suculentas de mangueira, a murcha ocorre cerca de 10-15 dias após, e os tecidos recentemente mortos são colonizados por Hypothenemus plumeriae. A moléstia parece ser idêntica ao "Mal do Recife".Mango-blight in Campinas is caused by Ceratostomella fimbriata. When green parts of branches of healthy mango plants were inoculated with cultures of the tungus, blight appeared after 10-15 days and the rotten tissues were colonized by Hypothenemus plumeriae, an insect closely related to the caffee-borer. The insect may or may not be a vector of the disease when opening galleries in healthy branches. The disease seems to be identical to the "mal do Recife" (4. Perithecia are produced in diseased tissues. Asei of the fungus are provided with a delicate, evanescent wall. There is no endogenous wall in the asci as claimed by Andrus and Harrer (2. Protoperithecia when crushed under a cover-slip in a drop of eosin show eosinophil asci with a clear cut wall, and four 2-septate ascospores.

A. P. Viégas

1960-01-01

174

Seca da mangueira / Mango-blight  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Em Campinas, a Seca do mangueira (Mangifera indica L.) é causada pelo fungo Ceratostomella fimbriata, associado a Hypothenemus plumeriae, broca semelhante à do café, O inseto abre furos nos tecidos sadios e pode levor ou não o patógeno. Quando o potógeno é levado às partes mais verdes, suculentas de [...] mangueira, a murcha ocorre cerca de 10-15 dias após, e os tecidos recentemente mortos são colonizados por Hypothenemus plumeriae. A moléstia parece ser idêntica ao "Mal do Recife". Abstract in english Mango-blight in Campinas is caused by Ceratostomella fimbriata. When green parts of branches of healthy mango plants were inoculated with cultures of the tungus, blight appeared after 10-15 days and the rotten tissues were colonized by Hypothenemus plumeriae, an insect closely related to the caffee- [...] borer. The insect may or may not be a vector of the disease when opening galleries in healthy branches. The disease seems to be identical to the "mal do Recife" (4). Perithecia are produced in diseased tissues. Asei of the fungus are provided with a delicate, evanescent wall. There is no endogenous wall in the asci as claimed by Andrus and Harrer (2). Protoperithecia when crushed under a cover-slip in a drop of eosin show eosinophil asci with a clear cut wall, and four 2-septate ascospores.

A. P., Viégas.

175

Submerged citric acid fermentation on orange peel autohydrolysate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The citrus-processing industry generates in the Mediterranean area huge amounts of orange peel as a byproduct from the industrial extraction of citrus juices. To reduce its environmental impact as well as to provide an extra profit, this residue was investigated in this study as an alternative substrate for the fermentative production of citric acid. Orange peel contained 16.9% soluble sugars, 9.21% cellulose, 10.5% hemicellulose, and 42.5% pectin as the most important components. To get solutions rich in soluble and starchy sugars to be used as a carbon source for citric acid fermentation, this raw material was submitted to autohydrolysis, a process that does not make use of any acidic catalyst. Liquors obtained by this process under optimum conditions (temperature of 130 degrees C and a liquid/solid ratio of 8.0 g/g) contained 38.2 g/L free sugars (8.3 g/L sucrose, 13.7 g/L glucose, and 16.2 g/L fructose) and significant amounts of metals, particularly Mg, Ca, Zn, and K. Without additional nutrients, these liquors were employed for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger CECT 2090 (ATCC 9142, NRRL 599). Addition of calcium carbonate enhanced citric acid production because it prevented progressive acidification of the medium. Moreover, the influence of methanol addition on citric acid formation was investigated. Under the best conditions (40 mL of methanol/kg of medium), an effective conversion of sugars into citric acid was ensured (maximum citric acid concentration of 9.2 g/L, volumetric productivity of 0.128 g/(L.h), and yield of product on consumed sugars of 0.53 g/g), hence demonstrating the potential of orange peel wastes as an alternative raw material for citric acid fermentation. PMID:18321055

Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana; Torre, Paolo; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

2008-04-01

176

Mango conservation, Mangifera indica L., haden variety by gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the chemical characteristics and the mangoes sensorial quality after treatments with different doses of gamma radiation and during a period of storage, with constant conditions of temperature and relative humidity. (author)

177

Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

178

Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

179

Lipid composition and flavor changes in irradiated mango (Var. Alphonso)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes were studied in fatty acid composition of the pulp, aroma and flavor of gamma irradiated (0.25kGy) and control mature green Alphonso mangoes during ripening at 25-30 degrees C. Ripening of both control and irradiated mangoes was accompanied by changes in glycerides as well as fatty acids. Oleic acid of pulp oil of irradiated mangoes decreased appreciably during ripening as compared with controls. Linoleic acid of pulp oil of unirradiated fruits decreased markedly on the 6th day of storage. With irradiated fruits linoleic acid remained unaffected up to the 12th day of storage. Linoleic acid content of pulp oil of irradiated fruit increased much more than that of unirradiated fruit during ripening. Gas chromatographic profiles of volatiles of control and irradiated mangoes showed no difference

180

Effect of gamma irradiation on Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local mango variety ''Okrong'' and ''Tong Dum'' were irradiated at mature green stage using various dosages from 20-60 Krad. In addition, a hot water treatment at 500C for 3 min. and 500C for 5 min. was given to another lot of Okrong and Tong Dum mangoes respectively prior to irradiation. Both irradiated and non-irradiated mangoes were stored at 170C, 80-90% R.H. or 120C, 75-80% R.H. The three lots of mangoes were compared and then evaluated on the basis of the market life, organoleptic properties and wholesomeness which includes color, flavor and texture. The results of this evaluation are reported in this paper

181

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase from the submerged fermentation of citrus wastes by Penicillium janthinellum MTCC 10889  

OpenAIRE

Production of intracellular ?-xylosidase was studied in cultures of Penicillium janthinellum grown on citrus fruit waste supplemented cultivation media. Both dried orange peel and sweet lime peel could induce the production of this enzyme. The working strain showed a pronounced optimum pH and temperature for ?-xylosidase production at 6.0 and 27 °C, respectively. The enzyme production was found to remain stable for a long period of 120 h. Orange peel and sweet lime peel showed different ...

Kundu, Aditi; Ray, Rina Rani

2012-01-01

182

Automated Mango Fruit Grading System Using Fuzzy Logic  

OpenAIRE

This paper concentrates on the size of mango fruit. Mangoes grading by humans in current agricultural industry are subjective, inconsistent and inefficient because there is an individual difference in visual inspecting which is affected by environment, physical and psychological conditions. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to create a novel grading method. A membership function and fuzzy rules are generated from training instances based on minimum entropy formulas. Computer and Red Green an...

Yeong Kin Teoh; Suzanawati Abu Hasan; Suraiya Sauddin@Sa’duddin

2013-01-01

183

Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura  

OpenAIRE

Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indic...

Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

2011-01-01

184

Characterization of Exo 1, 4-? glucanase produced from Tricoderma Viridi MBL through solid-state bio-processing of orange peel waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-industrial residues are primarily composed of complex polysaccharides that strengthen the microbial growth for the production of industrially important enzymes like cellulases. In the present study we aimed to characterize the Exo 1, 4-? glucanase that was indigenously produced from Trichoderma viride MBL. T. viride MBL was cultured in the Solid-State medium of orange peel (50% w/w moisture under optimized fermentation conditions and maximum activity of 412 ± 12 U/mL was recorded after 4th day of incubation at pH 5.5 and 30?. Exo 1, 4-? glucanase was 4.17-fold purified with specific activity of 642 U/mg in comparison to the crude extract. To confirm its purity and molecular weight, sodium dodecyl sulphate poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE was performed. The enzyme was shown to have a molecular weight of 60 kDa with an optimum pH and temperature of 5 and 50?, respectively. Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plot revealed that the kinetic constants Km and Vmax of purified Exo 1, 4-? glucanase were 76 µM and 240 U/mL.

Muhammad Irshad

2012-09-01

185

Molecular characterization of Fusarium subglutinans associated with mango malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Mango malformation is a serious disease of Mangifera indica in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This disease is caused by Fusarium subglutinans, which is also associated with diseases on many other hosts, such as pineapple, pine, maize and sugarcane. The F. subglutinans strains associated with different hosts are virtually indistinguishable using morphological characters, but can be easily differentiated using histone and beta-tubulin gene sequencing, and some have subsequently been assigned to distinct species. The aim of this study was to characterize F. subglutinans isolates associated with mango malformation using histone H3 gene sequencing and to compare them with other isolates in the Gibberella fujikuroi complex. Analysis of histone sequence data revealed the presence of two phylogenetically distinct groups of F. subglutinans isolates associated with mango malformation. We also considered the identity of the two groups of isolates associated with mango malformation and determined their relatedness to other Fusarium spp. For this purpose, portions of the beta-tubulin gene were sequenced and compared with the beta-tubulin sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nucleotide database. This comparison to the NCBI database indicated that one group of F. subglutinans strains isolated from mango constitutes a unique lineage in the G. fujikuroi complex. Based on beta-tubulin and histone H3 sequencing, the second group of isolates is conspecific with the F. subglutinans strains previously reported to be the causal agent of mango malformation. PMID:20572965

Steenkamp, E; Britz, H; Coutinho, T; Wingfield, B; Marasas, W; Wingfield, M

2000-05-01

186

The Species Composition of Thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) Inhabiting Mango Orchards in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found...

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

2012-01-01

187

Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality  

OpenAIRE

Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mixed with the six pure subs...

Parichat Theanjumpol; Guy Self; Ronnarit Rittiron; Tanachai Pankasemsu; Vicha Sardsud

2013-01-01

188

Distribution of Pu and Am in different parts of mango trees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of plutonium and americium in the mango leaves and the distribution of their concentration in different parts of the mango fruit were performed. The generally observed trend is leaves>cotyledon>shell>flesh. These results suggest that the contamination of mango fruits by Pu an Am will not pose any radiation risk because the edible portion of the mango has the lowest activity. (author) 2 refs.; 2 tabs

189

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

OpenAIRE

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), ...

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

190

Analysis of peeling decoder for MET ensembles  

CERN Document Server

The peeling decoder introduced by Luby, et al. allows analysis of LDPC decoding for the binary erasure channel (BEC). For irregular ensembles, they analyze the decoder state as a Markov process and present a solution to the differential equations describing the process mean. Multi-edge type (MET) ensembles allow greater precision through specifying graph connectivity. We generalize the the peeling decoder for MET ensembles and derive analogous differential equations. We offer a new change of variables and solution to the node fraction evolutions in the general (MET) case. This result is preparatory to investigating finite-length ensemble behavior.

Hinton, Ryan

2009-01-01

191

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture CUSA. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wied), A. ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wied) , at doses from 10 to 250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a Co-60 AECL Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum to minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1.025. C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy applied to third instar fruit fly larvae sterilized this species and prevented emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A . Iudens, and A. obliqua a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 % and 27 % fertility, respectively. Adults of A. serpentina that emerged, died before reaching sexual maturity. The confirmatory tests, at probit-9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of mangoes irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological, and sensorial tests. The determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss of the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism was not accelerated since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both treated and untreated fruit in the same way. (Author)

192

Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction  

OpenAIRE

Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C18 cartridges...

Faridah Abas; Amin Ismail; Azrina Azlan; Hock Eng Khoo

2012-01-01

193

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

OpenAIRE

Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis) peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized condition...

Ibrahim, D.; Salikin, N-h; Lim, S. H.; Ahmad, R.; Weloosamy, H.

2013-01-01

194

INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNOSTIMULATORY BEHAVIOUR OF MUSA ACUMINATE PEEL EXTRACT IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS  

OpenAIRE

Antibiotics provide a useful means of helping to control many bacterial diseases but there are many problems associated with the development of antibiotic resistance and recurrent outbreaks necessity further, costly treatments. Immunostimulants especially when administered through the diet have been potentially playing an important role in aquaculture. Banana fruit peels are generally considered as waste, but recently antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties are explored in the pe...

Prit Benny, Geetha Viswanathan

2010-01-01

195

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

OpenAIRE

This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminate inhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel was enzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of the released sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibition by limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes was a powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The...

Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Talebnia, Farid; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2007-01-01

196

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

OpenAIRE

This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminateinhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel wasenzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of thereleased sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibitionby limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes wasa powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The enca...

Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Claes Niklasson; Farid Talebnia; Mohammad Pourbafrani

2007-01-01

197

Rapid method for Detection of Irradiation Mango Fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To detect mango fruits which have been exposed to low doses of gamma rays (0.5-3.0 kGy), three recommended methods by European Committee for Standardization (EN 1784:1996, EN 1785:1996 and EN 1787:2000) were used to study the possibility for identification of irradiated mango fruits (Ewais variety). Fresh mangoes were irradiated to different doses (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy). The first method for determining the volatile hydrocarbons (VHC) was carried out by using florisil column then identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major VHCs were C14:1, C15:0 and C17:1 at different doses which increased linearly with increasing doses either at low or high doses. The second one for determining the 2-alkyl cyclobutanone (2-DCB) was carried out using florisil chromatography method activated with 20% for separation and identified by GC-MS. 2-DCB bio marker specific for irradiated food proved its presence at the applied doses from 0.75-3.0 kGy but not at 0.5 kGy. All the mentioned compounds could not detected in non-irradiated samples, which mean that these radiolytic products (VHC and 2-DCB) can be used as a detection markers for irradiated mangoes even at low doses. The third one (EN 1787:2000) was conducted by electron spin resonance (ESR) on dried petioles of mangoes. The results proved that ESR was more sensitive for all applied doses.It could be concluded that using the three methods can be succeeded for detection of irradiated mangoes but the r detection of irradiated mangoes but the rapid one even at low doses with high accuracy was ESR.

198

Irradiation quarantine treatments for mango seed weevil and Cryptophlebia spp  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method to prevent adult emergence in, or to sterilize, mango seed weevil. Mixed-age mango seed weevils in mangoes were irradiated with target doses of 50, 100, or 300 Gy and held for adult emergence. The 300 Gy treatment (dose range 180-310 Gy) did not prevent adult emergence. Emerging adults from the 100 and 300 Gy treatments were lethargic and short-lived, and laid no eggs indicating sterility. An irradiation quarantine treatment (300 Gy) to sterilize mango seed weevil in mangoes has been approved. This treatment opens U.S. mainland markets to mango exports from Hawaii. Cryptophlebia illepida (Butler) and C. ombrodelta (Lower) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests that attack lychee, longan, rambutan, mangoes and other fruits in Hawaii. Studies were undertaken to determine whether irradiation treatment at 250 Gy, an accepted treatment for disinfestation of fruit flies in tropical fruits from Hawaii, would also control the two Cryptophlebia species (Follett and Lower 2000). C. illepida was determined to be more tolerant of irradiation than C. ombrodelta and so C. illepida was used in detailed tests. Using the criterion of success in developing to the adult stage, the pattern of tolerance to irradiation in C. illepida was generally eggs< early instars< late instars< pupae. The most tolerant stage that could potentially occur in harvested fruits is the late (fourth and fifth) instar. No C. illepida larvae receiving an irradiation dollepida larvae receiving an irradiation dose ?125 Gy and emerging as adults produced viable eggs, indicating sterility can be achieved at doses <250 Gy. Large-scale tests in which 11,256 late instars were irradiated with a target dose of 250 Gy resulted in a pupation rate of only 8.4% and no adult eclosion. Therefore, the irradiation quarantine treatment of a minimum absorbed dose of 250 Gy approved for Hawaii's fruit flies will effectively disinfest fruits of any Cryptophlebia in addition to fruit flies. (author)

199

Development and evaluation of honey based mango nectar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey enriched mango nectar was prepared by using honey as sweetening agent because of its high fructose and glucose content and medicinal properties. The nectar having 20 % pulp, 15°B TSS and 0.30 % acidity was prepared, filled in pre-sterilized glass bottles, heat processed and stored up to 6 months under ambient (13.3-26.3 °C and 44.5-81.0 % RH) and refrigerated (4-7 °C and 73 % RH) conditions. The honey enriched mango nectar could be stored for 6 months at ambient temperature and low temperature storage conditions and only little changes in the quality parameters viz., TSS, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total and reducing sugars, carotenoids and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recorded as compared to sugar based nectar. These changes were more under ambient conditions than refrigerated and no microbial growth was found in nectars at fresh stage and during storage up to 6 months. The hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in the mango nectars increased with prolonged storage period. The mustard honey based mango nectar had the higher carotenoids content but this decreased (725.60-689.20 mg/100 ml) during storage up to 6 months under ambient storage conditions, whereas the decrease was less under refrigerated storage conditions. Organoleptic quality score was higher in mustard honey based mango nectar (6.8) as compared to sugar based mango nectar under refrigerated conditions after 6 months storage. The results indicated that the mustard honey based mango nectar stored at low temperature was acceptable with respect to colour, taste and overall acceptability without any microbial spoilage and could be marketed as health drink. PMID:25745248

Lakhanpal, Pooja; Vaidya, Devina

2015-03-01

200

Chemical characterization of the flour of peel and seed from two papaya cultivars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Papaya is among the currently most important tropical fruits grown in Brazil and in the world. The fruit is mainly consumed fresh although it offers many industrial products. The processing of this fruit, as well as its fresh consumption, results in large amounts of waste, such as peels and seeds. P [...] apaya consumption is one of the causes of significant loss of food value; therefore, new aspects on the use of its waste as by-products, or in the production of food additives, or even the incorporation of its flour in food have aroused great interest because these are products of high nutritional value, and their use may be economically viable. The objective of this study was to produce and characterize peel and seed flours from two papaya cultivars (Havai and Calimosa) for their chemical constituents focusing on possible use in foods. The proximate and mineral composition, titratable acidity, soluble solids, pH, contents of vitamin C, and phenolic compounds were determined. According to the results obtained, the papaya peel and seed flours had high contents of protein and fiber and therefore can be used as alternative sources of nutrients and can also be added in foods avoiding waste and adding value to the fruit.

Cláudia Mendes dos, Santos; Celeste Maria Patto de, Abreu; Juliana Mesquita, Freire; Estela de Rezende, Queiroz; Marcelle Mendes, Mendonça.

2014-06-01

201

Study of some macronutrients composition in peels of different citrus fruits grown in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)

202

Influencia da farinha de manga no crescimento e composição corporal da tilápia do Nilo / Influence of mango meal on growth and body composition of Nile tilapia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A farinha de manga com cascas foi avaliada como fonte de carboidrato em substituição ao milho para o crescimento de alevinos de tilápia e composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 180 peixes (4,69 ± 0,06 g) estocados em 12 caixas de 500 L, alimentados três vezes ao dia (6 % peso vivo), em um s [...] istema de recirculação de água com biofiltro. Foram testadas quatro dietas com diferentes concentrações de farinha de manga T1= dieta com 30 % de milho; T2= 33 % substituição milho por manga; T3= 66 % substituição milho por manga e T4= 100 % de substituição do milho pela manga com três repetições. Ao final de 45 dias, foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico (peso médio final, ganho de peso médio final, taxa de crescimento específico, consumo de ração aparente, conversão alimentar aparente, rendimento de carcaça, sobrevivência) e composição química da carcaça. Os níveis de farinha de manga em substituição ao milho afetaram todas as variáveis de desempenho a partir de 33 % de substituição (p0,05). Os valores da composição química da carcaça foram alterados com exceção da matéria mineral. A farinha de manga em substituição ao milho pode ser utilizada em até 33 % na ração da tilápia do Nilo sem prejudicar o desempenho zootécnico e a composição química da carcaça. Abstract in english Mango meal with peel was evaluated as carbohydrate source in substitution of corn, for tilapia juvenile growth and carcass composition. There were used 180 fish (4,69 ± 0,06 g) in 12 tanks of 500 L, fed three times a day (6 % of live weight), in a water recirculating system with biofilter. Four diet [...] s were evaluated with different mango meal concentrations T1= diet with 30 % of corn; and T2, T3 and T4 in which 33, 66, and 100 % of corn was replaced by mango meal. All of the treatments had three repetitions. At the end of 45 days performance was evaluated (final weight, weight gain; specific growth rate, feed consumption, apparent feed conversion rate, carcass yield, survival) and chemical carcass composition. The levels of mango meal substitution by corn meal affected all the variables analyzed from level 33 % (p0,05). Carcass chemical composition values were changed except for ash. Mango meal in substitution for corn may be used until the level of 33 % in Nile tilapia feed without damage for growth performance and carcass chemical composition.

R.C., Souza; J.F.B., Melo; R.M., Nogueira Filho; D.F.B., Campeche; R.A.C.R., Figueiredo.

2013-06-01

203

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice  

OpenAIRE

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum....

Wang, Jian-yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

2014-01-01

204

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

OpenAIRE

Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil) Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy t...

Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

2010-01-01

205

Efectos de la concentracion de solud y la relacion fruta/jarabe sobre sobre la deshidratacion osmotica de mango en cilindros¹  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en estudiar el efecto de la concentración del agente osmótico (glucosa en el jarabe a 50, 60 y 70% p/p) y la relación fruta/jarabe (1:2, 1:3 y 1:4) sobre la deshidratación osmótica de frutos de mango, Mangifera indica L., en cilindros. Para el estudio, se o [...] btuvieron los mangos tipo bocado del mercado local, se seleccionaron, pelaron, cortaron en forma de cilindros y se introdujeron en un recipiente de vidrio de 500 ml de capacidad conteniendo 300 ml de la solución osmótica. Los trozos fueron sacados después de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min para realizar determinaciones de ganancia de soluto (GS), pérdida de agua (PA) y °Brix. Determinaciones de actividad de agua (aw) fueron realizadas en la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todas las concentraciones del agente osmótico (50, 60 y 70% p/p) la ganancia de sólidos fue más notable en el caso de la relación fruta/jarabe 1:4. En todos los casos se observó que la PA es más importante que la GS. Se alcanzó el máximo de grados Brix en menor tiempo en los trozos de mango tratados con el jarabe a 50 °Brix comparado con los jarabes a 60 y 70 °Brix. Las observaciones del presente trabajo en términos de GS y PA permiten concluir que la concentración del jarabe y particularmente la relación jarabe/fruta influyen de una manera directa en el proceso de osmodeshidratación de mango. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to study the effect of the concentration of the osmotic agent (glucose in the syrup to 50, 60 and 70 % p/p) and the ratio fruit/syrup (1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) on the osmotic dehydration of mango fruits in cylinders. For the study, mangoes type "Bocado" were obtained from the [...] local market, selected, peeled, cut in form of cylinders and introduced in a 500 cc container of glass with 300 cc of osmotic solution. The pieces were removed after 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 y 360 min to make determinations of gain of solute (GS), loss of water (PA) and °Brix. Determinations of water activity (aw) were made in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the concentrations of the osmotic agent evaluated the solid gain was more important in the ratio fruit/syrup 1:4. In all the cases, it was found that the PA was more important than GS. The highest degree Brix was reached in less time in the mango pieces treated with 50 °Brix syrup than with 60 and 70 °Brix syrup. The observations of the present work about GS and PA allow to conclude that the concentration of the syrup, and particularly the ratio fruit/syrup influences the process of osmotic dehydration of mango

Anne, Valera; Judith, Zambrano; Willian, Materano; Ibis, Quintero.

206

Extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peels  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different solvents, temperature conditions, solvent-solid ratios and particle sizes on solid-solvent extraction of the total phenolics, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids herein also referred to as antioxidant from pomegranate marc peel (PMP) was studied. Water, methanol, ethanol, aceto...

207

Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream  

OpenAIRE

A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized ‘ice and salt’ type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Pl...

Patel, Ashish S.; Jana, Atanu H.; Aparnathi, Kishore D.; Pinto, Suneeta V.

2010-01-01

208

Mango: an online GUI development tool for the Tango control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango is an online tool based on QTango that allows easy development of graphical panels ready to run without need to be compiled. Developing with Mango is easy and fast because widgets are dragged from a widget catalogue and dropped into the Mango container. Widgets are then connected to the control system variables by choosing them from a Tango device list or by dragging them from any other running application built with the QTango library. Mango has also been successfully used during the FERMI-Elettra commissioning both by machine physicists and technicians: about 10 control panels have been designed and run with Mango

209

Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically r storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

210

Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger  

OpenAIRE

Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of ci...

Kuivanen, Joosu; Dantas, Hugo; Mojzita, Dominik; Mallmann, Edgar; Biz, Alessandra; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David; Richard, Peter

2014-01-01

211

USE OF EDGE DETECTION OPERATORS FOR AGRICULTURE VIDEO SCENE FEATURE EXTRACTION FROM MANGO FRUITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional fruits often called “super fruits”. The Edge detection process detects outlines of mangos, mango quality evaluation and mango types, counting mangos, check Inflorescence quality. An edge is the boundary between mangos and the background. Simulink is a simulation modeling and design tool and GUI based diagram environment. The Simulink based customizable framework is designed for rapid simulation, implementation, and verification of video processing systems. In this work the comparative analysis of various mangos video edge detection methods is like Sobel, Prewitt, and Canny is presented.

Manza R.R., Gaikwad B.P. and Manza G.R.

2012-03-01

212

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

213

Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper presents the core-centric programming model for establishing and using GS connections in MANGO. We show how OCP transactions are packetized and transmitted across the shared network, and illustrate how this affects the end-to-end performance. A high predictability of the latency of communication on shared links is shown in a MANGO-based demonstrator system

Bjerregaard, Tobias; SparsØ, Jens

2006-01-01

214

The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the ?-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following ?-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T2. (author)

215

Effects on storage life and quality of irradiated mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigations on the effect of irradiation at 50 Krad, hot water treatment at 55 degC 5 min and hot water treatment followed by irradiation were carried out on the mature green Keaw mango to eradicate anthracnose disease development and delay ripening. Before introducing all treatments, mangoes were inoculated by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. All samples were determined after stored at 10 +- 2 degC and at 85% RH for 3 weeks. No difference in disease control between untreated and irradiated batches, but fruits treated with hot water followed by irradiation were significantly different from untreated ones. All treatments were effective in delaying ripening. Higher dosage of irradiation with a combination of hot water treatment was studied on colour break Pimsen Prure mango and 75 Krad after hot water treatment proved to be promising. Further study is being conducted

216

Two new Ceratocystis species associated with mango disease in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Mangifera indica, a disease known as mango blight, murcha or seca da mangueira in Brazil, is caused by the canker wilt pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato. It is also closely associated with infestation by the non-native wood-boring beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). The aim of this study was to characterize Ceratocystis isolates obtained from diseased mango trees in Brazil. Identification was based on sequence data from ITS1+5.8S+ITS2 rDNA, part o...

Wyk, Marelize; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Al Adawi, Ali O.; Rossetto, Carlos J.; Ito, Margarida Fumiko; Wingfield, Michael J.

2011-01-01

217

Assessment Keys for Some Important Diseases of Mango  

OpenAIRE

Mangifera indica L., the most important tropical fruit is subjected to a number of disease at all stages of its development. Practical, efficient and accurate assessment of disease intensity is a major concern of plant pathologist. At present time there is no general up-to-date precise information`s available to asses the mango diseases. This paper provides over 9 key`s for the assessment of important mango diseases. All of which have been prepared from the literature used by different...

Akhtar, Khalid P.; Alam, S. S.

2002-01-01

218

Identification of irradiated mangoes by means of ESR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Samples of mango varieties Tommy Atkins, Haiden and Ataulfo were irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation at doses in the range 0.15-1.0 kGy, and stored at room temperature for lapses of time up to 72 h. They were then studied by ESR spectrometry. Results show that the ESR signal of the irradiated samples is higher than that of the unirradiated samples, and this is found even at the minimum radiation dose of 0.15 kGy. The ESR signal remained stable during the storage time. The ESR signals obtained for hydroheated mangoes show insignificant differences with respect to the control samples. (author)

219

Anaerobic digestion of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the production of biogas by using pineapple pulp and peel, the by-products from fruit processing plants, in a plug-flow reactor (17.5 L total volume). The effects of feed concentration, total solids (TS) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on degradation of the waste were investigated. The increase of pineapple pulp and peel of 2% (wt/vol) at HRT 7 d to 4% (wt/vol) at HRT 10 d showed increases in biogas production rate, biogas yield and methane yield - from 0.12 v/v-d, 0.26 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.11 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 64.1%, to 0.25 v/v-d, 0.43 m(3)/kg COD removed and 0.14 m(3)/kg COD removed, with COD removal at 60.41%. The methanogenic fermentation was more active in the middle and final parts of the reactor. The recirculation of fermentation effluent at 40% (vol/vol) of the working volume into the reactor could increase the biogas production rate and biogas yield up to 52% and 12%, respectively. The results showed technological potential for waste treatment of pineapple pulp and peel in a plug-flow reactor. PMID:22705859

Namsree, Pimjai; Suvajittanont, Worakrit; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

2012-11-15

220

Experimental Investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress Distribution of Aluminum Steel Galvanized Foil Laminate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental investigation of the Peel Strength and Peel Stress distribution of Aluminum-Steel (Galvanized foil Laminate is reported. Due to the need for continued improvement in weight reduction in aircrafts in the Aircraft industry; choice of corrosion-free materials in the Food/Beverages and Medical industries, attention has been focused on choice of appropriate materials that combine strength, light weight and corrosion/rust-free properties. Aluminum and Steel hybrid appears to satisfy the orchestrated properties above. Consequent on the foregoing Aluminum – steel (Galvanized foil laminate bonds were prepared using Araldite Rapid (an Epoxy Adhesive as the bonding agent. The specimens were subjected to Peel Test on the Mosanto Tensometer. Outcome of investigation revealed that a mode of failure was by the Steel foil simply peeling off the Aluminum piece along the bond film; much strength was needed to initiate the peel, after which little strength was needed per elongation and that the ends of the laminate carried 63.8% of the total load.

Okpighe, Sunday Okerekehe

2010-10-01

221

Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications  

Science.gov (United States)

A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ?40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

2015-02-01

222

Magnetically actuated peel test for thin films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Delamination along thin film interfaces is a prevalent failure mechanism in microelectronic, photonic, microelectromechanical systems, and other engineering applications. Current interfacial fracture test techniques specific to thin films are limited by either sophisticated mechanical fixturing, physical contact near the crack tip, or complicated stress fields. Moreover, these techniques are generally not suitable for investigating fatigue crack propagation under cyclical loading. Thus, a fixtureless and noncontact experimental test technique with potential for fatigue loading is proposed and implemented to study interfacial fracture toughness for thin film systems. The proposed test incorporates permanent magnets surface mounted onto micro-fabricated released thin film structures. An applied external magnetic field induces noncontact loading to initiate delamination along the interface between the thin film and underlying substrate. Characterization of the critical peel force and peel angle is accomplished through in situ deflection measurements, from which the fracture toughness can be inferred. The test method was used to obtain interfacial fracture strength of 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2} for 1.5-1.7 {mu}m electroplated copper on natively oxidized silicon substrates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-contact magnetic actuation test for interfacial fracture characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applied load is determined through voltage applied to the driving electromagnet. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Displacement and delamination propagation is measured using an optical profiler. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical peel force and peel angle is measured for electroplated Cu thin-film on Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The measured interfacial fracture energy of Cu/Si interface is 0.8-1.9 J/m{sup 2}.

Ostrowicki, G.T.; Sitaraman, S.K., E-mail: suresh.sitaraman@me.gatech.edu

2012-03-30

223

Orange Peel coupling in granular ferromagnetic films  

CERN Document Server

We present magnetoresistance (MR) measurements performed on magnetic tunnel junctions in which one of the electrodes is a granular ferromagnetic film. These junctions exhibit a zero field resistance dip. The dip magnitude depends on the size of the grains. We interpret these results as a consequence of the orange peel effect between the continuous ferromagnetic film and the magnetic grains. The coupling is found to be much stronger than that between continuous ferromagnetic layers.

Barness, D

2003-01-01

224

Apparatus Tests Peeling Of Bonded Rubbery Material  

Science.gov (United States)

Instrumented hydraulic constrained blister-peel apparatus obtains data on degree of bonding between specimen of rubbery material and rigid plate. Growth of blister tracked by video camera, digital clock, pressure transducer, and piston-displacement sensor. Cylinder pressure controlled by hydraulic actuator system. Linear variable-differential transformer (LVDT) and float provide second, independent measure of change in blister volume used as more precise volume feedback in low-growth-rate test.

Crook, Russell A.; Graham, Robert

1996-01-01

225

Exploitation of agro industrial wastes as immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Ten agro industrial wastes were assessed for their suitability as fungus immobilization carrier for solid-state fermentation (SSF). The wastes included creosote bush leaves (Larrea tridentata), variegated Caribbean agave (Agave lechuguilla), lemon peel (Citrus aurantifolia), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), apple pomace (Malus domestica), pistachio shell (Pistacia vera), wheat bran (Triticum spp.), coconut husk (Cocos nucífera), pecan nutshell (Carya illinoinensis), and bean residues (Phaseolu...

Orzua, Mari?a C.; Mussatto, Solange I.; Contreras-esquivel, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Raul; Garza, Heliodoro La; Teixeira, J. A.; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noe?

2009-01-01

226

Susceptibility of Different Varieties of Mango to Leaf Cutting Weevil, Deporaus marginatus P. and its Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiments were conducted on 12 mango graft varieties/cultivars viz. BARI mango-1, BARI mango-2, BARI mango-3 (Amrapali, Fazli, Gopalbhog, Khirsapat, Kazla sinduri, Kazla-01(Subarna, Langra, Mallika, Rad and seedling (stock plant on the incidence of mango leaf cutting weevil (Deporaus marginatus P., its extent of damage to mango leaves and the effectiveness of non-chemical and chemical (insecticide for control. The highest infestation of 52.55% leaves recorded in BARI mango-3 (Amrapali followed by Rad, Mallika, BARI mango-1 and BARI mango-2 and the lowest infestation of 13.78 and 18.55% found in Langra and Gopalbhog followed by Kazla-01 and Khirsapath. The other three varieties sustained 27.49-30.64 % leaf damage. To control the mango leaf cutting weevil bagging with mosquito net and bagging with polythin bag had the best performance with 100% reduction of leaf infestation followed by spraying of Ripcord. Spraying of Decis caused 82.23 % reduction of leaf damage followed by Sevin, Azodrin and Diazinon with the least control efficiency of Sumithion.

M. A. Uddin

2003-01-01

227

The role of peel stresses in cyclic debonding  

Science.gov (United States)

When an adhesively bonded joint is undergoing cyclic loading, one of the possible damage modes that occurs is called cyclic debonding - progressive separation of the adherends by failure of the adhesive bond under cyclic loading. In most practical structures, both peel and shear stresses exist in the adhesive bonding during cyclic loading. The results of an experimental and analytical study to determine the role of peel stresses on cyclic debonding in a mixed mode specimen are presented. Experimentally, this was done by controlling the forces that create the peel stresses by applying a clamping force to oppose the peel stresses. Cracked lap shear joints were chosen for this study. A finite element analysis was developed to assess the effect of the clamping force on the strain energy release rates due to shear and peel stresses. The results imply that the peel stress is the principal stress causing cyclic debonding.

Everett, R. A., Jr.

1982-01-01

228

Microcontact Peeling as a New Method for Cell Micropatterning  

OpenAIRE

Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at ...

Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S.; Deguchi, Shinji

2014-01-01

229

Complications of Medium Depth and Deep Chemical Peels  

OpenAIRE

Superficial and medium depth peels are dynamic tools when used as part of office procedures for treatment of acne, pigmentation disorders, and photo-aging. Results and complications are generally related to the depth of wounding, with deeper peels providing more marked results and higher incidence of complications. Complications are also more likely with darker skin types, certain peeling agents, and sun exposure. They can range from minor irritations, uneven pigmentation to permanent scarrin...

Nikalji, Nanma; Godse, Kiran; Sakhiya, Jagdish; Patil, Sharmila; Nadkarni, Nitin

2012-01-01

230

Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of the study is extraction, identification of antimicrobial compounds and demonstration of antimicrobial activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L.) peel against bacteria. As microorganism are becoming resistant to present day antibiotics, our study focuses on antimicrobial activity and future prophylactic potential of the lemon peel. Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists. The peel of citrus fruits is a rich s...

Dhanavade, Maruti J.; Jalkute, Chidamber B.; Ghosh, Jai S.; Sonawane, Kailash D.

2011-01-01

231

Conversion of orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process using engineered strains of Aspergillus niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus processing waste is a leftover from the citrus processing industry and is available in large amounts. Typically, this waste is dried to produce animal feed, but sometimes it is just dumped. Its main component is the peel, which consists mostly of pectin, with D-galacturonic acid as the main monomer. Aspergillus niger is a filamentous fungus that efficiently produces pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and uses the resulting D-galacturonic acid and most of the other components of citrus peel for growth. We used engineered A. niger strains that were not able to catabolise D-galacturonic acid, but instead converted it to L-galactonic acid. These strains also produced pectinases for the hydrolysis of pectin and were used for the conversion of pectin in orange peel to L-galactonic acid in a consolidated process. The D-galacturonic acid in the orange peel was converted to L-galactonic acid with a yield close to 90%. Submerged and solid-state fermentation processes were compared. PMID:24949267

Kuivanen, Joosu; Dantas, Hugo; Mojzita, Dominik; Mallmann, Edgar; Biz, Alessandra; Krieger, Nadia; Mitchell, David; Richard, Peter

2014-01-01

232

Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

233

Occurrence of chilling injury in fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mangoes  

Science.gov (United States)

For best visual quality retention of fresh-cut fruits, the preferred storage temperature is about 5 °C, which is considered a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango. Changes in visual and compositional attributes, aroma volatile production, respiration rate, and elect...

234

Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes  

Science.gov (United States)

The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

235

Irradiation of mangoes as a quarantine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research project was conducted following the guidelines of research protocols for post-harvest treatments developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. Laboratory bioassays included the irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) infested with third instar larvae of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), A. Ludens (Loew), A. obliqua (Macquart) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) at doses of 10-250 Gy. Irradiation doses were applied using a 60Co Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Model JS-7400 irradiator. The design was chosen to obtain a maximum/minimum ratio equal to, or less than, 1025, C. capitata was the species most tolerant to irradiation. A dose of 60 Gy, applied to third instar fruit fly larvae in the infested fruits, sterilized this species and prevented the emergence of adults of the other three species. A dose of 250 Gy was required to prevent emergence of C. capitata. In fertility tests using emerged adults of A. ludens and A. obliqua, a dose of 30 Gy gave 45 and 27% fertility, respectively. The adults of A. serpentina that emerged died before reaching sexual maturity. Confirmatory tests, at the probit 9 security level, were done at 100 Gy for the three species of Anastrepha and at 150 Gy for C. capitata. The quality of fruits irradiated up to 1000 Gy was evaluated by chemical, physiological and sensorial tests. Determination of vitamin C indicated that there was no loss in the nutritive value of the fruit. It also was observed that frof the fruit. It also was observed that fruit metabolism, was not accelerated, since no significant increase in respiration or transpiration was registered and consumers accepted both the treated and untreated fruits in the same way. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

236

Dynamics of the peel front and the nature of acoustic emission during peeling of an adhesive tape  

OpenAIRE

We investigate the peel front dynamics and acoustic emission of an adhesive tape within the context of a recent model by including an additional dissipative energy that mimics bursts of acoustic signals. We find that the nature of the peeling front can vary from smooth to stuck-peeled configuration depending on the values of dissipation coefficient, inertia of the roller, mass of the tape. Interestingly, we find that the distribution of AE bursts shows a power law statistics...

De, Rumi; Ananthakrishna, G.

2006-01-01

237

Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling versus vitrectomy with no peeling for idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have suggested the potential benefit of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling to treat idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH). However, no strong evidence is available on the potential benefit(s) of this surgical manoeuvre and uncertainty remains among vitreoretinal surgeons about the indication for peeling the ILM, whether to use it in all cases or in long-standing and/or larger holes.  OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ILM peeling improves...

Spiteri Cornish, K.; Lois, N.; Scott, N.; Burr, J.; Cook, J.; Boachie, C.; Tadayoni, R.; La Cour, M.; Christensen, U.; Kwok, A.

2013-01-01

238

Transportation and storage studies on irradiated Alphonso mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Control as well as skin coated (6% ''Myvacet'') and/or irradiated (25 to 35 krad) mangoes were packed in baskets in dry paddy straw and shipped by rail. After a storage at a temperature of 25 to 320C for a period of 8 days, the baskets were shipped back. After receipt in the laboratory the fruits were kept under observation for 5 more days and then scored for ripening and marketability as assessed by appearance, skin gloss and typical flavour. 100 per cent of fruits skin-coated and irradiated were marketable at the end of the experiment. None of the unirradiated control fruits were saleable by this time, while 66%, of the irradiated fruits were in acceptable condition. In further experiments one dozen mangoes each from control, irradiated and skin-coated and irradiated groups were wrapped individually in tissue paper and packed tightly in a plyweed box. This consignment was air-lifted from Bombay to Budapest, a distance of about 5600 kilometers. The time interval between irradiation and their receipt in Hungary was 4 days. The mangoes were assessed for their storage characteristics by various parameters that included physiological loss in weight, puncture resistance of the skin, pulp texture, carotenoids, acidity and organoleptic attributes, at various periods during storage. It was found that ripening and senescence are strikingly delayed in mangoes by skin-coating and radiation treatment. The treated mangoes retained their skin-resistance while the disappned their skin-resistance while the disappearance of chlorophyl and formation of carotenoids were substantially delayed. Weight loss in storage was lower and reduction of acidity and formation of sugars in the fruit flesh took place later. Organoleptically, the fruits subjected to the combination treatment were good. These studies point to the feasibility of the combination treatment in prolonging the shelf life of fruits significantly to enable their transport to distant countries. (F.G.)

239

Molecular diversity and genetic relationships of mango germplasm from Chiapas, Mexico / Diversidad molecular y relaciones genéticas de germoplasma de mango de Chiapas, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La mayor parte de la producción de mango (Mangifera indica L.) en Chiapas, México, se localiza en la región Soconusco, donde se ha detectado una gran diversidad morfológica y genética, que se debe a la polinización libre entre plantas. La caracterización e identificación de plantas excepcionales pue [...] de ser útil para la conservación de la diversidad del mango, así como para su uso en el cultivo del mango. Se recolectaron 41 accesiones de mango en cinco localidades (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) en el estado de Chiapas, México, que se sometieron a análisis AFLP y después se compararon con 19 variedades cultivadas de mango. El análisis AFLP indicó altos niveles de polimorfismo entre las accesiones (> 84 %). El análisis AMOVA indicó una diferenciación genética significativa (F ST = 0.23743) entre y dentro las accesiones de mango. El análisis de agrupamiento arrojó dos grupos: las accesiones de Chiapas y los mangos Ataulfo se relacionan cercanamente a los cultivares Manila, Carabao, Amini y Cambodiana, nativas de Asia; y los mangos mexicanos y no mexicanos cultivados a partir del Banco de Germoplasma. Mangifera odorata fue distinta a todas las otras muestras de M. indica. La heterocigosidad más alta se encontró en mangos de Tuxtla Chico (0.260) y Escuintla (0.254). Las diferencias genéticas entre accesiones y cultivares se asociaron con su origen geográfico e indicaron nueva diversidad genética de los mangos de Chiapas debido a la polinización libre y el uso de plantas recombinantes. Abstract in english Most of mango (Mangifera indica L.) production in Chiapas, México is located at Soconusco region where a large morphological and genetic diversity have been detected due the free-pollination among plants. The characterization and identification of outstanding plants can be useful for mango diversity [...] conservation as well as the use for mango breeding. Forty-one local mango accessions collected in five locations (Huehuetán, Pijijiapan, Tuxtla Chico, Tapachula, Escuintla) in the state of Chiapas, México, were subjected to AFLP analysis and then compared with 19 mango cultivars. AFLP analysis indicated high levels of polymorphisms among accessions (> 84 %). AMOVA analysis indicated significant genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.23743) among and within mango accessions. Cluster analysis showed two groups: accessions from Chiapas and Ataulfo mangos closely related to Manila, Carabao, Amini and Cambodiana cultivars native from Asia; and Mexican and non-Mexican bred mangos from Germplasm Bank. Mangifera odorata was different than all other M. indica accessions. The highest heterozygosity were found in mangos from Tuxtla Chico (0.260) and Escuintla (0.254). Genetic differences among accessions and cultivars were associated with their geographical origin and indicated new genetic diversity of mangos from Chiapas due to free-pollination and the use of recombinant plants.

Didiana, Gálvez-López; Miguel, Salvador-Figueroa; Enrique N., Becerra-Leor; Maurilio, González-Paz; Sanjuana, Hernández-Delgado; Netzahualcóyotl, Mayek-Pérez.

2010-12-01

240

Evidence and Considerations in the Application of Chemical Peels in Skin Disorders and Aesthetic Resurfacing  

OpenAIRE

Chemical peeling is a popular, relatively inexpensive, and generally safe method for treatment of some skin disorders and to refresh and rejuvenate skin. This article focuses on chemical peels and their use in routine clinical practice. Chemical peels are classified by the depth of action into superficial, medium, and deep peels. The depth of the peel is correlated with clinical changes, with the greatest change achieved by deep peels. However, the depth is also associated with longer healing...

Rendon, Marta I.; Berson, Diane S.; Cohen, Joel L.; Roberts, Wendy E.; Starker, Isaac; Wang, Beatrice

2010-01-01

241

The survey and the effect of gamma irradiation on Mango seed weevil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survey of the mango seed weevil during February to July of 1993-1995 at Ratchaburi province, Chachoengsao province and Chieng Mai province. Only at Chieng Mai province was found at 2.35 percent to 37.36 percent. Outbreak occurred in the mango orchard which there was no insecticide application and pruning. Over 20 years old of the mango trees with the crevices of the bark around the trunk would be the host area of the adult mango seed weevil. The adult would hibernate by living in the crevice of the bark and in the ground around the base of the trunk. All specimens of mango seed weevils found was Sternochaetus oliveri (Faust). The study on effect of gamma radiation on the adult of mango seed weevil found that L D99 is 1.39 kGy after 28 days of irradiation. They were very slow movement without feeding and mating

242

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Science.gov (United States)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

243

Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ?75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ?100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

244

Infestation of Mangifera indica by the mango gall fly, Procontarinia matteiana, (Kieffer & Cecconi) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)  

OpenAIRE

Mango gall fly (Procontarinia matteiana Kieffer&Cecconi, 1906) is an orchard pest that infests flush leaves of mango, forming wart-like structures on the leaves. Serious outbreaks may result in reduced fruit yield. A natural parasite (Chrysonotomyia pulcherimma Kerrich, 1970) of the gall fly lays its eggs inside the gall and the larvae feed on the gall fly. Mango cultivars present varying susceptibilities to gall fly infestation, with cultivars ranging from completely resistant...

Augustyn, W. A.; Du Plooy, W.; Botha, B. M.; Wilpe, Erna

2012-01-01

245

Bioconversion Efficiency of ?-Carotene from Mango Fruit and Carrots in Vitamin A  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Bioconversion efficiency of ?-Carotene (BC) in vitamin A is strongly influenced by food matrix. This efficiency has been determined mainly in typical BC sources like carrots. BC content in mango fruit is considerably high however; the bioconversion efficiency of BC from fresh mango in vitamin A has not been determined nor compared with those of typical BC sources. Approach: Vitamin A depleted rats were daily fed with portions of Ataulfo mango (alone or with soybean oil...

Ornelas-paz, Jose D. J.; Yahia, Elhadi M.; Gardea-bejar, Alfonso A.

2010-01-01

246

Evaluation of mango cultivars for resistance to infection by ceratocystis manginecans  

OpenAIRE

Ceratocystis manginecans has been reported to cause a serious wilt disease of mango in Oman and Pakistan. To identify plants resistant to this disease, 30 mango cultivars were artificially inoculated with isolates of C. manginecans in three trials. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0.0001) in lesion lengths among mango cultivars. Similarly, there were significant differences in the aggressiveness of the isolates used for inoculations. However, in trials...

Al Adawi, A. O.; Al Sadi, B. A.; Al Jabri, M. H.; Barnes, Irene; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Deadman, M. L.; Wingfield, Michael J.

2013-01-01

247

Extraction and Characteristics of Seed Kernel Oil from Mango (Mangifera indica)  

OpenAIRE

Congo mango seeds w ere collected and the kernels were separated and dried. This study was carriedout on mango seed kernels to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oilincluding unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. Mango seed kernels contained a considerableunsaponifiable matter, and a low amount of crude protein. Stearic acid w as the m ain saturated fatty acid, w hileoleic acid w as the m ajor unsaturated fatty acid in all lipid classes. M...

Nzikou, J. M.

2010-01-01

248

The effect of calcium infiltration and irradiation treatment on biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhi Hua Mango (Mangifera indica L.) was treated using calcium infiltration and radiation. Biochemical and physiological aspects during mango storage were researched. The results that the treatment of CaCl2 with radiation (dose of 0.25 kGy) can retard Malic enzyme activity, and radiation can also cause effects on the transpiration of Ca++ and release of CO2 and ethylene. The mango treated with above way is the best one from view of sense organ. However it does not delay maturity of mango to use Ca++ treatment alone

249

Pomelo peels as alternative substrate for extracellular pectinase production by Aspergillus niger HFM-8  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this work was to develop an effective bioprocess to enhance the pectinase production by solid-state cultures of Aspergillus niger HFM-8. Methodology and results: The pectinase production produced by A. niger HFM-8 was studied under solid state fermentation using Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis peel as the substrate. This local agricultural waste is rich with lignocellulolytic material including pectin acts as the inducer of pectinase production. Under optimized conditions, 5 g of 0.75 mm pomelo peel size, moisture content of 60% (v/w sterile distilled water pH 5.0, inoculums size of 1x10^4 spores/mL, cultivation temperature of room temperature (30 ± 2 °C, no mixing incurred and with the addition of 1% (w/w citrus pectin and 0.1% (w/w urea has produced pectinase production of 306.89 U/g substrate and 0.78 mg glucosamine/g substrate of fungal growth on the 8th day of cultivation. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: There was 48.82% increment in enzyme production after the improvement of parameters. It was found that pomelo peel is a suitable feedstock for pectinase production.

Ibrahim, D.

2013-12-01

250

Antioxidative properties of defatted dabai pulp and peel prepared by solid phase extraction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid phase extraction (SPE) using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts). The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C?? cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants. PMID:22893021

Khoo, Hock Eng; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Abas, Faridah

2012-01-01

251

Antioxidative Properties of Defatted Dabai Pulp and Peel Prepared by Solid Phase Extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid phase extraction (SPE using Sep-Pak® cartridges is one of the techniques used for fractionation of antioxidant compounds in waste of dabai oil extraction (defatted dabai parts. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in crude extracts and several SPE fractions from methanolic extract of defatted dabai pulp and peel. Based on SPE, Sep-Pak® cyanopropyl and C18 cartridges were used to fractionate the antioxidant-rich crude extracts into water and methanolic fractions. Analyzed using LC-MS, flavonoids, anthocyanins, saponin derivatives and other unknown antioxidative compounds were detected in the defatted dabai crude extracts and their SPE fractions. Anthocyanins were the major phenolic compounds identified in the defatted dabai peel and detected in most of the SPE fractions. Methanolic fractions of defatted dabai parts embraced higher total phenolics and antioxidant capacity than water fractions. This finding also revealed the crude extracts of defatted dabai peel have the most significant antioxidant properties compared to the methanolic and water fractions studied. The crude extract of defatted dabai parts remain as the most potent antioxidant as it contains mixture of flavonoids, anthocyanins and other potential antioxidants.

Faridah Abas

2012-08-01

252

Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels  

OpenAIRE

In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP) was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control), 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g?g?1 in control sample to 0.382 g?g?1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiati...

Jaime Saucedo Luna; Agustín Jaime Castro Montoya; Gabriela Roa Morales; Nelly Flores Ramírez; Patricia Balderas Hernández; Raymundo Sánchez Orozco

2012-01-01

253

Thermal stability of liquid antioxidative extracts from pomegranate peel  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was carried out to assess the potential of using the natural antioxidants in pomegranate peel extracts as replacement for synthetic antioxidants. As a result the thermal stability of pomegranate peel extract products during sterilization and storage, and its effect on industrial, color...

254

DRY CAUSTIC PEELING OF CLINGSTONE PEACHES. CAPSULE REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

The Capsule Report discusses the modified dry caustic process which uses rapidly rotating rubber discs to mechanically wipe the caustic treated peel from clingstone peaches. This report covers two-seasons of evaluation during which the dry caustic peeling system was operated in p...

255

Microcontact peeling as a new method for cell micropatterning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Micropatterning is becoming a powerful tool for studying morphogenetic and differentiation processes of cells. Here we describe a new micropatterning technique, which we refer to as microcontact peeling. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates were treated with oxygen plasma, and the resulting hydrophilic layer of the surface was locally peeled off through direct contact with a peeling stamp made of aluminum, copper, or silicon. A hydrophobic layer of PDMS could be selectively exposed only at the places of the physical contact as revealed by water contact angle measurements and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which thus enabled successful micropatterning of cells with micro-featured peeling stamps. This new micropatterning technique needs no procedure for directly adsorbing proteins to bare PDMS in contrast to conventional techniques using a microcontact printing stamp. Given the several unique characteristics, the present technique based on the peel-off of inorganic materials may become a useful option for performing cell micropatterning. PMID:25062030

Yokoyama, Sho; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Deguchi, Shinji

2014-01-01

256

Effect of different doses of gamma radiation on shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits cv. Dashehari  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango fruits cv. Dashehari irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation for extending their shelf life and for stabilizing the market demand, revealed that irradiation of mango fruits with 200 Gy gamma radiation increase the post harvest life of 93.75 percent mango fruits by 12 days over control (46.66 percent) and proved superior to maintain the considerable physico-chemical composition of mango fruits as compared to control and higher doses of gamma radiation. (author)

257

Effect of commercial (vimang and hydroalcoholic extract of Mangifera indica (Mango on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: Mango products were able to improve kidney function in an established model of GM-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat. The beneficial effects of Mango on the rat kidney seem to be dose and time-dependent. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate Mango action on GM-induced renal toxicity.

Abolfazl Khajavi Rad

2011-09-01

258

75 FR 52712 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From Pakistan Into the Continental...the continental United States of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. Based on the findings...noxious weeds via the importation of fresh mango fruit from Pakistan. DATES:...

2010-08-27

259

Dynamics of the peel front and the nature of acoustic emission during peeling of an adhesive tape  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the peel front dynamics and acoustic emission of an adhesive tape within the context of a recent model by including an additional dissipative energy that mimics bursts of acoustic signals. We find that the nature of the peeling front can vary from smooth to stuck-peeled configuration depending on the values of dissipation coefficient, inertia of the roller, mass of the tape. Interestingly, we find that the distribution of AE bursts shows a power law statistics with two scaling regimes with increasing pull velocity as observed in experiments. In this regimes, the stuck-peeled configuration is similar to the `edge of peeling' reminiscent of a system driven to a critical state.

De, R; De, Rumi

2006-01-01

260

Mango de azúcar (Mangifera indica), variedad de Colombia: características antioxidantes, nutricionales y sensoriales / Sugar mango (Mangifera indica), variety from Colombia: antioxidant, nutritional and sensorial characteristics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango de azúcar es una variedad colombiana pequeña, de escasa fibra, buen aroma y sabor. Esta investigación evaluó la capacidad antioxidante del fruto en diferentes estados de maduración por FRAP y DPPH clasificados por inspección visual y escala CIELab. Las características nutricionales y el val [...] or ORAC se determinaron en el mango maduro. Las características sensoriales de dos formulaciones (sacarosa y sucralosa) con mango maduro se determinaron por prueba afectiva de aceptación y escala Hedónica. Resultados: la clasificación por inspección visual coincidió con la escala CIELab. El mango verde tiene 45% más flavonoides que el maduro. El contenido de carotenoides, valores DPPH y FRAP fueron similares en los diferentes estados de maduración. El 94% de los panelistas aceptaron el néctar con sucralosa comparado con el endulzado con sacarosa (89,1%). Los resultados indican que el mango de azúcar y un producto tipo néctar poseen capacidad antioxidante, compuestos bioactivos y nutricionales beneficiosos para la salud. Abstract in english The sugar mango is a small Colombian cultivar with low fiber content, good aroma and flavor. This research evaluated antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH) of the fruit at different ripening stages classified by visual inspection and CIELab scale. Nutritional and sensory characteristics and ORAC value we [...] re measured in the ripe fruit. Sensorial characteristics of two mango nectars sweetened with sucrose and sucralose using ripe fruit were determined by affective acceptance test and Hedonic scale. Results showed that classification by visual inspection coincided with the CIELab scale for all ripening stages. The green mango has 45% more flavonoids than the mature one. The carotenoid content, DPPH and FRAP values were similar in the different ripening stages. Sucralose sweetened nectar was accepted by 94.9% compared with that sweetened with sucrose (89.1%). Results indicate that mango sugar fruit and nectar present antioxidant capacity, bioactive and nutritional compounds with potential health benefits.

Andrea, Corrales-Bernal; Maria Elena, Maldonado; Luz Amparo, Urango; Maria Camila, Franco; Benjamín Alberto, Rojano.

2014-09-01

261

Induction of mutation in mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on evolving of improved plant types through physical and chemical mutagens are, in general, lacking in tree fruits, more particularly in Mango. The present study showed that the LD50 values (?-irradiation) for the mango cultivars Neelum, Dashehari and Mallika were 3.9, 2.9 and 2.4 Krad, respectively. The effective dosages of EMS and NMU for the cvs Dashehari and Neelum were 1.50 and 0.05 per cent, respectively. Primary effects of both physical and chemical mutagens were found to be more or less the same. Some interesting changes in vegetative characters have also been stabilised. Out of these a few plants appeared to be promising for dwarfness whereas in some others, fruit quality improved. (author)

262

Packetizing OCP Transactions in the MANGO Network-on-Chip  

OpenAIRE

The scaling of CMOS technology causes a widening gap between the performance of on-chip communication and computation. This calls for a communication-centric design flow. The MANGO network-on-chip architecture enables globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) system-on-chip design, while facilitating IP reuse by standard socket access points. Two types of services are available: connection-less best-effort routing and connection-oriented guaranteed service (GS) routing. This paper pres...

Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

2006-01-01

263

Adsorption of Copper from Aqueous Solution Using Mango Seed Powder  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the study was the removal of copper metal ions from aqueous solution using mango seed powder as low cost adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent doses & temperature were studied in batch experiments at room temperature. The results showed that with increase in the contact time percent removal of copper increases. The adsorption was rapid during first 45 minutes & equilibrium was reached in 90 minutes. The results also showed that with increase in ...

Ashtikar, Samiksha V.; Parkhi, Amruta D.

2014-01-01

264

Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris PV. magniferaeindicae in mango plants  

OpenAIRE

The yearly losses incurred by bacterial blackspot disease are high. Often trees are asymptomatic, with the pathogen either in the resident phase or latent stage of infection. Detection of the pathogen in these asymptomatic trees is one of the most important means of controlling the disease. Isolates which consistently differed in virulence were isolated from symptomatic mango plants. These isolates could be categorised into four groups based upon differences in virulence. Monoc...

Sanders, Gina Mercia

1993-01-01

265

Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango) kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest]), in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%). Ei...

Zac Tchoundjeu; Atangana, Alain R.; Ann Degrande

2005-01-01

266

Determination of Pesticides Residues in Selected varieties of Mango  

OpenAIRE

The present study was undertaken to access the residue of commonly used pesticides viz Cypermethrin, Methamedophos, Monocrotophos, Cyfluthrin, Dialdrin and Methyl Parathian respectively in three varieties of Mango being collected from the grower fields in Multan division. The samples were treated with organic solvent Cyclohexane and ethylacetate (1:1), cleaned on Gel Permeation Chromatograph (GPC) and analyzed on auto system Gas Chromatograph (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD). All the...

Saqib Hussain; Tariq Masud; Karam Ahad

2002-01-01

267

Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

268

Residues of {sup 14}C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of {sup 14}C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of {sup 14}C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of {sup 14}C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual {sup 14}C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L.; Castanho, Giuliane M., E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

2009-07-01

269

Residues of 14C-paclobutrazol in mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is a growth regulator used in agricultural systems whose purpose is the control of vegetative growth, stimulating the reproductive capacity of plants. This growth regulator remains active in soil for a long time and its half-life varies with the type of soil and climatic conditions, can severely affect the development of crops. This work aimed to study the residues / metabolites of 14C-PBZ in mango pulp Tommy Atkins. The tests were performed with mangoes grown in pots stainless steel and application of 14C-PBZ was performed by the soil projection of the crown, and the mangoes tested in two periods, one year and two years after application. To evaluate the levels of residues of 14C-PBZ was realize the burning of 200 mg of pulp on biological oxidized and detached 14CO2 was detected by liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The results were 1.65 % of residue of PBZ on fruit collected after two years of application and 4.30 % of residue of PBZ collected on fruit after a year of application and also can see that the product remained in the soil for more than one year, is translocated to the plant and reach the edible part, the pulp fruit. The identification of residual 14C- PBZ/metabolites by thin-layer chromatography did not reveal any pattern of PBZ / metabolites due to the low activity detected in the samples. Therefore, another procedure was performed for extraction and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for detection of metabolites in the PBZ of mango pulp. (author)

270

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2 degrees Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23 degrees Brix was inoculated with 3% (w/v) Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and held at 30 +/- 2 degrees C for 28 days. SS and pH decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing period of fermentation. Fermentation was 110% efficient. The wine produced had 8.12% (v/v) alcohol, 0.78% protein, 6.5% Brix SS, 0.64 g/100 ml TA, and a pH 3.10. Sensory evaluation results showed that there was no significant difference (p = 0.05) in colour, mouthfeel, sweetness, flavour and general acceptability, between African Bush mango wine and a reference wine. The wine was generally accepted. PMID:8865330

Akubor, P I

1996-04-01

271

Dosimetry during mango irradiation using Gafchromic HD-810 film  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dosimetric characteristics of Gafchromic HD-810 film were evaluated for its possible use as a high-dose dosemeter for routine dosimetry during mango irradiation. The film dosemeter sample of size 2 x 2 cm2 was used throughout the course of this work. The irradiation of the film dosemeter for characterisation and calibration purposes was carried out in a gamma irradiator. The dose-response of the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter at 550 nm was found to be linear in the dose range 50-1000 Gy, which indicates the feasibility of using this film for dosimetry up to 1000 Gy. The mean inter-dosemeter variation was within 2%, which gives better dose-response consistency of the HD-810 film. The radiation absorbed dose measured by the Gafchromic HD-810 film dosemeter during mango irradiation was compared with that measured by a standard Ceric-cerous dosemeter. This study establishes the Gafchromic HD-810 film as a convenient and technically suitable dosemeter for high-dose dosimetry up to 1.0 kGy during mango irradiation. (authors)

272

Mango leaf gall formation: varietal susceptibility and within tree distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out to screen most commonly cultivated mango, Mangifera indica L., cultivars for their susceptibility to gall formation. Sarooli cultivar proved to be the most resistant one by having a minimum number of galls per 100 leaves. The abundance of galls in four quadrants of the tree i.e., east, west, north and south, was also studied which revealed that east quadrant had maximum number of galls while the abundance of galls in the remaining quadrants was variable. Gall formation on mango leaves seemed to increase gradually with increasing height from the ground level, reached a maximum at the height 12 ft to 16 ft and then declined. Leaf area measurements and nutrient analysis of the leaves were also done to see their impact on gall formation. Correlation analysis revealed that gall formation was positively linked with leaf area and the amount of Zn (ppm), P (%), K (%) while N (%) had negative correlation (P<0.05) with gall formation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study could be helpful in the management of mango leaf gall formation. (author)

273

Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments

274

The effects of banana peel preparations on the properties of banana peel dietary fibre concentrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four different preparation methods of banana peel, dry milling, wet milling, wet milling and tap water washing, and wet milling and hot water washing were investigated on their effects on the chemical composition and properties of the banana peel dietary fibre concentrate (BDFC. The dry milling process gave the BDFC a significant higher fat, protein, and starch content than the wet milling process, resulting in a lower water holding capacity (WHC and oil holding capacity(OHC. Washing after wet milling could enhance the concentration of total dietary fibre by improving the removal of protein and fat. Washing with hot water after wet milling process caused a higher loss of soluble fibre fraction, resulting in a lower WHC and OHC of the obtained BDFC when compared to washing with tap water. Wet milling and tap water washing gave the BDFC the highest concentration of total and soluble dietary fibre, WHC and OHC.

Phatcharaporn Wachirasiri

2010-01-01

275

Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant  

OpenAIRE

The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT), 50, 80 and 100°C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at ...

Harivaindaran, K. V.; Rebecca, O. P. S.; Chandran, S.

2008-01-01

276

Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango under common retail display conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. The synergism between the MAP system and an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate and citric acid) was also investigated. Mango sl...

277

Fungal pathogen complexes associated with rambutan, longan and mango diseases in Puerto Rico  

Science.gov (United States)

Different fungi have been associated with diseased inflorescences, leaves, and fruits of mango, rambutan and longan. During a fungal disease survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 at six orchards of rambutan and longan, and one orchard of mango in Puerto Rico, symptoms such as fruit rot, infloresc...

278

DETERMINATION OF COLOR AND FRUIT TRAITS OF HALF-SIB FAMILIES OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual appearance of fresh fruits and vegetables is one of the first quality determinants made by the consumer. Often the appearance of the commodity is the most critical factor in the initial sale. In Florida, the color of the mango is an important factor and everyone admires a handsome mango t...

279

Identification and characterization of Fusarium mexicanum causing mango malformation disease in México  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we summarize the results of fusaria we discovered associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México (Otero-Colina et al., 2010). From 2002 to 2009, 142 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically di...

280

Field Note: A Disease Specific Expert System for the Indian Mango Crop  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango ("Mangifera indica") is a popular fruit and an important cash crop of southeast Asia. The mango malformation disease has been responsible for the degraded yield of the crop now for a long time (Kumar and Chakrabarti, 1997). The disease is difficult to cure and often takes the shape of an epidemic. Though much study has been done for the…

Chakrabarti, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Pinaki

2007-01-01

281

Peeling from a patterned thin elastic film  

CERN Document Server

Inspired by the observation that many naturally occurring adhesives arise as textured thin films, we consider the displacement controlled peeling of a flexible plate from an incision-patterned thin adhesive elastic layer. We find that crack initiation from an incision on the film occurs at a load much higher than that required to propagate it on a smooth adhesive surface; multiple incisions thus cause the crack to propagate intermittently. Microscopically, this mode of crack initiation and propagation in geometrically confined thin adhesive films is related to the nucleation of cavitation bubbles behind the incision which must grow and coalesce before a viable crack propagates. Our theoretical analysis allows us to rationalize these experimental observations qualitatively and quantitatively and suggests a simple design criterion for increasing the interfacial fracture toughness of adhesive films.

Ghatak, A; Chung, J Y; Chaudhury, M K; Shenoy, V

2004-01-01

282

Economic Valuation of Fortified Cassava Peels for Goat Feeding in South-western, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic value that goat farmers in South-western, Nigeria attach to fortified goat feed from waste cassava peels origin. Unavailability of vegetative forage for goat feeding all year round makes this relevant. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 120 goat farmers. Primary data for the study were obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire. The method of analysis included descriptive statistics and contingent valuation method that terminated into the binary choice logit model. The study indicates the mean Willingness to Pay (WTP for a 25kg of fortified goat feed as N1, 019: = in the study area. This for the 120 sampled farmers was N122, 280: = and for the total population of 7.1million, it was N7.2billion. Respondents’ WTP however increased mainly with level of education and system of goat keeping. Farming system practiced by respondents had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.01 affecting the WTP for fortified goat feed from cassava peels. Income equally had the likelihood of positively and significantly (p<0.05 affecting the WTP in the study area. Education, farm size and experience had the likelihood of positively influencing though not significantly the WTP for the compounded feed. These indicate that there exist economic potentials for the use of cassava waste (peels in goat production in the study area. Adopting intensive system of goat farming and enhancing income of producers will go a long way to motivating investment in the feed making and its adoption in goat production.

Okojie L. O.

2014-02-01

283

Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement- a review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The king of fruits 'Mango' (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. (author)

284

Relaxation behavior and dose dependence of radiation induced radicals in irradiated mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes are imported to Japan after treated with hot water. Recently, irradiated mangoes imported to U. S. are widely used. This paper reports on the ESR method for analyzing the radiation induced radicals of irradiated mangoes. Upon the ? ray irradiation, a strong single peak in the flesh and skin of mangoes was observed at g=2.004. This singlet peak may be attributed to organic free radicals. The ESR spectra of the flesh and skin of mangoes showed the radiation induced radicals due to cellulose by irradiation over 12 kGy. The relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the singlet signal were calculated. T2 showed dose response according to increasing the irradiation dose levels, while T1 was almost constant. The value of (T1T2)1/2 showed the dependence of irradiation dose level. (author)

285

Economic evaluation of extending shelf-life of mangoes by irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study reviews the status of cultivation, annual production, local consumption and export volume of mangoes in Egypt. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual losses due to fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of mangoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of mangoes in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of mangoes for extending shelf-life has been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Studies have been carried out in Egypt since 1970 to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated mangoes. Nevertheless not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. In this study the 'Egypt's Mega Gamma I' Irradiator (with cobalt-60 source) was used. (author)

286

RNA mango aptamer-fluorophore: a bright, high-affinity complex for RNA labeling and tracking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because RNA lacks strong intrinsic fluorescence, it has proven challenging to track RNA molecules in real time. To address this problem and to allow the purification of fluorescently tagged RNA complexes, we have selected a high affinity RNA aptamer called RNA Mango. This aptamer binds a series of thiazole orange (fluorophore) derivatives with nanomolar affinity, while increasing fluorophore fluorescence by up to 1,100-fold. Visualization of RNA Mango by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, together with injection and imaging of RNA Mango/fluorophore complex in C. elegans gonads demonstrates the potential for live-cell RNA imaging with this system. By inserting RNA Mango into a stem loop of the bacterial 6S RNA and biotinylating the fluorophore, we demonstrate that the aptamer can be used to simultaneously fluorescently label and purify biologically important RNAs. The high affinity and fluorescent properties of RNA Mango are therefore expected to simplify the study of RNA complexes. PMID:25101481

Dolgosheina, Elena V; Jeng, Sunny C Y; Panchapakesan, Shanker Shyam S; Cojocaru, Razvan; Chen, Patrick S K; Wilson, Peter D; Hawkins, Nancy; Wiggins, Paul A; Unrau, Peter J

2014-10-17

287

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Devasier Bennet,1 Se Chan Kang,2 Jongback Gang,3 Sanghyo Kim1,4 1Department of Bionanotechnology, 2Department of Life Science, 3Department of Nano Chemistry, Gachon University, Bokjeong-Dong, Sujeong-Gu, Seongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea; 4Graduate Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Medical Center, Inchon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE. The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 µM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. Keywords: apple peel ethanolic extract, antioxidant, cellular uptake, electric cell-substrate impedance sensing, phyto-drugs, light-induced damage

Bennet D

2013-12-01

288

Distribution and Occurrence of Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz and Sacc in Humid Agro-ecology of Southwest Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica L. is grown in different agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and its production and productivity is limited by several biotic and abiotic factors. Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is considered as the most important mango disease in the country that contribute significantly to pre and post harvest fruit losses. However, the distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose both in the field and at market in mango producing areas of southwestern Ethiopia is not yet documented. In this study, distribution and occurrence of mango anthracnose in three potential mango producing districts and one urban area in Jimma region, SW Ethiopia were assessed. At the same time knowledge and attitude of farmers against mango anthracnose was also assessed. The results showed that mango anthracnose was 100% prevalent in the study area. Anthracnose incidence and severity varied across farmer’s field and market places. The disease incidence under farmer’s fields ranged from 41-72.1% on leaf and from 36.2-74% on fruit. We found higher (95.3 vs. 82% and lower (70.7 vs. 64% incidence and severity in the market, respectively. The disease was more severe in the market place than in the farmer’s fields. It was confirmed that the identified fungus was C. gloeosporioides. So, for better understanding of the prevalence and distribution of this disease and to design appropriate management options, similar assessments across different mango growing agro-ecologies and along mango value chain is crucial.

Ayantu Tucho

2014-01-01

289

A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a reduction in the potency of cyanide in the peel thereby making it a safe and possible candidate in the production of chicken feeds. PMID:24555165

Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

2014-01-01

290

Anaerobic co-digestion of cassava peels and manure: a technological approach for biogas generation and bio-fertilizer production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modern global society faces great challenges in supply of energy and management of wastes in sustainable ways. One way of resolving the local challenges is to develop environmentally appropriate and socio economically viable biotechnological processes for converting biomass to energy. The general principles of anaerobic bio-digestion, digester design and features of bio-digestion are presented in the feature article, focusing on the prospects of utilizing cassava peels as a readily available lignocellulose feedstock for co-digestion with manure for the production of biogas and bio-fertilizer. Aside of the high cyanogenic properties, cassava peels would require pre-treatment before use as a substrate, hence, a multi-stage and high rate digestion system might be adopted in efficient digestion of cassava peels. To optimize carbon-nitrogen ratio for efficient digestion, cassava should be co-digested with manure. The socio-economic benefits of the anaerobic co-digestion technology and key policy measures to be implemented to harness bio-energy from agricultural wastes are also outlined. (au)

291

The therapeutic value of glycolic acid peels in dermatology  

OpenAIRE

Chemical peeling or chemexfoliation has become increasingly popular in recent years for treatment of a number of cosmetic skin problems. Topical glycolic acid in the concentration of 10-30% for 3-5 minutes at fortnightly intervals was investigated as a therapeutic peeling agent in 41 patients having acne (39%), melasma (36.5%), post inflammatory hyperpigmentation (12%) and superficial scarring of varied etiology (12%). A final evaluation done at 16 weeks rev...

Grover C; Reddu B

2003-01-01

292

Duration of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of 'Murcott' tangor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrothermal treatment facilitates the peeling of 'Pera' sweet orange fruit and does not alter its quality. The aim of this work was to adapt the technology of peeling for the use of hydrothermal treatment in 'Murcott' tangor and to evaluate its influence in the CO2 production and the physicochemica [...] l, microbiologic and sensorial characteristics of fruits. The peeling time, the yield of marketable fruits and the internal temperature of fruits during the treatment were also evaluated. The hydrothermal treatment consisted of placing the fruits in a water-bath at 50 ºC for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min. Fruits were peeled by first opening a gap in the peduncle region with a knife and then manually removing the flavedo and albedo. Fruits were stored at 5 ºC for six days. Hydrothermal treatment caused changes in the fruits' CO2 production for only the first few hours after processing. Internal fruit temperature after 30 min of treatment reached 35 ºC. There were no changes in the physicochemical and microbiologic characteristics of the fruits. The treatment did not change the flavor, improved the fruits' appearance, decreased the peeling time of the treated fruits by 57 % and increased the yield of marketable fruits. In conclusion, the hydrothermal treatment accomplished from 5 to 30 min at 50 ºC can be used as part of the peeling process for 'Murcott' tangor.

Ana Luiza, Pinheiro; Angelo Pedro, Jacomino; Maria Cecília de, Arruda; Ricardo Alfredo, Kluge.

2011-12-01

293

Characterization of peeling modes in a low aspect ratio tokamak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling modes are observed at the plasma edge in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge ? 0.1 MA m?2) and low magnetic field (B ? 0.1 T) present at near-unity aspect ratio. Their macroscopic properties are measured using external Mirnov coil arrays, Langmuir probes and high-speed visible imaging. The modest edge parameters and short pulse lengths of Pegasus discharges permit direct measurement of the internal magnetic field structure with an insertable array of Hall-effect sensors, providing the current profile and its temporal evolution. Peeling modes generate coherent, edge-localized electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n ? 3 and high poloidal mode numbers, in agreement with theoretical expectations of a low-n external kink structure. Coherent MHD fluctuation amplitudes are found to be strongly dependent on the experimentally measured Jedge/B peeling instability drive, consistent with theory. Peeling modes nonlinearly generate ELM-like, field-aligned filamentary structures that detach from the edge and propagate radially outward. The KFIT equilibrium code is extended with an Akima spline profile parameterization and an improved model for induced toroidal wall current estimation to obtain a reconstruction during peeling activity with its current profile constrained by internal Hall measurements. It is used to test the analytic peeling stability criterion and numerically evaluate ideal MHD stability. Both approaches predict instability, in agreement with experiment, with the latter identifying an unstable external kink. (paper)

294

Diversidade genética entre cultivares de mangueiras, baseada em caracteres de qualidade dos frutos Genetic diversity among cultivars of mango based on fruit quality traits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mangueira é uma das fruteiras mais importantes do Brasil. Apesar de existirem muitos cultivares, o cultivo tem sido realizado basicamente com o cultivar 'Tommy Atkins' e existem poucos trabalhos sobre caracterização e análise da diversidade genética dos genótipos disponíveis. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a diversidade genética de 15 cultivares de mangueiras, produzidos na Zona da Mata Mineira, sendo oito brasileiros e sete oriundos da Flórida (EUA. Para isto, frutos maduros dos 15 cultivares foram colhidos e analisados química e fisicamente. Os cultivares que se apresentaram mais similares foram 'Kent' e 'Palmer'. O cultivar 'Extrema' não se agrupou com os outros pelo método de agrupamento UPGMA, e, por esta análise houve a separação dos cultivares brasileiros e norte-americanos. Quanto às características químicas, a técnica de componentes principais não agrupou os cultivares 'Extrema' e 'Tommy Atkins' com os demais; já quanto às características físicas, observou-se a mesma separação obtida pelo agrupamento UPGMA, com exceção do cultivar 'Extrema' que, neste caso, agrupou-se com os demais cultivares. Observou-se correlação entre a coloração da polpa, o ângulo hue e o teor de açúcares solúveis totais e entre a coloração da casca, o índice b* e a percentagem de casca e polpa.The mango crop is one of the most significant agribusiness in Brazil. Although there are many cultivars, cultivation has been done primarily with 'Tommy Atkins' and there are few studies on characterization and analysis of genetic diversity in different areas of production. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of fifteen mango cultivars, eight from Brazil and seven from Florida (USA, produced in the Zona da Mata Mineira region. Fifteen ripe fruits from each cultivar were collected and analyzed chemically and physically. The cultivars that showed more similarities were 'Kent' and 'Palmer'. 'Extrema' was not grouped with the others by the UPGMA clustering method. This analysis was also used for the separation of Brazilian and USA cultivars. The principal component analysis of the chemical characteristics did not group the cultivars 'Extrema' and 'Tommy Atkins' with the others. The physical characteristics showed the same separation obtained by the UPGMA method, except for the cultivar 'Extrema' that was grouped with other cultivars. There was correlation between the color of the pulp, hue angle, and total soluble sugar content and between the color of the peel, b* index and percentage of peel and pulp.

Danielle Fabíola Pereira da Silva

2012-04-01

295

Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g?g?1 in control sample to 0.382 g?g?1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g?g?1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

Jaime Saucedo Luna

2012-08-01

296

Sensitivity of Ceratitis capitata eggs irradiated in artificial diet and in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to establish gamma radiation doses required to prevent emergence of Ceratitis capitata adults, from irradiated eggs in artificial diet and mango fruits. Six-, twelve-, twenty-four-, and forty-eight-hour-old eggs were used. Artificial infestation by C. capitata was carried out in mangoes of Haden, Tommy and Keith cultivars. An increase of radiation resistance of C. capitata eggs was observed as a function of the embryonic development and a Probit 9 of 24.67 Gy was estimated for 48-hour-old eggs in artificial diet. No significant influence of mango fruits was found on the efficacy of irradiation. (author)

297

Extracts of black bean peel and pomegranate peel ameliorate oxidative stress-induced hyperglycemia in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress has a central role in the progression of diabetes mellitus (DM), which can directly result in the injury of islet ? cells and consequent hyperglycemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of black bean peel extract (BBPE), pomegranate peel extract (PPE) and a combination of the two (PPE + BBPE) on streptozotocin-induced DM mice. Oxidative stress was assessed by the levels of total antioxidative capability and glutathione in the serum. Fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, as well as the pancreas weight index and the histological changes in the pancreas, were also determined. The results showed that, after fours weeks of treatment with PPE, BBPE or PPE + BBPE, DM mice showed, to different degrees, a decrease in blood glucose, increases in insulin secretion and the pancreas weight index, and an increase in antioxidative activity. These changes were particularly evident in the DM mice subjected to the combined intervention strategy of PPE + BBPE. The histological findings indicated that the injury to the pancreatic islets in DM mice was also ameliorated following treatment. In conclusion, PPE and BBPE, particularly the combination of the two, have the ability to ameliorate hyperglycemia by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced pancreatic damage; this finding may be useful in the prevention and treatment of DM. PMID:25452774

Wang, Jian-Yun; Zhu, Chuang; Qian, Tian-Wei; Guo, Hao; Wang, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Yin, Xiaoxing

2015-01-01

298

Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

299

Compression and flexural properties of finger jointed mango wood sections  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper, an attempt was made to assess the effectiveness of finger jointing in utilising mango wood sections for various end uses like furniture. The study was based on the estimation of Modulus of elasticity and Modulus of rupture under static bending and Maximum Crushing Stress and Modulus o [...] f elasticity under compression parallel to grain of finger jointed sections and comparing them with the values measured for clear wood sections from the same lot. For joining the sections, the Poly Vinyl Acetate and Urea Formaldehyde adhesives were used. It was found that the Modulus of elasticity of the sections joined by either adhesive showed significantly better values than that of unjointed clear wood sections. The Modulus of rupture values of sections joined with Urea Formaldehyde were similar to those of unjointed clear wood sections. However, sections jointed with Poly Vinyl Acetate adhesive exhibited lower Modulus of rupture. Under compression, the parameters of the jointed sections joined with either adhesive were either similar or better than those of the unjointed clear wood sections. The study demonstrates the utility of finger jointing of mango wood sections for furniture parts especially with the Urea Formaldehyde adhesive.

V.S Kishan, Kumar; C.M, Sharma; Sachin, Gupta.

2015-01-01

300

Indigenous Methods in Preserving Bush Mango Kernels in Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditional practices for preserving Irvingia wombolu and Irvingia gabonensis (bush mango kernels were assessed in a survey covering twelve villages (Dongo, Bouno, Gribi [East], Elig-Nkouma, Nkom I, Ngoumou [Centre], Bidjap, Nko’ovos, Ondodo [South], Besong-Abang, Ossing and Kembong [Southwest], in the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon. All the interviewed households that own trees of species were found to preserve kernels in periods of abundance, excluding Elig-Nkouma (87.5%. Eighty nine and 85% did so in periods of scarcity for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Seventeen and twenty-nine kernel preservation practices were recorded for I. wombolu and I. gabonensis respectively. Most were based on continuous heating of the kernels or kernel by-products (cakes. The most commonly involved keeping the sun-dried kernels in a plastic bag on a bamboo rack hung above the fireplace in the kitchen. A 78% of interviews households reported preserving I. wombolu kernels for less than one year while 22% preserved it for more than one year with 1.9% for two years, the normal length of the off-season period for trees in the wild. Cakes wrapped with leaves and kept on a bamboo rack hung over the fireplace were reported by households in the East and South provinces to store Irvingia gabonensis longer (more than one year. Further studies on the utilization of heat for preserving and canning bush mango kernels are recommended.

Zac Tchoundjeu

2005-01-01

301

Carbonised jackfruit peel as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fruit of the jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the popular fruits in India, where the total area under this fruit is about 13,460 ha. A significant amount of peel (approximately 2,714-11,800 kg per tree per year) is discarded as agricultural waste, as apart from its use as a table fruit, it is popular in many culinary preparations. Treatment of jackfruit peel with sulphuric acid produced a carbonaceous product which was used to study its efficiency as an adsorbent for the removal of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of process parameters; agitation time, initial metal concentration, adsorbent concentration and pH. Kinetic analyses made with Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ritchie second-order and modified Ritchie second-order models showed better fits with modified Ritchie second-order model. The Langmuir-Freundlich (Sips equation) model best defined the experimental equilibrium data among the three isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich) tested. Taking a particular metal concentration, the optimum dose and pH required for the maximum metal removal was established. A complete recovery of the adsorbed metal ions from the spent adsorbent was achieved by using 0.01 M HCl. PMID:15081486

Inbaraj, B Stephen; Sulochana, N

2004-08-01

302

Protective Effect of Encapsulation in Fermentation of Limonene-contained Media and Orange Peel Hydrolyzate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work deals with the application of encapsulation technology to eliminateinhibition by D-limonene in fermentation of orange wastes to ethanol. Orange peel wasenzymatically hydrolyzed with cellulase and pectinase. However, fermentation of thereleased sugars in this hydrolyzate by freely suspended S. cerevisiae failed due to inhibitionby limonene. On the other hand, encapsulation of S. cerevisiae in alginate membranes wasa powerful tool to overcome the negative effects of limonene. The encapsulated cells wereable to ferment the orange peel hydrolyzate in 7 h, and produce ethanol with a yield of 0.44g/g fermentable sugars. Cultivation of the encapsulated yeast in defined medium wassuccessful, even in the presence of 1.5% (v/v limonene. The capsules’ membranes wereselectively permeable to the sugars and the other nutrients, but not limonene. While1% (v/v limonene was present in the culture, its concentration inside the capsules was notmore than 0.054% (v/v.

Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2007-08-01

303

Spatial and temporal changes in the volatile profile of Alphonso mango upon exogenous ethylene treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alphonso is a highly favoured and exported mango cultivar among the vast mango germplasm of India. Being a climacteric fruit, ethylene plays an important role in ripening of mango. For deeper understanding of effect of pre-climacteric ethylene treatment on volatile profiles of Alphonso mango, 26 volatiles were tracked through six ripening stages of pulp and skin of ethylene-treated and control Alphonso fruits. The study revealed accelerated ripening in terms of early appearance of ripening-specific compounds, lactones and mesifuran, upon ethylene treatment. While the level of lactones remained unaffected, the mesifuran level vastly increased upon ethylene treatment. Skin showed high terpene content while pulp had higher amount of lactones compared to skin. This work points towards involvement of ethylene as a natural hormone in the biosynthesis of lactones and furanones in naturally ripened fruits; whereas, an increase in the terpene level during ripening appears to be independent of ethylene. PMID:23122101

Chidley, Hemangi G; Kulkarni, Ram S; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

2013-01-15

304

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) malformation: a malady of stress ethylene origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango malformation is a major constrain in mango production worldwide causing heavy economic losses depending on cultivar type and susceptibility. The malady has variously been ascribed to be acarological, viral, fungal and physiological in nature. Here, we discuss the ethylene origin nature of malady. There are indications that most of the symptoms of mango malformation resemble with those of caused by ethylene effects. Multiple evidence reports of putative causal agents including Fusarium mangiferae to augment the endogenous pool of 'stress ethylene' are well documented. Therefore, over load of 'stress ethylene' impairs morphology malformed tissue and cyanide derived from ethylene biosynthesis causes necrosis and death of malformed cells. This review covers various factors eliciting 'stress ethylene' formation, role of ethylene in development of malady and regulation of ethylene action to reduce malformation in mango. PMID:25648881

Ansari, Mohammad W; Rani, Varsha; Shukla, Alok; Bains, Gurdeep; Pant, Ramesh C; Tuteja, Narendra

2015-01-01

305

Complete Genome Sequence of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Strain FMNP01, Isolated from Mango Fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus plantarum strain FMNP01 is a new strain with probiotic properties that was isolated from fresh mango from Guangzhou, China. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism. PMID:25428967

Li, Xue-Fei; Liao, Xue-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Guo, Li-Qiong; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Jun-Fang

2014-01-01

306

Fast Measurement of Soluble Solid Content in Mango Based on Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy Technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango is a kind of popular tropical fruit, and the soluble solid content is an important in this study visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIR) technique was applied. For sake of investigating the feasibility of using VIS/SWNIR spectroscopy to measure the soluble solid content in mango, and validating the performance of selected sensitive bands, for the calibration set was formed by 135 mango samples, while the remaining 45 mango samples for the prediction set. The combination of partial least squares and backpropagation artificial neural networks (PLS-BP) was used to calculate the prediction model based on raw spectrum data. Based on PLS-BP, the determination coefficient for prediction (Rp) was 0.757 and root mean square and the process is simple and easy to operate. Compared with the Partial least squares (PLS) result, the performance of PLS-BP is better.

Yu, Jiajia; He, Yong

307

Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

308

Observations of peeling of a polyisobutynele-based pressure-sensitive adhesive  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) was prepared by mixing low- and high-molecular-weight polyisobutylenes(PIB). Peeling of the adhesive from polycarbonate was observed from the side and from below at three different peel rates.

Christensen, SØren. F.; Everland, Hanne.

1998-01-01

309

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

OpenAIRE

During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limited. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To ...

Adriana Godoy; Morita, Rodrigo J.; Cordenunsi, Beatriz R.; Lajolo, Franco M.; Do Nascimento, Joa?o Roberto O.

2009-01-01

310

First evidence of ethylene production by Fusarium mangiferae associated with mango malformation  

OpenAIRE

Malformation is arguably the most crucial disease of mango (Mangifera indica L.) at present. It is receiving great attention not only because of its widespread and destructive nature but also because of its etiology and control is not absolutely understood. Recently, Fusarium mangiferae is found to be associated with mango malformation disease. There are indications that stress ethylene production could be involved in the disease. Here we have shown the first direct evidence of production of ...

Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Pant, Ramesh Chandra; Tuteja, Narendra

2012-01-01

311

Molecular Biodiversity of Selected Mango Cultivars Based on DNA Sequences of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region  

OpenAIRE

The mango (Mangifer indica L.) is an important species of the family Anacardiaceae and is one of the most important crops cultivated commercially in many parts of the world. Hence, a better understanding of the phylogeny in this species is crucial as it is the basis knowledge of improving its genetic resources which is beneficial for breeding programs. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 mango cultivars from Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan were carried out by comparing DNA sequence data ...

Azman Abd. Samad; Shahkila Mohd. Arif; Topik Hidayat

2013-01-01

312

Preservation of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica, L.) Slices in Darfur  

OpenAIRE

Sun drying of 'Kitchiner', 'Alphonse' and 'Dibsha' mango (Mangifera indica, L.) cultivars grown in Darfur, Sudan was conducted to enhance durability, utilization of mango fruits and to reduce the cost of transportation and storage. Slices were soaked in cane-sugar, lime-juice and sodium chloride. Moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were measured initially and every three months. After six months, sensory acceptance of dried slices was determined fo...

Soad El-Tayeb Ahmed; Omer Khidir Ahmed

2012-01-01

313

Hendersonia Creberrima, the cause of soft brown rot of mango in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A soft brown rot of mangoes in South Africa, is especially severe in export fruit kept in cold storage for prolonged periods. At present mangoes can be exported most economically by sea. This involves storage at 110C for approximately 21 days. Unfortunately, these appear to be ideal conditions for the development of soft brown rot. Losses as high as 80% were recorded. The South African fungus agrees in morphology and cultural characters with Hendersonia Creberrima

314

The effects of irradiation and hot water dip treatment on Philippine mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study showed that irradiation at 50 krad can prevent the hatching of the eggs of the Oriental fruitfly (Dacus Dorsalis Hendel) and can extend the postharvest shelf-life of Carabao mangoes by two days. Irradiation at 50 krad in combination with hot water dip at 50 degC for five minutes gave a shelf life extension of four days. No undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the treated mangoes were observed. (RTD)

315

Mango malformation: II. mangiferin changes associated with <i>fusarium</i> pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Mangiferin (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy xanthone-C2-b-D-glucoside) promoted vegetative growth and exhibited inhibitory role on the occurrence of malformation. Mangiferin changes associated with mango malformation pathogens were followed after inoculated mango seedlings (three years) with malformation pathogens i.e. Fusa-rium subglutinans, F. sterilihyphosum, F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum. Mangiferin remained at lower level in leaves of malformed shoots as compared to healthy one. The floral malfo...

Haggag, Wafaa M.; Mahmoud Hazza; Abd El-wahab, Mohamed E.

2011-01-01

316

Simple models for predicting leaf area of mango (Mangifera indica L.)  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.), one of the most popular tropical fruits, is cultivated in a considerable part of southern Iran. Leaf area is a valuable parameter in mango research, especially plant physiological and nutrition field. Most of available methods for estimating plant leaf area are difficult to apply, expensive and destructive which could in turn destroy the canopy and consequently make it difficult to perform further tests on the same plant. Therefore, a non-destructive method which ...

Maryam Ghoreishi; Yaghoob Hossini; Manochehr Maftoon

2012-01-01

317

Mathematical Modeling for Isotherms of Mango Pulp Powder, Obtained by Atomization  

OpenAIRE

Mango, as the other fruits, is a perishable food that can be easily deteriorated and presents high levels of post-harvest loss. Therefore, dehydration is an important alternative to use the production excess. In this context, this work aimed at evaluating the hygroscopic behavior of the integral mango pulp powder, obtained by atomization, by means of adsorption isotherm. After applying BET’s, GAB’s, Henderson’s and Oswin’s mathematical models, it was possible to iden...

Érica Milô de Freitas Felipe Rocha; Sueli Rodrigues; Marcos Rodrigues Amorim Afonso; José Maria Correia da Costa

2014-01-01

318

Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-RapeseedOil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objectives of the present work were (a) to extract the phenolic fraction from the peels of two Danish varieties of potatoes, viz. Sava and Bintje, and examine their antioxidant capacity in in-vitro systems (b) to evaluate the effect of these extracts on the storage stability of a fish- rapeseed oil mixture and oil-in-water emulsions. Multiple antioxidant activity of the potato peel extracts was evident from in-vitro systems as they showed strong reducing power, radical scavenging ability, ferrous ion chelating activity and prevented oxidation in a liposome model system. The Sava variety, which showed strong antioxidant activity in in-vitro systems, was tested in oil and oil-in- water emulsions. Ethanolic extracts of Sava (C1,600 mg/kg) prevented lipid oxidation in emulsions and in oil. Water extracts showed no antioxidant activity in oil whereas it showed pro-oxidant activity in emulsions. Thus, the results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing waste potato peel as a promising source ofnatural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation.

Farvin, Sabeena; Nielsen, Nina Skall

2010-01-01

319

Mineral Composition and Amino Acid Profile of Mono-Culture Fungal Fermented Mango (Mangifera Indica) Kernel Cake  

OpenAIRE

The effect of mono-culture fungal fermentation on mineral composition and amino acid profile of mango(Mangifera indica) kernel cake was investigated. Rhizopus oligosporus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer andPenicillium chrysogenum were isolated from decomposed mango kernels and then used to ferment mango kernelcake (MKC) for 168hrs. After fermentation the resulted MKC was dried at 600C before analysis for minerals andamino acid profiles. The values of calcium (119.3mg/kg), potassium (4...

Kayode, R. M. O.; Sani, A.

2010-01-01

320

Effect of Various Coating Materials on Keeping Quality of Mangoes (Mangifera indica) Stored at Low Temperature  

OpenAIRE

Mango fruits (cv. Chausa) were treated with different concentrations of CMC, calcium chloride and beeswax. The mangoes were then placed in boxes, each with a sponge soaked in KMnO4.The mangoes were then stored at refrigerated temperature (8-10°C). The physico-chemical analysis were repeated after seven days interval. Fruits treated with 2% CMC, showed best behaviour through out storage period with minimum loss of weight, increased ascorbic acid content and was able to conserve better sensory...

Asia Latif; Tariq Masud; Nuzba Anjum

2006-01-01

321

Antioxidant Enrichment and Antimicrobial Protection of Fresh-Cut Mango Applying Bioactive Extracts from Their Seeds By-Products  

OpenAIRE

The effect of the application of ethanolic extract of “Haden” mango seeds to increase the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of fresh-cut mango flesh was evaluated. Phenolic HPLC analysis revealed that gallic acid was the major identified compound in the ethanolic extract (586.68 mg/g). Fresh-cut mango was treated for immersion within the ethanolic extract, packed and stored at 5? during 15 days. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and microbial growth of the tre...

Violeta Vega-Vega; Corrales-maldonado, Consuelo G.; Ariadna Thalía Bernal-Mercado; Gonza?lez-aguilar, Gustavo A.; Irasema Vargas-Arispuro; Fernando Ayala-zavala, J.; Manuel Reynaldo Cruz-Valenzuela; Silva-espinoza, Brenda A.

2013-01-01

322

Life cycle assessment of hydrogen produced from potato steam peels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrogen from renewable energy is considered a promising alternative to traditional petroleum-based transportation fuels. Potato steam peels can be used as feedstock to produce hydrogen through fermentation processes. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool to evaluate the main environmental benefits and burdens of using potato steam peals to produce hydrogen rather than to feed animals. Inventory data are derived from the literature and ecoinvent. Impacts are evaluated using IMPACT 2002+. The results show that producing hydrogen from potato steam peels offers clear advantages over a direct use of peels to feed animals. A factor of two to three is observed in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, in the savings of non-renewable resources and in the reduction of human health impacts. The two-stage bioreactor is observed to consume around 25 MJ and to emit between 1000 and 1500 g of CO{sub 2} per kilogram of hydrogen produced. (author)

Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Dagnija Blumberga [Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, 1 Kronvalda Boulevard, Riga LV-1010 (Latvia); Humbert, Sebastien [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 407 McLaughlin Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2008-06-15

323

Partial identification of antifungal compounds from Punica granatum peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous extracts of pomegranate peels were assayed in vitro for their antifungal activity against six rot fungi that cause fruit and vegetable decay during storage. The growth rates of Alternaria alternata , Stemphylium botryosum , and Fusarium spp. were significantly inhibited by the extracts. The growth rates were negatively correlated with the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in the extract and particularly with punicalagins, the major ellagitannins in pomegranate peels. Ellagitannins were also found to be the main compounds in the bioactive fractions using bioautograms, and punicalagins were identified as the main bioactive compounds using chromatographic separation. These results suggest that ellagitannins, and more specifically punicalagins, which are the dominant compounds in pomegranate peels, may be used as a control agent of storage diseases and to reduce the use of synthetic fungicides. PMID:22533815

Glazer, Ira; Masaphy, Segula; Marciano, Prosper; Bar-Ilan, Igal; Holland, Doron; Kerem, Zohar; Amir, Rachel

2012-05-16

324

Generation of ultra-sound during tape peeling  

KAUST Repository

We investigate the generation of the screeching sound commonly heard during tape peeling using synchronised high-speed video and audio acquisition. We determine the peak frequencies in the audio spectrum and, in addition to a peak frequency at the upper end of the audible range (around 20 kHz), we find an unexpected strong sound with a high-frequency far above the audible range, typically around 50 kHz. Using the corresponding video data, the origins of the key frequencies are confirmed as being due to the substructure "fracture" bands, which we herein observe in both high-speed continuous peeling motions and in the slip phases for stick-slip peeling motions.

Riker, Paul W.

2014-03-21

325

Dynamics of stick-slip in peeling of an adhesive tape  

OpenAIRE

We investigate the dynamics of peeling of an adhesive tape subjected to a constant pull speed. We derive the equations of motion for the angular speed of the roller tape, the peel angle and the pull force used in earlier investigations using a Lagrangian. Due to the constraint between the pull force, peel angle and the peel force, it falls into the category of differential-algebraic equations requiring an appropriate algorithm for its numerical solution. Using such a scheme,...

De, Rumi; Maybhate, Anil; Ananthakrishna, G.

2004-01-01

326

PCR-Based Identification and Characterization of Fusarium sp. Associated with Mango Malformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango malformation is the most serious disease of mango causing considerable damage to the mango orchards worldwide. It is a major threat for mango cultivation in north Indian belt. In recent years, Fusarium sp. is finding wide acceptability in scientific community as a causal agent of this disease. However, little information is known about the variability in Fusarium isolates from malformed mango tissues. Therefore, the major objective of present study was the identification and analysis of genetic diversity among Fusarium isolates collected from malformed mango tissues. Two texon selective primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r, were used for quick identification of Fusarium spp. The fungal genomic DNA was extracted from using CTAB method and was utilized as template for PCR amplification. Total 224 bands were amplified by 18 RAPD primers at an average of 12.44 bands per primer. The size of the obtained amplicons ranged from 0.264?kb (minimum) to 3.624?kb (maximum). Data scored from 25 isolates of Fusarium sp. with 18 RAPD primers were used to generate similarity coefficients. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.17 to 0.945. Based on DNA fingerprints, all isolates were categorized into two major clusters. This study indicated a wide variability among different isolates of Fusarium. PMID:21350657

Arif, M; Pani, D R; Zaidi, N W; Singh, U S

2011-01-01

327

Feasibility of wood peeling assisted by infrared heating  

OpenAIRE

"Peeling" is the process of converting a log into a continuous thin (from 0.6 to more than 3 mm) ribbon of green wood termed "veneer" whose production plays an important role in the manufacture of light-weight packaging, plywood and Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) which are amongst the most widely used wood products. Prior to peeling, the round green-wood of most species needs to be heated to temperatures ranging from 30 to 90 degrees Celcius in order to soften the wood and ease cutting. Formin...

Dupleix, Anna

2013-01-01

328

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: ? Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ ? Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. ? Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. ? Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. ? Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

329

Response surface optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from pomegranate peel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound assisted extraction of pectin from waste pomegranate peel was investigated and optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (solid-liquid ratio, pH, extraction time and temperature) on the pectin yield was studied. The experimental data obtained were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the experimental data with high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value. The optimal extraction condition was found to be 1:17.52 g/ml of solid-liquid ratio, 1.27 of pH, 28.31 min of extraction time and 61.90 °C of extraction temperature respectively. Under the optimal conditions, experimental yield was very close to the predicted values. PMID:25450551

Moorthy, I Ganesh; Maran, J Prakash; Surya, S Muneeswari; Naganyashree, S; Shivamathi, C S

2015-01-01

330

Bioactive compounds and acceptance of cookies made with Guava peel flour  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The use of fruit industrial waste in the processing new foods represents an important new step for the food industry. This study aimed to develop cookie recipes using different amounts of guava peel flour (GPF) levels (30%, 50%, and 70%) to evaluate the proximate composition, and the phenolic compou [...] nd, lycopene, and ?-carotene levels in the cookies and flour and to evaluate the cookie sensory acceptance. The results demonstrated low moisture, lipid and carbohydrate contents in the flour and cookies. GPF was considered rich in fiber, ash, polyphenols, and ?-carotene. The sensory analysis showed satisfactory acceptance of the cookies containing 30% GPF regarding the aroma, flavor, and texture attributes. The cookies containing 50% and 70% GPF received satisfactory acceptance regarding to aroma only. In conclusion, GPF can be used to partially replace wheat flour in the preparation of cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the product sensory quality.

Silvana Maria Michelin, Bertagnolli; Márcia Liliane Rippel, Silveira; Aline de Oliveira, Fogaça; Liziane, Umann; Neidi Garcia, Penna.

2014-06-01

331

Effects of Adding Compost to Fertilization Programs on ‘Keitt’ Mango  

OpenAIRE

Studies were conducted in the Dominican Republic during two years on adult ‘Keitt’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) fields to examine the long-term effect of chemical and organic fertilization programs on marketable fruit yield. The treatments were (a) 1.8 kg 15-15-15 (N-P-K)/tree, once a year (b) 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year (c) 1.4 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year (d) 1.8 kg 15-15-15/tree, once a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/tree (e) 1.1 kg 15-15-15/tree, twice a year, plus 13.6 kg compost/...

Santos, Bielinski M.

2007-01-01

332

Intensity of panicle malformation in mango (mangifera indica L.) varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango germplasm comprising of forty three varieties was evaluated for the level of the panicle malformation disease intensity. The intensity varied significantly among the genotypes. Out tested varieties four were tolerant, 27 were moderately tolerant, five were moderately susceptible while seven were recorded highly susceptible to malformation. Disease incidence frequency was highest in Lab-e-Mashooq (68.70 %) followed by G.M. Wala (64.28 %) and lowest in Sensation (7.20%) and Gulab Khas (7.8 %). The lowest affected varieties may be used for incorporating their tolerance in the other commercial varieties through breeding program. The incidence rate was higher (38.69%) in six commercial varieties under Central Punjab ecological conditions than that of (26.70%) in the Southern (Multan) region. However, the tolerance in genotypes seems specific to ecological regions and the growers of the highly susceptible varieties should be very careful and regular in carrying the control measures. (author)

333

Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

2012-02-01

334

Reproductive physiology of mango Fisiologia da reprodução em manga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mango flowering involves hormonal regulation of shoot initiation and induction events resulting in reproductive shoot formation. A balance or ratio of endogenously regulated phytohormones, thought to be auxin from leaves and cytokinins from roots, appears to govern the initiation cycle independently from inductive influences. Induction of reproductive or vegetative shoots is thought to be governed by the ratio of a temperature-regulated florigenic promoter and an age regulated vegetative promoter at the time of shoot initiation. Management of off-season flowering in mango trees is being accomplished in the tropics by successfully synchronizing shoot initiation through tip pruning and use of nitrate sprays coupled with management of the stem age to induce flowering such that it can be accomplished during any desired week of the year.A floração em manga envolve regulação hormonal de iniciação dos ramos e eventos indutivos que levam à formação de ramos reprodutivos. Um equilíbrio ou uma relação entre fito-hormônios regulados endogenamente, supostamente auxinas das folhas e citocininas das raízes, parece governar o ciclo de iniciação independentemente de influências indutivas. Acredita-se que a indução de ramos vegetativos ou reprodutivos é governada pela relação entre um promotor florigênico regulado por temperatura e um promotor vegetativo associado à idade, durante a iniciação do ramo. Nos trópicos, o manejo da floração fora da estação das floradas tem sido feito com sucesso, pela sincronização da iniciação de ramos, mediante a remoção do ápice e uso de pulverizações com nitrato, em associação com manejo da idade do caule para induzir a floração, o que pode ser executado em qualquer época do ano.

Thomas L. Davenport

2007-12-01

335

The methane fermentation of Citrus unshu peel pretreated with fungus enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Of five fungi isolated from Citrus unshu peels, an Aspergillus sp. strain designated A-1 had the highest activity in macerating peels. When C. unshu peel slurry was treated with Aspergillus sp. A-1 crude enzymes for 48 h, the 200-mesh filter passing rate reached 89.8%. Most of the peel oil (95.8%) was removed by 48-h enzyme treatment with agitation. Pretreatment of peels with fungus enzymes resulted in 50% increase in the amount of limit load for anaerobic digestion. (author).

Akao, T.; Mizuki, E.; Saito, H.; Okumura, S. (Material Research Inst. (JP). Fukuoka Industrial Technology Center); Murao, S. (Kumamoto Inst. of Technology (JP). Dept. of Applied Microbial Technology)

1992-01-01

336

Radiography of nonaxisymmetric objects: An onion-peeling inversion method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An onion-peeling method for obtaining the linear attenuation coefficient distribution within a body from a single radiographic projection is presented. Unlike previous methods, which are applicable only to axi- or centrosymmetric objects, ours requires only mirror symmetry relative to the plane of the radiograph. An example of the use of the method is presented and discussed

337

Selecting Variables for Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS Evaluation of Mango Fruit Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS can be applied to assess the quality of mango. The purpose of this research is to select the appropriate chemical absorption bands to evaluate two cultivars of mango puree, cv. Keitt and cv. Nam Dok Mai Si Thong. Six main chemical substances found in mango fruit, such as glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose, were evaluated in this study and there chemical absorption bands were identified. Mango puree was mixed with the six pure substances at various concentrations; glucose, sucrose, citric acid and malic acid were tested with concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%w/w, starch and cellulose were tested with the concentrations 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% w/w. The NIRSystem 6500 was used to scan the spectra in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. The partial least square regression (PLSR was used to develop a model for each component. The result was a wavelength that corresponds to each component. It was found that the second derivative spectra of glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid, starch and cellulose mixtures showed the best PLSR result. The mango cultivar had no effect on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The coefficient of determination (R2 of all models was 0.99. The standard error of calibration (SEC and the standard error of prediction (SEP were less than 0.5%w/w. The regression coefficient plot exhibited more sharp peaks than pure substances. The wavelength selection for NIRS evaluation mango fruit quality could not be done by using only measured spectrum of pure substance. However, the cultivars of mango had no effected on wavelength selection by PLSR model. The most effective wavelength for glucose and sucrose were 900-1000 nm, citric acid and malic acid were 800-1000 nm, starch was 900-1000 nm and cellulose was 800-1000 nm.

Parichat Theanjumpol

2013-06-01

338

Actividad antioxidante de lámina flexible de mango (Mangifera indica) / Antioxidant activity in mango fruit leather (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Una forma de concentrar las propiedades nutricionales de la fruta es mediante la elaboración de láminas flexibles, las cuales se realizan al secar una capa muy delgada de puré de fruta para obtener un producto con una textura blanda. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antioxidante y el contenido [...] de polifenoles totales en láminas flexibles de mango cv. Tommy Atkins cultivados en el municipio Mara del estado Zulia. La actividad antioxidante de la lámina fue 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamina C/100g. El contenido de polifenoles totales en la lámina fue 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. Las láminas flexibles aportan una mayor cantidad de compuestos polifenólicos totales por lo que es una manera alternativa de consumir compuestos antioxidantes y nutritivos en la dieta. Abstract in english A way to concentrate the nutritional properties of the fruit is through the development of fruit leathers, which are made by drying a very thin layer of mashed fruit to obtain a product with a soft texture. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content in fruit leathers [...] of mango cv. Tommy Atkints grown in Mara municipality, Zulia state. The antioxidant activity of the fruit leathers was 0,38±0,02 mM TROLOX/100g y 81,57±0,76 vitamin C/100g. The total polyphenol content in the leathers was 76,81±2,67 mg GAE/100g. The fruit leathers provide a greater amount of total polyphenolic compounds which is an alternative way of consuming antioxidant compounds and nutritious diet.

Josué, Hernández-Varela; Arturo, Moncayo; Viluzca, Fernández; Betzabé, Sulbarán.

2013-04-01

339

Irradiation of mangoes (Mangifera indica, Linn) carabao variety, for commercial export. Pt. 1 - Establishment of dose requirement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on the effect of irradiation on eggs of Dacus dorsalis Hendel implanted on carabao mangoes packed in commercial boxes for export has been carried out. Irradiation of as low as 50 krad proved to be effective in disinfecting 5 kg batches of mature-green Carabao mangoes. In addition, the effect of irradiation on storage life and organoleptic properties are described. (author)

340

Identification and Characterization of a Novel Etilogical Agent of Mango Malformation Disease in Mexico, Fusarium mexicanum sp. nov.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary objective of this study was to characterize fusaria associated with the economically devastating mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. One hundred and 42 fusaria were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues in eight geographically diverse Méxican stat...

341

Identification and Characterization of a Unique Fusarium sp. nov. ex Mangifera indica L. Causing Mango Malformation Disease in México  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we characterized fusaria that were associated with mango malformation disease (MMD) in México. From 2002 to 2009, 141 strains were isolated from symptomatic mango inflorescences and vegetative tissues from various cultivars in eight geographically diverse states. Initially, isolates ...

342

Large-scale confirmatory tests of a phytosanitary irradiation treatment against Sternochetus frigidus (F.) in Philippine mango  

Science.gov (United States)

The mango pulp weevil, Sternochetus frigidus (F.) is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to the United States and other countries. Previously, a radiation dose of 100 Gy was proposed for phytosanitary treatment of S. frigidus based on dose-response stud...

343

Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

344

Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250?+?500 and 500?+?1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 ?g mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues. PMID:25663402

Mohapatra, Soudamini

2015-03-01

345

Expression analysis of a set of genes related to the ripening of bananas and mangoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During ripening many important physic-chemical changes contribute to fruit quality, and they are precisely determined by gene expression. Specific genes are essential to normal ripening; however, information on gene expression about the majority of tropical fruit, such as bananas and mangoes is limited. In this way, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide preliminary access to the changes in expression of some genes potentially relevant to banana and mango ripening. To simultaneously evaluate the changes in gene expression, a small collection of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, starch mobilization, cell wall disassembly, pigment synthesis and ascorbate metabolism was assembled in nylon membranes and probed with cDNA from unripe and ripe fruit. Some interesting differences were observed between gene expression in bananas and mangoes. In relation to starch metabolism, banana a-amylase was induced during ripening while phosphorylase was more induced in mangoes. Similarly, expression of cell wall-related genes for polygalacturonase and expansin were also different in those fruits. Fructanfructosyltransferase, chalcone synthase, and ascorbate oxidase genes were also induced in ripening mangoes, but not in bananas. Although the number of sequences involved was relatively small, this simple and feasible approach provided interesting preliminary data that can be starting points for more in depth studies.

Adriana de Godoy

2009-01-01

346

Status of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango-producing areas of Arba Minch, southwestern Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bactrocera invadens, the Asian fruit fly, was first reported in Kenya in 2003, and it spread fast to most tropical countries in Africa. To our knowledge, there is no detailed data on the fruit damage and status of fruit flies in Arba Minch and elsewhere in Ethiopia. Hence, information on the species composition and pest status of the fruit fly species is urgent to plan management strategies in the area. Fruit flies were captured using male parapheromone-baited traps. Matured mango (Mangifera indica) fruits were collected from randomly selected mango trees and incubated individually in cages (15 by 15 by 15?cm) with sandy soil. B. invadens was the predominant (96%; 952 of 992) captured species and the only fruit fly species emerging from mango fruits incubated in the laboratory. The mean number of adult B. invadens emerging per mango fruit was 35.25, indicating that the species is the most devastating mango fruit fly in the area. The loss due to this species would be serious if no management strategies are implemented. PMID:25612742

Massebo, Fekadu; Tefera, Zenebe

2015-01-01

347

UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN / A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios est [...] andarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139). En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L) tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%. Abstract in english In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango), is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139). This resear [...] ch article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L) classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

Adolfo, Moreno Bermúdez; Deimer, Ballesteros Padilla; Germán, Sánchez Torres.

2012-12-01

348

Saturação de manga (Mangifera indica L.) var. rosa com açúcares / Mango (Mangifera indica l.) cv. rosa saturation with sugars  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Mangas (Mangifera indica L.) var. Rosa, no estádio "de vez", selecionadas e lavadas em água contendo 8-10ppm cloro residual livre, 0,1% de detergente neutro e o pH ajustado e mantindo em 6, foram descascadas, cortadas em forma de cubos (2cmx2cm) e estes tratados em água a 85° C por 10 minutos. Após [...] resfriados em água gelada, ficaram imersos em xarope a 30° Brix (90% de sacarose e 10% de glicose), sendo o pH ajustado para 4. Após 48 horas, o equilíbrio osmótico foi atingido, o xarope drenado, tratado termicamente, e a concentração de açúcar aumentada em 10° Brix. A cada equilíbrio, o teor de açúcar era acrescido em 10° Brix e no final do processo, os cubos atingiram 71,6 e o xarope 76,5° Brix. No início do processo, o pH decresceu, enquanto a acidez aumentou em função da autofermentação ocorrida no sistema. Cessado o processo fermentativo, o pH caminhou para o equílibrio, oscilando entre 3,8 a 3,9. O teor de açúcares redutores (AR) na fruta, que era de 2,15% no início do processo, esteve em contínuo aumento, em função dos tratamentos térmicos e do processo fermentativo, que contribuíram para que ocorresse a inversão da sacarose. No final do processso, esse teor era de 8,28%, que não foi acompanhado pelo xarope, que apresentou 5,14% de AR, devido à redução na velocidade de inversão da sacarose, ocasionada pela alta concentração de sólidos solúveis, pelo grau de absorção de AR da fruta e pelo pH do sistema. Testes de aceitabilidade revelaram que 73% dos adultos e 76% das crianças consumiriam a manga critalizada. Abstract in english Mango (Mangifera indica L) cv. Rosa was in a stage of initial physiological maturation, it was washed in solution that showed 8-10 ppm of free residue chlorine 0,1% of the neutral detergents and the pH adjusted and maintained at 6. The mango was peeled and cutted in cubes (2cmx2cm), treated in hot w [...] ater in 85oC for about 10 minutes. After cooling off in freezer water, the cubes were immersed in syrup to 30 Brix (90% saccharose + 10% glucose) and the pH was adjusted to 4. After 48 hours, it was reached the osmotic equilibrium, the syrup was drained and termic treatmented, and it was corrected with saccharose to the concentration of sugars in 10 Brix. The each osmotic equilibrium of the syrup was increased in 10o Brix and in the end of the process, the cubos had 71,6 and the syrup 76,5o Brix. In beginning of the process, the pH was reduced but the acidez increased, likely of fermentation occured. At the end of the fermentation, the pH was between 3,8 to 3,9 and the reducing sugar concentration in cubos was 2,15% with increse constant. The final product demonstrated satisfatories qualities, keeping its characteristic taste, good consistency, uniform color, pleasant odor to use of the industrial products, like: cakes, candies, sweets, icecreams, etc.

Margarida Sabino, RIBEIRO; Armando U.O., SABAA-SRUR.

1999-01-01

349

COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L. EN MICHOACÁN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available México es el principal exportador de mango a nivel mundial y aporta el 56% a las importaciones de Estados Unidos, sin embargo, desde 2006 otros países, como Brasil, Perú, Ecuador y Belice, también han aumentado su participación en el mercado estadounidense. Por su parte, Michoacán es el estado que aporta más mango para la exportación. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la competitividad del mango mexicano frente a sus principales competidores, así como realizar un análisis de rentabilidad en Michoacán. Para determinar la competitividad de México, se utilizaron los Índices de Ventaja Competitiva Revelada. México presenta una competitividad con tendencia negativa respecto a sus principales competidores, Brasil e India. En Michoacán, se hizo el cálculo de la rentabilidad en 214 unidades de producción. El cultivo es rentable para la región, ya que se recuperan 77 centavos de cada peso invertido, sin embargo, las utilidades son bajas por los altos costos unitarios y bajos rendimientos.

A. V. Ayala-Garay

2009-01-01

350

Os insetos como agentes polinizadores da mangueira / Insets as pollinizing agents on mango trees (Mangifera indica)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The authors study the insect population that visit the mango trees and search for their pollinizing activity. Prior operations showed that very few bees (Apis mellifera) visited the flowers of mango trees. It was known that the percentage of fecundation is low (Simão 1955), Popenoe (1929), Spencer a [...] nd Kennard (1955), Lynch and Mustard (1955), Ruehle and Ledin (1955), so that the authors wented to Know if insects could be responsible for this. Insects were collected from mango trees, belonging to 10 orders, which, on the whole are not pollinizing agents. Bees were not collected, 21% were Hymenoptera, 20% were Diptera, 13% Hemiptera, 10% Coleoptera, 3% Blattariae and smoller percentages belonged to other orders.

Salim, Simão; Zilcar C., Maranhão.

351

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

352

Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

1990-04-01

353

Improvement of shelf-life and quality of mangoes by gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the studies on low dose gamma irradiation of mangoes in the dose range 10 to 200 krad alone or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments (i.e. hot water dipping and skin coating with 9 percent emulsion of acetylated monoglyceride) show that physiological, pathological and entomological factors can be controlled to extend the shelf-life of mangoes by one to two weeks. Organoleptic qualities of treated fruits are found to be comparable to those of unirradiated control mangoes. Texture qualities of the treated fruits are also retained at the end of 15 days after their transport over long distance. Irradiated fruits have the added advantage of disinfestation and reduction of stem end rot and anthracnose during ripening. Doses exceeding 75 krad are, however, found to be injurious to the fruits. (M.G.B.)

354

Desiccation of a clay film: Cracking versus peeling  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a simulation study on competition between cracking and peeling, in a layer of clay on desiccation and how this is affected by the rate of drying, as well as the roughness of the substrate. The system is based on a simple 2-dimensional spring model. A vertical section through the layer with finite thickness is represented by a rectangular array of nodes connected by linear springs on a square lattice. The effect of reduction of the natural length of the springs, which mimics the drying is studied. Varying the strength of adhesion between sample and substrate and the rate of penetration of the drying front produces an interesting phase diagram, showing cross-over from peeling to cracking behavior. Changes in the number and width of cracks on varying the layer thickness is observed to reproduce experimental reports.

Sadhukhan, S.; Prehl, J.; Blaudeck, P.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Dutta, T.; Tarafdar, S.

2008-12-01

355

Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of pomegranate peel extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pomegranate peels of Ganesh variety were subjected to extraction using different solvents viz. water, methanol and ethanol either alone or in combination with water. The extraction yield, antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS inhibition) and total phenolic contents were evaluated. Highest yield was obtained from 50 % ethanol: 50 % water (16.3?±?1.99 %). The DPPH and ABTS inhibition activity was found to be the highest for methanol and 70 % ethanol: 30 % water extract (79.5?±?6.5; 94.6?±?6.10), respectively. The phenolic content was the highest in the aqueous extract (438.3?±?14.15). The antibacterial activity of peel extracts was tested against four bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the extracts demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activities against all the tested bacterial strains. The 70 % ethanol: 30 % water and 100 % water extract had a higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content and has the potential for nutraceutical application. PMID:25477693

Malviya, Shalini; Arvind; Jha, Alok; Hettiarachchy, Navam

2014-12-01

356

Adsorption study of copper (II) by chemically modified orange peel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An adsorbent, the chemically modified orange peel, was prepared from hydrolysis of the grafted copolymer, which was synthesized by interaction of methyl acrylate with cross-linking orange peel. The presence of poly (acrylic acid) on the biomass surface was verified by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG). Total negative charge in the biomass surface and the zeta potentials were determined. The modified biomass was found to present high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for Cu (II). From Langmuir isotherm, the adsorption capacity for Cu (II) was 289.0 mg g-1, which is about 6.5 times higher than that of the unmodified biomass. The kinetics for Cu (II) adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorbent was used to remove Cu (II) from electroplating wastewater and was suitable for repeated use for more than four cycles.

357

Custom auroral electrojet indices calculated by using MANGO value-added services  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of computational routines called MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is utilized to calculate customized versions of the auroral electrojet indices, AE, AL, and AU. MANGO is part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The MANGO value-added service package is composed of a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of magnetic field disturbance, station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"-style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The capabilities of the MANGO service package will be demonstrated through their application to the study of auroral electrojet current flow during magnetic substorms. Traditionally, the AE indices are calculated by using data from about twelve ground stations located at northern auroral zone latitudes spread longitudinally around the world. Magnetogram data are corrected for secular variation prior to calculating the standard version of the indices but the data are not corrected for diurnal variations. A custom version of the AE indices will be created by using the MANGO routines including a step to subtract diurnal curves from the magnetic field data at each station. The custom AE indices provide more accurate measures of auroral electrojet activity due to isolation of the sunstorm electrojet magnetic field signiture. The improvements in the accuracy of the custom AE indices over the tradition indices are largest during the northern hemisphere summer when the range of diurnal variation reaches its maximum.

Bargatze, L. F.; Moore, W. B.; King, T. A.

2009-12-01

358

Foliar Absorption, Translocation and Utilization of Zn-65 by Mango Seedlings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse experiment was designed using ZnSO4 at rates of 0.125,0.25 and 0.50%. Solutions were adjusted to ph 6.0 and Tween-20 was added as a surfactant. The prepared solutions were labelled with carrier-free Zn-65. Six-month old mango seedlings were arranged in a complete block design to study the foliar absorption,translocation and percentage use of Zn-65 as influenced by soil application of phosphorus. The total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was affected by spraying treatment of Zn-65 and soil application of phosphorus. In this respect increasing the rates of labelled Zn solution resulted in a great increment in the total absorption of in total absorption of Zn-65 by mango leaves was observed due to increasing P rates as a soil application from 0.0 up to 100 ppm. Translocation of the absorbed Zn-65 either in upward or downward direction was positively related to the absorbed amount. The percentage use of Zn-65 by mango leaves was reduced by increasing foliar Zn rates. On the contrary, it was slightly increased as a result of increasing soil application rate of P. Generally, the percentage use of Zn-65 mango leaves was ranged between 8.7 and 16.87 under the conditions of this experiment. Therefore, foliar application of ZnSO4 could be recommended as a good source of Zn for mango nutrition in particular with addition of high rates of phosphorus as a soil application

359

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largestts: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

360

The monoterpene limonene in orange peels attracts pests and microorganisms  

OpenAIRE

Plant volatiles include terpenoids, which are generally involved in plant defense, repelling pests and pathogens and attracting insects for herbivore control, pollination and seed dispersal. Orange fruits accumulate the monoterpene limonene at high levels in the oil glands of their fruit peels. When limonene production was downregulated in orange fruits by the transgenic expression of a limonene synthase (CitMTSE1) in the antisense configuration, these fruits were resistant to the fungus Peni...

Rodri?guez, Ana; Andre?s, Victoria San; Cervera, Magdalena; Redondo, Ana; Alque?zar, Berta; Shimada, Takehiko; Gadea, Jose?; Rodrigo, Mari?a; Zacari?as, Lorenzo; Palou, Llui?s; Lo?pez, Mari?a M.; Castan?era, Pedro; Pen?a, Leandro

2011-01-01

361

Pretreatment of citrus peel press liquor before anaerobic digestion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Centrifugation and aeration were unsuitable pretreatments before anaerobic digestion of press liquors from citrus peel. Non-aerated fermentation without pH control resulted in conversion of sugars to acids and ethyl alcohol with reduction in pH to 2.8 - 3.5. These acidified liquors had a pleasant smell, were stable on storage and were satisfactory feedstock for anaerobic digestion. (Refs. 7).

Lane, A.G.

1983-02-01

362

Preparation and Characterization of Pectin Hydroxamates from Citrus Unshiu Peels.  

OpenAIRE

Pectin was extracted from unshiu orange (Citrus unshiu) peels and was subjected to chemical modification using hydroxamic acid. The structural and physical properties of the resulting derivatives were investigated as a function of hydroxamic acid content (4.68-9.58%). The extracted unshiu orange pectin showed 66.8% degree of esterification, 787.5 mg/g galacturonic acid, and 92 mg/g neutral sugars, which were composed of arabinose (53%), galactose (35%), glucose (5%), rhamnose (5%), and fructo...

In Young Bae; Hyun Jae Rha; Suyong Lee; Hyeon Gyu Lee

2011-01-01

363

Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit peels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food-borne diseases such as listeriosis and diseases caused by the emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) are globally recognized as environmental hazards to the food supply and human health. Natural inhibitors for pathogenic microorganisms have been explored in many plants. The antimicrobial activity against some food-borne pathogens by various extracts from pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using both in vitro (agar diffusion) and in situ (food) methods. The 80% methanolic extract of peels (WME) was a potent inhibitor for Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of WME against Salmonella enteritidis was the highest (4 mg/ml). WME afforded >1 log(10) reduction of L. monocytogenes in food (fish) during storage at 4 degrees C. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of active inhibitors in peels, including phenolics and flavonoids. The activity of WME was related to its higher content (262.5 mg/g) of total phenolics. PMID:19632734

Al-Zoreky, N S

2009-09-15

364

Superficial chemical peeling with salicylic acid in facial dermatoses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the effectiveness of salicylic acid chemical peeling in common dermatological conditions affecting face in people with predominant Fitzpatrick skin type IV and V. A total of 167 patients of either gender, aged between 13 to 60 years, having some facial dermatoses (melasma, acne vulgaris, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, freckles, fine lines and wrinkles, post-inflammatory scars, actinic keratoses, and plane facial warts) were included. A series of eight weekly hospital based peeling sessions was conducted in all patients under standardized conditions with 30% salicylic acid. Clinical improvement in different disorders was evaluated by change in MASI score, decrease in the size of affected area and % reduction in lesions count. McNemar test was applied for data analysis. Majority of the patients showed moderate to excellent response. There was 35% to 63% improvement (p< 0.05) in all dermatoses. Significant side effects, as feared in Asian skins were not observed. Chemical peeling with salicylic acid is an effective and safe treatment modality in many superficial facial dermatoses. (author)

365

Microwave properties of peeled HEMT devices sapphire substrates  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this research is to demonstrate the first full radio frequency characterization of high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device parameters. The results of this research are used in the design of circuits with peeled HEMT devices, e.g. 10 GHz amplifiers. Devices were fabricated using two HEMT structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy methods. A 500 A AlAs release layer for 'peel off' was included under the active layers of the structure. The structures are a homogeneously doped Al(0.3)GA(0.7)As/GaAs and a delta doped square well Al(.23)Ga(.77)As/GaAs HEMT structure. Devices were fabricated using a mesa isolation process. Contacts were done by sequentially evaporating Au/Ge/Au/Ni/Au followed by rapid thermal anneal at 400 C for 15 seconds. Gates were wet etch recessed and 1 to 1.4 micron Ti/Au gate metal was deposited. Devices were peeled off the GaAs substrate using Apiezon wax to support the active layer and a HF:DI (1:10) solution to remove the AlAs separation layer. Devices were then attached to sapphire substrates using van der Waals bonding.

Young, Paul G.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Mena, Rafael A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

1992-01-01

366

Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings  

Science.gov (United States)

Coating stacks of HfO2/SiO2 and Ta2O5/SiO2 were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO2) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO2 or Ta2O5). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiOx) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

Cui, Yun; Yi, Kui; Guohang, Hu; Shao, Jianda

2014-01-01

367

Interface characteristics of peeling-off damages of laser coatings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coating stacks of HfO2/SiO2 and Ta2O5/SiO2 were separately prepared by electron beam evaporation and dual ion beam sputtering. Damage characteristics at the interlayer interfaces were analyzed after irradiation of the coatings by a 1064 nm laser. The cross-sectional morphologies of damage spots indicated that peeling-off damages always occurred at the interface where the low refractive index material (SiO2) was deposited on the high refractive index material (HfO2 or Ta2O5). The effects of interface microstructure and components on peeling-off damages were also discussed. The microstructure of the interface was not a major factor that influenced peeling-off damages. Incomplete oxides (SiOx) and Na, K, Li ions accumulated near the interface and caused the formation of micro-defects layers with nano-sized thicknesses. Micro-defects layers maybe reduced adhesion of different interfaces and formed plasmas by absorbing laser energy. Finally stripping damages happened from micro-defects layers during irradiation by a 1064 nm laser.

368

Physicochemical and functional properties of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin flour.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P

Noor Aziah, A A; Komathi, C A

2009-09-01

369

An oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls  

OpenAIRE

Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (...

Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

2013-01-01

370

Assessment Of Production Potentials And Constraaints Of Mango (Mangifera INDICA) At Bati, Oromia Zone, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Production potentials and constraints of mango were assessed at Bati wereda, Oromiya zone, Ethiopia in 2013 using data from sixty randomly selected mango producers in the area. Data were collected using questionnaire and focus group discussion. The result revealed that most of the producers belonged to the age group of 41-50 (28.3%) and 31-40 (266.7%). 95% of the producers were male and the rest 5% were female. Analysis of production system revealed that 90% of the respondents do not use fert...

Seid Hussen; Zeru Yimer

2013-01-01

371

MANGO - A Magnetogram Analysis Service for Enhancement of the Heliophysics Data Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Heliophysics Data Environment Enhancement program supports efforts to integrate data services for conducting research of solar-terrestrial interactions. MANGO, Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geophysical Observatories, is a service that is directed at Heliophysics researchers interested in processing magnetic field data from ground magnetometers. Ground magnetograms are essential for monitoring the response of the magnetosphere to solar wind coupling. For instance, it is difficult to understand how spacecraft particle and field variations fit in context of activity throughout the global magnetospheric system without using ground magnetic field data. The MANGO service package allows one to decompose ground magnetic field variations and estimate the relative contributions from secular, diurnal, ring current, and auroral current systems. The MANGO service package leverages the SPASE metadata registries of the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO) to compile a list of available magnetogram data products. Currently, MANGO provides access to over 900 data products from about 350 ground magnetic field stations located around the globe. The VMO SPASE Granule registry contains ~150,000 files that comprise the MANGO relevant data products. And, the VMO Granule registry count is steadily increasing as more data products are described and ingested. Data selection from the distributed network of stations is naturally aided by using a world map to display the set of observatories. The MANGO web site (http://mango.igpp.ucla.edu), plots stations on a map that have data products, which meet user-defined criteria based on time of observation, station location, time cadence, magnetometer chain, etc. Note that Many of the ground magnetogram and geomagnetic index data products relevant to the MANGO effort are only available from their data providers in formats that allow the data to be packed. The formats used, and there are many types, save time in file retrieval and space on disk but resulting files require format conversion routines (i.e., from IAGA- 2002, WDC formats to flat ASCII tables) or specialized readers that unpack the desired magnetogram and index data. At present, 408 World Data Center ground magnetic field data products and the ring current Dst index data set have been converted into flat ASCII files, described via SPASE, and registered in the VMO metadata registry as a value-added service to users.

Bargatze, L. F.

2011-12-01

372

Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

373

Efficiency of irradiation as alternative or supplementary technique to the refrigeration in mango  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behaviour of mango cultivar Keitt was studied concerning to its preservation when submitted to irradiation of 80 Krad, storage at media environmental temperature of 210 C and air relative humidity at 83% and under refrigeration at 120 C with air relative humidity at 90%. The results shown that irradiated mangoes storage at 120 C were in good conditions after four weeks with low rate of anthraquinosis and media texture of 1,1 Kg/cm2 and the control presented ),05 Kg/cm2. (L.M.J.)

374

Decay and acceptability of mangos treated with combinations of hot water, imazalil, and gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Combination treatments with radiation at 200 or 750 Gy and hot water (53 C) or hot 0.1% a.i. imazalil (53 C) for 3 min were more effective than single treatments for control of anthracnose and stem-end rot of Tommy Atkins mangos caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Diplodia natalensis or Phomopsis citri, respectively. Irradiation at 750 Gy inhibited development of ripe skin color and caused some browning and pitting of the skin. Effects of radiation on skin color and injury were partially offset when heat treatment preceded irradiation. Individual wrapping of mangos in shrink film resulted in increased decay and breakdown. (author)

375

Changes in Biochemical Composition of Mango in Response to Pre-Harvest Gibberellic Acid Spray  

OpenAIRE

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit of the world owing to its pleasant aroma and taste. In this investigation, the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) at concentrations of 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg?l-1 water sprayed 20 days before commercial harvest on postharvest behavior and quality of mango cv. ‘Himsagar’ was studied under ambient storage conditions. GA3 (100 and 150 mg?l-1) delayed the onset of ripening and caused a reduction in respiration rate as compared to the untrea...

Md Wasim Siddiqui; Pallab Dutta; Rabi Shankar Dhua; Arup Dey

2014-01-01

376

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica) Almond Seed Fat  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica) almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF) was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8°C and 10.9 min at 12°C). The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8°C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12°C, respectively) and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

377

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Mango (Mangifera indica Almond Seed Fat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of mango (Mangifera indica almond seed fat var. Manila (MAF was analyzed, within the theoretical context of the Sestak-Berggren model, the Avrami Equation and its modification by Khanna and Taylor. The results showed that the induction times for the formation of crystalline nuclei increased with the crystallization temperature (3.3 min at 8?C and 10.9 min at 12?C. The supercooling level notably influenced the MAF crystallization rate, since the global constant of crystallization rate, Z, grew 3.3 times from 12 to 8?C (for fractions of fat solids between 0.25 and 0.75, Z was 0.2904, 0.1584 and 0.0879 min-1 at 8, 10 and 12?C, respectively and the Avrami parameter r was higher than 4; this demonstrates the effect of fat system complexity due to its multi-component nature and the heterogeneous character of this crystallization process, which includes additional participation of nucleation sites. The modified model by Khanna and Taylor provided better parametral values than the other two studied for explaining MAF crystallization kinetic.

J.A. Solis-Fuentes

2007-01-01

378

Comportamiento y características de algunos cultivares promisorios de mango  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización, evaluación de la capacidad productiva y de la calidad de los frutos de los cultivares de mango, Mangífera indica L., Edwad, Glenn, Irwin, Otts y Parvin, introducidos en la colección del CENIAP, entre 1956 y 1970, desde Florida (USA) como alternativa para diversificar l [...] a oferta. Los resultados indican que los cultivares poseen atributos de calidad que se ajustan a las exigencias de los consumidores. Se sugiere la utilización de técnicas y procedimientos para controlar el porte de las plantas y el empleo de marcos de plantación más estrechos para mejorar la producción y productividad en su explotación comercial. Abstract in english A characterization and evaluation of the productive capacity and fruit quality of the Edward, Glenn, Irwin, Otts and Parvin cultivars was made. These cultivars were introduced from Florida (USA) in the CENIAP collections as an alternative to diversify supply. Eighty three morph- agronomics descripto [...] r were used and, based on tree dimensions and the harvest register by tree, in the different productive life periods, the productive efficiency was determined thru the fructification index. Fruit quality was evaluated thru the physical and chemical index. Results indicated that the cultivars have quality attributes that fit with the consumers requirements. The use of techniques and procedures to control tree size are suggested, thus allowing smaller planting distances and productivity in commercial farm.

Enio, Soto; Luis, Avilán; Emaldi, Unai; Margot, Rodríguez; José, Ruiz.

2004-04-01

379

Antioxidant properties of peel and pulp hydro extract in ten Persian pomegranate cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay), which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe(+2) concentration, in the range of 100-1000 micromol L(-1) were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars. PMID:18819648

Hajimahmoodi, M; Oveisi, M R; Sadeghi, N; Jannat, B; Hadjibabaie, M; Farahani, E; Akrami, M R; Namdar, R

2008-06-15

380

Antioxidant Properties of Peel and Pulp Hydro Extract in Ten Persian Pomegranate Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study compares the antioxidant activity of ten different pomegranate cultivars grown in Iran using the ferric reducing power assay (FRAP assay, which is based on the reduction of a ferric-tripyridyl triazine complex to its ferrous, colored form in the presence of antioxidants. Aqueous solutions of known Fe+2 concentration, in the range of 100-1000 ?mol L-1 were used for calibration. The results showed that among pulp and peel fractions the sour alac and sweet white peel cultivars had more FRAP value respectively. The pomegranate peel extract had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than the pulp extract. The peel extract of sweet white peel cultivar appeared to have more potential as a health supplement rich in natural antioxidants compared to the pulp and peel extracts of other pomegranate cultivars.

M. Hajimahmoodi

2008-01-01

381

Effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of orange peel oil on ethanol production by the ethanologenic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was investigated. Orange peel oil was added in various amounts to determine its effects on ethanol production. Fermentation of model sugar solutions was conducted at 30 and 37 C. The minimum orange peel oil concentration that inhibited ethanol production by Z. mobilis was determined after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h for both temperatures. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 30 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, 0.15% after 72 h, and 0.20% after 96 h. Minimum inhibitory orange peel oil concentrations for ethanol production at 37 C were 0.05% after 24 h, 0.10% after 48 h, and 0.20% after 72 h. Orange peel oil did not inhibit ethanol production after 96 h at a temperature of 37 C. (author)

Wilkins, Mark R. [Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, 111 Agricultural Hall, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

2009-03-15

382

Injúria pelo frio na qualidade pós-colheita de mangas cv. Palmer / Chilling injury in mangoes cv. Palmer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer os binômios temperatura x tempo, que podem ocasionar injúria pelo frio em mangas 'Palmer'. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados para laboratório, onde foram selecionados, padronizados quanto à coloração, ao tamanho e à ausência de [...] injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC, 5 ºC e 12 ºC, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de podridões, danos pelo frio, atividade respiratória, coloração da casca e da polpa, massa fresca, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS) e de acidez titulável (AT), e relação SS/AT. Os resultados indicaram que os sintomas de injúrias pelo frio foram exteriorizados após 7 dias do armazenamento refrigerado a 2 ºC ou 5 ºC, com os frutos não diferindo quanto à gravidade dos danos. A presença dos danos não impediu o desenvolvimento da coloração característica da polpa, porém levou ao escurecimento da casca e afetou o amadurecimento normal dos frutos. Frutos armazenados a 12 ºC não apresentaram sinais de danos pelo frio ou prejuízos aos seus processos metabólicos normais. Abstract in english This study aimed to establish the binomials temperature vs. time, which can cause chilling injury in mangoes 'Palmer'. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported to the laboratory where they were selected, standardized according to the color, size and absence of injuries and treated w [...] ith fungicide before being stored at 2 ºC, 5 ºC and 12 ºC up to 28 days. The fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of decay, chilling injury, respiratory activity, peel and pulp color, fresh weight mass, firmness, soluble solids (SS) and titratable acidity (TA) and ratio. The results showed that the symptoms of chilling injuries were exteriorized after 7 days of refrigerated storage at 2 ºC or 5 ºC, and the fruits did not differ in the severity of the damage. The presence of damage did not prevent the development of the characteristic pulp color, although it has led to the darkening of the skin and has affected the normal ripening of fruits. Fruit stored at 12 ºC showed no signs of cold damage, and no impairment to their normal metabolic processes.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Cristiane Maria Ascari, Morgado; Ramon Felipe De Oliveira, Gomes.

2011-10-01

383

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a análise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR, 5 °C (75,4% UR e 12 °C (76,4% UR, por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia.This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and carefully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH, 5 °C (75,4% RH and 12 °C (76,4% RH for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

2011-10-01

384

Técnicas de análise multivariada na avaliação de injúrias pelo frio em mangas cv. Tommy Atkins / Multivariate analysis that can be used to evaluate the chilling injury in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar as variáveis que se associam às injúrias pelo frio e determinar as diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade que melhor caracterizam mangas 'Tommy Atkins' submetidas à condição de injúria pelo frio, utilizando-se da análise de fatores em componentes principais e a an [...] álise de agrupamentos. Frutos colhidos no estádio "de vez" foram cuidadosamente transportados, selecionados, padronizados quanto a coloração, tamanho e ausência de injúrias, e tratados com fungicida antes de serem armazenados a 2 ºC (74,8% UR), 5 °C (75,4% UR) e 12 °C (76,4% UR), por até 28 dias. Os frutos foram avaliados semanalmente quanto à ocorrência de danos pelo frio, coloração da casca e da polpa, firmeza da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, açúcares solúveis e redutores, ácido ascórbico e atividade das enzimas peroxidase, polifenoloxidase e fenilalanina amônia-liase. A análise estatística multivariada dos fatores em componentes principais e agrupamentos permitiram melhor compreensão do efeito do armazenamento, sob condição de chilling, no metabolismo de mangas 'Tommy Atkins' e indicaram que o dano está intimamente relacionado com a casca e que a resposta da polpa ao estresse ocorre de forma tardia. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify the variables associated with chilling injury and to determine the differences in quality parameters that better characterize mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under condition of chilling injury, through the use of factor and cluster analysis. Semi-ripe fruits were harvested and ca [...] refully transported, selected and standardized for color, size and absence of injuries, and treated with fungicide, before storage at 2 °C (74,8% RH), 5 °C (75,4% RH) and 12 °C (76,4% RH) for 28 days. Fruits were evaluated weekly for the occurrence of chilling injury, peel and pulp color firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble and reducing sugars, and ascorbic acid content. Activities of peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were determined, as well. The multivariate statistic analysis helped to better understand the storage effect in the metabolism of mangoes 'Tommy Atkins' under chilling condition, and indicated that the damage is closely related to the peel, and that the pulp response to the stress occurs later.

Ana Carolina Almeida, Miguel; José Fernando, Durigan; Antonio Sergio, Ferraudo.

2011-10-01

385

Cupuacu peel utilization for energy production; Aproveitamento da casca do cupuacuzeiro para producao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present study, are presented preliminaries results of the project 'Use of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro for generation of energy.' The elementary and thermal analyses are carried out for the cupuacu peel and for the coal obtained starting from the carbonization of that peel. The initial results come quite favorable for the use of the peel and of the coal as energy input in thermo conversion process where the generation of electric energy is sought. (author)

Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva dos; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Seye, Omar; Lau, Jim; Freitas, Katriana Tavares de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico (CDEAM)], e-mail: cdeam_ufam@yahoo.com.br

2004-07-01

386

Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Fruit Peels  

OpenAIRE

The antioxidant activity of pomegranate fruit peels was evaluated using in vitro tests. 80% methanolic extracts (ME) of peels had higher yield (45.4%) and total phenolics (27.4%) than water (WE) or ether extracts (EE). The reducing power of ME was more potent (P < 0.05) than either WE or EE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) of ME was stronger than that of ?-catechin. Pomegranate peels contained phenolics, exhibited DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power.

Al-zoreky, Najeeb S.; Al-otaibi, Mutlag M.; Shiban, Mutahar S.

2012-01-01

387

Effect of irradiation on the biochemical and organoleptic changes during the ripening of papaya and mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Papaya and mango rot caused by fungi is a major problem during storage and marketing. Gamma irradiation treatment was used to determine its effect on the quality of papayas and mangoes irradiated at 0,5 to 0,95 kGy. The level of respiration, soluble solids, texture, vitamin C and the sensorial evaluation were effectuated. The results indicate that irradiation treatment reduces significantly (p?0,001) weakens the texture of mangoes. The content of soluble solids and vitamin C are not significantly affected by the irradiation. The sensory evaluation indicates that up to 0,95 kGy the sensorial quality is not changed. (author)

388

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on antioxidant content of 'Ataulfo' mango during postharvest maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the concentration of some antioxidant compounds and the antiradical efficiency during the ripening process of 'Ataulfo' mango. The fruits at physiological maturity stage were pressurized at 15, 30, or 60 MPa for 10 or 20 min [...] . Control fruits were not pressurized. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and changes in the concentration of ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, total carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency were evaluated. It was demonstrated that in 'Ataulfo' mango high hydrostatic pressure treatments at 60 and 30 MPa for 20 minutes induced the synthesis of ascorbic acid during storage maybe as a consequence of physiological changes and possible structural modification of the cells, while the fruits pressurized at 15 MPa showed no effect on this parameter. On the other hand, the use of 15 MPa for 10 minutes increased the synthesis of phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antiradical efficiency in 'Ataulfo' mango compared to that of the control fruit. In conclusion, this behavior seemed to be due to the low hydrostatic pressure treatments (15 Mpa), which stimulated the synthesis of antioxidants in the mango fruit and ripening was not inhibited.

Viviana Guadalupe, Ortega; José Alberto, Ramírez; Gonzalo, Velázquez; Beatriz, Tovar; Miguel, Mata; Efigenia, Montalvo.

2013-09-01

389

Standardization of Time and Grafting Techniques in Mango under Bangladesh Condition  

OpenAIRE

Propagation of mango by modified cleft grafting during 15 June showed higher percentage of survival in compare with cleft and veneer grafting irrespective of varieties. The percentage of success was, however, higher in June by modified cleft grafting but in August by veneer grafting. Propagation of plants during June by modified cleft grafting showed highest scion growth with highest number of leaves and shoots.

Islam, M. N.; Rahim, M. A.; Farooque, A. M.

2004-01-01

390

The species composition of thrips (insecta: thysanoptera) inhabiting mango orchards in pulau pinang, malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field study was conducted at two localities on Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, during two consecutive mango flowering seasons in 2009 to identify variations in the species composition of thrips infesting treated and untreated mango (Mangifera indica L.) orchards. The CO2 immobilisation technique and the cutting method were used to recover different thrips species from mango panicles and weed host plants, respectively. The mango panicles and various weed species within the treated orchard were found to harbour four thrips species from the family Thripidae. These species were identified as Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), Scirtothrips dorsalis (Hood), Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall). The weed species Mimosa pudica, Cleome rutidosperma, Echinochloa colonum, Borreria laevicaulis, Veronia cinerea and Asystasia coromandeliana served as additional hosts to these thrips. Six thrips species were found in the untreated orchard. These species included Thrips palmi (Karny), Haplothrips sp. (Amyot and Serville) and the four thrips species found in the treated orchard. A brief description of the larvae for each genus is provided. PMID:24575225

Aliakbarpour, Hamaseh; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

2012-05-01

391

Degradation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

A supervised field trial was conducted at four different agroclimatic locations in India to evaluate the dissipation pattern and risk assessment of carbendazim and mancozeb in mango fruits following foliar application of mixed formulation of carbendazim 12% and mancozeb 63% fungicide (SAAF-75WP) at recommended dose (90?+?472.5) and double the recommended dose (180?+?945 g a.i.?ha(-1)). Average initial deposition of carbendazim was in the range of 1.12 to 2.7 and 1.95 to 4.09 mg kg(-1) and for mancozeb in the range of 2.25 to 2.71 and 4.17 to 5.96 mg kg(-1), given at respective doses. Residues of carbendazim and mancozeb were dissipated to the below detectable limit 7 days after spray at recommended dosage in all the locations. The fungicide degradation followed a first order kinetics with half-lives of 1-5 and 1-3 days, for carbendazim and mancozeb, respectively. The TMRC values, calculated from residue data generated from all four locations, were found to be below the MPI in mango fruit, and hence, the fungicide will not cause any adverse effect after consumption of mango fruits. This data could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of this fungicide mixture for managing disease incidence in mango in India. PMID:25407993

Devi, P Ahila; Paramasivam, M; Prakasam, V

2015-01-01

392

Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (? and ?') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (?) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents. PMID:25363450

Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

2014-11-26

393

Leaving Mango Street: Speech, Action and the Construction of Narrative in Britton's Spectator Stance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…

Crawford-Garrett, Katherine

2009-01-01

394

Mango Street and Malnourished Readers: Politics and Realities in an "At-Risk" Middle School  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents results of a literature-response study conducted with at-risk middle school students of Latino, African American, and Caucasian backgrounds. The study was guided by an assumption of students' ability to read and coherently assimilate elements of "The House on Mango Street," by Sandra Cisneros (1984). Although centered in…

Sullivan, M. Alayne

2007-01-01

395

Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

2009-04-15

396

Adolescent Journeys: Finding Female Authority in "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…

Dubb, Christina Rose

2007-01-01

397

SOLUBLE SOLIDS AND SIMPLE SUGARS MEASUREMENT IN INTACT MANGO USING NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

Science.gov (United States)

Total soluble solids content (TSS, °Brix), sucrose, glucose and fructose are important quality attributes of mango (Magnifera indica) fruit and have been shown to be useful for determining fruit maturity. The approach to develop a rapid, reliable, nondestructive method for quality evaluation of man...

398

Influence of Phosphorus and Manganese Rats in Nutrient Solution on Mn-54 Uptake by Mango Plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A greenhouse experiment was designed using solution culture and Mn-54 to study the effect of P and Mn rates on absorption of Mn-54, its translocation and percentage using six month old mango seedlings (Hindi Bi-Sinara cv.). Rates of P in nutrient solution were zero, half, one and two strength i.e. 0, 1, 2 and 4 m M whereas Mn rates were 1, 2 and 3 strength i.e. 2, 4 and 6 ?M. The prepared nutrient solutions were labelled with carrier free Mn-54. Total absorption of Mn-54 by mango roots from nutrient solution was highly increased by increasing Mn rates, moreover, increasing P rates in media tended to enhance Mn-54 absorption. Translocation and distribution pattern of absorbed Mn-54 followed, to a great extent, the same trend of total absorption of it but with different magnitude. In this concern, more than 90% (about 94%) of total absorption of Mn-54 was retained in root system, whereas about 4% and 2% was translocated in stems and leaves, respectively. Retained Mn in mango roots is considered a good source of Mn for supplying mango plants with it for long term during growing season.

399

Evaluation of Allelopathic Activity of Three Mango (Mangifera indica) Cultivars  

OpenAIRE

The present study was undertaken to investigate the allelopathic potential of three mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars: Khirshapat, Himsagor and Sinduri. The aqueous methanol extracts of leaves at four different concentrations were examined against germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidum sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and timothy (Phleum...

Md Sirajul Islam Khan; Mominul Islam, A. K. M.; Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2013-01-01

400

Site specific fertilization affects yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent' mango  

Science.gov (United States)

Site specific fertilization (SSF) defines the type and rate of fertilizer needed for individual orchards. This study presents preliminary results (2010-2011) of a medium term project to quantify the effects of SSF on yield, fruit size, quality, and shelf-life of ‘Kent’ mango. Two orchards are used f...

401

Effect of gamma ray treatment on alternative respiration during ripening in mango fruit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Respiratory climacteric is one of the most important metabolic events occurring at an early stage of fruit ripening. Since gamma irradiation is known to delay ripening and ethylene evolution in fruits, ripening mango fruit provided a suitable system to study the component of respiration most affected by irradiation. 5 refs., 2 tabs

402

Mango variation in vitamin C and beta carotene with cultivar and country of origin  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangos (Mangifera indica) are a traditional fruit in the Caribbean countries and Southeast Asia, but have been imported in to the U.S. on a large scale only in the last few years. Fruit of cultivars ‘Ataulfo,' ‘Kent,’ ‘Tommy Atkins,’ ‘Keitt,’ and ‘Haden’ were obtained from shipments from Mexico, Pe...

403

Surface treatments and coatings to maintain fresh cut mango quality in storage  

Science.gov (United States)

Edible coatings prevent moisture loss and may decrease gas exchange, thereby retaining moisture and flavor of fresh-cut fruit. Previous experiments showed that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with added maltodextrin maintained visual quality of stored mango slices also treated with calcium ascorbate an...

404

Genetic diversity of mango cultivars estimated using Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversity and genetic relationships among 23 mango germplasm accessions, collected from different locations in Guangxi province in China, were analyzed by using a novel and simple gene targeted DNA marker: Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers. This technique uses a single, 18-mer primer PCR amplifica...

405

Effect of gamma radiation and some growth regulators on ripening and senescence in mango fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present investigation was undertaken during the seasons of 1979 and 1980 to study the effect of gamma irradiation, some growth regulators, benlate and 'vaporgard' on ripening and senescence of 'Hindi Be - Sinnara' mango fruits during storage under room conditions and also to determine the optimum treatment for maximum extension in shelf - life

406

Optimization and production of antifungal hydrolysis enzymes by streptomyces aureofaciens against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides of mango  

OpenAIRE

We isolated naturally occurring actinomycetes with an ability to produce metabolites having antifungal property against, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of mango anthracnose. One promising strain was strong antifungal activity, was selected for further studies. Based on the physiological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial strain was identical to Streptomyces aureofaciens. Culture filtrate collected from the exponential and stationary phases inhibited the growth of...

Ahamed Mohamed El Azzazy; Enas Mostafa Mohamed; Wafaa Mohamed Haggag

2011-01-01

407

Short-term rat-feeding studies of irradiated bananas and mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bananas and mangoes irradiated at 30 and 50 Krad were fed to albino rats for 12 weeks. Parameter used included food consumption, weight gain, haemoglobin, hematocrit, white and red blood cell counts, differential count, protein, albumin, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen and bilirubin. Irradiation at the 2 dose levels did not show ill effects. (author)

408

Discrimination of mango fruit maturity by volatiles using the electronic nose and gas chromatography  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.), cv. 'Cogshall', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' were harvested at different maturities (61 - 115 days past flowering for 'Cogshall') and at different sizes (276 to 894 average gFW for 'Kent' and 364 to 1,563 gFW for 'Keitt'). Immediately after harvest or after one week of ripe...

409

Management of mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis, using chemical insecticides and Neem oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted in Field Laboratory, Department of Entomology at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during 2013 to manage the mango hopper, Idioscopus clypealis L, using three chemical insecticides, Imidacloprid (0.3%), Endosulfan (0.5%), and Cypermethrin (0.4%), and natural Neem oil (3%) with three replications of each. All the treatments were significantly effective in managing mango hopper in comparison to the control. Imidacloprid showed the highest efficacy in percentage of reduction of hopper population (92.50 ± 9.02) at 72 hours after treatment in case of 2nd spray. It also showed the highest overall percentage of reduction (88.59 ± 8.64) of hopper population and less toxicity to natural enemies including green ant, spider, and lacewing of mango hopper. In case of biopesticide, azadirachtin based Neem oil was found effective against mango hopper as 48.35, 60.15, and 56.54% reduction after 24, 72, and 168 hours of spraying, respectively, which was comparable with Cypermethrin as there was no statistically significant difference after 168 hours of spray. Natural enemies were also higher after 1st and 2nd spray in case of Neem oil. PMID:25140344

Adnan, S M; Uddin, M M; Alam, M J; Islam, M S; Kashem, M A; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

2014-01-01

410

Evaluation of irradiation parameters in the quarantine treatment of Mexican mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basic technical and economic data relating to irradiated Mexican mangoes are presented. The dose required to achieve quarantine security at the 'probit-9' efficiency level against any fruit fly species is only 150 Gy, the tolerance dose is 1000 Gy. This was verified by chemical and sensorial analyses. The process is economically feasible for various levels of plant throughput. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

411

A Long-term Ring Current Measure Created by Using the VMO MANGO Service Package  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of computational routines called MANGO (Magnetogram Analysis for the Network of Geomagnetic Observatories) is utilized to calculate a new measure of magnetic storm activity for the years 1932 to the near present. The MANGO routines are part of an effort to enhance data services available to users of the Heliophysics VxOs, specifically for the Virtual Magnetospheric Observatory (VMO). The community can utilize MANGO to derive value-added data products and images suitable for publication via the VMO web site. MANGO routines will be demonstrated through their application to study magnetic storms, a field of research that began in 1828 when von Humboldt launched an investigation of observations taken simultaneously from magnetic field stations spread around the Earth. The defining signature of magnetic storms is a worldwide decrease of the horizontal component of the magnetic field caused by fluctuations in the strength of the ring current. In the 1940's, Bartel pushed for deriving an index to measure the strength of magnetic storms. Progress intensified during the International Geophysical Year leading to the definition of the Dst index. The definitive Dst index is calculated at WDC-C2 for Geomagnetism in Kyoto by using a derivation scheme certified by Division V of IAGA. The Dst index time series spans the years 1957 to present with a cadence equal to 1-hr. The new data set we will present is a magnetic storm measure that is similar to the Dst index though it is calculated by using MANGO and a method that differs slightly from the official scheme. The MANGO data service package is based on a set of IDL routines that decompose ground magnetic field observations to isolate secular, diurnal, and disturbance variations of the magnetic field station-by-station. Each MANGO subroutine has been written in modular fashion to allow "plug and play"- style flexibility and each has been designed to account for failure modes and noisy data so that the programs will run to completion producing as much derived data as possible. The new magnetic storm measure is based on 1-hr data from the same ground stations used to calculate the official Dst index and extends the historical record of storm intensity by 25 years.

Bargatze, L. F.; King, T. A.

2008-12-01

412

Determinantes de la oferta de exportación de mango: estudio de caso para el Perú  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El mango es una de las frutas más consumidas a nivel mundial y de las más exportadas por el Perú. En la actualidad el Perú se ubica como el sexto mayor exportador de mango en el mundo. Por tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los factores determinantes de las exportaciones de mango realiz [...] adas por el Perú, dando un mayor enfoque a los principales mercados de destino, como son los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea para el período de 2000 a 2011. Para tal fin, se utilizó el Modelo de Vector de Corrección del Error. La elección del modelo es comentada en la metodología. Las variables utilizadas para explicar los determinantes de exportación de mango son precios domésticos, los precios al por mayor en los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea, la renta interna de los Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea y el tipo de cambio euro/dólar. Los resultados muestran que los precios internacionales y la renta de los importadores, son determinantes para explicar la exportación de esta fruta. Abstract in english Mango is one of the most consumed fruit in the world and the most exported by Peru. At present, Peru is the sixth largest exporter in the world. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of mango exports by Peru by making more focus to the main target markets, namely the [...] United States and the European Union for the period from 2000-2011. For this end, we used the model of Vector Error Correction. The choice of model is discussed in the methodology. The variables used to explain the determinants of mango exports are domestic prices, wholesale prices in the United States and the European Union, the internal income of the United States and the European Union and the exchange rate euro / dollar. The results show that international prices and income in the United States are determinant to explain exports of this fruit. The results show that the international prices and the income of importers markets are determinant to explain the export of this fruit.

Jorge Luis Sánchez, Arévalo; João Ricardo Ferreira de, Lima; Adriano Firmino V. de, Araújo.

413

Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

414

Oxidative stability of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Food industries have been concerned about managing the waste generated by their production processes in order to minimize environmental impacts and also about the development of formulations with different and innovative ingredients such as fruits from the Brazilian savanna. Seeking to meet the expe [...] ctations of consumers who desire healthy and practical products, this study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability and the variations in chemical composition and antioxidant potential of cereal bars made with fruit peels and baru nuts packaged in different types of packaging. The bars formulated were packed in four different types of packaging: laminated without vacuum (LWV), transparent without vacuum (TWV), transparent under vacuum (TV), and laminated under vacuum (LV); they were subsequently analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant activity, and oxidative capacity. The results showed that the cereal bars made with fruit peel and baru are sources of protein, dietary fiber, and fat, especially unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids. The cereal bars exhibited oxidative stability up to 120 days of storage, and the type of packaging was not significant for the variables evaluated; therefore, they can be stored in low cost packaging such as transparent packaging without vacuum for a period of 120 days.

Nathalia da Silva Rodrigues, Mendes; Cristiane Rodrigues, Gomes-Ruffi; Moacir Evandro, Lage; Fernanda Salamoni, Becker; Adriane Alexandre Machado de, Melo; Flávio Alves da, Silva; Clarissa, Damiani.

2013-12-01

415

Testing and Performance Evaluation of Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator for Mango Orchard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops is quite difficult due to their tallness. There are small hand tools available for harvesting and pruning. But these tools of harvesting and pruning are restricted due tree height, unavailability of trained labours for climbing and cost of operation etc. The mechanized machines are available; these are heavy and costly and are not suitable for low land holding, Indian marginal famers. Harvesting and pruning of horticultural crops with the available hand tool is very difficult. The labor has to climb on the tree by carrying these hand tools, which requires skill too. To overcome the above problems a Tractor Mounted Hydraulic Elevator (TMHE powered by tractor PTO, was tested for the mechanical harvesting and pruning of mango orchards using digital load cell, digital Vibration meter and digital Techometer for elevator stability study and pruner engine RPM measurements while in branch cutting respectively. The field performance of the above machine was carried out on plane mango plot, at Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist: -Ratnagiri (Maharashtra, India. The machine was tested for the better stability at maximum reach position for harvesting and pruning of various mango varieties, like Alphanso, Totapuri etc. Approach: To reduce the harvesting /pruning cost, increase the harvesting/pruning efficiency and enhance the overall productivity of mango orchards. Also to use the traditional mechanized/ manual pruning tools with the developed tractor mounted hydraulic elevator. To develop and refine the power operated mechanism for marginal farmers. This stability study was carried out, by using strain gauge load cell (S-beam, having capacity of 2000 kg. The load cell guiding device was designed and fabricated for conducting the above experiments following standard material specifications of American society of testing material. The reaction on rear wheel of tractor was measured by using digital load cell, which converts the force acting on rear wheel of tractor into electrical signals and get it displayed on the control panel. The speed of pruner engine is measured for various mango trees branches at different heights, using digital tachometer. The vibrations of the pruning platform are measured for the respective pruner engine speed and height of Pruning Platform. The speed and vibration readings are taken for different branches of different diameter and height. The time required for pruning the branches is also measured. Results: The tractor mounted hydraulic elevator is most suitable for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards upto 12 m tree height without affecting the stability of machine with available tools. The field capacity of elevator was 0.08 h?1 for mango harvesting. The observed field capacity of the developed TMHE is 5,400 mango (1400 kg day?1 for Alphanso mango, research is underway to develop hydraulic man-positioned, which would be easier to harvest, prune tree and spraying by hand or machine. Conclusion: The overturning of the elevator is not observed, up to 12 meter height of tree from ground including 150 kg load in the lifting platform for harvesting and pruning of mango orchards. The vibrations of the lifting platform noted are in safe limit.

Kishor P. Kolhe

2011-01-01

416

Radioactive waste solidification material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH)2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

417

Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by ?-Pinene (1.5%), ?-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (PFenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Da?, Gürbüz

2012-08-13

418

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

419

Behavioral pattern of physicochemical constituents of the postharvest mango (Mangifera indica L.) influenced by storage stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55 +/- 1 degree C) and low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C). The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g) and titratable acidity (4.31%) and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83); produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00%) and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06%) content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS) content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS). Therefore, low temperature (4 +/- 1 degree C) was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition. PMID:24517016

Islam, Md Khairul

2013-12-15

420

Behavioral Pattern of Physicochemical Constituents of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L. Influenced by Storage Stimuli  

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Full Text Available An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polyethylene cover, hot water (55±1°C and low temperature (4±1°C. The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with tree replicates. The varieties had profound variation in terms of most of the characters studied in the laboratory condition. Initially the Langra significantly enriched a greater amount of vitamin C (151.23 mg/100 g and titratable acidity (4.31% and these were decreased gradually with the progress of storage period. The Khirshapat showed higher pulp pH (5.83; produced enormous amount of TSS (18.00% and sugar (TS = 17.62%, RS = 6.51% and NRS = 11.06% content at 12th day of storage. The pH, TSS, sugar (TS, RS and NRS content of mango pulp was rapidly increased, whereas vitamin C and titratable acidity decreased drastically from the untreated mangoes. On the other hand, low temperature retarded the changes. The Langra using low temperature (4±1°C exhibited lower diminishing tendency in vitamin C and titratable acidity and also using no treatment slightly increased TSS; enriched enormous amount of sugar (TS, RS and NRS. Therefore, low temperature (4±1°C was found satisfactory for delay ripening and postharvest changes of mango in storage condition.

Md. Khairul Islam

2013-01-01

421

Effects of ionizing energy on fruit flies and seed weevil in Australian mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Irradiation was evaluated as a quarantine measure for the disinfestation of Australian mangoes against two species of fruit fly, Bactrocera (=Dacus) tryoni (Froggatt) and B, jarvisi (Tryon), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius). For the fruit flies, the third instar stage was determined as the most tolerant of irradiation, but disinfestation trials were also undertaken against mature eggs as the stage most likely to be present in any infested fruit at the time of treatment. A dose range of 74-101 Gy on the ''Kensington'' variety of mango prevented the emergence of adult flies, but large numbers of treated larvae and some eggs developed to the pupal stage. This places important emphasis on the field control of fruit flies if detection of still living larvae in fruit at inspection is to be avoided. Disinfestation trials on the mango seed weevil were complicated by the inability to culture this insect in the laboratory. This necessitated the use of naturally infested fruit of the ''common'' variety and precluded trial work on specific stages of known age. A dose range of 298-339 Gy (nominally a minimum of 300 Gy) prevented adult emergence and ensured 100% mortality by 8 months on the samples treated. The slow life cycle of the seed weevil requires that assessment of mortality be delayed by a minimum of 1 month, and for full mortality up to 6-8 months. The presence of live insects in irradiated fruit causes problems if detected at inspection unlses problems if detected at inspection unless export fruit is obtained from weevil free orchards. No significant fruit damage would be expected at a fruit fly treatment range of 100-200 Gy, but the maximum/minimum ratio for weevil treated fruit would need to be minimized as the treatment level is near the threshold for damage to the ''Kensington'' variety of mango. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

422

The efficiency of ionizing radiation on the disinfestation of fresh mangoes (Carabao variety)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes, Carabao variety, were irradiated with doses found effective for fruit fly disinfestation, namely 60, 70 and 80 krad and stored at either 30deg C or 7deg C until subjection to various analyses. Parts of the fruit of varying sizes and maturity, both irradiated and non-irradiated, were exposed to varying ages and numbers of Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) to study the degree of infestation. Analyses of physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of irradiated mangoes were carried out at appropriate intervals. Extension of shelf-life of mangoes irradiated with doses mentioned above could not be achieved when the fruits were stored at 30deg C. A study of factors considered important in measuring the effectiveness of radiation disinfestation showed that the degree of fruit fly infestation was significantly influenced by size and maturity of the fruits, and by the number of age of the infesting flies. Direct irradiation of different developmental stages of the fly showed that the low dose of 5 krad applied to eggs, larvae, and pupae prevented adult emergence and produced sterility in adults. A dose of 15 krad shortened survival time of adult fruit flies to 10 days. The 60 - 80 krad doses applied were found effective to extend the shelf-life of mangoes and could be used for insect disinfestation also. No significant changes in pH, texture, carotine, sugar, pectin and ascorbic acid contents were found in mangoes exposed at these dose levels. They were also found generally acceptable to judges. No significant differences between appearance, texture, odour, and flavour were found between controls and the irradiated samples by 8-10 trained judges using the Hedonic Scale

423

The Use of Microorganism for Biological Control of Anthracnose in Nam Dok Mai Mango for Export  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Antagonist were tested inhibition of mycelial growth of Collectorichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose on potato dextrose agar (PDA) revealed that 46 isolated that 46 isolate inhibited the growth of mycelia by 40.01-60.00 5. The selected four isolates inhibit the growth of fungal nycelia by 47.01-50.00 % including YFm1, YFm2, Y18 and AC2-1 were test for the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism before inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. This result slow that four isolate antagonistic reduced sized of lesion on Nam Dok Mai mango by 89.23, 75.38, 58.46 and 33.85 %, respectively as compare the control. Five isolate of antagonist including YFm1, YFm2, Y18, CLY35 and CLY23 could inhibited the growth of mycelia on PDA by 44.01-50.00 % were test the potential reduce anthracnose lesion development on detected Nam Dok Mai mango by application of antagonistic microorganism after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. It was found that this application could not inhibit anthracnose on fruit mango as compare to the control. YFm1 were test for the potential inhibition anthracnose disease under field condition. It was found that YFm1 could control of C. gloeosporioides within 7 and 14 day after spraying antagonistic suspension. The efficiency test of YFm1 for anthracnose controlling on mango was followed by export treatment Azoxystrobin, ET-fon and showed 55.55%, 77.77 % and 88.88 % anthracnose infection and/or spoilage respectively

424

DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA ESCAMA BLANCA DEL MANGO AULACASPIS TUBERCULARIS NEWSTEAD (HEMIPTERA: DIASPIDIDAE EN NAYARIT, MÉXICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El mango es el frutal más importante que se produce en Nayarit. Es atacado por la escama blanca Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (EBM, que puede producir pérdidas de hasta 50% de frutos cuando no se le controla. Debido a que se requiere un conocimiento de la presencia de la plaga para fines de manejo, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la distribución geográfica e intensidad de infestación de la escama en Nayarit, con relación a diferentes alturas sobre el nivel del mar, a las dos principales variedades de mango y a la edad de los huertos. Durante tres años (2007-2009 se realizaron muestreos en los municipios productores de mango de Nayarit, en los periodos de fructificación (Abril- Junio de cada año. Durante 2007 se realizaron muestreos en 217 huertos comerciales, situados en 38 poblaciones; en 2008 se muestrearon 220 huertos de 45 poblados y en 2009 se muestrearon 83 huertos de 23 poblados. Se determinó que los huertos de mango situados en el sur del estado presentaron en general las mayores densidades de escama en follaje y las más altas infestaciones de frutos. Los municipios de Compostela y Bahía de Banderas resultaron con las mayores infestaciones de la plaga; San Blas y Tepic con infestaciones moderadamente altas; y Santiago Ixcuintla y Tecuala con infestaciones bajas. No se detectó la escama en Acaponeta, Rosamorada y Ruiz. Las mayores infestaciones de la EBM ocurrieron en huertos situados en alturas de 0- 500 m, en huertos de mango ‘Ataulfo’ o en huertos menores de 10 años de edad.

Nadia Carolina GARC\\u00CDA-\\u00C1LVAREZ

2014-01-01

425

APLICACIÓN DE LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES EN LA FORTIFICACIÓN DE MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) CON CALCIO / APLICATION OF MATRIX ENGINEERING IN THE FORTIFICATION OF MANGO (VAR. TOMMY ATKINS) WITH CALCIUM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN: La presente investigación analiza la respuesta a la impregnación a vacío en la estructura del mango var. Tommy Atkin y cuantifica los niveles de Ca+2 alcanzados en el producto enriquecido. Se diseñó una disolución de impregnación a partir de Sacarosa y Ca+2 con las cantidades adecuadas de C [...] aCl2 que permitieran teóricamente incorporar un 20% de la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR)/200 g de mango fresco. Los parámetros de impregnación obtenidos estuvieron afectados por las interacciones del Ca+2 con el material péctico del mango, mientras que los niveles de Ca+2 en el producto impregnado fueron superiores (44 %IDR/200 g de mango fresco) al criterio de enriquecimiento teórico. Este fenómeno podría ser atribuido a que la valoración teórica del Ca+2 se realizó por diferencia de pesos antes y después del proceso de impregnación, además el vació aplicado al sistema contribuyó a la salida de líquido nativo del interior de la matriz de la fruta. Abstract in english The present investigation analyzes the vacuum impregnation response of mango (var. Tommy Atkins) structure, and shows the Ca+2 concentration reached at the enrichment product. In order to allow an adequate Ca+2 incorporation, according to the 20 % Daily Recommended Intake (IDR)/200 g of fresh mango, [...] an impregnation solution was designed with the appropriate amounts of sucrose and CaCl2. The impregnation parameters are affected by the interaction between Ca+2 and mango pectic material, whereas, Ca+2 levels are remarkable higher than the expected enrichment criterion (44% IDR /200 g fresh mango). This phenomenon could be due to Ca+2 theoretical quantification obtained after and before weights differences in vacuum impregnation process, furthermore the native liquid flows from the fruit structural matrix to the dissolution as a vacuum pulse effect.

MISAEL, CORTÉS RODRÍGUEZ; LUÍS FERNANDO, GUARDIOLA; ROGER, PACHECO.

2007-11-01

426

Study of Optimal Temperature, pH and Stability of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel for Use as Potential Natural Colorant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The peel of Hylocereus polyrhizus is often regarded as a waste hence this study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of using the peel as a natural colorant using simple water extraction method. Samples were subjected to a series of temperatures: Room temperature (RT, 50, 80 and 100°C; varied length of heating time from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10 min and a varied range of pH using 1 M of citric acid solution. The best condition to obtain highest betacyanin content was heating samples at 100°C for 5 min in a pH 5 citric acid solution. The next part of this study involved the stability test of the pigments obtained through the best method determined earlier. The pigments were dried and resuspended in distilled water. The samples were then exposed to light to monitor pigment changes. Initial resuspension of the dried pigments yielded a comparable high content of betacyanins to its juice counterpart. The results showed that resuspended pigments had high pigment retention and were stable up to 7 days. These initial findings must be further studied in more controlled conditions to understand the stability of betacyanin. Nevertheless, the results show that betacyanin obtained from the peel of dragon fruit has a high potential to be used as a natural dye.

K.V. Harivaindaran

2008-01-01

427

Measurement of Peeling Mode Edge Current Profile Dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling modes, an instability mechanism underlying deleterious edge localized mode (ELM) activity in fusion-grade plasmas, are observed at the edge of limited plasmas in a low aspect ratio tokamak under conditions of high edge current density (Jedge?0.1 MA/m2) and low magnetic field (B?0.1 T). They generate edge-localized, electromagnetic activity with low toroidal mode numbers n?3 and amplitudes that scale strongly with measured Jedge/B instability drive, consistent with theory. ELM-like field-aligned, current-carrying filaments form from an initial current-hole Jedge perturbation that detach and propagate outward.

428

Amelioration of diabetic nephropathy by orange peel extract in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of alcoholic orange peel extract (OPE) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, treatment with OPE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further given for 4 weeks. Treatment with OPE 200 improved renal functions and significantly prevented the increase in creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen levels. Histological analysis of the kidneys revealed that tubulointerstitial fibrosis index was significantly decreased in OPE 200-treated group. The results indicated the prevention of diabetic nephropathy in rats by OPE treatment and suggest OPE as a potential treatment option. PMID:25103218

Parkar, Nishad; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu

2014-01-01

429

Effect of gamma irradiation combined with hot water treatment on the texture, pulp color and sensory quality of ''Nahng Glahng Wahn'' mangoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) from Thailand of the 'Nahng Glahng Wahn' variety were irradiated with a 60 Co source at a dose of 0.63 kGy and a dose rate of 9.23 kGy/hr, with or without a hot water treatment prior to irradiation. The irradiation treatment had little effect on the texture and preserved the yellow color in the pulp. Test of sensory evaluation revealed that irradiated mango pulp was preferred for overall appearance, taste, texture and palatability. The appearance of whole irradiated mangoes was also preferred over that of the control mangoes. However, no significant differences were observed between irradiated and hot water dipped irradiated mangoes for all characteristics studied in mangoes pulp. The results showed that these treatments (hot water dip plus irradiation or irradiation alone) are useful and non-destructive methods to preserve consumer acceptability

430

PROCEDIMIENTO PARA EL ANÁLISIS DE EQUILIBRIO PARCIAL DE LAS EXPORTACIONES MEXICANAS DE MANGO (Mangifera indica A EE. UU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available EE. UU. es el principal importador de mango (Mangifera indica L. en el mundo, y México es su principal proveedor. La participación de México en las importaciones de mango en el mercado estadounidense ha disminuido, al tiempo que Perú, Brasil y Ecuador han aumentado su participación. Aquí se analiza el mercado internacional de mango entre EE. UU. y México con un modelo de ecuaciones simultáneas. Se simula un incremento de las exportaciones de mango de 20 %, suficiente para causar un decremento en el precio interno de EE. UU. Los resultados muestran que dicho descenso en precio puede ser acomodado por un incremento en ingreso; cuando se considera un incremento en costo por la mayor producción, la relación beneficio costo resulta mayor que la unidad.

Daniel Hern\\u00E1ndez Soto

2009-01-01

431

Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

Alikhani, Majid

2014-01-01

432

Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P?control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces. PMID:25892812

Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

2015-05-01

433

Enhancing safety and shelf life of fresh-cut mango by application of edible coatings and microencapsulation technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mango pulp is very perishable and so has a short shelf life, which both marketers and consumers would like to be longer. Manually sliced mango was treated by coating opuntia mucilage-rosemary oil (Mu + RO), 2 g rosemary oil microencapsul (ROM), and 2 g (ROM) plus (Mu + RO); the treated mango pieces were placed in plastic trays, and overwrapped with PVDC film and then stored at 6°C. Changes in the quality parameters and activity of peroxidase (POD) enzyme were evaluated for 9 days of storage period. These treatments retarded loss of ascorbic acid and the drop in sensory acceptability, fewer changes in color, decreasing activity POD enzyme. These also inhibited the decay incidence and slowed microbial growth. The (Mu + RO) treatment was more effective in controlling postharvest quality as compared to the (ROM) treatment, but the data reveal that applying the compound treatment effectively prolongs the quality attributes and extends the storage life of sliced mango fruit. PMID:24936290

Alikhani, Majid

2014-05-01

434

Recovery and removal of uranium by using plant wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium-adsorbing abilities of seven plant wastes were investigated. High abilities to adsorb uranium from non-saline water containing 10 mg dm-3 of uranium were observed with a number of plant wastes tested. However, with seawater supplemented with 10 mg dm -3 of uranium, similar results were found only with chestnut residues. When the plant wastes were immobilized with formaldehyde, their ability to adsorb uranium was increased. Uranium and copper ions were more readily adsorbed by all plant wastes tested than other metal ions from a solution containing a mixture of seven different heavy metals. The selective adsorption of heavy metal ions differs with different species of plant wastes. The immobilization of peanut inner skin, orange peel and grapefruit peel increased the selectivity for uranium. (author)

435

Behavioral Pattern of Physicochemical Constituents of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Storage Stimuli  

OpenAIRE

An investigation was carried at the laboratory of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh during the period from May, 2010 to September, 2011 to study the behavioral pattern of some physicochemical constituents of the mango pulp. The experiment was comprised of two popular mango cultivars in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and six storage stimuli, namely control, paraffin coating, perforated polyethylene cover, unperforated polye...

Md. Khairul Islam

2013-01-01

436

Effect of Time of Operation and Age of Rootstock on the Success of Inserted Contact Grafting in Mango  

OpenAIRE

An experiment on the inserted contact grafting in mango (Mangifera indica L.) was conducted to find out the best time and age of rootstock for grafting in best varieties of mango under Bangladesh condition. The experiment indicated that inserted contact grafting could be more successful in 16 May operations. The highest percentage of survived grafts (56.82%) was recorded in 16 May operation 120 days after the detachment of the grafts from the mother plant requiring less time (70.22 days...

Islam, M. N.; Rahim, M. A.; Naher, M. N. A.; Azad, M. I.; Shahjahan, M.

2004-01-01

437

AGE STRUCTURE AND SEX RATIO OF THRIPS Scirtothrips dorsalis HOOD (Thysanoptera : Thripidae) ASSOCIATE WITH MANGO AGROECOSYSTEM IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA  

OpenAIRE

A research aimed to investigate the age structure and sex ratio of S. dorsalis Hood in mango agroecosystem was conducted at PT. Trigatra Rajasa farm, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia. The research was started from April to May 2013. A Completely Randomized Design, Analysis of Variance and Least Significant Difference were used to design, knew the variance and significantly different among the treatment, respectively. Thirteen mango trees set in cross section were sampled and observed for...

Affandi; Celia dela Rosa Medina

2013-01-01

438

Effect of commercial (vimang) and hydroalcoholic extract of Mangifera indica (Mango) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Mangifera indica (Mango) is used in folk medicine for treatment of different types of diseases, and its anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities have been demonstrated. The present study evaluated the effects of commercial (vimang) and hydroalcoholic extract of Mango on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rat.Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were treated with vimang (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 18 days, or hydroalcoholic extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 18 days ...

Abolfazl Khajavi Rad; Leila Ghazi; Mohammad Taher Boroushaki; Alireza Khooei; Zakieh Keshavarzi; Sara Hosseinian; Somayeh Shafiee; Shahrzad Havakhah

2011-01-01

439

Inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Control of Postharvest Anthracnose Disease on Mango Fruit Using Propionic Acid Combined with Bee-Carnauba Wax Emulsion  

OpenAIRE

Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the most significant postharvest disease of mangos and negatively affect handling and marketing of mango fruits in Vietnam. A mixture of bee-carnauba wax and propionic acid has successfully inhibited linear growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides (in vitro) and prevented anthracnose diseases of mango fruits (in vivo). A complete reduction in mycelial growth and spore germination was observed when a mixture of 0.09% propionic a...