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1

Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

2

IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

2012-03-01

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NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stim [...] uli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P

Renê, Gerhard; Suely, Nonogaki; José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro, Fregnani; Fernando Augusto, Soares; Maria Aparecida, Nagai.

2010-06-01

4

Malignant neoplasms in organ transplant recipients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologic and clinicopathologic features were analyzed in 29 recipients with 31 malignant neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms included ten non-Hodgkin lymphomas, one case of Hodgkin disease, and 19 carcinomas of the skin, colon, head and neck, thyroid, lung, uterus, and vulva. Lymphoma had the most widespread organ involvement, with spread to lymph nodes, central nervous system, liver, spleen, muscle, and native and transplanted kidney. Comparison of cyclosporine-treated and -untreated recipients indicated that the latter had a shorter interval from transplantation to tumor diagnosis (4 vs 54 months) and demonstrated more extensive tumor spread

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Ultrasonography a useful adjunctive in management of thyroid neoplasms  

OpenAIRE

Fine needle aspiration cytology has been the gold standard of diagnosis in case of thyroid neoplasm. However ultrasonography of thyroid neoplasm is a useful guide for an operating thyroid surgeon. We in our study evaluated patients of thyroid neoplasm with USG thyroid & studied its role in the therapeutic management of neoplasm. In our study of 10 patients of thyroid neoplasm we found USG of the thyroid neoplasm as a valuable guide in management.

Latoo, Manzoor; Lateef, Mohammed; Kirmani, Omar

2007-01-01

6

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

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Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

?aparevi? Zorica

2002-01-01

7

Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.)

8

Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood  

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Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs.

Chung, C.J.; Fordham, L.A. [Department of Radiology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bui, V. [School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hill, J. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Bulas, D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

1998-05-01

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Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references recommended.30 references

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Thymoma and Multiple Malignancies: A Case of Five Synchronous Neoplasms and Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

The presence of five discrete synchronous or metachronous primary neoplasms in a single patient is an extremely rare event. This is a report of a patient with a malignant (invasive) thymoma and four other independent primary neoplasms including: gliosarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer, meningioma and metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon, found synchronously at autopsy. Thymoma patients appear to have an inherent predisposition towards developing additional neoplasms. Other than the thymoma, t...

Welsh, James S.; Thurman, Sarah A.; Howard, Steven P.

2003-01-01

11

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

12

Chemoradiation therapy for malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience of chemoradiation therapy of malignant tumors is reviewed. Methods and results of treating tumors of lungs, stomach, throat and urine bladder are presented in detail. The necessity of mutual investigations in the field of chemoradiation therapy of oncological patients according to a unified system is underlined

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Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Carcinoma Metastasizing to Thyroid Neoplasms.  

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Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is extremely rare in the thyroid glands, and only seven cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid tumors have been reported in the literature. We report another two cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid neoplasms and review of the literature. The first case was a 64-year-old man presenting with neck mass, hoarseness, and easy choking for 2 months. Image studies showed several nodular lesions within bilateral thyroid glands. A histological examination after radical thyroidectomy revealed lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to a thyroid follicular adenoma. The second case was a 71-year-old woman with a history of lung adenosquamous carcinoma. The PET/CT scan showed left lower lung cancer and a hypermetabolic area in the right thyroid lobe, highly suspicious for malignancy. Radical thyroidectomy and left lung lobectomy were performed, and the thyroid gland revealed lung adenosquamous carcinoma metastasizing to a papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25685581

Wey, Shiuan-Li; Chang, Kuo-Ming

2015-01-01

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Tumors Metastatic to Thyroid Neoplasms: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

OpenAIRE

Metastasis into a thyroid neoplasm—tumor-to-tumor metastasis—is exceedingly rare. We describe the 28th documented case of a tumor metastatic to a thyroid neoplasm and review the literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis involving a thyroid neoplasm as recipient. All cases showed a recipient thyroid neoplasm with an abrupt transition to a morphologically distinct neoplasm. Metastasis into primary thyroid neoplasm was synchronous in 33% of cases and metachronous in 67%. Follicular adenoma was...

Stevens, Todd M.; Richards, Alan T.; Chhanda Bewtra; Poonam Sharma,

2011-01-01

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Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature  

OpenAIRE

The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated ...

Agarwal Dwarka; Soni Tej; Sharma Om; Sharma Shantanu

2007-01-01

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Superficial malignant neoplasms in southwestern Ethiopia: a cytopathological approach.  

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The aim of this study was to describe the distributions of superficial malignant neoplasms diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted within the Jimma Teaching Hospital, Pathology Department, Jimma University during the years between September 1998 and August 2002. Cases fulfilling cytopathological evidences of superficial malignancies were included whereas deep-seated malignancies were excluded from the study. An air-dried smear stained with the Wright staining procedure was utilized for the FNAC diagnostic technique. A total of 3,200 cases were investigated during the study period where 267 (8.3%) cases were of primary superficial malignant neoplasms, with 98 cases in the peak age group of 40-59 yr (36.7%) and a median age of 38.0 yr (range, 0.2-88 yr). The most frequent superficial cytodiagnosis was breast carcinoma, 79 (29.6%) cases; followed by non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 37 (13.9%) cases; and soft tissue sarcomas, 26 (9.7%) cases. The overall male-to-female ratio showed preponderance to female patients (1:1.3). Carcinomas were identified more frequently in those >40 yr of age whereas sarcomas were identified in those 0.05). The most common malignant neoplasm in women was breast carcinomas found in 74 (27.7%) cases, whereas in men non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were found in 29 (10.9%) cases. Large proportions of carcinomas (88 cases, 33.0%), lymphomas (33 cases, 12.4%), and sarcomas (20 cases, 7.5%) were detected on the trunk, head, and neck, as well as on the lower limb regions, respectively. This study uncovered different types of superficial malignant neoplasms that are prevalent in the southwestern part of Ethiopia. The most common types of cytodiagnoses such as breast carcinomas, etc. may suggest that attention be given to future high-caliber prospective studies in trying to identify some of the associated strong risk factors for the disease under study. This study may be helpful to local health planners in prioritizing some of the commonest malignancies. Some of the diagnostic challenges of lymphomas and thyroid follicular lesions were shown also. This investigation is the first in Ethiopia and therefore may act as baseline data for similar studies in the future. PMID:15468117

Bezabih, Mesele

2004-11-01

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Patterns of second malignant neoplasms in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A search of the records of 10 pediatric oncology centers revealed 102 children with more than one malignant neoplasm. In this group of 102 patients, all pediatric cancers were seen as initial lesions, but Wilms' tumor and retinoblastoma were over-represented and leukemia and brain tumors underrepresented. Survival variation as well as tumor susceptibility may be responsible for this disproportion. Osteosarcomas and chondrosarcomas were the most frequent second malignant neoplasms (SMN). Embryonal tumors were rare as SMN and adult-type tumors (carcinomas) appeared at earlier than expected ages, whether arising after irradiation or not related to that form of therapy. Radiation was associated with 69 SMN, genetic disease accounted for 27 SMN and both conditions were noted in 15 SMN. In the group of 21 patients for whom neither radiation nor a known genetic disorder could be implicated, there were three with colon carcinoma and glioma and five with leukemia or lymphoma and glioma. These combinations may reflect new tissue-specific hereditary cancer syndromes

18

Primary malignant neoplasm of the female urethra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a retrospective review of 11 cases of primary malignant neoplasm of the female urethra seen at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport from 1951 to 1984. The disease was relatively more frequent in the 60- to 79-year age-group. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common among the different observed histopathology. A modified clinical staging system is introduced. At diagnosis, eight of 11 subjects (73%) had locally extensive disease. The majority of the patients were treated with radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery. The overall severe complication rate was low. The poor results (20% local control and survival) obtained in this small experience suggest that perhaps a study using promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agents is warranted. A literature review summary of reported radiotherapy results is included

19

Role of pro-angiogenic marker galectin-3 in follicular neoplasms of thyroid.  

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The role of pro-angiogenic marker galectin-3 (GAL-3) was examined in differential diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of thyroid into histological subsets of follicular adenoma (FA), follicular carcinoma (FC) and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). The study included 22 cases from January 2006 to June 2011 comprising of FA (n = 12), FC (n = 3) and FVPTC (n = 7). Immunohistochemical evaluation of GAL-3 was performed on representative histologic sections from the resected thyroid specimens. The proportion of stained cells and intensity of staining in tumor blood vessels were evaluated. GAL-3 expression showed that angiogenesis was prominent in malignancy (FC and FVPTC) and negative in non-neoplastic thyroid parenchyma and benign condition (FA). GAL-3 expression was found to differentiate benign from malignant follicular neoplasms. Focal and diffuse positivity for GAL-3 was found to be associated with FC and FVPTC respectively, thus GAL-3 can be used as a immunohistochemical marker in the differential diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of thyroid based on the type of expression. Limitation of this study was relatively less number of cases studied; however, this data need to be corroborated in larger cohort. PMID:23259327

Manivannan, Prabhu; Siddaraju, Neelaiah; Jatiya, Lakshmi; Verma, Surendra Kumar

2012-10-01

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Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours is usually secondary to surgical treatment. Operation should be as radical as possible but also be connected with as little risk as possible and take account of the possibility of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy here means radioiodine therapy as well as external radiotherapy. Radioiodine therapy is employed for local treatment of the thyroid with the objective of radical tumour destruction, either to destroy tumour foci or residues in apparently normal thyroid tissue or for complete elimination of the thyroid as metastases can be detected and treated reliably only after elimination of the thyroid. Radioiodine therapy is also used for the treatment of accumulating metastases; especially in small-focus lung metastases, it has a remittent or even a curative effect. Practical aspects of 131I-therapy are discussed, including radiation protection regulations and side-effects. Generally, external megavolt therapy with an intended curative effect on the primary tumour and the regional excretory ways is used in all types of tumour with the exception of differential thyreocyte carcinomas of stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 or in case of metastases distant from the primary tumour (M1). Palliative radiotherapy should be applied as early as possible in order to prevent pathological fractures, to give relief of pain, and to reduce local symptoms. Aspects of information and guidance of the patits of information and guidance of the patient and after-care are discussed. Results of the treatment and the prognosis of the patient are determined by the following factors: Histology, tumour stage, sex, age. The best prognosis is given for women under 40 with differentiated carcinoma and stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 (five-years survival rate 80%). Early detection, advances in surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy, and adherence to the above guidelines have improved the prognosis significantly. (orig./MG)

21

The cost of home care for patients with malignant neoplasms.  

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A microeconomic study evaluated the health sector cost of home care in Greece for patients with malignant neoplasms. A cost-identification analysis was performed from the home care service's perspective. According to the results of the study, the cost varies among the main categories of malignant neoplasms because of a fluctuation in the cost of drugs, whereas the main cost-driver factor is the cost of laboratory tests. In comparison with the corresponding cost of in-hospital care, the cost of home care for patients with malignant neoplasms is significantly lower, which also is confirmed by the results of other international studies. PMID:19001914

Kouli, Eugenia; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, Athena; Siskou, Olga

2008-01-01

22

Molecular Markers in Differential Diagnostics of Follicular Neoplasms of the Thyroid  

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Full Text Available Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a basic method of morphological diagnostics at the preoperative examination, although it has some limitations. In 10-30 % of the cases, cytological examination results defined as indefinite or suspicious to malignant nodules, including follicular neoplasm, as according to the results of a cytological examination it does not appear to be possible to make the difference between follicular attendance the molecular markers adenomas and follicular cancer. Molecular medicine progress let us put an additional examination in a cytological, or surgical aspirates with the molecular markers. The most effective molecular markers in the clinical practice are thyroid peroxidases (TPO, telomerase and galectin-3. The application FNAB with the following immunocytochemistry examination in the thyroid tissue let us improve a differential diagnostics between benign and malignant nodules of the thyroid.

E Troshina

2006-06-01

23

Aftercare of malignant thyroid growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'standard programme of aftercare for patients with malignant thyroid growths' practised in our department comprises the following measures: - Searching for residual tissues and recurrences in the neck/throat region and for metastases by means of physical examination, scintigraphy, x-ray diagnosis and laboratory tests (including determination of tumour markers); - monitoring and treatment of side effects by thyroidectomy (recurrent paresis, parathyroprival tetany); - prevention, detection and treatment of side effects of high-dosed radio-iodine therapy (on salivary glands and bone marrow) or those of cytostatic treatment (on heart muscle and bone marrow); - monitoring substitutive and suppressive treatment with thyroxines; - psychological guidance and genetic counselling. Corresponding to therapeutic approach, the overall aftercare programme is aimed primarily at papillary and follicular carcinoma and C-cell carcinoma. However, aftercare is hardly effective with anaplastic carcinoma owing to its persistently bad prognosis and its 50% survival time of some three months. (orig./MG)

24

Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

25

Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer [to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer], medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas mis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references

26

Relation between selected environmental parameters and mortality of malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relation between the ambient photon dose equivalent levels measured at the stationary sites of the Slovak national territorial monitoring network in 2002 to 2009 and mortality from malignant neoplasms in 96 municipalities near the monitoring site was examined. Additional 33 ground water parameters and 34 soil parameters were taken into account as additional impact factors ('environmental factors').The effect of those 68 factors on relative mortality (number of deaths per 100.000 inhabitants) from malignant neoplasms was calculated by neural network. Malignant proliferation was found to be associated with 16 factors, including irradiation. Out of those, the effect of 10 parameters was adverse and the effects of 6 parameters were favourable (mortality decreased with increasing factor level). The ambient dose equivalent of photon radiation was among the favourable factors. The average difference between value provided by the neural network model and the observed relative mortality from malignant neoplasms was -1.7%. The computing model predicted an average mortality which was 1.7% lower than the observed value. The preliminary conclusion is that the ambient dose equivalent of photon radiation did not affect the formation of malignant neoplasms while other factors, largely of environmental nature, contributed more. (orig.)

27

Malignant pulmonary neoplasms causing airspace consolidation : CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the CT findings of consolidative malignant neoplasms of the lung. Seventeen patients in whom pulmonary consolidation was seen on chest radiography were involved in this study. In all cases malignancy was subsequently proven;the neoplasms involved were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (n=9), malignant lymphoma (n=4), mucoepidermoid tumor (n=1), metastasis from colon cancer (n=2), and metastasis from pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (n=1). CT images were retrospectively analyzed in terms of enhancement pattern of the consolidation, morphologic appearance of an air-bronchogram, CT angiogram sign, pseudocavitation, and lymphadenopathy. Visually assessed enhancement pattern of the consolidation showed lower attenuation than adjacent muscles in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (8/9) and metastasis (1/3);isoattenuation in malignant lymphoma (3/4), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1/1), and metastasis (1/3); and higher attenuation in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (1/9), malignant lymphoma (1/4), and metastasis (1/3). Among the 15 of 17 patients for whom an airbronchogram was available, a stretching and squeezing pattern was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). CT angiogram sign was identified in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (5/9), malignant lymphoma (2/4), and metastasis (3/3). Pseudocavitation was observed in two patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, while lymphadenopathy was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/s seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). Conglomerate and extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are commonly associated with malignant lymphoma. Malignant neoplasms which apper as consolidative lung lesions appear not only as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, which is well known, but also in other forms. Although these lesions cannot be differentiated on the basis of air-bronchography and CT angiography, poor enhancement of consolidative lesion and pseudocavitation are characteristic findings of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and conglomerate or extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are also characteristic of malignant lymphoma

28

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin  

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Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

Dimitrios Hadjidakis

2012-01-01

29

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara  

OpenAIRE

Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas ...

Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

2013-01-01

30

Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-08-21

31

Second Malignant Neoplasms and Cardiovascular Disease Following Radiotherapy  

OpenAIRE

Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are among the most serious and life-threatening late adverse effects experienced by the growing number of cancer survivors worldwide and are due in part to radiotherapy. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) convened an expert scientific committee to critically and comprehensively review associations between radiotherapy and SMNs and CVD, taking into account radiobiology; genomics; treatment (ie,...

Travis, Lois B.; Ng, Andrea K.; Allan, James M.; Pui, Ching-hon; Kennedy, Ann R.; Xu, X. George; Purdy, James A.; Applegate, Kimberly; Yahalom, Joachim; Constine, Louis S.; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Boice, John D.

2012-01-01

32

Second primitive malignant neoplasm after radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the prolongation of survival for patients treated by radiotherapy second primary cancers are not rare. Cumulative incidence of second primary malignancy after radiotherapy (SPMAR) 40 years after treatment can reach 20 % when patients were 40 years old at treatment time. Among SPMAR some of them can be promoted by irradiation. Relative risk (RR) analysis is the most common method used to estimate the proportion of such second cancers. Most of studies reported a RR around 1.1 in adult patients. In young patients RR is about 6, meaning that SPMAR attributable to irradiation is more elevated in this subgroup. Quantification of these events, bio-molecular mechanisms, risk factors are complex and not yet fully understood. Information given to patients must be adapted and the cost/benefit ratio has to be justified regarding SPMAR risk. Irradiation technique optimisation is an important point especially in young patient and adults, in order to reduce at maximum the volume of organ at risk exposed while not compromising optimal dose given to the tumour volume, although no standard rules of irradiation are definitively established at the present time. (authors)

33

Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas  

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Full Text Available Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries. Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers. There is no clear etiology for the development of secondary malignancies in patients with IPMN. Although population-based studies have shown different results from single institution studies regarding the exact incidence of additional primary cancers in IPMN patients, both have reached the same conclusion: there is a higher incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies in patients with IPMNs than in the general population. This finding has significant clinical implications for both the initial evaluation and the subsequent long-term follow-up of patients with IPMNs. If a patient has not had recent colonoscopy, this should be performed during the evaluation of a newly diagnosed IPMN. Upper endoscopy should be performed in patients from Asian countries or for those who present with symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal disease. Routine screening studies (breast and prostate should be carried out as currently recommended for patient’s age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

Jaime Benarroch-Gampel

2010-10-01

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Four primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60-year-old Caucasian male, with a previous history of a 10-year occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and a long history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, developed synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Four years later, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were diagnosed. In this case report, we suggest that increased exposure to multiple carcinogenic factors may result in an increased incidence of both synchronous and metachronous primary malignant neoplasms

35

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

36

Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie  

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Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

2008-09-15

37

Differential expression of Galectin-3 in papillary projections of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic thyroid lesions  

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Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a a beta-galactoside binding protein recently proposed to be a promising presurgical molecular marker for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. We analyzed galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically in papillary areas of hyperplastic lesions of benign thyroid tissue in comparison with malignant papillary projections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. A monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and ABC immunohistochemical technique were used to evaluate galectin-3 expression in 26 cases of benign papillary hyperplasia (8 cases of hyperplastic adenoma, 8 cases of hyperplastic colloid goiter, 10 cases of Graves disease in comparison with 25 cases of PTC. Immunohistochemical results showed no reactivity for galectin-3 in papillary areas of benign hyperplastic lesions. Strong cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunoreactivity was found in all 25 cases of PTC. These results show that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant papillary projections but not of benign papillary hyperplasia. Thus, the immunohistochemical evaluation of galectin-3 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions with papillary projections.

Havelka Marija J.

2003-01-01

38

Galectin-3: A promising marker of thyroid malignancy  

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Full Text Available Background: Galectin-3 is an endogenous beta-galactoside binding lectin implicated in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. High levels of this lectin have recently been found in malignant thyroid tumors, but not in normal or benign thyroid tissue, suggesting galectin-3 as a promising presurgical marker of thyroid malignancy. Methods: We analyzed immunohistochemically galectin-3 expression in thyroid tissue using a monoclonal antibody. The total of 108 tissue specimens included 55 cases of thyroid carcinoma (30 papillary, 15 follicular, and 10 anaplastic type, 15 samples of follicular adenoma, 15 samples of normal thyroid tissue, and 23 thyroid tissue specimens from human fetuses (16 to 37 weeks of intrauterine life. Results: The results showed galectin-3 expression in 20/30 papillary carcinomas, 11/15 follicular carcinomas, 10/10 anaplastic carcinomas, and 4/15 follicular adenomas. Thyroid follicular cells in normal adult and fetal tissue were negative. Conclusions: These results further confirm that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant thyroid cells, and that immunohistochemical detection of galectin-3 could be useful in thyroid carcinoma diagnostics. The absence of galectin-3 in thyroid cells during fetal development suggests that galectin-3 is expressed de novo during malignant transformation of thyroid epithelium, thus it should not be considered an oncofetal antigen.

Cveji? Dubravka S.

2003-01-01

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Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.  

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Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors are subject to considerable controversies. This group includes encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) and encapsulated (so-called minimally invasive) follicular carcinoma (EFC). FVPTC usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/nonencapsulated infiltrative neoplasm. The encapsulated form rarely metastasizes to lymph node, whereas infiltrative tumors often harbor nodal metastases. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations). Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF?>?RAS mutations). Noninvasive encapsulated FVPTC are extremely indolent even if treated with lobectomy without radioactive iodine therapy. Although most EFC are thought to have an excellent outcome, there are cases of EFC that recur and metastasize. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, have a significant rate of distant recurrence. Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile and a clinical behavior very similar to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma class of tumor. If noninvasive, encapsulated FVPTC should be treated in a very conservative fashion. EFC with angioinvasion, especially if extensive, should not be termed minimally invasive in order to prevent undertreatment of the patient. PMID:21088998

Ghossein, Ronald

2010-12-01

40

Original paper
Thyroid neoplasms – errors of the cytological diagnosis
 

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Objectives: the evaluation of the diagnostic value of a cytological examination and its limitations for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.Material and methods: From 1995 to 2004 nine hundred ninety eight patients were operated on for nodular lesions of the thyroid gland in our department. Cytological and histopathologic diagnoses were compared retrospectively in all cases where a neoplasm was suspected (true positive, false negative and false positive diagnoses). The verification was carried...

S?awomir Jab?o?ski; Jacek Kordiak; Mariusz Bella; Krzysztof W?odzimierz Zieli?ski; Zbigniew Jab?onowski; Edyta Santorek; Jacek Rysz

2005-01-01

41

Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood  

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A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

2012-05-15

42

Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

43

Diagnostic utility of PETCT in thyroid malignancies: an update.  

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The primary clinical application of (18)F FDG PET/CT ((18)Fluorine labeled flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma is in the identification of active disease in thyroglobulin (Tg) positive (>10 ng/ml), whole body iodine scan negative patients. The impact of FDG PET/CT in diagnosis, surveillance, cure, and progression-free survival of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients remains to be seen. Five main indications of FDG PET/CT in thyroid cancer have been recommended by revised American thyroid association guidelines 2009. This review aims to provide a complete picture of PET imaging in thyroid malignancies and enumerates each indication with literature review. This review also highlights recent advances in targeted molecular imaging. Currently differentiated thyroid cancer is best imaged using conventional single photon emission computed tomography-based radioiodine tracers ((123)I/(131)I). Although the utility of FDG PET in well differentiated thyroid cancer patients who are iodine negative but with raised Tg is well established, evidence is emerging on the advantages of FDG PET/CT in other histological types of thyroid malignancy, such as Hurthle cell, medullary, and the anaplastic malignancies. Novel PET radiotracers, such as (124)Iodine ((124)I), (18)F-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine), and (68)Ga-DOTA peptides are revolutionizing the way thyroid malignancies are imaged. Newer concepts on targeted molecular imaging and theranostics are ushering in new possibilities for imaging and treating thyroid cancer. PMID:23801405

Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram; Subramanyam, Padma

2013-10-01

44

Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues  

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The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

2012-12-01

45

Isolated Thyroid Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma with Unknown Primary Origin  

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Full Text Available Clinically significant metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare; however, they can present as the initial malignancy. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman referred to our Endocrinology outpatient clinic for a thyroid nodule, which was in fact metastasis of malignant melanoma. Because fine-needle aspiration biopsy was not diagnostic and the nodule was considered malignant nodule according to the ultrasonographic examination, bilateral total thyroidectomy and modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathologic examination of the nodule was consistent with malignant melanoma. The message from this unusual case is that all thyroid nodules need to be taken seriously and a thyroid lesion may be the sentinel event in a patient with a malignant melanoma.

Feridun Karakurt

2008-12-01

46

Corticosteroid correction of leukopenia in radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In radiation therapy, depression of hematopoiesis, particularly leukopoiesis, is a common attendant phenomenon presenting a complex therapeutic problem that is not readily solved. On account of this and in connection with some reports in te literature, the Roentgenology and Radiology Chair at the Sofia Medical Faculty has undertaken a study of corticosteroid leukostimulating effects in 25 female patients with extinct ovarian function. These patients with carcinomas were distributed as follows. By site of carcinoma: 11, uterus; 8, breast; 5, ovarium; 1, larynx. By clinical stage: 3, first stage; 13, second stage; 8, third stage; 1, forth stage. By degree of leukopenia: 4, light (3000-4000); 20, intermediate (2000-3000); 1, severe (1000-2000). Five of the patients were given corticosteroids alone; the remaining 20, corticosteroids plus conventional leukostimulators (leukogen, leuko-4, folic acid, vitamin B6). The following results were obtained: averaged over the group, leukopenia correction time was of 5.96 days per patient; rise in leukocyte counts relative to initial levels, by 79%. For comparison, observations were made on a control group of 25 patients with the same pathologic entities, who were given no corticosteroids but only the above mentioned conventional leukostimulators. Findings in this group were as follows: average correction time, 9.16 days; rise in leukocyte counts, by 22%. These results give us reason to assume that corticosteroids may be aon to assume that corticosteroids may be a good means for obtaining a more rapid and effective correction of leukopenias in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. (author)

47

Solid state lasers for photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasm  

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This work demonstrates the possibility of treating animals with malignant neoplasms using 608 nm of laser radiation by means of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The intracavity transformation of the Nd:YAP main radiation 1079 nm was Raman converted in barium nitrate crystal, and the Stokes frequency (1216 nm) was doubled using KTP or RTA crystals. The LiF or Cr:YAG crystals are used for the Q-switch. The radiation parameters were obtained at 100 Hz pump repetition frequency. The average power at 608-nm radiation with LiF and KTP was 700 mW at multimode generation. The 3-6 single 10-15 ns pulses were generated during one cycle of pumping. The doubling efficiency with RTA was two times more than with KTP. The cells of Ehrlich adenocarcinoma (0.1 ml) were implanted in hind thighs of ICR white non-imbred mice. Photosensitizer HpD was i.v. administered in a dose of 10 mg/kg. Ten animals were treated (2 as a control). There was a 9-30% decrease in the tumor growth depending on the irradiation dose. The better result (30%) was for the 200 J/cm2 dose radiation. These results show the possibility of using all solid state lasers with wavelength of 608 nm for PDT.

Khulugurov, Vitaliy M.; Ivanov, Nikolai; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Mayorov, Alexander; Bordzilovsky, Dnitri; Masycheva, Valentina; Danilenko, Elena; Chung, Moon-Kwan

2002-05-01

48

[The operational characteristics of modes of differential diagnostic of benign and malignant neoplasms of skeletal system].  

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The article presents the operational characteristics of serological methods (neopterin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, molecules of adhesion of vascular endothelium, molecules of inter-cellular molecules of adhesion) of differential diagnostic of benign and malignant neoplasms of skeletal system. The differentiation of neoplasms occurs in a most successful way under analysis of complex of serological indicators. PMID:25335393

Korshunov, G V; Pavlenko, N N; Putchiniyan, D M; Gladkova, E V; Shakhmatova, S G; Markov, D A

2014-06-01

49

Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

50

Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland  

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Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

1996-01-01

51

Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.  

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To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA. Confirmatory studies included direct sequencing, analysis of viral gene expression, and activation of viral-inducible signalling pathways. Expression of viral entry receptor nectin-1 was examined in human samples and in cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. HSV DNA was detected in 43/109 (39.4%) examined samples. HSV capsid protein expression correlated with HSV DNA status. HSV-positive tumours were characterized by activation of virus-inducible signalling such as interferon-beta expression and nuclear NFkappaB expression. Lymphocyte infiltration and oncocytic cellular features were common in HSV-positive tumours. HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer. Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines. Nectin-1 expression in cancer cells correlated with their susceptibility to HSV. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer. During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells. PMID:20455254

Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Larin, Alexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Saji, Motoyasu; Bauer, Andrew; Yim, Kevin; Hemming, Val; Vasko, Vasyl

2010-06-01

52

Histologically benign but clinically malignant neoplasms in the thorax: CT–pathological overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this article is to review the computed tomography (CT) and histopathological features of uncommon primary neoplasms of the thorax that can manifest clinically malignant features (multiplicity of pulmonary nodules, an invasive nature, and metastases or recurrence after surgery) with little evidence of histological malignancy.

53

Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease  

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Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

2006-12-15

54

Clinical factors predictive of malignant and premalignant cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: a single institution experience  

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Background: As cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are discovered with advanced imaging techniques, pancreatic surgeons often struggle with identifying who is at risk of having or developing pancreatic cancer. We sought to review our experience with the surgical management of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas to determine pre-operative clinical indicators of malignancy or premalignant (i.e. mucinous) lesions. Methods: Between 1996 and 2007, 114 consecutive patients with cystic neoplasms of the pancreas underwent a pancreatectomy. Invasive adenocarcinoma was identified in 35 whereas 79 had benign lesions. Mucinous lesions were considered premalignant and consisted of 29 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and 17 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN). The remaining 33 benign lesions were serous microcystic adenomas. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was performed. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for continuous variables and the area under the curves compared. Likelihood ratios were calculated from the combinations of predictors. Results: Patients with pancreatic cancer arising from a cystic neoplasm were older than those with benign cysts. Mucinous lesions with or without associated cancer were more likely to be symptomatic and present with elevated serum carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 levels. Cancers more commonly presented in the head of the pancreas and were associated with longer hospitalizations after resection. Using multivariate logistic regression, size and elevated CA19-9 were predictors of malignancy whereas male gender and size were predictors of mucinous lesions with or without malignancy. Size, however, was not an accurate test to determine premalignant or malignant lesions using area under the ROC curve analysis whereas CA19-9 performed the best regardless of gender or lesion location. Conclusions: Based upon our single institution experience with resection of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, we advocate an aggressive surgical approach to any patient with a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas and associated elevated CA19-9. PMID:20495634

Jones, Natalie B; Hatzaras, Ioannis; George, Nathaniel; Muscarella, Peter; Ellison, E Christopher; Melvin, W Scott; Bloomston, Mark

2009-01-01

55

Lifestyle Behaviors as Predictors of Malignant Neoplasm Development.  

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The relationship between lifestyle behaviors and the onset of neoplasm development has been researched extensively. This study took a multivariate approach in attempting to identify lifestyle variables which could predict group membership among subjects diagnosed as having cancer and those subjects who have not been diagnosed as having cancer.…

Baum, L. S.; And Others

56

Manifestation of hepatic malignant neoplasm on static Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the manifestation of hepatic malignant neoplasm on static Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging, which supports the diagnosis of hepatic malignant neoplasm using Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. Methods: In total 29 lesions of hepatic malignant neoplasm underwent both non-enhanced MR imaging and Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. The images were divided into non-enhanced and static groups. The number, margin, signal intensity of lesions and bile duct system manifestations obtained in the delayed enhanced scan were analyzed respectively. Results: All the marginal area of lesions was clear and sharp. The lesions were enhanced while their signal intensity were lower than that of adjacent liver. On static phase all the extra-hepatic bile passages and the first class branches of intratiepatic bile ducts were well enhanced. Conclusion: In static Gd-BOPTA enhancd MR imaging boundaries of neoplasm lesions were clear and sharp, with a lower signal intensity than liver. This feature may support the diagnosis of hepatic malignant neoplasm using Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. (authors)

57

Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris. [X radiation  

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There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls.

Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

1978-01-01

58

Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid with predominant follicular pattern mimicking follicular neoplasm of thyroid  

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Full Text Available Acinic Cell Carcinoma (ACC was previously called acinic cell tumor and it is a neoplasm demonstrating cytological differentiation towards serous acinar cells. The histological architecture of ACC is diverse and classification consists of various histological subtypes. This is a case of acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland in a 45 years female patient which showed predominant follicular variant of ACC. It is a least frequent variant of ACC occurring in only 5% and it mimics follicular neoplasm of thyroid. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1217-1219

A. Bhagya Lakshmi

2014-06-01

59

The thyroid malignancies at the Esslingen Radiation Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work concerns itself with the results of the therapy of thyroid malignancies in the years 1968-1979. The frequency of differentiated/undifferentiated tumors was 90.9/9.1%, follicular/papillary carcinomas 71.4/19.5%. Three times as many women suffer from thyroid cancer as men. Differentiated carcinomas appear preferably in middle age (50 a), undifferentiated around 60 to 70 years. Papillary carcinomas metastasise in 26.7% of the cases in the neck region and 6.7% in the lungs, follicular in 34.5%, the most frequent, in the lungs. The therapy method used was I 131 and/or telecobalt. The 3-year survival rate with undifferentiated tumors was 27%, the 5-year survival rate of papillary carcinoma was 40%, of follicular carcinoma 33%. Clearly papillary carcinomas have the best prognosis of all thyroid malignancies, especially when they appear in younger patients. (orig./TRV)

60

Serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in thyroid tissue in female patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms.  

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Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thyroid cancer; however, little is known regarding the levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum and the expression of ER, PR, FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHR) in thyroid tissues of patients with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescence, and expression of ER, PR, FSHR, and LHR in thyroid tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry in female patients with thyroid adenoma (n = 70), nodular goiter (n = 73), thyroid papillary cancer (n = 149), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 8) and in normal controls (n = 60). The positive rates of serum estrogen level and ER? expression were significantly greater in patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal controls. The positive rates of ER? expression were significantly less in various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal thyroid tissues, especially in poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. The negative rates of serum progesterone level and positive rates of PR expression in thyroid tissue were significantly greater in patients with thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, or thyroid papillary cancer than in normal controls. The positive rates of serum FSH and LH levels and FSHR and LHR expression were significantly greater in the thyroid adenoma group than in other groups. Our findings suggest that thyroid neoplasms might be sex hormone-dependent. The positive expression of ER? and PR often indicates thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the ER? expression status is important for the diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. In addition, thyroid adenoma is often accompanied by an increase in serum FSH and LH levels, as well as FSHR and LHR expression. Thus, the combined detection of serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors allows for a differential diagnosis and evaluation of the degree of differentiation among various types of thyroid neoplasms. PMID:25305147

Liu, Jia; Chen, Guang; Meng, Xian-Ying; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Dong, Su

2014-12-01

61

Risk of malignant neoplasms in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: For over 20 years the association between sarcoidosis and malignancy, particularly lymphoma and lung cancer, has been disputed with misclassification being the major concern. The aim of the present study was to analyse the incidence of malignancies in a cohort of patients with sarcoidosis by linkage to a nationwide population based cancer register. METHODS: The cohort comprised 254 patients followed for a median of 25 years until death, emigration, or 31 December 1992, which...

Seersholm, N.; Vestbo, J.; Viskum, K.

1997-01-01

62

Expression of cdc25A and cdc25B proteins in thyroid neoplasms  

OpenAIRE

Cdc25B and cdc25A phosphates are prominent stimulators of cell cycle progression and recent studies have also suggested their oncogenic roles. To elucidate the role of these proteins in thyroid neoplasms, we immunohistochemically investigated their expression, and neither protein was expressed in normal follicular cells. Cdc25B was frequently overexpressed in follicular adenoma and minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, but the incidence was significantly lower in widely invasive follicular...

Ito, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Nakano, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Hirai, K.; Matsuzuka, F.; Matsuura, N.; Kakudo, K.; Kuma, K.; Miyauchi, A.

2002-01-01

63

The radiographic diagnostic value of low intensity reduction of the lung compliance in malignant neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evaluation of low-intensity reduction in the compliance of the lung parenchyma (LIRCLP) can, we believe, give early diagnostic signs from a few months to two or more years before the time at which diagnosis can be made today from chest radiograms or CT scan of the chest in a significant number of cases of secondary lung neoplasm. Moreover, it can provide valuable information on small improvements or deteriorations in the great majority of patients with malignant neoplasms of the lung during the course of the illness. In general, the evaluation of LIRCLP improves the diagnostic capabilities not only of chest radiograms but also to some degree of CT scans of the chest. We consider that, apart from malignant neoplasms of the lung, it may also be of use in a large number of pathological conditions of the lung. We propose that the term hypoatelectasis be used for LIRCLP. PMID:12615523

Felekis, Vasilios A

2003-04-01

64

CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation for the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation in treating malignant adrenal neoplasms. Methods: CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation was performed in 9 cases of malignant adrenal neoplasms with a total of 9 lesions. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plan system was used to design the distribution of 125I seeds for treatment. Under CT guidance, the 125I seeds of 29.6 MBq were implanted into the malignant adrenal neoplasms with an interval distance of 1.0-1.5 cm. A follow-up of 1-15 months was conducted. The postoperative efficacy was evaluated with enhanced CT scanning. Results: After the treatment, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 5 patients, partial remission (PR) in 3 patients and no change (NC) in 1 patients, with an overall effective rate of 88.9%. The main complication was slight bleeding (n=1). Conclusion: For the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms, CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation carries reliable short-term effectiveness, therefore, it is a safe, effective and minimally-invasive therapy. (authors)

65

Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical & Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum test...

Tracy, Green; Sheila, Vaudrey; Jean, Leveille Md; Byron, Hyde Md

2007-01-01

66

Necrotizing ruptured vaginal leiomyoma mimicking a malignant neoplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Leiomyomas are common benign uterine tumors. However, the incidence of vaginal myoma is very rare and may be confused with a variety of vaginal tumors. We report a case of 43-year-old nulligravida who presented with a protruding painful vaginal mass for 7 days. The mass had initially appeared 3 years prior, as 2 to 3 cm that had not subsequently increased. However suddenly, there was rapid severe enlargement over the course of 7 days. Physical exam revealed a monstrous shaped, black color with focal necrosis, odorous protruding vaginal mass about 7 cm in size. The vaginal mass was infected and degenerated. And vaginal wall was also destroyed by the enlarged mass. Because of the clinical features and radiologic findings, the preoperative diagnosis was a vaginal malignancy. We reported an extremely rare case of vaginal myoma that had several characteristics of malignancy, with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25469351

Sim, Chae Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Kwak, Jyung Sik

2014-01-01

67

A rare case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting as primary renal neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Thyroid cancer is one of the common neoplasms accounting for 2% of all diagnosed neoplasms. Papillary carcinoma, If diagnosed and treated with radio iodine after thyroidectomy well in time, offers excellent survival benefit. Role of Radio iodine Whole body scan is crucial in these cases in detecting focal lesions and metastases. Common sites of metastases include cervical LN, trachea, esophagus, lungs, bones and brain. Metastases to kidneys are very rare and reported in very few cases. Our case is a 72 yrs old mother of serving soldier, a known case of CAD, DM, and HTN admitted with insidious onset right flank abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed BP of 170/100mmHg, no pallor, edema or puffiness. Abdomen examination revealed mild tenderness in the right renal angle. There was no free fluid or organomegaly. Subsequent evaluation with USG was inclusive. MRI abdomen revealed a mass lesion involving lower pole and distorting intra renal structures. The lesion was seen extending in to right renal artery. A diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) was made. She underwent right radical nephrectomy. Biopsy of post operative specimen revealed surprising histo pathological features of metastatic Papillary carcinoma of thyroid. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and thyroid specimen confirmed follicular variant of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid in the setting of multiple hypoechoic nodules. She had a markedly elevated Serum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post opeum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post operative 131I Whole Body Scan revealed residual functional thyroid with skeletal metastases. She was given high dose radio iodine ablation with 218 mCi. She was reviewed twice subsequently in Feb 2009 and Aug 2009. She was given 221 mCi of 131I ablation given for solitary residual bone mets with raised Tg (345 ng/ml) while Aug 2009 WB Scan was normal along with normal serum Tg (2.1 ng/ml).This case describes an unusual case of elderly lady with FVPTC presenting as renal mass suspected to be a case of RCC with extension in to renal vein which would have carried worst prognosis as compared to thyroid carcinoma which was successfully made disease free over last two years. Treatment of kidney mass led to the discovery of primary thyroid neoplasm and its specific treatment. This also highlights importance of structural imaging such as USG,CT and MRI and subsequent histopathological confirmation

68

Bone sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm in children: influence of radiation and genetic predisposition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma developed as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in 40 of 188 individuals with SMN whose first neoplasm occurred in childhood. A genetic susceptibility to cancer was found in 23; the SMN developed in an irradiated field in 32; both factors were present in 16; neither in one. When a genetic predisposition was present, radiation shortened the interval to SMN. The intervals between tumors and the age at which the bone sarcomas developed in relation to genetic disease and therapy were analyzed by a two-mutation hypothesis

69

Bone sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm in children: influence of radiation and genetic predisposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma developed as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) in 40 of 188 individuals with SMN whose first neoplasm occurred in childhood. A genetic susceptibility to cancer was found in 23; the SMN developed in an irradiated field in 32; both factors were present in 16; neither in one. When a genetic predisposition was present, radiation shortened the interval to SMN. The intervals between tumors and the age at which the bone sarcomas developed in relation to genetic disease and therapy were analyzed by a two-mutation hypothesis.

Meadows, A.T.; Strong, L.C.; Li, F.P.; D' angio, G.J.; Schweisguth, O.; Freeman, A.I.; Jenkin, R.D.T.; Morris-Jones, P.; Nesbit, M.E.

1980-12-15

70

Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

71

Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

1998-03-01

72

Patología maligna tiroidea. Hospital Sabogal, Callao / Malignant thyroid pathology. Callao, Sabogal Hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas del cáncer de tiroides encontrados en la población del Callao. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Material y Métodos: Se revisó las historias clínicas de las intervenciones quirúrgicas de la glándula tiroides en el Hospital Nacional Alberto [...] Sabogal Sologuren (HNASS), en el periodo enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2002, cuyo resultado por anatomía patológica fue compatible con neoplasia maligna de dicha glándula. Resultados: Las 45 neoplasias malignas primarias de tiroides encontradas representaron 34,2% de la patología tiroidea operada en el periodo en estudio. El carcinoma papilar se presentó en 100% de los pacientes de sexo masculino y en 82% del sexo femenino; en la mujer, los carcinomas folicular, medular y linfoma representaron 10,3%, 5,1% y 2,6%, respectivamente. El grupo etáreo con mayor incidencia fue entre 50 y 69 años, con una edad promedio de 53 años. Dentro de los diferentes tipos de neoplasias malignas, el más frecuente fue el papilar con 38 casos (84,4%), seguido de los carcinomas folicular y medular con 8,9% y 4,4%, respectivamente. El síntoma más frecuente fue el aumento de volumen (61,5%), seguido de dolor (15,4%), disfagia (10,8%) y disfonía (9,2%); 29,6% se encontraba en estadio I y 59,1% en estadio II; sólo 11,4% estaba en estadio III. Conclusiones: El predominio de casos en mujeres del carcinoma papilar y la clínica asociada, fueron acordes con lo descrito en la literatura. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer at Callao’s population. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Material y Methods: Clinical histories and surgical reports that involved the thyroid gland were reviewed. The pathology result had to be compatible with primar [...] y thyroid malignant neoplasm. The study was performed at the Alberto Sabogal Sologuren National Hospital (HNASS) during the period January 2000 through December 2002. Results: Forty-five thyroid malignant neoplasms were identified representing 34,2% of all thyroid neoplasms operated during the period studied. In males papillary carcinoma was present in 100% of cases and in females in 82,1%, followed by both follicular and medullar carcinoma and lymphoma, in 10,2%, 5,1% and 2,6%, respectively. Major incidence was in the 50 to 69 years group, average 53 years. The most frequent malignant neoplasms were papillary carcinoma with 38 cases (84,4%), follicular and medullary carcinoma with 8,9% and 4,4%, respectively. Most frequent symptoms were growing tumor (61,5%), local pain (15,4%), dysphagia (10,8%) and dysphonia (9,2%); 29,6% of cases were on stage I, 59,1% on stage II, and only 11,4% on stage III. Conclusions: Papillary carcinoma occurred mainly in women and clinical features were as described in the literature.

Juan, Oré; Marco, Otárola.

2004-03-01

73

Frequent hypermethylation of DBC1 in malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Allelic loss at chromosome 9q31-34 is a frequent event in many lymphoproliferative malignancies. Here, we examined DBC1 at 9q33.1 as a potential target in lymphomagenesis. DBC1 is a putative tumor suppressor that has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell death. The methylation status of the DBC1 promoter CpG island was examined by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, and methylation-specific melting curve analysis. DBC1 was hypermethylated in 5 of 5 B-cell-derived lymphoma cell lines, 41 of 42 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 24 of 24 follicular lymphomas, 5 of 5 mantle cell lymphomas, 4 of 4 small lymphocytic lymphomas, 1 of 2 lymphoplasmacytoid lymphomas, and in 12 of 12 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but was unmethylated in 1 case of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, in 12 of 12 multiple myelomas, in 24 of 24 reactive lymph nodes, and in 12 of 12 samples of blood lymphocytes from random donors. DBC1 hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing in lymphoma cell lines, and reexpression of this gene could be induced by treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our data suggest that hypermethylation of the DBC1 promoter region is a frequent event during the development of lymphoproliferative malignancies, and that DBC1 hypermethylation may serve as a marker for these cancers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5

GrØnbæk, Karin Elmegård; Ralfkiaer, U.

2008-01-01

74

Incidentally detected thyroid papillary carcinoma on positron emission tomography in a patient with malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal or diffusely increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG uptake in thyroid gland are occasionally seen during 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET scanning. Increased 18FDG uptake in thyroid nodules may be associated with benign or malignant tumours. In our case who was diagnosed as malignant melanoma, focally increased 18FDG uptake in a thyroid nodule was noticed. Thus, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule was performed. On suspicious findings for the thyroid papillary cancer were reported, total thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological evaluation revealed the thyroid papillary carcinoma. So, therapy for the incidental thyroid papillary carcinoma was commenced in this case who was under the follow-up for the malignant melanoma.J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 430-432Key words: Thyroid, papillary carcinoma, FDG-PET, thyroid incidentaloma

Zeki Dostbil

2012-09-01

75

Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

76

Primary Mucinous Eccrine Adenocarcinoma – A Rare Malignant Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasm at an Unconventional Site  

OpenAIRE

Primary mucinous eccrine adenocarcinoma, a rare malignant neoplasm of the skin adnexa usually occurs in the head and neck region. The most common sites for its occurrence are the eyelid, the peri-orbital region and the scalp. We report the rare occurrence of primary mucinous eccrine adenocarcinoma of the inguinal region which has been reported in only 1% of cases according to literature search. Since the differentiation from metastatic mucinous carcinomas is difficult, a careful search for pr...

A L, Hemalatha; S K, Kausalya; K, Amita; M, Sanjay; M S, Lavanya

2014-01-01

77

[Bone loss in women with malignant genital neoplasms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, women with genital cancers live longer due to early diagnosis and better treatment schemes. Only few studies assessed bone mass in patients with genital cancer Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone mass, weakening of the spatial structure of the bone, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteopenia is a condition of reduced, but not yet reaching the pathological values, bone density in relation to norms for age and sex. Metastases are the primary cause of death in cancer patients. It is estimated that approximately half of people dying due to cancer have bone metastases. Osteoporosis in neoplastic disease may occur due to bone metastases or therapy-related adverse effects, i.e. reduced bone mineral density (BMD). Bone microenvironment provides a good medium for the growth of cancer cells. BMD of the femur and spine should be measured by DXA. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the techniques used to detect bone metastases. Lifestyle is the key to improving the quality of life and maximize any pharmacological treatment in cancer patients. It is proposed that treatment of cancer without bone metastases does not require therapy increasing bone mass. Further studies in women treated for gynecological malignancies undergoing oophorectomy and adjuvant treatment are needed to elucidate the mechanisms associated with bone loss. PMID:25669067

Magnowski, Piotr; Wolski, Hubert; Magnowska, Magdalena; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

2014-12-01

78

Clinicopathological aspects of malignant salivary gland neoplasms - a study of 150 cases at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the clinico pathological aspects of malignant salivary gland tumors, diagnosed at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Study Design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Jan 2005-Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: The study included all the cases diagnosed as malignant salivary gland tumors in the last five years. Records of all the tumors of head and neck region that presented during this period were analyzed and out of these clinico pathological features of malignant salivary gland tumors were studied. The data analysis included the age, gender, site of tumor and histopathological pattern. Results: A total of 18685 malignant tumors presented in the last five years. Out of these, malignant tumors of head and neck were 2165. Total malignant salivary gland tumors were found out to be 150 with an overall frequency of 0.8% and frequency in head and neck malignancies was found out to be 6.9%. The age ranged from 6-80 years (mean 48.02 + 1.23). Of these 150 cases, 58.7% were males and 41.3 were females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The most common tumor seen was muco epidermoid carcinoma (49.3%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (31.3%). A total of 48.7% of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands. Parotid gland was the second most commonly involved site (40.7%). Conclusion: Malignant salivary gland neoplasms are a common malignancy of head and neck region and their frequency is slightly more in n and their frequency is slightly more in our population. Almost half of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands and muco epidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy. (author)

79

Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endosET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT. (author)

80

Preoperative diagnosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasm in gastrointestinal and breast cancers. Impact of FDG-PET/CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reports of multiple primary malignant neoplasm (MPMN) have increased due to the development of imaging technologies that have influenced the extension of the 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers. Integrated positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown its advantages for detecting, staging, evaluating the prognosis, and offering better insights for survivors, their families and physicians. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the impact of whole-body FDG-PET/CT in detecting MPMN during the initial staging work-up of gastrointestinal and breast malignancy, and to describe their characteristics. The cases were identified by reviewing the Dokkyo Medical University Hospital PET Center's database, searching for patients referred from the Department of Surgical Oncology and the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, who underwent preoperative staging with whole-body FDG PET/CT at our center between January 2007 and December 2009. A total of 778 patients matched these criteria. Of them, 40 PET/CT reports mentioned suspicious cases of MPMN. The medical records of these 40 cases were retrieved and examined. The follow-up data of these patients was reviewed until February 2010. Of 778, 32 patients were diagnosed with additional unexpected cancers, which 27 (3.5%) were incidental double cancers and 5 (0.64%) had triple primary lesions. Overall 37 MPMN, twelve corresponded to stage 0,l 37 MPMN, twelve corresponded to stage 0, nineteen to stages I-II, three to stages III-IV, and three remained uncertain. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of FDG PET/CT in detecting a controversial lesion were 76.5% and 70.3%, respectively. The colorectum was the most common site for synchronous MPMN (17 of 37 cancers 45.9%), followed by stomach (9; 24.3%), prostate (3; 8.1%), thyroid (3; 8.1%), breast (2; 5.4%), biliary duct (1; 2.7%), kidney (1; 2.7%), and lung (1; 2.7%). FDG PET/CT was useful for finding multiple primary malignant neoplasm with a relatively high sensitivity. Physicians should pay special attention to rule out the presence of unexpected additional primary lesions in initial staging work-up for colorectal cancer. (author)

81

Diagnostic value of isotope scanning in thyroid disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Scannograms of the thyroid in 138 patients were analysed. Scanning of the thyroid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct, but it should be performed on definite indications. The scannogram pattern in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid is dependent on morphological features of a tumor, size and localization of a tumor node in the gland thickness. But scanning is found to be of no decisive value in establishing the differetial diagnosis between benign and malignant neoplasms of the thyroid. Isotope scanning of the thyroid proves to be a largly informative method of examination in patients previously subjected to thyroid surgery. Scanning technique seems to be of importance in recognizing

82

Second primary malignant neoplasm following radiation therapy for head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This retrospective analysis reports the results of radiotherapy in 8272 patients with cancer who were treated at Tokyo Women's Medical College between 1966 and 1984. One thousand one hundred and four cases were irradiated for head and neck tumor during this period. Twenty-nine of the total number of patients (0.35 %) were found to have second primary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy according to the criteria of radiation-induced or related cancers. Twenty of these were head and neck tumors with an incidence of 1.81 % among all head and neck cancer patients. If recurrence of highly suspected cases was excluded, the incidence of radiation-induced or -related cancer was 0.18 % among all malignancies and 0.63 % among all head and neck tumors. Cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasm have been increasing in number and second cancer following radiotherapy has gradually become a big problem. However, the mechanisms of cancer etiology on which radiation and many other factors have an influence are not clear at this time, as there are many risks to human life. It is important not to underestimate the value of radiotherapy in cancer treatment today. (author)

83

Hyperfractionation in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. Polish studies in relation to the world experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical assumptions for hyperfractionation and accelerated hyperfractionation in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms are presented. Polish clinical studies in this field are presented basing on the responses to questionnaires which were sent to oncological centres. Most of the studies included patients with advanced head and neck cancer and also patients with brain tumours and cervical cancer. Different hyperfractionation schedules were used reflecting various approaches proposed in famous world centres. Polish phase studies included so far small groups of patients. It seems justified to undertake multicentre randomized trial according to common protocol. (author)

84

Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pediatric cancer patients: The advantage and fear of second malignant neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is used for delivering more efficient homogenous dose to the target and lowering of dose to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a second malignant neoplasm may develop after prolonged latent period. The use of modern precise radiotherapy techniques in the pediatric age group has many controversial issues in spite of its proven dosimetric distribution advantages and the considerable decrease of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). This concern is due to many factors; mainly the exposure of a larger volume of normal tissues to low dose radiotherapy. Children have more proliferating tissues compared to the adults. However, the epidemiological data did not detect an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancy. This issue is still controversial as IMRT and other precise radiotherapy techniques were not widely used except recently. This may entail a thorough careful follow up for children treated with these techniques to detect any incidence increase

85

Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid Nodules Using an US Classification System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultrasound (US) classification system for differentiating between benign and malignant solid thyroid nodules. In this study, we enrolled 191 consecutive patients who received real-time US and subsequent US diagnoses for solid thyroid nodules, and underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories by real-time US: 'malignant,' 'suspicious for malignancy,' 'borderline,' 'probably benign,' and 'benign'. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US and the cut-off US criteria by comparing the US diagnoses of thyroid nodules with cytopathologic results. Of the 191 solid nodules, 103 were subjected to thyroid surgery. US categories for these 191 nodules were malignant (n = 52), suspicious for malignancy (n = 16), borderline (n = 23), probably benign (n 18), and benign (n = 82). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the US diagnosis for solid thyroid nodules using the 5-category US classification system was very good. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of US diagnosis were 86%, 95%, 91%, 92%, and 92%, respectively, when benign, probably benign, and borderline categories were collectively classified as benign (negative). The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US for solid thyroid nodules is high when the above-mentioned US classification system is applied.ystem is applied.

86

Known pitfalls of the thyroid neoplasm diagnostics in the view of the new (2004) WHO Classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new (2004) WHO Classification of Tumours of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Gland exhibits both formal and contentual changes compared to the previous one from the year 1988. Comparing both texts we have tried to apply the new norm to some recent diagnostic tasks. The classification of poorly differentiated and undifferentiated neoplasms has been successfully solved by employing the immunohistochemical procedures into the daily routine. Nevertheless, some diagnostic problems persist and can not be solved this way. This is true especially for the borderline neoplasm in the FVPTC category and even more for its oncocytic variant. There appeared shift in the criteria for the diagnosis of oncocytic variant of papillary carcinoma. Newly, the obligatory presence of the nuclei with the characteristics of the conventional papillary neoplasms is required. Thorough elaboration of the TNM system has solved the problem of multifocal lesion staging. Moreover, a web consultation source is recommended. The new Classification includes descriptions of the basic cytodiagnostic features. The post aspiration capsular damage consideration in relation to the diagnosis of the minimally invasive follicular carcinoma is one practical profit thereof. In terms of formal logic a criticisable feature of the new classification is the introduction of the so called "Synonyms". These listings include in fact partly real synonyms by definition, but together in one table quite often also subunits or variants of the nosologic units described. In general, the new Classification represents a successful consensus reached. As there are newly also references with varying opinions included, it is presented more like a point of gravity in this field than an undoubted truth. This also makes it a valuable and useful normative text. PMID:16506598

Dusková, J

2006-01-01

87

Second malignant neoplasms in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease with radiotherapy or radiotherapy and chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) was assessed in 248 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) treated by radiotherapy alone (XRT) or in combination with chemotherapy (XRT + C) between January/1960 and June/1977. Radiation therapy was categorized as less than extended field (< EF), extended field (EF) or total nodal irradiation (TNI). Chemotherapy ws scored as single agent (SAC) or multiagent (MAC). MAC consisted primarily of either nitrogen mustard, vincritine, prednisone and procarbazine (MOPP) or cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine and prednisone (CVPP). Ten metachronous malignancies occurred 1-21 years (median 10 years) after the diagnosis of HD. With a median follow-up of 6 years the observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) was 4.2 for XRT alone and 7.6 for XRT+MAC. For 46 patients with greater than or equal to10 years follow-up (median 13 years) the O/E ratio was 16.1 for XRT and 26.5 for XRT+MAC. All SMN occurred in patients who had not had a splenectomy at or prior to the time of HD diagnosis. Only four of nine solid SMN were within treatment portals or near portal margins. The diagnosis of another malignant neoplasm was made prior to or simultaneous with the diagnosis of HD in four additional patients. This observation, and the occurrence of five of six SMN outside of the treatment field in the XRT alone group, suggest that there may be factor(s) associated with the incidence of SMN in HD in addition to treatment itselfatment itself

88

Laser spectroscopy as a method for diagnosing cancer and assessing the efficacy of treatment of malignant neoplasms  

Science.gov (United States)

The issues of early diagnosis and effective treatment of malignant neoplasms are of vital importance for the Urals region which in 1950-1960 became the site of several radiation incidents with the resultant overexposures of dozens of thousands of residents who have manifested increased risks of leukemia and solid cancer incidence. The present study has demonstrated the efficacy of the method of laser-correlation spectrometry (LCS) of blood plasma and serum for early diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and prediction of relapses of tumor following radical treatment. The LCS method is characterized by a sufficiently high diagnostic sensitivity in relation to malignant tumors. It has been established that LC spectra obtained for patients with malignant neoplasms differ significantly from those for patients with non-cancer pathology of the same sites. The LCS methodology has manifested a sufficiently high prognostic sensitivity (76.6%) in relation to complete regression after radical treatment and progression (78.0%) of the tumor process. A positive prognostic criterion of the course of a malignant neoplasm after radical treatment in patients without relapse and metastases is a statistically significant (p

Akleyev, Alexander; Romanskaya, Yulia; Kisselyov, Mikhail; Vazhenin, Andrei

2005-08-01

89

Carcinoma ex microcystic adenoma of the pancreas: a report of a novel form of malignancy in serous neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are generally considered benign lesions. Malignant counterparts have been occasionally described, and the diagnosis of malignancy is based solely on the presence of synchronous or metachronous metastases to the lymph nodes or liver, direct tumor invasion into adjacent organs, or vascular invasion. However, these malignant serous cystic tumors are lined by benign-appearing glycogen-rich cuboidal cells, which have been morphologically indistinguishable from benign microcystic serous cystadenoma in all the cases reported so far. We report a unique case of microcystic serous cystadenoma giving rise to carcinoma with distinctive histologic features including signet ring-like cells and solid nests. We believe that this case represents the first case of a cytologically malignant neoplasm arising from a benign serous cystadenoma (carcinoma ex microcystic serous cystadenoma). PMID:22189969

Zhu, Hongfa; Qin, Lihui; Zhong, Minghao; Gordon, Ronald; Raoufi, Mohammad; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Schwartz, Myron; Roayaie, Sasan; Klimstra, David S

2012-02-01

90

Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

91

Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

Kraushaar, Greg; Wiebe, Sheldon [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

2005-12-01

92

Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

93

Three-dimensional reconstruction of vessel distribution in benign and malignant lesions of thyroid  

OpenAIRE

In order to better understand the spatial distribution of thyroid vessels, a series of benign and malignant thyroid lesions were studied with three-dimensional (3D) histological stereomicroscopic reconstruction. Cases consisted of normal autoptic thyroids (n=6), colloid goitres (n=6), Basedow's disease (n=2), follicular adenoma (FA) (n=4) one of which with Hurthle cells (HC), minimally invasive, well-differentiated follicular carcinoma (FTC) (n=1), well-differentiated FTC with HC (n=1), poorl...

Papotti, Mauro Giulio

2004-01-01

94

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms of the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in a Japanese male patient: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques for cancer, a patient diagnosed with two or more neoplasms is not rare. We report on the case of a 58-year-old male with multiple primary malignant neoplasms, who suffered from three histological types of malignant neoplasm in six organs, namely the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in chronological order. The first neoplasm was a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis diagnosed in 2006. The second and third neoplasms were urothelial carcinomas of the right renal pelvis and urinary bladder, respectively, diagnosed in 2008. The remaining three neoplasms were diagnosed in 2010, namely a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor, an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The glottic cancer and esophageal cancer were treated by external radiation therapy. The malignant neoplasms of the oral floor and those which originated in the urinary tract were surgically resected. All neoplasms except the malignant neoplasm of the oral floor were well controlled. The patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor in January 2011. As far as we know, the present report is the first one on this combination of primary malignant neoplasms. PMID:25245383

Mukaiyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Motofumi; Morikawa, Teppei; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takeshima, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

2014-01-01

95

Chromosome aberration observed in children with malignant neoplasms given antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased use of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy in the pediatric field are producing the concern about chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberration was quantitatively examined in lymphocytes from peripheral blood and marrow cells. Forty one children with malignant neoplasms were classified into 2 groups, chemotherapy group (group Ch) and combined use group of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (group Ch + R). Blood samples were collected regularly 5 times at 6 month intervals. The results demonstrated significant difference in the incidence of aneupoid and structural abnormality of chromosomes compared with control or pretreatment samples, and showed a tendency to accumulate structural abnormality, especially in the peripheral blood. Influence of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy was suspected. The incidences of abnormality in the peripheral blood and that of the marrow were not in good accordance, varying depending upon the disease or the therapy. (Ueda, J.)

96

Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

97

[Incidence and mortality of malignant neoplasms of the urinary and male sexual organs in the GDR].  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an analysis of the incidence and mortality of malignant neoplasms of the urinary system and the male sexual organs in the GDR. Age-specific as well as age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates are subjects of the analysis. It is concluded that there is no convincing evidence for the assumption of an increased cancer risk. The demographic structure of the population of the GDR has changed considerably and cancer incidence rises steeply with increasing age. After adjustment for changes in the age distribution, it seems probable that the observed increase in new cases is due to improvements in detection, diagnosis and management only. The thesis that there exists a true epidemic of urinary cancer is rejected. PMID:6890256

Berndt, H; Berndt, R

1982-07-01

98

Primary Malignant Teratoma with a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Component in Thyroid Gland : A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Teratomas comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors in childhood. Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children. However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid. We report a case of a 31-yr-old female with a huge neck mass. Pathologic examination revealed it to be malignant teratoma composed of primitive neuroepithelial tissue with primitive neural tubes and loose myxoid to fibrous immature mesenchymal stroma. The p...

Kim, Eunyoung; Bae, Tae Seok; Kwon, Youngmee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chung, Ki-wook; Kim, Sun Wook; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

2007-01-01

99

Diagnostic value of Thallium 201 scintigraphy in determining malignancy of the cold thyroid nodule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we discuss and quantify the respective values of Thallium 201 scintigraphy and cytologic punction in determining malignancy of the cold thyroid nodule. These two diagnostic tests are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity while taking into consideration various therapeutic attitudes in the presence of a cold thyroid nodule

100

Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (? 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant e data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

101

Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues  

Science.gov (United States)

The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (˜ 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods.

Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Gó?d?, S.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

2007-07-01

102

Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large ({approx} 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods.

Kubala-Kukus, A. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Centre, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland)], E-mail: Aldona.Kubala-Kukus@pu.kielce.pl; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Centre, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Gozdz, S. [Holycross Cancer Centre, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Centre, Artwinskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Pajek, M. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

2007-07-15

103

Atypical and malignant neoplasms showing lipomatous differentiation. A study of 111 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

One-hundred-eleven cases of histopathologically atypical or malignant lipomatous lesions in the somatic soft tissue and retroperitoneum were studied. These consisted of 48 differentiated fatty neoplasms of the somatic soft tissues (DFT-S), 21 fatty neoplasms of the retroperitoneum (DFT-R), 33 myxoid liposarcomas from various sites and nine pleomorphic liposarcomas. DFT-S were defined as lipomatous lesions composed of mature fat and containing atypical stromal cells or lipoblasts. In the somatic soft tissues, this group included lesions that would be classified using published criteria as "atypical lipoma", "pleomorphic lipoma", "well-differentiated lipoma-like liposarcoma", and "sclerosing liposarcoma". All of the DFT-R met previously published criteria for "well differentiated liposarcoma" or "sclerosing liposarcoma". We found no consistent histologic differences between the DFT-S and DRT-R. No pure "round cell" liposarcomas were encountered although many myxoid liposarcomas had "round cell" areas. Follow-up data were available in 80 cases (72%) with a mean follow-up period of over 7 years. Among the DFT-S there were no uncontrollable recurrences, distant metastases, or tumor-related deaths. The depth of the neoplasm correlated with the tendency for local recurrence; no neoplasms primary in the subcutis recurred; 29% of the tumors recurred when they originated in the deep soft tissues or within the muscle. None of the recurrent tumors demonstrated "dedifferentiation." DFT-R had a recurrence rate of 67% and, although there were no distant metastases, nine patients (43%) died of tumor. Five retroperitoneal tumors dedifferentiated but did not metastasize. In light of this experience, we believe that the term "atypical lipoma" is warranted for the DFT-S and "well differentiated liposarcoma" is an appropriate label for the DFT-R. The overall mean survival for the 52 cases of liposarcoma (excluding DFT-S) was 13.6 years. The mean survival in "well differentiated liposarcoma" (11.25 years) was between that for myxoid liposarcoma (16.25 years) and that for pleomorphic liposarcoma (7 years). Six patients (29%) with myxoid liposarcoma developed local recurrences and 6 patients (29%) developed distant metastases and died. Metastasis was always associated with a round cell (or pleomorphic) component with increased numbers of mitotic figures in either the primary tumor or a local recurrence. PMID:3826477

Azumi, N; Curtis, J; Kempson, R L; Hendrickson, M R

1987-03-01

104

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule  

OpenAIRE

Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule), who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopa...

Basu S; Nair N; Borges A

2005-01-01

105

Malignant thyroid teratoma: report of an aggressive tumor in a 64-year-old man.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant teratoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor, frequent in children than in adults. Histologically, thyroid teratomas usually show a predominance of a neuroectodermal component. Mature cartilage and bone may be present. We present the case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 64-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor displayed a predominant neuroectodermal component. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent a radical thyroidectomy with central neck dissection as primary treatment and radioiodine treatment afterwards. The patient had local and distant recurrence. A second surgery was performed with poor results and the patient died 3 months afterwards. PMID:23702575

Vilallonga, R; Zafon, C; Ruiz-Marcellan, C; Obiols, G; Fort, J M; Baena, J A; Villanueva, B; Garcia, A; Sobrinho-Simões, M

2013-09-01

106

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

Basu S

2005-01-01

107

More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

2014-12-23

108

Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant fr parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

109

Thallium-201-chloride thyroid scintigraphy to evaluate benign and/or malignant nodules: usefulness of the delayed scan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate benign and/or malignant thyroid tumors with 201T1 thyroid scan. We studied 76 cases of histologically verified thyroid tumors, all seen as cold nodules on the 123I thyroid scan. 201T1 thyroid scan was performed 5-15 minutes (early scan) and 3-5 hours (delayed scan) after intravenous administration of 1.5-2.0 mCi of 201T1. In 35 (94.6%) of 37 malignant tumors (anaplastic carcinoma, six; papillary carcinoma, 23; follicullar carcinoma, five; epidermoid carcinoma, one;malignant lymphoma, 1), 201T1 accumulated in the cold nodule of the 123I thyroid scan on both early and delayed scans. On the other hand, the delayed 201T1 scans, we were able to differentiate most malignant thyroid tumors from those which were benign. False-negative and -positive cases are discussed

110

Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to explore the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A total of 141 pathological proven nodules in 141 HT patients (7 males and 134 females, mean age 50.1 years, range 23-75 years) received conventional ultrasound (US), elasticity imaging (EI) and ARFI elastography, including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), before surgery. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and SWV ratio were measured for each nodule on VTQ. The US, EI and ARFI elastography features were compared between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses and area under curve (AUC) were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 70 nodules were benign and 71 nodules were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients for EI (EI score) and ARFI (VTI grade and SWV) (all P value elastography is useful for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in HT patients. The diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography is better than EI. PMID:25636511

Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

2015-03-01

111

Venous obstruction of thyroid malignancy origin: the Antoine Lacassagne Institute experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims To show the benefits of Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of great vein involvement in the neck and mediastinum in thyroid malignancies (primary or secondary in our experience and to report patient outcomes. Methods Clinical data were collected from the thyroid unit database of the Antoine Lacassagne Institute. Results Of 1171 patients with thyroid cancer treated at our institution over the last 18 years, we retrospectively identified nine patients (0.8%, three women and six men, aged 34–81 years (median age: 70 years presenting with malignant thyroid tumor of median diameter 45 mm (range: 23–87 having venous obstruction of thyroid malignancy origin. Two patients underwent multimodal therapy. All other patients underwent external beam radiation therapy alone ± chemotherapy or palliative care. Ultrasound (US provided particularly useful information on venous involvement characteristics. Median survival was 7 months and median progression-free survival was 6 months. Survival in our series was worse than that of previously reported series despite diagnosis of vein involvement at an early stage in 2/3 cases using US. Conclusion Despite small numbers of patients, it seems that aggressive treatment modalities including surgery are required to improve survival. In our experience, US was a useful non-invasive method to describe tumor extensions to great veins of the neck (invasion versus compression, tumor thrombus versus blood clot and should be recommended to depict early venous invasion in cases of suspected thyroid malignancy.

Benisvy Danielle

2009-04-01

112

[Evolution of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in primary malignant lymphoma in an extranodal location].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant lymphoma of extranodal localization is a rare disease which mainly occurs in organs with greater or less quantity of lymphocytic tissue or in the organs with the previous history of lymphocytic infiltrate. Extranodal localization of malignant lymphoma in the thyroid gland is rare and numerous authors associate it with the previous existence of chronic lymphocatic thyroiditis (Hashimoto struma). This paper dealt with the histologically analysed material obtained by subtotal or total thyreoidectomy over one-year period. Out of 49 cases, histologic diagnosis of chronic diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis was established in nine patients (18%) but the frequency of the appearance of this autoimmune disease may well be grater because a relatively small number of patients underwent the operation. Apart from all morphologic characteristics of Hashimoto struma, primary malignant lymphoma of extranodal localization in the thyroid gland was diagnosed in one patient. Simultaneous or previous evolution of chronic lymphocyttic thyroiditis into malignant lymphoma was confirmed in the papers of numerous authors. The authors presented a patient aged 58 in whom malignant lymphoma had evolved from the chronic diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis. Cellular characteristics pointed to lymphoma of transformed cells being extended extrathyroidically into the surrounding connecting and muscular tissue with the involvement of regional lymph glands. Of particular importance was the area in which the usual architectonics of lymphocytic thyroiditis was discretely ruined and the infiltrate received neoplastic characteristics. On the basis of data from literature, lymphocytic thyroiditis should be regarded as a prelymphomatous state which was attached a great importance from the aspect of histopathologic analysis. Beside the operation, conservative therapy was employed and it showed good results until now, although it was too early to make decisive conclusions on the outcome of disease. PMID:2636337

Hadzi?, B; Budakov, P; Stajnic, S

1989-01-01

113

Synchronous Hurthle Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma in a Patient with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Rare Case Report  

OpenAIRE

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the most common autoimmune thyroid disease, is due to destruction of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. Various types of thyroid malignancies may arise in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, lymphomas, medullary carcinomas and hurthle cell neoplasms may develop in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present a rare case report of a 35-year-old female who presented with hypothyroidism of a two-year duration. A diagnosis of Hashimoto’s...

Navya, Narayanan O.; Magdalene, Kanapilly F.; Satheesh, Gopinath P.

2014-01-01

114

Risk of second malignant neoplasm following proton versus intensity-modulated photon radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most common cancer in the world, is a global health concern. Radiotherapy for HCC is uncommon, largely because of the likelihood of radiation-induced liver disease, an acute side effect that is often fatal. Proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer HCC patients a better option for treating the diseased liver tissue while largely sparing the surrounding tissues, especially the non-tumor liver. However, even advanced radiotherapies carry a risk of late effects, including second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unclear whether PBT or IMRT confers less risk of an SMN than the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risk of developing an SMN for a patient with HCC between PBT and IMRT. For both treatments, radiation doses in organs and tissues from primary radiation were determined using a treatment planning system; doses in organs and tissues from stray radiation from PBT were determined using Monte Carlo simulations and from IMRT using thermo-luminescent dosimeter measurements. Risk models of SMN incidence were taken from the literature. The predicted absolute lifetime attributable risks of SMN incidence were 11.4% after PBT and 19.2% after IMRT. The results of this study suggest that using proton beams instead of photon beams for radiotherapy may reduce the risk of SMN incidence for some HCC patients.

Taddei, Phillip J.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Krishnan, Sunil; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

2010-12-01

115

Risk of second malignant neoplasm following proton versus intensity-modulated photon radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most common cancer in the world, is a global health concern. Radiotherapy for HCC is uncommon, largely because of the likelihood of radiation-induced liver disease, an acute side effect that is often fatal. Proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer HCC patients a better option for treating the diseased liver tissue while largely sparing the surrounding tissues, especially the non-tumor liver. However, even advanced radiotherapies carry a risk of late effects, including second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unclear whether PBT or IMRT confers less risk of an SMN than the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risk of developing an SMN for a patient with HCC between PBT and IMRT. For both treatments, radiation doses in organs and tissues from primary radiation were determined using a treatment planning system; doses in organs and tissues from stray radiation from PBT were determined using Monte Carlo simulations and from IMRT using thermo-luminescent dosimeter measurements. Risk models of SMN incidence were taken from the literature. The predicted absolute lifetime attributable risks of SMN incidence were 11.4% after PBT and 19.2% after IMRT. The results of this study suggest that using proton beams instead of photon beams for radiotherapy may reduce the risk of SMN incidence for some HCC patients.

Taddei, Phillip J; Howell, Rebecca M; Krishnan, Sunil; Scarboro, Sarah B; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D, E-mail: ptaddei@mdanderson.or [Division of Radiation Oncology, Unit 1202, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

2010-12-07

116

Primary malignant bone neoplasm: a case report of dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in the rib and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare but highly malignant primary bone neoplasm, which is resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There remains uncertainly as to the best treatment of this disease and how to improve its prognosis. In this paper we reported a case of DDCS and reviewed the related literatures in order to provide references to throw a light on the histogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of this disease. PMID:20979697

Lin, Jin-Rong; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Zhuo-Cai

2010-11-01

117

Assessment of enzymatic activity of salinary glands in comprehensive radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms of head and neck  

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It is shown that in the course of combined radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumour localization in the head and neck increase in the activity of alpha-amylase of saliva and decrease in enzymatic activity, depending on the absorbed isoeffective dose, take place. Suppression of enzymatic activity of saliva was more clearly pronounced in the patients subjected to neutron radiation, than those subjected to the standard conditions of gamma-therapy. Indices of saliva enzymatic activity in the process of combined radiotherapy were used as criterion of tolerance of salinary glands in the patients with malignant neoplasms in the head and neck. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

118

Isolated familial medullary thyroid carcinoma as part of multiple endocrine neoplasm (men-2a)  

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Medullary carcinoma of thyroid (MTC) is a distinct thyroid carcinoma that originates from the para follicular C cell of thyroid gland which produce calcitonin. MTC has a genetic association with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndromes. Sporatic or isolated MTC occur in 75 % of patients. (author)

119

Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions  

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Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

120

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

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To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63{approx}0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67{approx}1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03{approx}2.11), 2.71 (0.97{approx}4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5{approx}0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59{approx}1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

Son, Chang Woo; Kim, Chang Woo; Sin, Se Kwon; Jang, Kyeung Jae [Dae Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yi Tae [Dong A Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-15

121

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

122

Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs - data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancers (HNC are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Methods Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128. Of these, 64 (50% were malignant and 44 (34% benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant, OMM (13; 20% of malignant, soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant. The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign, polyps (6; 14% of benign and fibroma (5; 11% of benign. Conclusions In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans. Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a clinical model for OMM in humans.

Kristensen Annemarie T

2009-12-01

123

An antibody-like peptide that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules.  

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There is an urgent need for biomarkers to identify malignant thyroid nodules from indeterminate follicular lesions. We have used a subtractive proteomic strategy to identify novel biomarkers by selecting ligands to goiter tissue from a 12-mer random peptide phage-displayed library using the BRASIL method (Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands). After three rounds of selection, two highly reactive clones to the papillary thyroid tumor cell line NPA were further evaluated, and their specific binding to tumor proteins was confirmed using phage-ELISA. The antibody-like peptide CaT12 was tumor-specific, which was further tested by immunohistochemistry against TMAs (tissue microarrays) comprised of 775 human benign and malignant tissues, including 232 thyroid nodular lesions: 15 normal thyroid tissues, 53 nodular goiters (NG), 54 follicular adenomas (FA); 69 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); and 41 follicular carcinomas (FC). CaT12 was able to identify PTC among thyroid nodular lesions with 91.2% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity, despite its non-specificity for thyroid tissues. Additionally, the CaT12 peptide helped characterize follicular lesions distinguishing the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) from FA with 91.9% accuracy; FVPTC from NG with 83.1% accuracy; FVPTC from the classic PTC with 57.7% accuracy; and FVPTC from FC with 88.7% accuracy. In conclusion, our strategy to select differentially expressed ligands to thyroid tissue was highly effective and resulted in a useful antibody-like biomarker that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help distinguish follicular patterned lesions. PMID:23462224

Reis, Carolina Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Paula; Vieira, Carlos Ueira; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Silva, Sindeval José da; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Ward, Laura Sterian

2013-07-28

124

Clinical evaluation of 67Ga scanning in the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the thyroid  

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While 67Ga uptake has been reported to be highly variable and nonspecific in the diagnosis of malignant tumors of the thyroid, it has also been observed to depend on the histological nature of the lesion. For this reason, the behavior of 67Ga in various types of thyroid cancer was investigated in a prospective study of 86 patients with thyroid masses compatible with anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. The study demonstrated a distinct difference in uptake between well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and the more undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma

125

The value of contrast-enhanced 64-row CT in differentiating benign from malignant serous ovarian neoplasms  

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Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced 64-row CT scanning in deciding benign or malignant serous ovarian tumors. Methods: Fifty-eight cases of serous ovarian tumors proved pathologically were reviewed, including 25 malignant tumors, 25 benign, 8 borderline tumors. All patients underwent 64-row CT scanning, including plain scanning and contrast-enhance scanning. The tumors' shape, density, blood supply and enhancement features were evaluated. Results: Twenty-five cases of benign serous cystic adenoma were mostly unicameral, and showed a moderate mural enhancement only in 4 cases (16%) due to chronic pelvic infection and the others (21/25, 84%) had no of slight enhancement. Malignant tumors were cystic-solid mass with unclear margin, irregular shape and septa. Twenty-two cases of serous cystadenocarcinoma out of 25 cases (88%) appeared obvious enhancement and other 3 cases no enhancement. And 7 cases out of 8 (87.5%) borderlined serous cystadenomas showed different enhancement patterns. Conclusion: Benign ovarian serous neoplasms were mostly unicameral and no strong mural enhancement, suggesting a lack of blood supply. While, there were obvious enhancement in the ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and borderline serous cystadenoma with malignant potential. The 64-row CT is helpful for differentiating the nature of the serous ovarian neoplasm. (authors)

126

Application of Real-time Ultrasound Elastography in Diagnosing Benign and Malignant Thyroid Solid Nodules  

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Full Text Available Objective Real-time ultrasound elastography (US-E is a helpful tool in diagnosing thyroid nodules. This study aims to evaluate thyroid solid nodules, to establish the accuracy of US-E in providing information on the nature of these nodules, and to assess the clinical value of elasticity scores (ES and strain ratio (SR in differentiating thyroid solid nodules and to explore its distribution characteristics using pathological analysis as reference. Methods Traditional ultrasonography and US-E were performed on 131 thyroid solid nodules (99 benign ones and 32 malignant ones in 120 patients (78 females and 41 males. Three radiologists evaluated the nodules based on a four-degree elasticity scoring system. The nodules were classi?ed according to the ES as soft (ES 1-2 or hard (ES 3-4. The SR was calculated online. Results The sensitivity and speci?city of the ES for thyroid cancer diagnosis were 78% and 80%, respectively. SR values ? 2.9 used as a standard to distinguish benign from malignant nodules had a sensitivity of 87% and a speci?city of 92%. The SR of the benign lesions was 1.64±1.37, which was signi?cantly different from that of malignant lesions, which was 4.96±2.13 (P<0.01. Conclusions Both the ES and SR were higher in malignant nodules than those in benign ones. Real-time US-E was a useful index in the differential diagnosis of thyroid solid nodules. It can provide quantitative information on thyroid nodule characterization and improve diagnostic con?dence.

Hai-ling Wang

2012-06-01

127

Neurofibromin specific antibody differentiates malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) from other spindle cell neoplasms.  

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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) derive from the Schwann cell or perineurial cell lineage and occur either sporadically or in association with the tumor syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). MPNST often pose a diagnostic challenge due to their frequent lack of pathognomonic morphological or immunohistochemical features. Mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene are found in all NF1-associated and many sporadic MPNST. The presence of NF1 mutation may have the potential to differentiate MPNST from several morphologically similar neoplasms; however, mutation detection is hampered by the size of the gene and the lack of mutational hot spots. Here we describe a newly developed monoclonal antibody binding to the C-terminus of neurofibromin (clone NFC) which was selected for optimal performance in routinely processed formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. NFC immunohistochemistry revealed loss of neurofibromin in 22/25 (88 %) of NF1-associated and 26/61 (43 %) of sporadic MPNST. There was a strong association of neurofibromin loss with deletions affecting the NF1 gene (P NFC staining showed loss of neurofibromin in 2/8 myxofibrosarcomas, 2/12 (16 %) pleomorphic liposarcomas, 1/16 (6 %) leiomyosarcomas, and 4/28 (14 %) unclassified undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas. However, loss of neurofibromin was not observed in 22 synovial sarcomas, 27 schwannomas, 23 solitary fibrous tumors, 14 low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas, 50 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, 27 myxoid liposarcomas, 13 angiosarcomas, 9 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, and 7 epitheloid sarcomas. Immunohistochemistry using antibody NFC may substantially facilitate sarcoma research and diagnostics. PMID:24464231

Reuss, David E; Habel, Antje; Hagenlocher, Christian; Mucha, Jana; Ackermann, Ulrike; Tessmer, Claudia; Meyer, Jochen; Capper, David; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Mautner, Victor; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier; Schittenhelm, Jens; Hartmann, Christian; Hagel, Christian; Katenkamp, Kathrin; Petersen, Iver; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; von Deimling, Andreas

2014-04-01

128

Papillary carcinoma thyroid with metastasis to ectopic cervical thymus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Papillary carcinoma of thyroid is the most common type of thyroid neoplasm which is usually confined to the thyroid and tends to metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Distant metastasis occur in up to 15% of cases. Thymic metastasis from any malignant carcinoma is extremely rare with only four cases reported in medical literature. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid metastasizing to ectopic cervical thymus which has not been previously reported.

Khanday Samina A

2011-02-01

129

Papillary carcinoma thyroid with metastasis to ectopic cervical thymus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Papillary carcinoma of thyroid is the most common type of thyroid neoplasm which is usually confined to the thyroid and tends to metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Distant metastasis occur in up to 15% of cases. Thymic metastasis from any malignant carcinoma is extremely rare with only four cases reported in medical literature. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid metastasizing to ectopic cervical thymus which has not been previously reported.

Khanday Samina A; Malik Rayees A; Malik Ajaz A; Naqash Sameer H; Mushtaque Majid; Khan Parwez S

2011-01-01

130

Thyroid and associated polyglandular neoplasms in patients who received head and neck irradiation during childhood  

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One hundred fifty-one patients with a history of childhood irradiation to the head, neck, and thorax had neck explorations (142 for cold thyroid nodules and 9 for hypercalcemia). Fifty-nine of the patients had thyroid carcinoma, and associated glandular tumors were found in 20 others. In addition, 6 female patients developed breast carcinoma; 4 of these women also had thyroid carcinoma. In this series, 48.6% of the patients irradiated for acne and 36.4% with tonsil and adenoid irradiation developed thyroid carcinoma, but only 10.5% with thymic irradiation did so. It is suggested that the workup on these patients include not only complete thyroid and parathyroid testing, but also a careful examination of all salivary glands, both major and minor. Women should have thorough breast examinations and should perhaps be followed as if they were in the potentially high-risk breast group. When thyroid surgery is performed, a total thyroidectomy is recommended

131

Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium  

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Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

2014-12-19

132

Tumores malignos en nuestro medio: Estudio de 10 años Malignant neoplasms in our environment: A ten-year study  

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Full Text Available Se estudian 616 pacientes con tumores malignos del aparato genital femenino, las que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente en el hospital ginecoobstétrico docente de Guanabacoa en el decenio 1984-1994. Como resultado de este trabajo se observó que el 2,9 % del total de biopsias correspondía a neoplasias malignas, y fue el carcinoma del cuello uterino el tumor más frecuente (423 casos para el 68,6 % del total de neoplasias. Los tumores de la mama y el endometrio ocuparon el 2do. y 3er. lugares en frecuencia, cuyas variedades histológicas se corresponden con lo reportado en la literatura. Se evidencia la importancia de redoblar la vigilancia e incrementar la labor y eficacia en la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino y de la glándula mamaria.616 patients with female genital malignant neoplasms, who had been operated on at the Teaching Gynecological and Obstetric Hospital in Guanabacoa from 1984-1994, were studied. As a result, it was observed that 2.9 % of biopsies corresponded to malignant neoplasms and the most frequent was the cervix-uteri carcinoma (423 cases accounting for 68,6 % of total number. Breast and endometriun neoplasms are the second and third causes. Whose histological varieties are similar to those reported in literature. The importance of strenghtening surveillance and increasing the effectiveness in the early detection of cervix uterine cancer and of breast cancer are evidenced.

Nancy Vasallo Pastor

1999-12-01

133

Tumores malignos en nuestro medio: Estudio de 10 años / Malignant neoplasms in our environment: A ten-year study  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudian 616 pacientes con tumores malignos del aparato genital femenino, las que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente en el hospital ginecoobstétrico docente de Guanabacoa en el decenio 1984-1994. Como resultado de este trabajo se observó que el 2,9 % del total de biopsias correspondía a neoplasi [...] as malignas, y fue el carcinoma del cuello uterino el tumor más frecuente (423 casos para el 68,6 % del total de neoplasias). Los tumores de la mama y el endometrio ocuparon el 2do. y 3er. lugares en frecuencia, cuyas variedades histológicas se corresponden con lo reportado en la literatura. Se evidencia la importancia de redoblar la vigilancia e incrementar la labor y eficacia en la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino y de la glándula mamaria. Abstract in english 616 patients with female genital malignant neoplasms, who had been operated on at the Teaching Gynecological and Obstetric Hospital in Guanabacoa from 1984-1994, were studied. As a result, it was observed that 2.9 % of biopsies corresponded to malignant neoplasms and the most frequent was the cervix [...] -uteri carcinoma (423 cases accounting for 68,6 % of total number). Breast and endometriun neoplasms are the second and third causes. Whose histological varieties are similar to those reported in literature. The importance of strenghtening surveillance and increasing the effectiveness in the early detection of cervix uterine cancer and of breast cancer are evidenced.

Nancy, Vasallo Pastor; Adis L., Peña Cedeño; Alfredo, Rodríguez Pérez.

1999-12-01

134

Thyroid Nodules in Pediatrics: Which Ones Can Be Left Alone, Which Ones Must be Investigated, When and How  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid nodules are less frequent in childhood than in adulthood, but are more often malignant. Recent estimates suggest that up to 25% of thyroid nodules in children are malignant, therefore, a more aggressive approach is recommended. In this review, we suggest an approach based on a first-step clinical, laboratory, and sonographic evaluation. A history of irradiation of the neck, cranium or upper thorax, previous thyroid diseases or thyroid neoplasms in the family should alert clinicians as...

Corrias, Andrea; Mussa, Alessandro

2013-01-01

135

Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation.  

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Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient's body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

Taddei, Phillip J; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D

2015-01-01

136

Optical characterization of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue: a pilot study.  

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Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method has a high percentage of inconclusive and false-negative results for benign and malignant lesions. Hence, it is important to search for a new method to assist medical evaluation during these surgical procedures. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and non-destructive method to assist medical evaluation. In this study, we investigated 17 human thyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. This initial investigation has demonstrated that thyroid fluorescence originates from many endogenous fluorophores and culminates in several bands. The fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by analysis of variance using Tukey test with individual confidence level of 98.06 %. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions can potentially assist diagnosis. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool for the surgeon to identify differences between normal and pathological thyroid tissues. PMID:25731814

Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Basilio, F S; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

2015-03-01

137

Thyroid abnormalities associated with treatment of malignant lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects on the thyroid of radiation therapy to the neck and/or chemotherapy were investigated in 54 Hodgkin's and 72 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. These patients had received radiation therapy with doses ranging from 2000 to 4000 rad (median 3600 rad) to the cervical or mantle fields and/or multiple-agent chemotherapy following usual staging procedures. Palpable abnormalities of the thyroid were found in 15 patients. The patients with irradiation to the neck had a higher incidence of hypothyroidism than those patients treated with chemotherapy alone (31/74 vs. 8/52, P less than 0.001 for TSH and 10/74 vs. 1/52, P less than 0.025 for T4). A higher frequency of elevated serum TSH levels and antithyroid antibodies were also observed in patients receiving radiation therapy alone to the neck than in those receiving both radiation therapy and chemotherapy (19/33 vs. 12/41, P less than 0.025 for TSH and 16/33 vs. 7/41, p less than 0.01 for antibodies), suggesting that chemotherapy agents may reduce the thyroid dysfunction induced by irradiation. There was no difference in prevalence of elevated TSH levels following irradiation to the neck between patients in whom lymphangiogram was or was not performed

138

Ultrastructural localization of thyroid peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide-generating sites, and monoamine oxidase in benign and malignant thyroid diseases.  

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Despite thyroid tissue heterogeneity, biochemical and morphological features have been associated with certain thyroid diseases. We analyzed the ultracytochemical localization of thyroperoxidase (TPO), TPO-associated hydrogen peroxide-generating sites (H(2)O(2) sites), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) in terms of morphology and biochemical TPO activity in abnormal thyroids. We examined 11 cases of nontoxic multinodular goiter, 5 cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 1 case of oncocytic (Hürthle or oxyphilic cell) adenoma, 5 cases of Graves' disease, 4 cases of papillary carcinoma, and 4 cases of perinodular normal tissue. In the perinodular tissue, TPO was detected mainly in the nuclear envelope, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), and subapical vesicles, but not in the apical surface. In multinodular goiter, heterogeneous TPO reactivity ranging from almost null to strongly positive was detected in similar locations as in the perinodular tissue, and was absent in the microvilli. Follicular cells from Hashimoto's thyroiditis displayed TPO in the nuclear envelope and the scarce RER. Remarkably, oncocytic cells from both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and oncocytic adenoma, typically packed with mitochondria, displayed evident TPO reaction exclusively in mitochondrial cristae. In Graves' disease, the nuclear envelope, enlarged RER, and apical vesicles were strongly TPO positive, and microvilli also exhibited TPO activity. Papillary carcinoma cells were negative for TPO. The localization and characteristics of TPO activity in the H(2)O(2) sites were similar to that of TPO in all tissues. MAO was positive in mitochondria of perinodular tissues, multinodular goiter, and oncocytes and negative in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. Interestingly, MAO was intensely positive in the nuclear envelope of papillary carcinoma but unreactive in mitochondria. Biochemical TPO activity was increased in multinodular goiter and Graves' disease. In conclusion, several changes in ultracytochemical characteristics of TPO, H(2)O(2) sites, and MAO were associated with thyroid disease. Nonmalignant oncocytic cells exhibited an unusual mitochondrial location of TPO and H(2)O(2) sites. The distribution of MAO in nuclear envelope of papillary carcinoma cells could be a further feature of malignancy. PMID:15116324

Masini-Repiso, Ana M; Bonaterra, Mónica; Spitale, Luis; Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Bonino, Mara I; Coleoni, Aldo H; Orgnero-Gaisán, Elsa

2004-04-01

139

Retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with cytostatic drugs and Co60 because of genital malignant neoplasms  

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The effect of application of cytostatic drugs and telegammatherapy (Co60) was tested by means of cutaneous hyperactivity reactions in 89 women treated because of malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. The skin tests with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivate (PPD) were used. The group 1 constituted of 36 women treated with cytostatic drugs through a period of 7 months to 4 years. The appearance of retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. In cases of improvement of the clinical state the skin reactions were more intensive, when the disease progreded the reactions became weak or disappeared. When the clinical state remained unchanged - the same was true with the skin reactions. In the group 253 women were treated by means of irradiation (Co60) because of similar diagnosis of malignant genital neoplasm. In all cases a regression of the retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD was observed, together with a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the peripheric blood. Correlation of the individual skin reactions to DNCB and PPD demonstrated that the latter gave a smaller percent of positive reactions in comparison with the former agent, these reactions were also less sensitive. (author)

140

Multidisciplinary treatment based on surgery leading to long-term survival of a patient with multiple asynchronous rare primary malignant neoplasms: A case report and literature review  

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Patients that present with multiple primary malignant neoplasms are increasingly encountered, but the treatment of such patients presents specific challenges and long-term survival is rare. The present study reports the case of a 45-year-old female diagnosed with three rare, distinct primary malignant neoplasms, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) of the brain, Ewing’s sarcoma of the lumbar 2 vertebra and a malignant solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the liver, at different time points. The patient underwent multidisciplinary treatment according to the diagnoses, including radial resection of all primary lesions, chemotherapy (consisting of vincristine, dactinomycin, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and radiotherapy, to treat Ewing’s sarcoma and metastases of EHE and malignant SFT. Following these treatments, the patient survived for >14 years. Multidisciplinary treatment regimens based on surgery can lead to long-term survival of patients with multiple asynchronous rare primary malignant neoplasms. The present study reported that multidisciplinary treatment regimens based on surgery can lead to the long-term survival of patients with multiple asynchronous rare primary malignant neoplasms. PMID:25663869

GU, HONG-LIN; ZENG, SHI-XING; CHANG, YUN-BING; LIN, ZHEN; ZHENG, QIU-JIAN; ZHENG, XIAO-QING; PENG, ZHEN-WEI; ZHAN, SHI-QIANG

2015-01-01

141

Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of thyroid neoplasms  

OpenAIRE

Background: In order to test the possibility of association between GSTT1 and M1 (glutathione S-transferase) null allele variant, in which the entire gene is absent, and the risk of TCO (thyroid carcinoma with cell oxyphilia), the case-control study was carried out. Methods: Genotypes for GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined by multiplex PCR in the DNA from 108 healthy individuals and in DNA from samples of thyroid tumors from 130 patients of the same race and origin as the control group (Caucasia...

Stankov Karmen; Landi Stefano; Volante Marco; Papotti Mauro

2003-01-01

142

Imp3 Expression in Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tumors and Hyperplastic Nodules  

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Background: IMP3, a member of insulin-like growth factor II m RNA binding protein family, seems to be promising in the diagnosis of carcinomas of many organs as well as malignant melanomas and some sarcomas. It is postulated that it might be a marker of malignancy. The results of the few prior studies indicate that IMP3 has the potential to be useful in distinguishing benign and malignant tumors of thyroid. Aims: We aimed to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of IMP3 in non-neoplastic nodules and benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Overall, 92 thyroid lesions, including 22 nodular hyperplasia (NH), 14 follicular adenoma (FA), 9 follicular carcinoma (FC), 37 papillary carcinoma (PC) (15 follicular variant), 3 well differentiated carcinoma-not otherwise specified (WDC-NOS), 4 poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) and anaplastic carcinoma (AC) were included. Immunohistochemically, cytoplasmic expression of IMP3 was evaluated in terms of extent and intensity of the staining semi-quantitatively and an immunohistochemical score (IHS) was obtained for each case. A score higher than 2 was considered positive staining. Results: In contrast with previous studies, we observed positive staining in benign lesions, especially in benign tumors. For identifying malignant tumors, the sensitivity of IMP3 was 82.1%, specificity was 33.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 65.7% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 54.5%. In distinguishing neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions, the sensitivity was 50%, specificity was 15.7%, PPV was 15.7% and NPV was 50%. The IMP3 expression was similar for FA and well differentiated carcinomas (p=0.434), but there was a significant difference between hyperplastic nodules and FA (p=0.011). Conclusion: Our data suggest that IMP3 is effective in discriminating hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions but not useful in differentiating benign tumors from malignant tumors.

Kulaço?lu, Sezer; Erk?l?nç, Gamze

2015-01-01

143

Neck ultrasonography as preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism with an additional role of detecting thyroid malignancy  

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Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performances of high-resolution ultrasonography and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands and to evaluate the ability of US for additional diagnostic roles in detecting thyroid malignancy in patients with pHPT. Materials and methods: Preoperative localization images of 115 parathyroid adenomas from high-resolution ultrasonography (US) and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) were studied from 105 patients, who had undergone parathyroidectomy. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were calculated for the identification of adenomas in lesions and patients for both US and SS, respectively, and US and SS diagnostic performances were compared using generalized estimating equation. Results: Preoperative imaging by both modalities localized 105 (93.8%) of the 112 parathyroid lesions confirmed at surgery and histology. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were 93.1% and 92.2%, 90.4% and 89.5%, and 96.9% and 96.9% by US and SS, respectively, without any statistically significant differences (P = 0.796, 0.796, 0.879). US found incidental thyroid nodules in 47 patients (47/107, 43.9%), and 7 patients (7/107, 6.5%) were confirmed to have malignancy based on pathology results (all had papillary thyroid carcinoma). Conclusion: Neck ultrasonography and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy are complementary methods of the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Neck ultrasounds add an additional thyroid gland evaluation, and can be useful in the detection of incidental thyroid gland lesions, especially malignant nodules.

Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jin Young, E-mail: docjin@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-15

144

Neck ultrasonography as preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism with an additional role of detecting thyroid malignancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performances of high-resolution ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands and to evaluate the ability of US for additional diagnostic roles in detecting thyroid malignancy in patients with pHPT. Materials and methods: Preoperative localization images of 115 parathyroid adenomas from high-resolution ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) were studied from 105 patients, who had undergone parathyroidectomy. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were calculated for the identification of adenomas in lesions and patients for both US and SS, respectively, and US and SS diagnostic performances were compared using generalized estimating equation. Results: Preoperative imaging by both modalities localized 105 (93.8%) of the 112 parathyroid lesions confirmed at surgery and histology. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were 93.1% and 92.2%, 90.4% and 89.5%, and 96.9% and 96.9% by US and SS, respectively, without any statistically significant differences (P = 0.796, 0.796, 0.879). US found incidental thyroid nodules in 47 patients (47/107, 43.9%), and 7 patients (7/107, 6.5%) were confirmed to have malignancy based on pathology results (all had papillary thyroid carcinoma). Conclusion: Neck ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy are complementary methods of the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Neck ultrasounds add an additional thyroid gland evaluation, and can be useful in the detection of incidental thyroid gland lesions, especially malignant nodules

145

The value of ultrasound elastography in differentiation of malignancy in thyroid nodules.  

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We aimed to determine the value of ultrasound elastography (US-E) using carotid artery pulsation in differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. One hundred ten nodules were evaluated by US-E, and stiffness scores were compared to biopsy results. When cutoff for malignancy was determined as score 4, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 100%, 95%, 40%, and 100%, respectively. We suggest fine needle aspiration biopsy to be performed in all score 4 nodules, while biopsy may be unnecessary in score 1 nodules. Benign biopsy result in a score 4 nodule should suggest radiological-pathological disagreement, and repeat biopsy should be recommended. PMID:24387918

Akcay, Mehmet Arif; Semiz-Oysu, Aslihan; Ahiskali, Rengin; Aribal, Erkin

2014-01-01

146

A three-gene panel that distinguishes benign from malignant thyroid nodules.  

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Reliable preoperative diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors remains challenging because of the inconclusive cytological examination of fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Although numerous studies have successfully demonstrated the use of high-throughput molecular diagnostics in cancer prediction, the application of microarrays in routine clinical use remains limited. Our aim was, therefore, to identify a small subset of genes to develop a practical and inexpensive diagnostic tool for clinical use. We developed a two-step feature selection method composed of a linear models for microarray data (LIMMA) linear model and an iterative Bayesian model averaging model to identify a suitable gene set signature. Using one public dataset for training, we discovered a three-gene signature dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), secretogranin V (SCG5) and carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12). We then evaluated the robustness of our gene set using three other independent public datasets. The gene signature accuracy was 85.7, 78.8 and 85.7%, respectively. For experimental validation, we collected 70 thyroid samples from surgery and our three-gene signature method achieved an accuracy of 94.3% by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) experiment. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry in 29 samples showed proteins expressed by these three genes are also differentially expressed in thyroid samples. Our protocol discovered a robust three-gene signature that can distinguish benign from malignant thyroid tumors, which will have daily clinical application. PMID:25175491

Zheng, Bing; Liu, Jun; Gu, Jianlei; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Min; Lu, Hui

2015-04-01

147

Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

148

Integral Analysis of Blood Plasma Biochemical Parameters as an Optimizing Diagnostic Technique of Epithelial Tissue Malignant Neoplasms  

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Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the interaction of tumor marker level, the indices of protein and mineral metabolism, free radical oxidation in blood plasma and the tumor-forming stage in malignant processes in epithelial tissues. Materials and Methods. Blood plasma of 73 patients with epithelial tissue malignant neoplasms and 31 apparently healthy people were studied. Blood plasma biochemical parameters were assessed using the analyzers: free-radical activity — by induced biochemiluminescence; oxidative protein modification — by the level of carbonyl derivatives; elemental analysis — using atomic emission spectrometry. Results. Low diagnostic value of the determination of oncomarkers at early stage of the studied oncological diseases was shown. We observed the change of blood plasma biochemical parameters at early carcinogenesis stage: the albumin level reduction and the concentration increase of urea, alpha1- and gamma-globulin fractions. Cancer patients were found to have impaired element homeostasis: Na, Fe, Cu, Li level decrease, K, P, Sr increase. We revealed the activation of free-radical oxidation and oxidative protein modification, the correlation of the intensity of these processes with the content of some elements in blood plasma. Integral analysis of blood plasma biochemical parameters increases diagnostic value of the determination of tumor markers in the detection of malignant tumors of epithelial tissues.

?.I. Erlykina

2013-08-01

149

An 8-year evaluation of nasal and paranasal sinuses malignant neoplasms in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal and paranasal sinuses malignant neoplasms are usually diagnosed in advanced stages because of non-specific and benign symptoms. In this study we evaluated the symptoms, pathology and treatment of paranasal sinuses malignancies in patients admitted to Tehran University of Medical Sciences affiliated hospitals. Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, medical files of patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus malignancies and admitted to Imam Khomeini and Amir Aalam hospitals between 2000-2007 were evaluated. Results: Of 75 patients, 47 were male and 28 were female. The mean age was 55±14.1 years. The most common sinus involvement was seen in Maxillary sinuses (86.7% and 18 patients had concurrent involvement of other sinuses. The most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (40% and the most common clinical symptom was nasal obstruction (%28. Distant metastasis was found in 46 patients and 42 patients presented with eye involvement Eleven patients underwent endoscopic resection. Conclusion: The presence of eye involvement and distant metastasis in a large number of the patients showed that diagnosis of paranasal cancers is delayed because of their nonspecific symptoms. Therefore further education of clinical manifestations of paranasal sinus cancers is emphasized. 

Mohsen Naraghi

2009-07-01

150

Malignant cystic renal neoplasms in infants and children: Imaging differential considerations  

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The majority of malignant renal tumors in infants and children display characteristics of solid masses on various imaging modalities. However, a number of these lesions may appear partially or entirely cystic due to hemorrhage, necrosis, or true cyst formation. It is often difficult to differentiate these malignant lesions from more common benign cystic renal and retroperitoneal abnormalities. Wilms tumors, malignant mesoblastic nephroma, and renal pelvic carcinoma with predominatly cystic findings on imaging are presented. They are compared with benign renal and retroperitoneal lesions which they may mimic, including multilocular cystic nephroma, congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction and its variants, duplication anomalies with complications, and adrenal hemorrhage

151

[Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytokeratin in thyroid neoplasms and its clinical implications].  

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Formalin fixed paraffin sections of previously resected surgical specimens and ethanol fixed stamped samples of newly obtained specimens from patients with thyroid neoplastic lesions were investigated for the presence of cytokeratin by the help of avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method using anticytokeratin monoclonal antibody PKK-1. The result showed that PKK-1 reacted only to a large cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and not to a small cell type. Therefore this method appears not to be useful for differentiation between small cell carcinoma and lymphoma. The differentiation between papillary carcinoma and follicularly growing tumor was possible by this method because the former reacted to PKK-1 at a high rate, whereas most of the latter were negative to it. Freshly prepared stamped samples showed a better reaction to the monoclonal antibody, and thus this technique appears to be applicable to an aspiration biopsy cytology. PMID:2455858

Nozaki, H

1988-03-01

152

201Tl-chloride thyroid scintigraphy to evaluate benign and/or malignant nodules: usefulness of the delayed scan  

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate benign and/or malignant thyroid tumors with 201Tl thyroid scan. Researchers studied 76 cases of histologically verified thyroid tumors, all seen as cold nodules on the 123I thyroid scan. 201Tl thyroid scan was performed 5-15 minutes (early scan) and 3-5 hours (delayed scan) after intravenous administration of 1.5-2.0 mCi of 201Tl. In 35 (94.6%) of 36 malignant tumors (anaplastic carcinoma, six; papillary carcinoma 23; follicular carcinoma, five; epidermoid carcinoma, one; malignant lymphoma, 1) 201Tl accumulated in the cold nodule of the 123I thyroid scan on both early and delayed scans. On the other hand, the delayed 201Tl scan was negative in 35 out of 39 (89.7%) benign tumors. Employing early and delayed 201Tl scans, researchers were able to differentiate most malignant thyroid tumors from those which were benign. False-negative and -positive cases are discussed

153

Determination of Malignant and Invasive Predictors in Branch Duct Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: A Suggested Scoring Formula  

OpenAIRE

Prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (Br-IPMN) is difficult, and proper treatment strategy has not been well established. The authors investigated the characteristics of Br-IPMN and explored its malignancy or invasiveness predicting factors to suggest a scoring formula for predicting pathologic results. From 1994 to 2008, 237 patients who were diagnosed as Br-IPMN at 11 tertiary referral centers in Korea were retrospectively revi...

Hwang, Dae Wook; Jang, Jin-young; Lim, Chang-sup; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoon, Yoo-seok; Ahn, Young Joon; Han, Ho-seong; Kim, Sun-whe; Kim, Sang Geol; Yun, Young Kook; Han, Seong-sik; Park, Sang-jae; Lim, Tae Jin; Kang, Koo Jung; Sim, Mun Sup

2011-01-01

154

Differential expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in thyroid tumors. Potential diagnostic implications.  

OpenAIRE

Carcinoma of the thyroid gland, the most frequently diagnosed endocrine malignancy, is often associated with early regional metastases. With the exception of papillary carcinoma, distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms in the absence of metastatic disease is difficult. Recently, the vertebrate lectins galectin-1 and galectin-3 have been implicated in the regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation of a variety of tissues. To determine whether th...

Xu, X. C.; El-naggar, A. K.; Lotan, R.

1995-01-01

155

Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report  

OpenAIRE

The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

Hafez, Mohamed T.; Hegazy, Mohamed A.; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

2012-01-01

156

[Laryngeal-tracheal resection in the treatment of thyroid malignancies: description of a case and review of literature].  

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Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas infiltrate into the respiratory tract in between 0.9 and 7% of the cases. Laryngeal-tracheal involvement--most often discovered intra-operatively--can substantially modify the surgical approach. It should be evaluated pre-operatively through laryngo-tracheoscopy with a flexible fibroscope and, in some selected cases, using CT or NMR. Thyroidectomy, associated with laryngeal-tracheal resection and termino-terminal anastomosis, ensures good oncological results without any negative effect on the incidence of post-operative complications. The present work reports the case of a 64-year-old patient who, for 5 months, had presented a swelling of increasing consistency in the left hemithyroid, fixed on the deep planes. Echography showed a 5 cm mass in the left lobe and thyroid isthmus, without suspected lymphadenopathy for metastasis. Fine needle cytology was compatible with papillary carcinoma. CT using a contrast medium revealed an infiltration into the left antero-lateral wall of the I and II tracheal ring, with submucosal extension with no significant signs of stenosis of the airway. Esophagogastroscopy was normal while tracheobroncoscopy confirmed the radiological picture and made it possible to perform a tracheal biopsy which proved positive for papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy associated with anterior compartment lymphadenectomy and crico-tracheal resection of the cricoid arch and the first 5 tracheal rings. When surgery was completed, the patient was extubated without complications. Post-operative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 9th day after surgery. Histopathological examination confirmed the pre-operative diagnosis and made it possible to stage the lesion as pT4N1bM0 because of the presence of one prelaryngeal lymph node metastasis and another one at the right paratracheal space. Complementary I131 therapy was scheduled along with periodic laryngo-tracheoscopic controls. 16 months after surgery the anastomotic line is perfectly healed and the patient is clinically disease free. A review of the literature on the surgical treatment of well-differentiated malignant thyroid neoplasms with respiratory tract involvement through resection and laryngo-tracheal anastomosis has made it possible to trace the indications, limits and results of this type of therapeutic approach. PMID:11434224

Peretti, G; Piazza, C; Giudice, M; Nicolai, P; Antonelli, A R

2001-02-01

157

Clinical evaluation of 24 cases of primary thyroid malignant lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed open biopsy in diagnosing primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and tumor management with compression symptoms and therapy. We retrospectively studied 24 subjects diagnosed with PTL from December 1997 to June 2010.Open biopsy was done in 23 of 24 subjects. Incisional biopsy was done in 14, 13 of whom yielded sufficient materials in the first biopsy. Excisional biopsy was done in the remaining 9, 2 of whom developed permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after biopsy. The five with airway obstruction underwent incisional biopsy followed by immediate steroid administration of dexamethasone or methylprednisolone. All had histopathologically confirmed diagnosis and airway symptoms were resolved within a few days. Multidisciplinary therapy including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery was applied in 20 of 24 subjects. Single therapy was done in 4-chemotherapy in 2 and radiotherapy and surgery in 1 each. Overall results were satisfactory, with a 92% 10-year disease-free survival rate and an 86% 10-year overall survival rate based on the Kaplan-Meier method with 46-month median follow up. When diagnosing PTL, especially large tumors spreading into extrathyroid tissue, incisional biopsy is more advantageous in histopathological diagnosis than excisional biopsy due to the lower risk of surgical complications. In a case involving a small intrathyroidal nodule, excisional biopsy is safer and more diagnostically accurate. In an airway obstruction emergency, once a defn airway obstruction emergency, once a definitive diagnosis is made, steroid administration plus endotracheal intubation, if necessary, for airway management is optimal management. Subjects with stage IE mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas can be treated with radiotherapy or surgery alone. Those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or greater than stage IE MALT lymphoma, however, should be treated with multidisciplinary therapy because they have a potentially poor outcome. (author)

158

A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?  

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Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

Veyrieres, J.-B., E-mail: jbveyrieres@hotmail.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées St Anne, Bd Saint Anne, BP 20545 Toulon cedex (France); Albarel, F., E-mail: frederique.albarel@ap-hm.fr [Département médical d’endocrinologie et des pathologies métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Lombard, J. Vaillant, E-mail: Josiane.vaillant@ap-hm.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Berbis, J., E-mail: Julie.berbis@ap-hm.fr [Département de santé publique, Université de Médecine, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sebag, F., E-mail: frederic.sebag@ap-hm.fr [Département de chirurgie des pathologies endocriniennes et métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); and others

2012-12-15

159

Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of thyroid neoplasms  

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Full Text Available Background: In order to test the possibility of association between GSTT1 and M1 (glutathione S-transferase null allele variant, in which the entire gene is absent, and the risk of TCO (thyroid carcinoma with cell oxyphilia, the case-control study was carried out. Methods: Genotypes for GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined by multiplex PCR in the DNA from 108 healthy individuals and in DNA from samples of thyroid tumors from 130 patients of the same race and origin as the control group (Caucasian, Italian. The following types of NMTC were analyzed: oxyphilic adenoma (OA, oxyphilic carcinoma (OC papillary thyroid carcinoma with oxyphilic features (PTCof, follicular adenoma (FA, follicular carcinoma (FC, follicular variant of PTC (fvPTC and classical PTC. Associations between prevalence of particular genotypes and the occurrence of TCO (versus controls and other subtypes of NMTC were tested. Associations were quantified by calculating OR (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. StatGraphics Plus v. 5 software (Manugistics was used for statistical analysis. Results: In this study of the association between the GSTT1 and M1 null genotype and the increased risk of TCO, the frequency of GSTT1 null genotype of 19.2% in cases and 15.7% in controls was found with an adjusted odds ratio (OR of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-2.81, and the frequency of GSTM1 null genotype of 59% in cases with oxyphilic tumors and of 55.6% in controls (OR 1.24; 95% CI, 0.62-2.48. Conclusion: These results indicate that the GSTT1 and M1 null genotypes do not increase the risk of development of oxyphilic tumors, as well as other types of NMTC that have been included in this study.

Stankov Karmen

2003-01-01

160

Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consihe Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.)

161

Automated benign & malignant thyroid lesion characterization and classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound.  

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In this work, we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based technique for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. The images were obtained from 20 patients. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture based features were extracted from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors were used to train and test three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr) using ten-fold cross validation technique. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features in the K-NN classifier resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Thus, the preliminary results of the proposed technique show that it could be adapted as an adjunct tool that can give valuable second opinions to the doctors regarding the nature of the thyroid nodule. The technique is cost-effective, non-invasive, fast, completely automated and gives more objective and reproducible results compared to manual analysis of the ultrasound images. We however intend to establish the clinical applicability of this technique by evaluating it with more data in the future. PMID:23365926

Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vinitha Sree; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

2012-01-01

162

Undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (including lymphomas and metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies): Radio- and chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unsatisfactory results obtained with percutaneous irradiation of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas led to the search for improved methods of local radiotherapy. Among these are hyperfractionated irradiation, also in combination with chemotherapy, and combined pre- and postoperatively applied hyperfractionated radio- and chemotherapy. The incidence of local recurrences is markedly reduced under this therapy. Only few empirical reports on cytostatic therapy of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas exist. Remissions can be expected in one third of the cases and, with combined adriblastin/cis-platinum therapy, complete remissions are occasionally also achieved. There are good chances of the survival time being prolonged in responders. Cytostatics are not indicated for patients in a poor general condition. Malignant lymphomas of the thyroid are rare. Therapy is stage-related and consists in radiotherapy and/or cytostatic treatment. Metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies are surgically removed only if no further metastases are detectable in the rest of the body. Otherwise, any therapy applied depend on the metastasis-related symptoms. (orig./ECB)

163

Malignant thyroid nodules: comparison between color Doppler diagnosis and histological examination of surgical samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules on the basis of vascularization. The study was conducted on 108 patients with a scintigraphically "cold" thyroid nodule, including 54 carcinomas and 54 benign nodules. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Diagnosis based on histological examination of the surgical specimen was compared with ultrasonographic diagnosis obtained according to a personal classification proposed by the authors. Vascular ultrasonographic investigation produced 10 false positives, 6 false negatives and 92 correct diagnoses, with 88.8% sensitivity, 81.5% specificity, an 82.7% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. It can thus be used effectively to identify the larger nodules, while it is unable to provide any indication as to their histological type. Ultrasound vascular thyroid study is a non-invasive and low-cost method and is very reliable in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules. The best ultrasonographic modality is power Doppler. Ultrasound contrast media increase vascular definition but, due to their higher cost and the longhier duration of the examination, they should only be used in the case of small nodules. PMID:12469461

Berni, Alberto; Tromba, Luciana; Falvo, Laura; Marchesi, Maurizio; Grilli, Paola; Peparini, Nadia

2002-01-01

164

The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn and selenium (Se, and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children distributed as follows: control group (n = 687, benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults; malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults. Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C. Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease. The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED as well as from healthy active athletes. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 and 10:30 a.m. All patients lived in Innsbruck. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14.0. The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients. Results Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies. The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se. Low Se levels in the control group were found in 12%. Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 ± 23.1 ?g/l and 59.3 ± 20.1 ?g/l, respectively as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean Se level in the control group was 90.5 ± 20.8 ?g/l. Conclusion The H0 can be accepted for vitamin C and zinc levels whereas it has to be rejected for Se. Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls. Low levels of vitamin C were found in all subgroups of patients.

Starzinger Matthias

2008-01-01

165

Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature  

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Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesotheli...

Lawrence Julia; Kamel Dia E; Elbahaie Alaaeldeen M; Davidson Neville G

2009-01-01

166

Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies  

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Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to gynecological malignancies.

Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

2013-09-01

167

Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to gynecological malignancies

168

Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT Scan in Differentiation of Malignant Parotid Neoplasms: New Approaches for Better Diagnosis  

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Full Text Available   Introduction: One of the most important preoperative concerns in patients with parotid neoplasms is the probability of malignancy. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of different findings of contrast-enhanced CT scan in differentiation of malignant parotid neoplasms. Also we have presented the results of new approaches in this regard. Materials and Methods: All patients with noninflammatory parotid masses were considered in this study in a one year period. All patients with one or more of these conditions were excluded from the study: age under 15 years old, patients who underwent previous biopsy or fine needle aspiration and the time interval between imaging and surgery was more than 10 days. Finally 33 patients were entered to the study. Of all cases, 18 (54.6% were male and the mean age was 43.3±17.6 years (15-78. All patients underwent a facial and neck contrast enhanced CT scanning in the supine position and axial sections (5 mm thickness and 5 mm interval were performed from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ upper border to the thoracic inlet. Ten seconds after intravenous bolus injection of 100cc Omnipaque 240 mg I/cc, imaging began. For all parotid masses, 8 imaging findings were evaluated which consisted of the tumor size [maximum value of parotid tumor short-axis diameter], Hunsfield unit (HU [considered in section performed 120 seconds after contrast medium injection; region of interest (ROI was considered as a 5 mm diameter circle in the central part of the region with the highest visual density of the mass],visual density, heterogenecity, tumor border, tumor location, tumor extension to the other neck spaces and cervical adenopathy. Surgery was performed for all patients and the histopathologic evaluation was done as gold standard. For dichotomous variables, the diagnostic indices [including sensitivity(Se., specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value(NPV, positive likelihood ratio (LR+ and negative likelihood ratio (LR-] were calculated. For continuous variables (including tumor size and HU the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve was assessed and the selected cut points were yielded. Results: Totally 13 patients showed malignant tumor in pathology (39.4%. Deep lobe involvement, extension to the other neck spaces and adenopathy were higher in malignant tumors [all P-Values<0.018]. Among dichotomous variables, the best Se. was for enhancement pattern (Se=0.85 while Sp=0.4 and the best Sp. was for extension and adenopathy [Sp=0.95 for both, Se=0.38 for extension and 0.46 for adenopathy]. Among seven variables of enhancement pattern, density, tumor location, tumoral extension, lymphadenopathy, Hu greater than 69 and tumoral size greater than 29 mm, if the patient showed equal or greater than 6 variables in favor of malignancy, the Sp was 1. The area under the curve (AUC of ROC curve was 0.75 [95% CI=0.57-0.92] for Hu and 0.76 [95% CI=0.6-0.92] for size [both P-Values<0.02]. We multiplied the tumor size and Hu and plotted the ROC curve for this new variable. The AUC of this new variable was 0.83 [P-Values=0.002,95% CI=0.68-0.96]. Considering the cut off point of 2050 for this variable yielded the Se of 0.85 and Sp of 0.75 for malignant tumors. Conclusion: Considering individual findings together could improve the diagnostic accuracy of CT.

Shervin Sharifkashany

2009-01-01

169

CT findings in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid tumor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analysed CT findings of thyroid mass to determine the difference between a benign and a malignant mass and to evaluate the differential findings, if any. The subjects were 87 cases with a pathologically proven thyroid mass (malignancy in 66 cases, benign mass in 21 cases). CT findings were retrospectively analysed. For the primary masses, bilaterality, size, margin, attenuation of the mass, spotty portion with distinct high attenuation(which may suggest calcification), necrosis, cystic change, solid portion within the cyst, and invasion of adjacent structures were evaluated. For the lymph nodes, size, high attenuated spotty portion, necrosis, cystic change, and solid portion within the cyst were evaluated. CT findings of thyroid masses and lymph nodes were evaluated in order to determine whether these were benign of malignant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon rank sum test. In malignant masses, compared with benign, an indistinct margin of the mass(48% vs 19%), in vasion of adjacent structures(53% vs 0%), and associated lymph node enlargement(50% vs 0%) were more frequent. With regard to bilaterality, size, attenuation, high-attenuated spotty portion(which may suggest calcification), necrosis, cystic change, and solid portion within the cyst, there was no significant difference between benign andmalignant masses. In masses of the former type, enlarged lymph node or invasion or adjacent structure were not seen at all. When the papructure were not seen at all. When the papillary solid portion within the cystic mass was additionally evaluated, papillary carcinoma was the most common finding(77% 14/18). General findings of malignancy such as margin, invasion of the mass, and lymph node enlargement are of help in the differential diagnosis of a malignant mass. High attenuated spotty portion, which may suggest calcification within the mass, or size of the mass are non-specific findings, and are not helpful in differential diagnosis. The papillary solid portion within the cyst of the mass could suggest papillary carcinoma as a first possibility and could be helpful in differential diagnosis

170

Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study  

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Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children' s Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

2012-03-01

171

Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: Th of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

172

Application of Texture Analysis Method for Classification of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images  

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Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate computer aided diagnosis (CAD system with texture analysis (TA to improve radiologists' accuracy in identification of thyroid nodules as malignant or benign. Methods: A total of 70 cases (26 benign and 44 malignant were analyzed in this study. We extracted up to 270 statistical texture features as a descriptor for each selected region of interests (ROIs in three normalization schemes (default, 3? and 1%-99%. Then features by the lowest probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC, and Fisher coefficient (Fisher eliminated to 10 best and most effective features. These features were analyzed under standard and nonstandard states. For TA of the thyroid nodules, Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA were applied. First Nearest-Neighbour (1-NN classifier was performed for the features resulting from PCA and LDA. NDA features were classified by artificial neural network (A-NN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used for examining the performance of TA methods. Results: The best results were driven in 1-99% normalization with features extracted by POE+ACC algorithm and analyzed by NDA with the area under the ROC curve (Az of 0.9722 which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that TA is a reliable method, can provide useful information help radiologist in detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

Ali Abbasian Ardakani

2015-03-01

173

[Correlation of expression of progesterone receptors with histopathological type and grade of malignancy of cerebral neoplasms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Steroid receptors play an important role in homeostasis and in proliferation of neoplastic cells as well. Biological effect of steroid hormone on tissues depends on intracellular concentration of its receptor. The binding hormone with its receptor activates adequate genes in cellular nuclei and cell proliferation. The mutation of genes codifying of receptor protein may cause its structural modification or changes in its activity and lead to neoplastic transformation. The aim of our work was the estimation of progesterone receptors (PR) concentration in cerebral neoplasma and correlation with histopathological type and grade of malignancy of cerebral tumours. We examined 89 patients, among them 28 with meningioma, 43 with glioma and 18 with metastatic tumour. The concentration of PR was evaluated using radioreceptor assay. Our results show statistically significant correlation between expression of PR and type and malignancy of neoplastic tumours. It was especially seen in meningioma and the highest concentration of PR were in I grade tumours. PMID:11935670

Och, W; Mariak, Z; Kope?, J; Smó?ka, M; Koziorowski, M

2001-01-01

174

The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading  

OpenAIRE

Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the ...

Vasudev, Vidya; R, Rangaswamy; V, Geethamani

2013-01-01

175

The results of combined therapy malignant neoplasms of maxillary sinus at Oncology Center in Poznan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1985-1989 22 patients with malignant neoplasma maxillary sinus have been treated. At the first stage the surgical resection of maxilla was performed. Most of the patients (77%) had histopathological diagnosis of carcinoma planoepitheliale, 13% carcinoma solidum and 4% carcinoma adenoides cysticum. All patients had adjuvant therapy by Co-60 irradiation. Single fraction dose of 2 Gy/T 5 times a week up to total dose of 60-70 Gy/T has been applied. In the follow-up period of minimum 36 months the free-symptoms survival rate of 18%. (author)

176

Frequent Expression of the Variant CD30 in Human Malignant Myeloid and Lymphoid Neoplasms  

OpenAIRE

We earlier identified a variant of CD30 (CD30v) that retains only the cytoplasmic region of the authentic CD30. This variant is expressed in alveolar macrophages. CD30v can activate the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) as CD30, and its overexpression in HL-60 induced a differentiated phenotype. To better understand the physiological and pathological functions of CD30v, expression of this variant was examined using a multiple approach to examine 238 samples of human malignant myeloid and lymphoid n...

Horie, Ryouichi; Gattei, Valter; Ito, Kinji; Imajo-ohmi, Shinobu; Tange, Tsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Jun; Pinto, Antonio; Degan, Massimo; Iuliis, Angela; Tassan Mazzocco, Francesca; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Higashihara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Toshiki

1999-01-01

177

Abdominal wall actinomycosis simulating a malignant neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abdominal wall actinomycosis is a rare disease frequently associated with the presence of an intra uterine device. We report on a case of a 47-year-old woman who had used an intrauterine device for many years and had removed it about a month prior to the identification of an abdominal wall abscess caused by Actinomyces israelii. The abscess mimicked a malignancy and the patient underwent a demolitive surgical treatment. The diagnosis was obtained only after histopathological examination. Postoperatively, the patient developed an infection of the wound which was treated with daily medication. The combination of long-term high dose antibiotic therapy with surgery led to successful treatment.

Paola Acquaro

2010-07-01

178

Synchronous Hurthle Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma in a Patient with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Rare Case Report  

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Full Text Available Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the most common autoimmune thyroid disease, is due to destruction of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. Various types of thyroid malignancies may arise in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, lymphomas, medullary carcinomas and hurthle cell neoplasms may develop in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present a rare case report of a 35-year-old female who presented with hypothyroidism of a two-year duration. A diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made for which she was under treatment. Due to the recent increase in size of the thyroid, a fine needle aspiration cytology was done. A preoperative diagnosis of Hurthle cell neoplasm was made based on fine needle aspiration cytology findings. The total thyroidectomy specimen revealed Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with synchronous papillary carcinoma and Hurthle cell carcinoma, which is a very rare occurrence.

Narayanan O. Navya

2014-10-01

179

Thyroid neoplasia in long-term Segment III beagles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-four (4.4%) of the 1680 Segment III beagles had one or more thyroid tumors as of December 31, 1979. Four sacrificed at 5 years of age and 13 sacrificed at 8 years of age had thyroid tumors. Ten malignant thyroid tumors have been removed surgically and 47 other dead dogs with thyroid neoplasms were found. Most tumors were of thyroid follicular cell origin and were near equally divided between benign and malignant varieties. Five dogs had tumors of the parafollicular cells (C-cells). To date, thyroid neoplasia does not appear to be associated with radiation exposure, but there does not appear to be an association with hypothyroidism. Forty-seven (68%) of the 69 dogs with thyroid follicular cell tumors were hypothyroid

180

Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László

2014-01-01

181

Interobserver Agreement for Detection of Malignant Features of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas on MDCT  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this retrospective study was to measure interobserver agreement in the assessment of malignant imaging features of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) on MDCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pancreatic protocol CT studies were reviewed for 84 patients with resected IPMNs. Maximal diameter of the dominant cyst, presence of a mural nodule, presence of a solid component, and diameters of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and common bile duct (CBD) were measured by four radiologists independently. In each patient, the IPMN was classified into one of three types: main duct, branch duct, or mixed IPMN. Interobserver agreement of lesion features was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous features and Fleiss kappa for categorical features. RESULTS The final dataset included 55 branch duct IPMNs, nine main duct IPMNs, and 20 mixed IPMNs. Moderate agreement (? = 0.458; 95% CI, 0.345–0.564) was observed in assigning branch duct, main duct, or mixed IPMN subtypes. Measurement agreement was substantial to excellent for dominant cyst (ICC = 0.852; 95% CI, 0.777–0.907), MPD (0.753, 0.655–0.837), and CBD (0.608, 0.463–0.724) but only fair to moderate for the detection of the presence of mural nodule (? = 0.284, 0.125–0.432) or solid component (? = 0.405, 0211–0.577). CONCLUSION Substantial to excellent interobserver agreement in the measurement of cyst diameter, MPD, and CBD support their use for characterizing malignant features of IPMN on MDCT. However, the subjective interpretation of the presence of solid components and mural nodules by individual radiologists was more variable. PMID:25341134

Do, Richard K. G.; Katz, Seth S.; Gollub, Marc J.; Li, Jian; LaFemina, Jennifer; Zabor, Emily C.; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Klimstra, David S.; Allen, Peter J.

2015-01-01

182

Clinical application of 99Tcm-HL91 hypoxic imaging in differential diagnoses of malignancy from benign thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Recent studies showed that 99Tcm-4, 9-diaza-3,3,10,10-tetramethyldode- can-2, 11-dizone dioxime (HL91) might be of potential in characterizing hypoxic areas within malignant tumors. The aims of this study were to use 99Tcm-HL91 in patients with thyroid nodules and also to explore its clinical utilities in differentiate benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with thyroid nodules, detected either by ultrasound or physical palpation, were enrolled. 99Tcm-HL91 planar thyroid images were performed at early (10 min after injection) and delay (4 h after injection) phases. The radioactivity ratio of tumor to non-tumor (T/N) was calculated and compared with the pathological results. The t test and ?2 test were used for data analysis. Results: Of the 58 patients, 21 were thyroid cancer and 37 were benign nodules. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99Tcm-HL91 for thyroid cancer were 85.7%, 94.6% and 91.4% respectively. Moreover, the sensitivity was positively correlated with the tumor size and was unrelated to the histological types (?2=0.778, P>0.05). A significant higher uptake of 99Tcm-HL91 in malignant nodule was noted than benign at delay phase (1.25 ± 0.03 vs 0.91 ± 0.12, t= 3.885, P99Tcm-HL91 hypoxic imaging has potential in both detecting and difas potential in both detecting and differentiating malignancy from benign thyroid nodules, especially when delay phase was applied. (authors)

183

Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue  

OpenAIRE

Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonat...

Rubio-correa, Isidoro; Manzano-solo-de-zaldi?var, Damia?n; Moreno-sa?nchez, Manuel; Herna?ndez-vila, Cristina; Rami?rez-pe?rez, Francisco-alejandro; Gonza?lez-ballester, David; Rui?z-laza, Luis; Gonza?lez-garci?a, Rau?l; Monje-gil, Florencio

2014-01-01

184

Spatial autocorrelation analysis of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan: a comparison between the 1995-1998 and 2005-2008 periods  

OpenAIRE

Spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran’s I and Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistic (LISA), were used to describe and map spatial clusters of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan. A logistic regression fit model was also used to identify similar characteristics over time. Two time periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) were compared in an attempt to formulate common spatio-temporal risks. Spatial cluster patterns were identified using local spatial autocor...

Pui-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Hwang Perng

2011-01-01

185

Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy  

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This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy.

Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15

186

Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy

187

[Duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection : an organ-sparing operation technique for cystic neoplasms and non-invasive malignant tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are being detected and surgically treated increasingly more frequently. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) are primary benign lesions; however, the 5-year risk for malignant transformation has been estimated to be 63 % and 15 %, respectively. Surgical extirpation of a benign cystic tumor of the pancreas is a cancer preventive measure. The duodenum-preserving total pancreatic head resection technique (DPPHRt) is being used more frequently for cystic neoplasms of the pancreatic head. The complete resection of the pancreatic head can be applied as a duodenum-preserving technique or with segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum. Borderline lesions, carcinoma in situ or T1N0 cancer of the papilla and the peripapillary common bile duct are also considered to be indications for segmental resection of the peripapillary duodenum. A literature search for cystic neoplastic lesions and DPPHRt revealed the most frequent indications to be IPMN, MCN and SCA lesions and 28 % suffered from a cystic neoplasm with carcinoma in situ or a peripapillary malignoma. The hospital mortality rate was 0.52 %. Compared to the Whipple type resection the DPPHRt exhibits significant benefits with respect to a low risk for early postoperative complications and a low hospital mortality rate of type resection. PMID:23417612

Beger, H G; Siech, M; Poch, B

2013-05-01

188

Second primitive malignant neoplasm after radiotherapy; Deuxieme cancer primitif survenant apres radiotherapie  

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Since the prolongation of survival for patients treated by radiotherapy second primary cancers are not rare. Cumulative incidence of second primary malignancy after radiotherapy (SPMAR) 40 years after treatment can reach 20 % when patients were 40 years old at treatment time. Among SPMAR some of them can be promoted by irradiation. Relative risk (RR) analysis is the most common method used to estimate the proportion of such second cancers. Most of studies reported a RR around 1.1 in adult patients. In young patients RR is about 6, meaning that SPMAR attributable to irradiation is more elevated in this subgroup. Quantification of these events, bio-molecular mechanisms, risk factors are complex and not yet fully understood. Information given to patients must be adapted and the cost/benefit ratio has to be justified regarding SPMAR risk. Irradiation technique optimisation is an important point especially in young patient and adults, in order to reduce at maximum the volume of organ at risk exposed while not compromising optimal dose given to the tumour volume, although no standard rules of irradiation are definitively established at the present time. (authors)

Doyen, J.; Courdi, A.; Gerard, J.P. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, Cyclotron biomedical, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

2010-07-15

189

The role of USG in neck monitoring after surgery of malignant neoplasms of head and neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck in patients with larynx cancer are a more frequent cause of death in comparison to local recurrence. Thus it is necessary to thoroughly examine the treatment and after the treatment. The ultrasound examination introduced significant diagnostic value in the diagnosis of malignant cancers. Ultrasound monitoring of the lymphatic system after surgical treatment or radiation allows to diagnose early metastases which are not visible in palpation examination. In over 200 patients after surgical treatment of larynx cancer several ultrasound examinations of the neck were carried out. The time following the end of the treatment was 4 months to l 8 years. In the ultrasound examination of the neck changes in the lymphatic system were observed, which were not clinically manifested in 10 patients. Metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck were most frequently observed in the first year after the operation. Patients who were diagnosed with metastases before operation and patients with supraglottic cancers were at more risk of having metastases. The ultrasound examination of the neck should be a routine, systematically repeated examination in the observation of patients after larynx cancer operation. (author)

190

Treatment of malignant neoplasms by combined radio- and chemotherapy with cell-cycle synchronization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immediate and short-term results are reported from treatment of 12 cases of malignancies affecting the face jaw area by the method of cell-cycle synchronization using 5-fluorouracyl. The patients, ranging from 49 to 73 years of age, presented with developed differentiated planocellular carcinomas distributed according to the TNM system, as follows: T1, N0, M0, 2 subjects; T2, N0, M0, 2 subjects; T3, N1, M0, 4 subjects; and T4, N1, M0, 4 subjects. Based on a scheme, 750 mg 5-fluorouracyl was infused over a 12-hour period (drop-by-drop administration), the procedure being repeated twice weekly up to a total dose of 8.5-11.5 mg. Radiotherapy (gamma teletherapy) followed under the same schedule, namely 8 hours after discontinuing the drop-by drop system, at 500 rad daily tumor dose and 6000-7000 rad total focal dose delivered over a 6-7 week period. Directly after cessation of radiotherapy, clinical disappearance (100) of the tumor was observed in 8 patients, reduction by 90% in 1 patient, and by 80% in 3 patients. No recurrences were noted at 3 months following radiotherapy; the proportion of recurrences did not increase until after the 6th month (40%). The most common local response was radioepithelitis; severe cases calling for temporary interruption of treatment occurred in 7 of the 12 patients. The hematopoietic system showed no deviatiohe hematopoietic system showed no deviations from the norm. No marked general radiation reactions were observed. Long-term results as regards primary tumors and survival will be reported in a second paper. (author)

191

Metastatic mesothelioma to the thyroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69 year-old male patient with a history of malignant mesothelioma treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection with removal of the right lung and right pleural pneumonectomy was clinically in remission for 1 ½ years. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan revealed limited uptake in the right pleural space, thought to represent post-surgical changes, and uptake in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a solid left lobe nodule with peripheral vascularity and absent microcalcifications. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a microfollicular arrangement of cytologically bland cells with variable Hürthle cell changes initially interpreted as suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm. Review at multidisciplinary conference raised the possibility of metastatic mesothelioma, supported by immunohistochemical studies in the cell block. The patient opted for left hemithyroidectomy with isthmusectomy which confirmed malignant mesothelioma. Repeat PET scan 6 months later revealed no further uptake in the thyroid bed, with limited uptake in the right pleural space. Metastatic tumors to the thyroid are uncommon with only one previous description of metastasis to the thyroid by mesothelioma. Metastasis of cytologically low grade tumors such as mesothelioma present problems for cytology due to the potential for overlap with the variable appearances of thyroid neoplasms. The value (if any) of ancillary tests, including mutation testing, expression profiling and immunohistochemistry is discussed. PMID:24987442

Rao, Sarika N; Swami, Archana; Khan, Ashraf; Toke, Madhavi; Whalen, Giles; Fischer, Andrew; Torres, Mira Sofia

2014-01-01

192

Metastatic mesothelioma to the thyroid  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69 year-old male patient with a history of malignant mesothelioma treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection with removal of the right lung and right pleural pneumonectomy was clinically in remission for 1 ½ years. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan revealed limited uptake in the right pleural space, thought to represent post-surgical changes, and uptake in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a solid left lobe nodule with peripheral vascularity and absent microcalcifications. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a microfollicular arrangement of cytologically bland cells with variable Hürthle cell changes initially interpreted as suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm. Review at multidisciplinary conference raised the possibility of metastatic mesothelioma, supported by immunohistochemical studies in the cell block. The patient opted for left hemithyroidectomy with isthmusectomy which confirmed malignant mesothelioma. Repeat PET scan 6 months later revealed no further uptake in the thyroid bed, with limited uptake in the right pleural space. Metastatic tumors to the thyroid are uncommon with only one previous description of metastasis to the thyroid by mesothelioma. Metastasis of cytologically low grade tumors such as mesothelioma present problems for cytology due to the potential for overlap with the variable appearances of thyroid neoplasms. The value (if any) of ancillary tests, including mutation testing, expression profiling and immunohistochemistry is discussed. PMID:24987442

Rao, Sarika N.; Swami, Archana; Khan, Ashraf; Toke, Madhavi; Whalen, Giles; Fischer, Andrew; Torres, Mira Sofia

2014-01-01

193

Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography : a systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET or PET/computed tomography imaging. Methods: Studies evaluating thyroid carcinomas discovered incidentally in patients or healthy volunteers by (18)F-FDG PET were systematically searched in the PubMed database from 2000 to 2011. The main exclusion criteria were known thyroid disease, lack of assigned diagnoses, investigation of diffuse uptake only, or investigation of patients with head and neck cancer, or cancer in the upper part of the thorax. Results: Twenty-two studies met our criteria comprising a total of 125,754 subjects. Of these, 1994 (1.6%) had unexpected focal hypermetabolic activity, while 999 of 48,644 individuals (2.1%) had an unexpected diffuse hypermetabolic activity in the thyroid gland. A diagnosis was assigned in 1051 of the 1994 patients with a focal uptake, 366 of whom (34.8%) had thyroid malignancy. Likewise, a diagnosis was assigned in 168 of 999 patients with a diffuse uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p

Soelberg, Kerstin Kathrine; Bonnema, Steen Joop

2012-01-01

194

Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy  

OpenAIRE

Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC) markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malign...

Saleh Husain; Feng Jining; Tabassum Farah; Al-Zohaili Opada; Husain Muji; Giorgadze Tamara

2009-01-01

195

Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs. Materials and Methods: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19, on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections. They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC. The stains were done according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that immunoexpression was significantly higher in the malignant group for all four markers. The sensitivity for positive expression for all benign lesions versus malignant tumors was as follows: 10/44 (22.7% versus 25/27 (92.6% for galectin-3; 14/44 (31.8% versus 23/27 (85% for Ret; 12/44 (27.3% versus 24/27 (88.8% for HBME-1; and 13/44 (29.5% versus 23/27 (85% for CK19. The sensitivity and specificity was highest for galectin-3 (92.6% and 77.3%, respectively followed by HMBE-1 (88.9% and 72.7%, respectively. When combining the markers? expressions, the panel of galectin-3 + HBME-1 showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (90.7% and 75%, respectively, but this was, however, lower than galectin-3 alone (92.3% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The galectin-3 + HBME-1 was the best combination for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

Saleh Husain

2009-01-01

196

Changes in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain better insight into molecular changes which reflect disturbances in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during progression of thyroid malignancy from papillary microcarcinoma (PMC via clinically manifest papillary carcinoma (PTC to anaplastic carcinoma (ATC. The apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and proliferation related marker (PCNA were analysed immunohistochemically in 120 archival cases comprising PMC (n=34, PTC (n=52 and ATC (n=34. In addition, in situ apoptotic cell death was analysed by the TUNEL method. The average Bcl-2 staining score did not differ between PMC and PTC (p>0.05, but was significantly lower in ATC (p<0.05.The Bax score was higher in PTCs and ATCs than in PMCs (p<0.05. Due to these changes, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a marked decrease from PMC to ATC (p<0.05, while proliferation activity increased significantly from PTC to ATC (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, the rate of apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas, especially in ATC, i.e. the increase in proliferative activity was not counterbalanced with appropriate cell death. Differences were found in the expression of apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bax, their ratio (Bcl-2 /Bax and in the rate of apoptotic cell death and proliferative activity between PMC, PTC and ATC, indicating that disturbances in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, in favour of the latter, occur gradually during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours.

D Cvejic

2009-08-01

197

Changes in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain better insight into molecular changes which reflect disturbances in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during progression of thyroid malignancy from papillary microcarcinoma (PMC via clinically manifest papillary carcinoma (PTC to anaplastic carcinoma (ATC. The apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and proliferation related marker (PCNA were analysed immunohistochemically in 120 archival cases comprising PMC (n=34, PTC (n=52 and ATC (n=34. In addition, in situ apoptotic cell death was analysed by the TUNEL method. The average Bcl-2 staining score did not differ between PMC and PTC (p>0.05, but was significantly lower in ATC (p<0.05.The Bax score was higher in PTCs and ATCs than in PMCs (p<0.05. Due to these changes, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a marked decrease from PMC to ATC (p<0.05, while proliferation activity increased significantly from PTC to ATC (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, the rate of apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas, especially in ATC, i.e. the increase in proliferative activity was not counterbalanced with appropriate cell death. Differences were found in the expression of apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bax, their ratio (Bcl-2 /Bax and in the rate of apoptotic cell death and proliferative activity between PMC, PTC and ATC, indicating that disturbances in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, in favour of the latter, occur gradually during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours.

S Tatic

2009-06-01

198

Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

2015-03-01

199

Determination of malignant and invasive predictors in branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: a suggested scoring formula.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (Br-IPMN) is difficult, and proper treatment strategy has not been well established. The authors investigated the characteristics of Br-IPMN and explored its malignancy or invasiveness predicting factors to suggest a scoring formula for predicting pathologic results. From 1994 to 2008, 237 patients who were diagnosed as Br-IPMN at 11 tertiary referral centers in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 63.1 ± 9.2 yr. One hundred ninty-eight (83.5%) patients had nonmalignant IPMN (81 adenoma, 117 borderline atypia), and 39 (16.5%) had malignant IPMN (13 carcinoma in situ, 26 invasive carcinoma). Cyst size and mural nodule were malignancy determining factors by multivariate analysis. Elevated CEA, cyst size and mural nodule were factors determining invasiveness by multivariate analysis. Using the regression coefficient for significant predictors on multivariate analysis, we constructed a malignancy-predicting scoring formula: 22.4 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 0.5 (cyst size [mm]). In invasive IPMN, the formula was expressed as invasiveness-predicting score = 36.6 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 32.2 (elevated serum CEA [0 or 1]) + 0.6 (cyst size [mm]). Here we present a scoring formula for prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of Br-IPMN which can be used to determine a proper treatment strategy. PMID:21655058

Hwang, Dae Wook; Jang, Jin-Young; Lim, Chang-Sup; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Ahn, Young Joon; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Sun-Whe; Kim, Sang Geol; Yun, Young Kook; Han, Seong-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae; Lim, Tae Jin; Kang, Koo Jung; Sim, Mun Sup; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Dong Wook; Hur, Kyung Yul; Lee, Dong-Shik; Yun, Sung-Su; Kim, Hong-Jin; Cho, Chul Kyoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yu, Hee Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan; Song, In-Sang

2011-06-01

200

Determination of Malignant and Invasive Predictors in Branch Duct Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: A Suggested Scoring Formula  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (Br-IPMN) is difficult, and proper treatment strategy has not been well established. The authors investigated the characteristics of Br-IPMN and explored its malignancy or invasiveness predicting factors to suggest a scoring formula for predicting pathologic results. From 1994 to 2008, 237 patients who were diagnosed as Br-IPMN at 11 tertiary referral centers in Korea were retrospectively reviewed. The patients' mean age was 63.1 ± 9.2 yr. One hundred ninty-eight (83.5%) patients had nonmalignant IPMN (81 adenoma, 117 borderline atypia), and 39 (16.5%) had malignant IPMN (13 carcinoma in situ, 26 invasive carcinoma). Cyst size and mural nodule were malignancy determining factors by multivariate analysis. Elevated CEA, cyst size and mural nodule were factors determining invasiveness by multivariate analysis. Using the regression coefficient for significant predictors on multivariate analysis, we constructed a malignancy-predicting scoring formula: 22.4 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 0.5 (cyst size [mm]). In invasive IPMN, the formula was expressed as invasiveness-predicting score = 36.6 (mural nodule [0 or 1]) + 32.2 (elevated serum CEA [0 or 1]) + 0.6 (cyst size [mm]). Here we present a scoring formula for prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of Br-IPMN which can be used to determine a proper treatment strategy. PMID:21655058

Hwang, Dae Wook; Lim, Chang-Sup; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Ahn, Young Joon; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Sun-Whe; Kim, Sang Geol; Yun, Young Kook; Han, Seong-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae; Lim, Tae Jin; Kang, Koo Jung; Sim, Mun Sup; Choi, Seong Ho; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Dong Wook; Hur, Kyung Yul; Lee, Dong-Shik; Yun, Sung-Su; Kim, Hong-Jin; Cho, Chul Kyoon; Kim, Hyun Jong; Yu, Hee Chul; Cho, Baik Hwan; Song, In-Sang

2011-01-01

201

Is Doppler ultrasound of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. A total of 1,502 solid thyroid nodules ? 10 mm were evaluated. Suspicious vascularity (predominantly or [...] exclusively central blood flow) was observed in only 5% of the nodules. This finding showed 96% specificity, but only 15% sensitivity. GSUS alone showed sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 68.2%, respectively, which did not improve with the addition of DUS (sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 66.4%). In non-suspicious nodules on GSUS, the type of vascularity on DUS did not modify the risk of malignancy, which was low. In suspicious nodules on GSUS, suspicious vascularity on DUS increased the risk of malignancy, but non-suspicious vascularity did not reduce this risk. DUS provided no additional value to GSUS in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):79-83

Pedro Weslley, Rosario; Alexandre Lemos da, Silva; Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro, Borges; Maria Regina, Calsolari.

2015-02-01

202

Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. Results: ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .21 x 10{sup -3}vs. 1.77 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .29 x 10{sup -3} for observer 1 and 1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .19 x 10{sup -3}vs. 1.79 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .32 x 10{sup -3} for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). Conclusion: FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms.

Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Unite 965 INSERM/Paris7, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Corno, Lucie; Boudiaf, Mourad [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Aout, Mounir [Clinical Research Unit, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Sirol, Marc; Place, Vinciane; Duchat, Florent; Guerrache, Youcef; Fargeaudou, Yann [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Vicaut, Eric [Clinical Research Unit, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Pocard, Marc [Unite 965 INSERM/Paris7, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Department of Digestive Diseases, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Hamzi, Lounis [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France)

2011-11-15

203

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.  

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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a grossly visible (?1 cm), mucin-producing neoplasm that arises in the main pancreatic duct and/or its branches. Patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm can present with symptoms caused by obstruction of the pancreatic duct system, or they can be asymptomatic. There are 3 clinical subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: main duct, branch duct, and mixed. Five histologic types of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm are recognized: gastric foveolar type, intestinal type, pancreatobiliary type, intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm, and intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm. Noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are classified into 3 grades based on the degree of cytoarchitectural atypia: low-, intermediate-, and high-grade dysplasia. The most important prognosticator, however, is the presence or absence of an associated invasive carcinoma. Some main duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms progress into invasive carcinoma, mainly tubular adenocarcinoma (conventional pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) and colloid carcinoma. Branch duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms have a low risk for malignant transformation. Preoperative prediction of the malignant potential of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm is of growing importance because pancreatic surgery has its complications, and many small intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, especially branch duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, have an extremely low risk of progressing to an invasive cancer. Although most clinical decision making relies on imaging, a better understanding of the molecular genetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm could help identify molecular markers of high-risk lesions. When surgery is performed, intraoperative frozen section assessment of the pancreatic resection margin can guide the extent of resection. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are often multifocal, and surgically resected patients should be followed for metachronous disease. PMID:21777948

Shi, Chanjuan; Hruban, Ralph H

2012-01-01

204

Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH24  

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Full Text Available The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 groups received i.p. applications of 1-methyl-l-nitrosourea (MNU; 50 mg/kg body weight on the 50th and 113th day of age. Animals were randomly divided into five groups as follows: (1 Untreated control group - rats received saline only; (2 Cancer control group - rats received MNU and saline; (3 Dox group - rats received MNU and Dox 8 mg/kg; (4 Full/Dox group -rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg 30 min before Dox 8 mg/kg; (5 Full group - rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg. Tumor incidence was 4.94 +- 0.576 per rat. The animals were sacrificed 2 days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and ?-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p < 0.05, after an i.p. administration of doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower oc-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS level in the heart (p < 0.05. Ultra structural analysis of heart tissues from rats treated with doxorubicin and indicated that the hearts of the rats were protected from doxorubicin-induced subcellular damage. Doxorubicin/fullerenol rats did not appear to show significant cardiac damage although occasional focal loss of cristae in the mitochondria was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals.

Injac Rade

2008-01-01

205

Histochemical demonstration of different types of poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures in human thyroid neoplasms using lectins and endo-beta-galactosidase digestion.  

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Blood-group-related antigens expressed in papillary carcinomas and other types of neoplasm of the human thyroid glands have been shown to be carried by poly-N-acetyllactosamines containing a linear domain susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase digestion. To make clear more precisely the backbone poly-N-acetyllactosamine structures, labelled lectins specific to different types of these structures and specific to core structures with beta 1-6GlcNAc branching of N- and O-linked glycoproteins were employed in conjunction with prior endo-beta-galactosidase digestion on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded neoplasms of the human thyroid glands. In papillary carcinomas, Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA) and succinyl wheat germ agglutinin (Suc-WGA) reacted most consistently and frequently with papillary carcinomas from all the individuals examined. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) likewise stained the cells of papillary carcinomas from all the individuals examined, but in some individuals the number of lectin-reactive cells were very small. Lycoperscion esculentum aggultinin (LEA), Solanum tuberosum agglutinin (STA), Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin L (PHA-L) and Artocarpus integrifolia agglutinin (jacalin) similarly bound to the cancer cells from most of the individuals, and in these cases the number of reactive cells was usually much more restricted than was the case with DSA or PWM. In adenoma and other types of carcinoma, such as follicular carcinomas, these lectins specific to poly-N-acetyllactosamine exhibited slight or no reactivity with the cells, whereas PHA-L and jacalin similarly bound to the cells of adenomas and carcinomas from most of the individuals examined. Prior digestion with endo-beta-galactosidase completely eliminated or markedly reduced the reactivity with PWM and LEA in papillary carcinomas. Reactivity with DSA, Suc-WGA, STA, PHA-L and jacalin was slightly reduced or not at all affected by enzyme digestion. These results confirmed that poly-N-acetyllactosamine species found in papillary carcinomas are quite different from those in other types of thyroid neoplasm, suggesting that at least three different types of poly-N-acetyllactosamine, that is, linear unbranched short and long sequences and highly branched ones are produced in these cells. PMID:8550383

Ito, N; Yokota, M; Kawahara, S; Nagaike, C; Morimura, Y; Hirota, T; Matsunaga, T

1995-08-01

206

Identificación molecular de helicobacter pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina / Molecular identification of helicobacter pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasm  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Helicobacter pylori es considerado uno de los principales agentes causales de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica y neoplasias gástricas malignas en humanos. Objetivo: evaluar el uso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificación de H. pylori y sus genotipos en tejidos [...] gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Material y Métodos: se estudiaron secciones de 5 bloques de parafina procedentes de 5 pacientes mexicanos con neoplasias gástricas malignas. Se realizaron coloraciones de rutina y especiales de anatomía patológica, así como la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la detección del microorganismo y sus genotipos. Resultados: la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa identificó a este agente infeccioso en todos los bloques analizados en correspondencia con su detección a través de las técnicas histológicas. Esta metodología permitió demostrar una variabilidad genética del patógeno en las muestras analizadas según los genotipos vacA y cagA. Conclusiones: la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa podría ser un método eficaz en la identificación del H. pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Esta se perfila como una estrategia atractiva para realizar estudios de epidemiología molecular y permitirá establecer posibles asociaciones de genotipos/subtipos del microorganismo con variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y de manejo del paciente. Abstract in english Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the main causal agents of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignant neoplasms in humans. Objective: to evaluate polymerase chain reaction for identification of Helicobacter pylori and its genotypes in paraffin embedded gastric tissue [...] s with malignant neoplasms. Material and Methods: sections of five paraffin blocks from five patients with gastric malignant neoplasms were studied. They were analyzed through routine and special stains of pathological anatomy, as well as the polymerase chain reaction technic for microorganism and genotypes detection. Results: the infectious agent was identified in all of the analyzed blocks through the polymerase chain reaction technic in correspondence with its detection through histologic techniques. This methodology showed a genetic variability of the pathogen in the analyzed samples in respect to vacA and cagA genotypes. Conclusions: the polymerase chain reaction could be an efficacious method for the identification of H. pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasms. It is projected as an attractive strategy for performing studies of molecular epidemiology and the establishment of possible associations between genotypes/subtypes of the microorganism and clinic or epidemiologic variables, and patient handling.

Edmundo Dantés, Escobar Habeica; Yaxsier, de Armas Rodríguez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Virginia, Capó de Paz; Fidel, Cathcart Roca; Marco Antonio, Jiménez López.

2013-06-01

207

Delayed results of combined treatment of malignant neoplasms of nasal cavity and accessory basal sinuses with the use of remote neutron therapy  

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Analysis of results of combined treatment of 24 patients with locally spread forms of malignant neoplasms in nasal cavity and accessory nasal sinuses, subjected to preoperational remote neutron therapy, was carried out. Mean neutron energy was 6.5 MeV, total focus dose - 38-40 Gy. It is shown that combined method of treatment features high efficiency, ensuring 5-year survival rate of 67.8% of the patients. However, the treatment is accompanied by grave complications, formation of face tissue-defects and radiation-induced cataract. The necessity of improving the methods of eye protection in the course of radiotherapy is emphasized. 1 ref

208

Von Reckling-hausen disease associated to thyroid carcinoma and malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. A case  

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The multiple neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease associated to malignant schwannoma in about 3% of the cases and very rarely to others cancers. The study provides information on the case of a 32 year-old woman who suffers from this disease and presented two synchronous cancers: a papillary carcinoma of thyroid and a malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. The thyroid tumour was managed with hemithyroidectomy, hormonotherapy and radiotherapy, and the lesion of the thoracic wall was treated with local radical resection application of Marlex mesh and rotation of a musculocutaneous flap of the dorsal muscle. A review of the literature on the clinical aspects of this association and the surgical techniques employed to cover the defect of the chest wall is presented. (authors)

209

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images  

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An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

210

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

2013-06-01

211

Contribution of scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology / Contribuição da cintilografia e ultrassonografia para a predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contribuição da cintilografia com 131I e da ultrassonografia na predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada em pacientes eutireoidianos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 102 pacientes com nódulos tireoidianos submetidos à punção aspir [...] ativa com agulha fina (PAAF), apresentando citologia indeterminada (neoplasia folicular). RESULTADOS: Malignidade foi encontrada em 19/25 (76%) nódulos suspeitos na ultrassonografia versus 5/77 (6,5%) naqueles sem características suspeitas. Quando a cintilografia com 131I mostrou nódulo hipo- ou hipercaptante, a chance de malignidade foi 38,5% e 2,5%, respectivamente, e em 10% dos pacientes esse exame foi inconclusivo. CONCLUSÕES: Cirurgia está indicada quando um nódulo tireoidiano com citologia indeterminada exibe características ultrassonográficas suspeitas. Quando não as exibe, a cintilografia com 131I pode dispensar a tireoidectomia se revelar captação correspondente ao nódulo, o que ocorre em metade dos casos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of 131I scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology in euthyroid patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 102 patients with thyroid nodules, submitted to FNAC and presenting an [...] indeterminate cytological diagnosis (follicular neoplasm). RESULTS: Malignancy was observed in 19/25 (76%) nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics versus 5/77 (6.5%) without suspicious findings. When 131I scintigraphy showed a cold or hot nodule, the chance of malignancy was 38.5% and 2.5%, respectively. This exam was inconclusive in 10% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is indicated when a thyroid nodule with indeterminate cytology exhibits suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics. Otherwise, 131I scintigraphy can exclude thyroidectomy when reveals uptake in the nodule, which is observed in half the cases.

Pedro Weslley, Rosário; Daniela Santos, Salles; Breno, Bessa; Saulo, Purisch.

2010-02-01

212

Thyroid  

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... produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, hair loss, ... It usually is taken once a day before breakfast. Take thyroid at around the same time every ...

213

Functional reconstruction after subtotal glossectomy in the surgical treatment of an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm in this location: Primary malignant melanoma in the base of the tongue.  

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Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm, especially on the tongue. We report a case of mucosal melanoma at the base of the tongue, an extremely rare location (only about 30 cases have been reported in literature). The extension study doesn´t revealed distant metastatic lesions. The patient was treated by subtotal glossectomy and bilateral functional neck dissection. Tongue is one of the most difficult structures to reconstruct, because of their central role in phonation, swallowing and airway protection. The defect was reconstructed with anterolateral thigh free flap. Surgical treatment was supplemented with adjuvant immunotherapy. The post-operative period was uneventful. At present, 24 months after surgery, patient is asymptomatic, there isn´t evidence of recurrence of melanoma and he hasn´t any difficulty in swallowing or phonation. Key words:Malignant mucosal melanoma, anterolateral thigh free flap, phonation, swallowing. PMID:25593674

Rubio-Correa, Isidoro; Manzano-Solo-de-Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; Hernández-Vila, Cristina; Ramírez-Pérez, Francisco-Alejandro; González-Ballester, David; Ruíz-Laza, Luis; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio

2014-10-01

214

Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

Milazzo Francesca

2011-08-01

215

Infrared absorption spectra of human malignant tumor tissues  

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We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study the molecular structure of tissues from human organs removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material from breast, thyroid, and lung are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, a change occurs in the hydrogen bonds of protein macromolecules found in the tissue of the studied organs. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathology.

Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Butra, V. A.

2008-05-01

216

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAss

217

ThyroScreen system: high resolution ultrasound thyroid image characterization into benign and malignant classes using novel combination of texture and discrete wavelet transform.  

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Using right equipment and well trained personnel, ultrasound of the neck can detect a large number of non-palpable thyroid nodules. However, this technique often suffers from subjective interpretations and poor accuracy in the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Therefore, we developed an automated identification system based on knowledge representation techniques for characterizing the intra-nodular vascularization of thyroid lesions. Twenty nodules (10 benign and 10 malignant), taken from 3-D high resolution ultrasound (HRUS) images were used for this work. Malignancy was confirmed using fine needle aspiration biopsy and subsequent histological studies. A combination of discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and texture algorithms were used to extract relevant features from the thyroid images. These features were fed to different configurations of AdaBoost classifier. The performance of these configurations was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that the combination of texture features and DWT features presented an accuracy value higher than that reported in the literature. Among the different classifier setups, the perceptron based AdaBoost yielded very good result and the area under the ROC curve was 1 and classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 100%. Finally, we have composed an Integrated Index called thyroid malignancy index (TMI) made up of these DWT and texture features, to facilitate distinguishing and diagnosing benign or malignant nodules using just one index or number. This index would help the clinicians in more quantitative assessment of the thyroid nodules. PMID:22054816

Acharya, U Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Sree, S Vinitha; Molinari, Filippo; Suri, Jasjit S

2012-08-01

218

Prospective evaluation of multiparametric ultrasound and quantitative elastosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience  

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Purpose: To assess the clinical value of quantitative elastosonography compared with multiparametric ultrasound in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (32 males, 65 females, mean age, 54 years, range 20–81 years) with thyroid nodules previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated quantitative software (Elasto-Q, Toshiba) before surgery. Ultrasound examination and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. US features, color-Doppler pattern, and strain ratio value were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and sono-elastography were compared using X{sup 2} test and ROC curves. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of hypoechogenicity, irregular margins or suspicious halo features, CDUS blood flow pattern, and strain ratio in the diagnosis of malignant nodules were 56.8%, 62.2%, 54.1% and 97.3% and 71.7%, 93.3%, 28.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Elastosonography was more sensitive and specific than all ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy of the thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001). According to elastosonographic features the lesions characterized by strain ratio ?2 were highly likely to be of malignant nature (p < 0.0001, O.R. 396, 95%, CI: 44–3530). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that elastosonography with Q system is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be far more accurate than CDUS. These findings as well as those of previous studies support its use in selecting patients who are candidates for surgery.

Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy); D’Andrea, Vito [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Biancari, Fausto [Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Medvedyeva, Olena; Di Segni, Mattia; Olive, Matteo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy); Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; De Antoni E, Enrico [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Masciangelo, Raffaele [Department of Hygiene and Infectious Disease, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Frezzotti, Francesca [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy)

2012-10-15

219

Prospective evaluation of multiparametric ultrasound and quantitative elastosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the clinical value of quantitative elastosonography compared with multiparametric ultrasound in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (32 males, 65 females, mean age, 54 years, range 20–81 years) with thyroid nodules previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated quantitative software (Elasto-Q, Toshiba) before surgery. Ultrasound examination and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. US features, color-Doppler pattern, and strain ratio value were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and sono-elastography were compared using X2 test and ROC curves. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of hypoechogenicity, irregular margins or suspicious halo features, CDUS blood flow pattern, and strain ratio in the diagnosis of malignant nodules were 56.8%, 62.2%, 54.1% and 97.3% and 71.7%, 93.3%, 28.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Elastosonography was more sensitive and specific than all ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy of the thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001). According to elastosonographic features the lesions characterized by strain ratio ?2 were highly likely to be of malignant nature (p < 0.0001, O.R. 396, 95%, CI: 44–3530). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that elastosonography with Q system is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be far more accurate than CDUS. These findings as well as those of previous studies support its use in selecting patients who are candidates for surgery

220

VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC pT1NxMxG1 (sclerous infiltrative 3 mm node on joint nodular goitre with metaplasia, hemorrhage, sclero hyalinisation and lymphomatous thyroiditis aspects. She was treated with L Thyroxin, chemotherapy (Cisplatinum, Dacarbazin and radioactive iodine therapy. After oncological evaluation she was addressed to the First Surgery Clinic for thyroidectomy totalisation and the treatment of an umbilical tumour occurred after the fourth cure (June-July 2005. The patient was evaluated by physical exam, ultrasonography and computed tomography (cervical and abdominal which revealed tumours in the cervical region and in the liver. Thyroidectomy totalisation with limphadenectomy and an abdominal laparoscopy and biopsy were performed. The pathologic exam diagnosed multiple metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM localized in the cervical region, in the liver, great omentum and cervical limphatic nodes. The postoperative follow-up revealed multiple bone mestastasis from the malignanat melanoma. The case particularities were: association of RD with 2 primitive malignant tumours (occult PTC and MM, both diagnosed histopathologically and the multiple bone metastasis developed in a short time.

D. Niculescu

2006-04-01

221

Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature / Tumor fibroso solitário maligno da tiroide: relato de caso e revisão da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O tumor fibroso solitário (SFT) é uma neoplasia rara de células fusiformes que mais frequentemente envolve a pleura, raramente ocorrendo em áreas extratorácicas. Já foram descritos 26 casos de SFT da tiroide. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 60 anos de idade com um histórico de 8 meses de aumento [...] do pescoço associado à disfagia. A paciente foi submetida a uma hemitiroidectomia direita e foi diagnosticado um SFT de tiroide. A imuno-histoquímica mostrou resultados positivos para o marcador CD34, e o grande número de mitoses e a presença de atipia celular sugerem que o tumor era maligno. Em nosso conhecimento, este é o segundo caso de STF da tiroide maligno já relatado. Dada a rara ocorrência desses tumores, a indicação de tratamento adjuvante e o prognóstico são incertos. Recomenda-se o acompanhamento de longo prazo depois da ressecção cirúrgica. Abstract in english Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enla [...] rgement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

Wellington, Alves Filho; Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti, Mahmoud; Daniel Marin, Ramos; Vergilius José Furtado de, Araujo-Filho; Patricia Picciarelli de, Lima; Claudio Roberto, Cernea; Lenine Garcia, Brandão.

2014-06-01

222

Serum thyroglobulin radioimmunoassay in benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 131 patients suffering from various thyropathies and healthy persons the thyroglobulin (TG) content of the blood serum was determined by radioimmunoassay. The average content of the controls was 70 ?g TG/l serum. In athyreosis following treatment of thyroidal carcinoma no TG was detectable; in all functional disturbances of the thyroid including goiter, hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis the TG values exceeded those of the controls clearly. The method is well suited for the observation of the course of thyropathies and their therapy

223

Application of Real-time Ultrasound Elastography in Diagnosing Benign and Malignant Thyroid Solid Nodules  

OpenAIRE

Objective Real-time ultrasound elastography (US-E) is a helpful tool in diagnosing thyroid nodules. This study aims to evaluate thyroid solid nodules, to establish the accuracy of US-E in providing information on the nature of these nodules, and to assess the clinical value of elasticity scores (ES) and strain ratio (SR) in differentiating thyroid solid nodules and to explore its distribution characteristics using pathological analysis as reference. Methods Traditional ultrasonography and U...

Hai-ling Wang; Sheng Zhang; Xiao-jie Xin; Li-hui Zhao; Chun-xiang Li; Jia-li Mu; Xue-qing Wei

2012-01-01

224

Effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? on incidence, benign/malignant ratio and multiplicity of rat mammary neoplasms - a preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? administration on mammary tumorigenesis in females of 3 rat strains, viz. the WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD. The 3 rat strains differed significantly in their spontaneous mammary tumor incidence. Female SD rats had the highest incidence (47%) and female BN/BiRij rats the lowest (17%). Female WAG/Rij rats had an intermediate incidence of 29%. The benign/malignant ratio in female WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD rats was 1.0, 2.0 and 7.3, respectively. The average number of mammary gland neoplasms per untreated tumor-bearing female was 1.2 in the WAG/Rij, 1.0 in the BN/BiRij and 1.6 in the SD, whereas the respective maximum numbers were 2, 1 and 5. Ovariohysterectomy almost entirely prevented mammary tumour formation in all 3 rat strains, whereas estrogen treatment enhanced it. In addition, estrogen treatment resulted in an increased number of mammary tumors per tumor-bearing female and changed the benign/malignant ratio into the direction of malignant. X-irradiation increased the mammary tumor incidence in all 3 rat strains, especially of the benign tumors. Estrogen potentiated the effect of irradiation. An effect of irradiation on mammary tumorigenesis was not observed in ovariohysterectomized females of all 3 rat strains. (author)

225

Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

226

Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

Park, Mi Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Lee, Se Joon; Yu, Jeong Sik; Chung, Jun Pyo; Yoon, Sang Wook; Chung, Jae Bock; Kang, Jin Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-03-15

227

Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

2015-01-01

228

Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for prediction of malignancy and invasiveness in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: A meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical importance of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas has been increasing due to the large number of newly diagnosed cases. A meta-analysis was used to assess the accuracy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) for the identification of malignant and invasive IPMN. A literature search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge was conducted. Studies included in the analysis addressed the diagnostic accuracy of serum CEA and CA19-9 and pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated using random-effects models. Predefined subgroup analysis was performed. Fifteen studies (published between 2001 and 2013) were analyzed, including a total of 1,629 patients. Pooled estimates of CEA in malignant and invasive IPNM prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 18 and 18%; pooled specificity, 93 and 95%; PLR, 2.83 and 3.54; NLR, 0.89 and 0.89; and DOR, 3.35 and 3.6, respectively. Pooled estimates of CA19-9 in malignant and invasive IPMN prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 40 and 52%; pooled specificity, 89 and 88%; PLR, 2.93 and 3.78; NLR, 0.74 and 0.6; and DOR, 4.34 and 6.33, respectively. In conclusion, serum CEA has low sensitivity and high specificity for malignant and invasive IPMN. Serum CA19-9 is a useful non-invasive preoperative tool for differentiating between invasive and benign IPMN and should be taken into account in the decision to perform surgery. PMID:25469245

Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Lufei; Chen, Linghui; Wei, Jianfeng; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Qingshong; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Huang, Pengfei; Yang, Qifan; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

2015-01-01

229

Computerized consensus diagnosis: a classification strategy for the robust analysis of MR spectra. I. Application to 1H spectra of thyroid neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce and apply a new classification strategy we call computerized consensus diagnosis (CCD). Its purpose is to provide robust, reliable classification of biomedical data. The strategy involves the cross-validated training of several classifiers of diverse conceptual and methodological origin on the same data, and appropriately combining their outcomes. The strategy is tested on proton magnetic resonance spectra of human thyroid biopsies, which are successfully allocated to normal or carcinoma classes. We used Linear Discriminant Analysis, a Neural Net-based method, and Genetic Programming as independent classifiers on two spectral regions, and chose the median of the six classification outcomes as the consensus. This procedure yielded 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity on the training sets, and 100% specificity and 98% sensitivity on samples of known malignancy in the test sets. We discuss the necessary steps any classification approach must take to guarantee reliability, and stress the importance of fuzziness and undecidability in robust classification. PMID:7707918

Somorjai, R L; Nikulin, A E; Pizzi, N; Jackson, D; Scarth, G; Dolenko, B; Gordon, H; Russell, P; Lean, C L; Delbridge, L

1995-02-01

230

Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas  

OpenAIRE

Pancreatic serous neoplasms are rare but account for the most common type of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. The vast majority of serous cystic tumours are benign (serous cystadenoma). A few cases of clinically more aggressive and metastatic serous tumours have been reported in the literature, and designated as malignant (serous cystadenocarcinoma). Due to the rarity of malignant pancreatic serous neoplasms, their true incidence is still unclear. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas can be a ...

Alsaad, K.; Chetty, R.

2005-01-01

231

Vascular patterns in nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms depicted under contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are helpful for evaluating malignant potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US) to differentiate between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Patients and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with a contrast agent was performed on 22 consecutive patients with IPMN suspected of being malignant. This revealed 10 carcinomas, 1 borderline lesion and 11 adenomas. All patients underwent surgery, and the histological diagnosis was confirmed by examination of resected specimens. CE-US was performed using a contrast agent. The detection rates of mural nodules were compared between CE-US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), and the imaging of mural nodules depicted under CE-US was analyzed. Results: Seventeen of 22 resected specimens (77.3%) had mural nodules. There was no significant difference in the detection rate between CE-US (n = 15; 88.2%) and CE-CT (n = 12; 70.6%). In 12 (80.0%) of these patients, CE-US revealed small vessels in the mural nodule. The spotty or linear-shaped pattern was detected in 4 patients and the branch-shaped pattern in 8. The branch-shaped pattern lesion was associated with carcinoma. These mural nodules were 10 mm or more in height. In the perfusion image phase, cystic walls and mural nodules were also enhanced in all cases. Conclusion: The vessel shapes of the mural nodules depicted under CE-US were associated with size and pathological findings. These results and pathological findings. These results suggested that CE-US with a contrast agent is a powerful modality with which to evaluate the malignant potential of IPMN.

232

Thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

233

(18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Review of the Literature  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max

2015-01-01

234

The fallacy of the concept of invasion--critique in historical perspective with implications for diagnosis of early malignant neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, attempts have been made to enhance reproducibility in reporting early cancerous lesions. For this purpose, specific diagnoses in the language of clinical medicine have been substituted by nonspecific designations that encompass benign and malignant processes, such as "squamous intraepithelial lesion" and "melanocytic intraepidermal neoplasia." The propagation of noncommittal terms for all in situ lesions has, in turn, led to a renaissance of the old concept of invasion as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of cancer. Invasion, that is, transgression of the epithelial basement membrane by at least 1 neoplastic cell, is difficult to recognize, can never be excluded, and has little, if any, prognostic significance. Nevertheless, the concept that malignancy requires invasion, deeply rooted in the history of pathology, gave legitimacy to evasive terms that serve to conceal diagnostic difficulties but do not resolve them. The pillars of this concept are based on outdated suppositions of the 19th century that have no place in modern medicine. PMID:22262360

Weyers, Wolfgang

2012-02-01

235

Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncplex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

236

Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

Penn, I.

1982-02-01

237

Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

238

Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm  

OpenAIRE

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanes...

Kenichi Hirabayashi; Giuseppe Zamboni; Hiroyuki Ito; Masami Ogawa; Yoshiaki Kawaguchi; Tomohiro Yamashita; Toshio Nakagohri; Naoya Nakamura

2013-01-01

239

18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and diagnosis method of small intestine primary malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

18F-FDG PET/CT data of 44 patients with small intestine disease (malignant, 25; benign, 19) were analyzed retrospectively. All results were proved by pathological, or diagnostic therapy and/or clinical follow-up. Visual and quantitative [intestinal wall thickness (IWT)] and semiquantitative methods [standardized uptake value (SUV)] were used to analyze the imaging features. The SUVmean and IWT were taken as the diagnostic threshold value for malignant when the Youden's index (YI) was maximum. The diagnostic test evaluation was compared with the final diagnostic results. The following results were obtained. (1) The 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging signs of small intestine carcinoma presented as intestinal local mass formation (84.00%), local wall thickening (76.00%), stenosis (25.00%), obstruction (32.00%) and enlargement of mesenteric lymph nodes (72.00%). But the incidence rates of these signs in the benign lesions were 31.58%, 42.11%, 10.53%, 15.79% and 52.63%, respectively. Only the signs of intestinal local mass formation (?2=10.40, p2=3.90, pmax =0.589, the diagnostic threshold of IWT was 9.5 mm. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80.00%, 78.95% and 79.55%, respectively. (3) The SUVmean of intestinal malignant and benign lesions was 3.55±1.84 and 6.98±3.62 (t=3.77, pmax =0.379,the diagnostic threshold of SUVmean was 3.65. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 80.00%, 57.89% and 70.48%, respectively. (4) Taking the intestinal mass formation as the diagnostic standard of malignant lesions, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 84.00%, 78.95% and 81.82%, respectively. The YImax was 0.630. (5) Taking the intestinal mass formation and SUVmean of max was 0.855. It can be used as the main evidence to differentiate the small intestine primary malignant and benign lesion with the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging qualitative and quantitative signs for the intestinal mass formation, at SUVmean <3.65, and local wall thickening or IWT <9.50 mm. (authors)

240

RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC, and other forms of thyroid cancer: molecular genetics and therapeutic advances  

OpenAIRE

Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the ratio...

Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2008-01-01

241

Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusgative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

242

Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82–0.94] in thyroid nodules. The positive and negative predictive values of the model are 83% (95%CI: 76%–91% and 79% (95%CI: 72%–86%, respectively. Conclusion An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. This model warrants further validation testing in prospective clinical trials.

Eberhardt John

2009-08-01

243

Evaluación clínica de la salud oral de niños con neoplasias malignas Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio de carácter descriptivo visó evaluar clínicamente niños con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relación entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatológicas. Pacientes y métodos: la salud bucal de 40 niños con neoplasias malignas (grupo I fue evaluada clínicamente mediante examen físico extra e intra oral, obtención del índice de placa visible, índice de sangrado gingival e índice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultáneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatológicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de éstos niños fue comparado al de niños saludables (grupo II. Resultados: los niños del grupo I presentaron índices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el índice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los niños del grupo I, sin embargo, sólo hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002. En el grupo I, 16 niños desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatológicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontáneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusión: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplásico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatológicas.Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neoplasm (group I through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II. Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002. In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

MA Gordón-Núñez

2005-06-01

244

Acute aggravation of subdural fluid collection associated with dural metastasis of malignant neoplasms: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with serious headache and vomiting. Five months before admission, she had undergone surgery for a primary advanced gastric cancer. Neuroradiological examinations revealed subdural fluid collection. We twice performed evacuation of the subdural fluid collection. However, aggravation of her state of consciousness progressed and she passed away. Histological examinations demonstrated that the dural veins were infiltrated by numerous tumor cells that produced mucus; however, ruptured vessels were not found. Furthermore, the subdural fluid collection increased shortly after the initial operation. We infer that the cause of the collection, which was associated with the dural metastasis of malignant tumors, was not only mucin secretion by tumor cells but also a rapid increase in perfusion pressure in the vessels of the dura mater, resulting in extravasation of plasma components into the subdural space. Our case demonstrates that the pathogenetic mechanism that is specific for subdural fluid collection caused by dural metastasis of malignant tumors differs from the mechanism of production of subdural hematoma associated with dural metastasis. PMID:24036578

Kimura, Shigeyoshi; Kotani, Akio; Takimoto, Toshiro; Yoshino, Atsuo; Katayama, Yoichi

2014-10-01

245

Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Evaluation of Malignant Potential and Surgical Resectability by Using MR Imaging with MR Cholangiography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in determining the malignant potential and surgical resectability of pancreas intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Ninety-eight patients with pathologically proved pancreas IPMNs who underwent MR imaging with MRCP comprised the study population. MR images were analyzed for findings suggestive of high-risk stigmata or worrisome features, as proposed by the international consensus guidelines 2012. Interobserver agreement between two experienced observers (observers 1 and 2) and one inexperienced observer (observer 3) was assessed. Diagnostic performance of MR imaging in the evaluation of the malignant potential and surgical resectability of IPMNs was analyzed in these three observers by using receiver operating curve analysis. Results MR imaging with MRCP showed sensitivity of 83% (35/42), 79% (33/42), and 90% (38/42); specificity of 80% (41/51), 51% (26/51), and 24% (12/51); and accuracy of 82% (76/93), 63% (59/93), and 54% (50/93) for observers 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the evaluation of the malignant potential of pancreas IPMNs when at least one worrisome feature was present. Interobserver agreement in the detection of intramural nodules (? = 0.349-0.574), enhanced solid components (? = 0.318-0.574), and measurement of main pancreatic duct diameter (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9477) was fair to high. The respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in determination of surgical resectability were 95% (81/85), 99% (84/85), and 88% (75/85); 69% (9/13), 69% (9/13), and 54% (7/13); and 92% (90/98), 95% (93/98), and 84% (82/98) for observers 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion MR imaging with MRCP is a useful modality in the evaluation of the malignant potential and resectability of IPMNs, with high sensitivity and moderate specificity in the experienced radiologists but relatively low specificity in the inexperienced radiology trainee. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25302831

Kim, Seong Ho; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Eun Sun; Baek, Jee Hyun; Kim, Jung Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

2015-03-01

246

Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma  

OpenAIRE

Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004) thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which or...

Belkisa Izi?; Amra ?i?kuši?; Senad Izi?; Maida Kuljaninovi?; Šekib Umihani?

2011-01-01

247

Isolation of a cDNA whose expression is markedly increased in malignantly transformed FRTL cells and neoplastic human thyroid tissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have cloned a cDNA whose mRNA levels are increased in malignantly transformed rat thyroid FRTL cells (FRTL-Tc cells). We constructed a cDNA library from FRTL-Tc cells in lambda gt10 and screened the cDNAs by differential plaque filter hybridization. Twenty-five thousand clones were screened and one cDNA (C140) was selected which corresponded to a mRNA whose expression was 5.8 times higher in FRTL-Tc cells than in FRTL cells. A 0.8 kb specific C140 mRNA was detected by Northern blot analysis of FRTL-Tc and FRTL mRNAs. The C140 cDNA was sequenced and found to encode a protein of 227 amino acids. We have found that C140 mRNA is conserved in human thyroid cells, but it is encoded by a smaller 0.7 kb transcript. C140 mRNA was highly expressed in neoplastic thyroid tissues and weakly in normal thyroid tissues in the same patients. Additionally, we found that C140 mRNA was also increased in the thyroid tissue of a patient with Graves' disease. These results suggest that C140 expression might be higher in rapidly growing thyroid cells than in normal cells, and might provide a new aspect for the study of thyroid tumours. PMID:8185817

Ohta, K; Endo, T; Gunji, K; Onaya, T

1994-02-01

248

Role of apparent diffusion coefficient values and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objective: The purpose of the study was to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules using nodule-spinal cord signal intensity and nodule apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients (27 females, 17 males; mean age 49) with nodules who underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) were included in this study. The images were acquired with 0, 50, 400 and 1000 s/mm2 b values. ADC maps were calculated afterwards. Fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were performed at the same day with DW-MRI acquisition. The diagnosis in patients where malignity was detected after FNAB was confirmed by histopathologic analysis of the operation material. The signal intensities of the spinal cord and the nodule were measured additionally, over b-1000 diffusion weighted images. Nodule /cord signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained and the digital values were calculated by dividing to ADC values estimated for each nodule. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: The (nodule SI-cord SI)/nodule ADC ratio is calculated in the DW images and a statistically significant relationship was found between this ratio and the histopathology of the nodules (p<0.001). The ratio was determined as 0.27 in benign, and 0.86 in malignant lesions. The result of ROC analysis was statistically significant, and the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic a under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (100%) was considerably high. The threshold value was calculated as 0.56 according to the ROC analysis. According to this threshold value, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy rates for (nodule SI/cord SI)/ADC ratios in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules are calculated as 100%, 97%, 83%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: We have found that (nodule/cord SI)/ nodule ADC ratio has the highest values for sensitivity and specificity among the tests defined for characterization of nodules.

249

Estimate of the uncertainties in the relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms following proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical calculations have shown that proton therapy can reduce the incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) compared with photon therapy for patients with prostate cancer. However, the uncertainties associated with calculations of SMN risk had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to quantify the uncertainties in projected risks of secondary cancer following contemporary proton and photon radiotherapies for prostate cancer. We performed a rigorous propagation of errors and several sensitivity tests to estimate the uncertainty in the ratio of relative risk (RRR) due to the largest contributors to the uncertainty: the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the dose-response model for radiation carcinogenesis and interpatient variations in absorbed dose. The interval of values for the radiation weighting factor for neutrons and the dose-response model were derived from the literature, while interpatient variations in absorbed dose were taken from actual patient data. The influence of each parameter on a baseline RRR value was quantified. Our analysis revealed that the calculated RRR was insensitive to the largest contributors to the uncertainty. Uncertainties in the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the shape of the dose-risk model and interpatient variations in therapeutic and stray doses introduced a total uncertainty of 33% to the baseline RRR calculation.

250

Increment of platelet during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm patients injected subcutaneously with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). Report of two cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decrease of hematologic cells is one of the most severe morbidities in radiation therapy. Thrombocytopenia in particular has no effective treatment methods except blood transfusion. Thus, avoiding severe thrombocytopenia is considered to be one of the most important concerns. We treated 2 patients who had increment of platelets during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm following subcutaneous injection with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). One patient was an 84-year-old woman suffering from uterine cervical carcinoma and the other was a 73-year-old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In both patients, platelets decreased after radiation therapy. Following subsequent injection of Z-100 subcutaneously, an increase in platelets was observed. The mechanisms of Z-100 to increase platelets in these patients are obscure, although some interleukins (IL) such as IL-6 might be related to the increment of the platelets. Thus, further studies will be required to evaluate the mechanisms of the increment of platelet in patients injected with Z-100. (author)

251

Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

252

Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

Taddei, Phillip J.; Mahajan, Anita; Mirkovic, Dragan; Zhang, Rui; Giebeler, Annelise; Kornguth, David; Harvey, Mark; Woo, Shiao; Newhauser, Wayne D.

2010-12-01

253

Primary and secondary neoplasms of the spleen  

OpenAIRE

With the exception of lymphoma involving the spleen, other primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and infrequently encountered. Primary malignant neoplasms involving the spleen are lymphoma and angiosarcoma. Primary benign neoplasms involving the spleen include hemangioma, lymphangioma, littoral cell angioma and splenic cyst and solid lesions such as hamartoma and inflammatory pseudotumor.

Kaza, R. K.; Azar, S.; Al-hawary, M. M.; Francis, I. R.

2010-01-01

254

Long-term follow-up sonography of benign cystic thyroid nodules after a percutaneous ethanol injection: the incidence of malignancy-mimicking nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the incidence of malignancy-mimicking sclerosed thyroid nodules, from long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) after an US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). We examined 86 benign cystic thyroid nodules from 80 patients. The nodules were classified into two groups based on whether an aspiration (Group A, n = 26) or non-aspiration (Group B, n 60) of infused ethanol was performed. The final follow-up US over 12 months was performed in all patients. Of the 86 nodules, the cystic portion of 82 (95.3%) cases, from 76 patients, completely disappeared subsequent to the first follow-up US (Group A, n = 24, Group B, n = 58) (Chi-square test, ? > 0.05). Moreover, 46 sclerosed thyroid nodules showed two or more of the 'five sonographic criteria' upon a follow-up US (Group A, n = 13, 50.0%, Group B, n = 32, 53.3%). A higher ratio of the cystic portion of the nodules was associated with a higher incidence of the 'five sonographic criteria' for malignancies detected via a follow-up US (? < 0.01; Student's t-test). For the long-term follow-up US, the 'five sonographic criteria' were observed in half the patients who received US-guided PEI. Also, by acknowledging the possibility that sonographic findings mimic a malignancy, since the sclerosed thyroid nodule, patients may avoid an unnecessary biopsy

255

Tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas: ¿Una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno? / Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a neoplasm of low malignant potential?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas es considerado una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno, por lo que la radicalidad del abordaje quirúrgico es aún controversial. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se describe y analiza en forma retrospectiva los datos clínicos, radiológicos, de laboratorio, [...] el reporte operatorio y el resultado patológico de 7 pacientes que fueron diagnosticados y operados por tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas en el período 2003 al 2010, en nuestra institución. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes fueron de sexo femenino y uno masculino. La mediana de edad fue 35 años (rango: 15-49). El síntoma más frecuente fue dolor abdominal (100%). Se presentó ictericia en un paciente (14.3%). La apariencia radiológica mixta sólido-quística fue la más frecuente. En 5 pacientes el tumor se localizó en la cabeza del páncreas (71.4%) y en 2 se ubicó en la cola (28.6%). La mediana del tamaño tumoral fue de 93 mm (rango: 20-150) Se realizó 4 procedimientos de Whipple (57.1%), 2 pancreatectomías distales con esplenectomía (28.6%), una por vía laparoscópica y una resección local. En 2 casos (28.6%) se encontró el borde de sección pancreático comprometido. Se presentó morbilidad en 4 pacientes. No hubo mortalidad postoperatoria, ni reoperaciones. Cuatro tumores mostraron comportamiento maligno (57.1%): infiltración de cápsula esplénica y metástasis hepática metacrónica (1), infiltración de arteria mesentérica superior (1), metástasis linfática (1) y metástasis hepática sincrónica, infiltración duodenal e invasión linfovascular (1). No se detectó mortalidad por la enfermedad durante el período de seguimiento que fue en promedio 26 meses (rango: 6-70 meses). CONCLUSIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar es una neoplasia con alto potencial maligno en nuestra experiencia, por lo que recomendamos una actitud quirúrgica agresiva, con resecciones radicales incluyendo linfadenectomía. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas is considered a neoplasm of low malignant potential. The radicality of surgical approach is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe and analyze retrospectively the clinical, radiological, laboratory, operative report and pathology res [...] ults of seven patients who were diagnosed and operated by solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas in the period 2003 to 2010, in our institution. RESULTS: Six patients were female and one male. The median age was 35 years (range: 15-49). The most common symptom was abdominal pain (100%). Jaundice in one patient (14.3%). The radiological appearance mixed solid-cystic was the most common. We performed four Whipple procedures (57.1%), 2 distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (28.6%), one by laparoscopy and the other by local resection. Morbidity presented in four patients. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Five tumors were located in the pancreatic head (71.4%) and two in the tail (28.6%). The median tumor size was 93 mm (range: 20-150). Two (28.6%) were R1 resections. Four tumors showed malignant behavior (57.1%): splenic capsule and infiltration of metachronous liver metastases (1), infiltration of superior mesenteric artery (1), lymphatic metastasis (1) and synchronous liver metastases, and lymphovascular invasion duodenal infiltration (1). There was no mortality from the disease during the average follow-up of 26 months (range 6-70 months). CONCLUSION: Solid pseudo papillary tumor is a neoplasm with high malignant potential in our experience. We recommend an aggressive surgical approach with radical resection including lymphadenectomy.

Gustavo, Reaño; José, De Vinatea; José, Arenas; Fritz, Kometter; Luis, Villanueva; Edgar, Gonzáles; Mónica, Uribe; Jorge, Tang; Guillermo, Casas; Hernán, Robledo.

2011-01-01

256

Clinical value of virtual bronchoscopy in early diagnosis of central malignant lung neoplasm in high risk patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtual bronchoscopy (CT-VB) is a recently developed 3D visualization technique that employs thin-section spiral computed tomographic data of the thorax for non-invasive evaluation of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of multislice-CT virtual bronchoscopy in detecting early endobronchial manifestation of central lung cancer with that of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. For this purpose, a group of 50 high risk patients (cigarette pack-years, long standing history of COLD) underwent both FOB and CT-VB investigation. Multislice CT was performed using the following parameters: collimation, 1 mm; pitch factor, 0.937-1.375; reconstruction interval, 0.8 mm and postprocessing was based on volume rendering technique. Images of eight standard tracheo-bronchial sections were obtained from each patient both during FOB and CT-VB and were independently interpreted respectively by a pneumologist and a bronchiseptica. Airway evaluation was based on the analysis of changes in the mucosal architecture, the shape of the ostia and of the carinae and on the presence of secretion deposits as early signs of tumor onset. The sensitivity of virtual bronchoscopy in discriminating diseased from healthy patients was 94 % and its specificity 65 %. Its positive predictive value 56 % and its negative predictive value 96 %. According to the ROC analysis, except for the assessment of the secretion deposits, the other three criteria evaluated separatele other three criteria evaluated separately during virtual bronchoscopic assessment of the airways contributed equally in discriminating diseased from disease-free patients (areas under curve ranging between 0,797 and 0,845). The best AUC was associated with the evaluation of the sum of all three parameters together (0,858). Nevertheless, FOB and CT-VB results in the evaluation of the shape of the ostia resulted to agree moderately while just a fair agreement was observed with respect to the evaluation of the mucosal architecture and of the shape of the carinae (Kappa values ranging between 0,310 and 0,520). As to the evaluation of the secretion deposits, for example, the two diagnostic tests showed very poor agreement (negative Kappa value) concluding, this preliminary evaluation indicates that virtual bronchoscopy combined with the evaluation of MS-CT axial scans may be a promising and non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of patients at high risk of developing central lung neoplasm and can add important information about an intraluminal tumor and its relation to surrounding structures. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the potentials of this promising method as a tool to evaluate endoluminal growth in tumorous lung lesions. Even though it showed just fair agreement with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the evaluation of changes in the form of the carinae, in the shape of the ostia and the accurate analysis of modifications in the mucosal architecture as early signs of tumor growth, showed to be three valid separate diagnostic criteria for airway assessment by means of virtual bronchoscopy. From a technical point of view, multislice-CT allowed the optimization of examination parameters such as acquisition time and primary collimation resulting not only in a reduction of respiratory and pulsation artefacts but also in a dramatic improvement of the z-axis and hence a much better resolution of the 3-dimensional reconstructions. As a consequence, MS-CT virtual bronchoscopy provides enhanced detail fidelity and represents a valid diagnostic tool for the evaluation of the whole tracheo-bronchial tree up to its third generation bronchi. (author)

257

Evaluation of dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid disorders by means of iodine-124 and PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of {sup 124}I positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Phantom studies to assess the accuracy of PET were performed using an EEC phantom with spheres of different diameters filled with 3-30 MBq of {sup 124}I. Patient dosimetry was derived from PET data obtained 1-13 days after simultaneous oral administration of a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and a diagnostic dose of {sup 124}I. The obtained data were compared with findings from intratherapeutic probe measurements and clinical outcome. The phantom studies confirmed that {sup 124}I can be quantitated by PET (imprecision {<=}10%), and volumetry is feasible for nodules <13 mm (imprecision {<=}20%). Any influence of contamination with {sup 123}I or the simultaneous administration of {sup 131}I on the accuracy of the PET quantification and the probe measurements was ruled out by phantom measurements with solutions of {sup 131}I, {sup 124}I and{sup 123}I in various ratios. In autonomous nodular goitres, radioiodine uptake measured by PET varied from 25.4% to 64.3% and was not significantly different from that obtained by a scintillation probe (24.1%-73.1%, correlation coefficient r=0.91). Comparison of uptake and effective half-life in normal tissue versus autonomous nodules revealed significant differences in uptake but not in effective half-life [uptake 2.0-8.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in normal tissue vs 12.6-29.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in nodules; half-life 97.8-156.7 h in normal tissue vs 73.3-192.3 h in nodules]. Calculated radiation doses ranged between 177 and 633 Gy for autonomous nodules and between 47 and 126 Gy for normal tissue. In thyroid cancer patients, doses between 350 and 1,420 Gy were achieved in thyroid remnants and between 70 and 170 Gy in tumour metastases. It is concluded that {sup 124}I and PET are suitable for evaluation of the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid diseases. The applied technique might be particularly useful for quantitative dose-response studies in radioiodine treatment and further investigations of stunning phenomena. (orig.)

Eschmann, Susanne M.; Bilger, Kilian; Kupferschlaeger, Juergen; Thelen, Marcel H.; Dohmen, Bernhard M.; Besenfelder, Hariolf; Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Reischl, Gerald [Division of Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

2002-06-01

258

Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

259

Virtual touch tissue imaging on acoustic radiation force impulse elastography: a new technique for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography is a newly developed ultrasound elasticity imaging technique that included both Virtual Touch tissue quantification and Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA). This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of VTI in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Methods- This study included 192 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules (n = 219) who underwent surgery for compressive symptoms or suspicion of malignancy. Tissue stiffness on VTI elastography was scored from 1 (soft) to 6 (hard). The VTI scores between malignant and benign thyroid nodules were compared. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement for VTI elastography was also assessed. Results- On VTI elastography: score 1 was found in 84 nodules (all benign); score 2 in 37 nodules (3 papillary carcinomas and 34 benign nodules); score 3 in 25 nodules (1 medullary carcinoma, 6 papillary carcinomas, and 18 benign nodules); score 4 in 53 nodules (50 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); score 5 in 17 nodules (14 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); and score 6 in 3 nodules (all papillary carcinomas). A VTI elasticity score of 4 or greater was highly predictive of malignancy (Pthyroid nodules. PMID:24658938

Zhang, Yi-Feng; He, Yong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Chang; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Jun-Mei

2014-04-01

260

Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules: Diagnostic Value, Technical Aspects, Analysis of Results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB in detection of malignant thyroid tumors based on retrospective analyses of 40696 FNAB of patients with thyroid nodules. Results. Comparison of the results of FNAB with postoperative histological examination data from 3004 patients revealed that the rate of false positive cytopathological results was 1.2% and the rate of false negative results was 1.8%. The sensitivity reached 99.67%. The specificity of FNAB when taking into account follicular lesions dropped to 16.29%, while leaving follicular lesions - 94.29%. Cytological results of 49609 FNAB of patients with thyroid nodules according to Bethesda system were arranged as follows: noninformative results - 8%, benign nodules - 81.9% (colloid nodules - 71.6%, autoimmune thyroiditis - 10.2%, subacute thyroiditis and others - 0.02%, follicular lesions - 7.2% (follicular neoplasm - 7.1%, follicular lesion of indeterminate value - 0.1%, suspicious for malignancy - 0.02%, malignant tumor - 3%, among the latter papillary carcinoma - 93%. Malignant tumors, according to postoperative histological examination, were detected among the group with cytological diagnosis “follicular neoplasm” in 16.3% of cases. After performing FNAB of regional lymph nodes with suspicious ultrasound signs the metastases of papillary carcinoma were revealed in 24.6% of cases. Application of FNAB in clinical practice at our Center to all patients with thyroid nodules of 1 cm in size and larger resulted in increment of thyroid operations for oncological indications from 12.5% in 2004 to 53% in 2012. Conclusion. FNAB under ultrasound control is the most informative differential method for thyroid diseases, permitting to reveal primary and metastatic thyroid lesions. FNAB allow to evade nonobligatory diagnostic operations in many patients.

R A Chernikov

2013-12-01

261

Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

Reyhan Ersoy

2008-05-01

262

Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10, bócio adenomatoso (n = 8, adenoma folicular (n = 12, adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3, carcinoma papilífero (n = 29, carcinoma folicular (n = 8, carcinoma insular (n = 4, carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4 e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6, selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL, no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%, adenoma folicular (16,7%, carcinoma papilífero (96,6%, carcinoma folicular (12,5%, carcinoma insular (50%, carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100% e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita.BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistochemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10, adenomatoid goiter (n = 8, follicular adenoma (n = 12, Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 29, follicular carcinoma (n = 8, poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4, Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4, anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6, which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%, follicular adenoma (16.7%, papillary carcinoma (96.6%, follicular carcinoma (50%, Hürthle cell carcinoma (100% and anaplastic carcinoma (50%. Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

Marilene Paladino Rosa

2005-02-01

263

Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

264

Prevalence of mutations of ras and p53 in benign and malignant thyroid tumors from children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting 4 years after the Chernobyl accident, a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid carcinoma was noticed in children from contaminated areas. The incidence of benign thyroid lesions in the exposed population was also increased. To study the possible role of ras and p53 genes in radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis, 33 papillary carcinomas, one follicular carcinoma and 22 benign lesions removed from children aged 5-19 were screened for point mutations of H-, K-, and N-ras, as well as of p53 (exons 5-8) using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Ras point mutations were detected in 1/1 case of follicular carcinoma (N-ras codon 61 CAAgln-->AAAlys), and in 3/7 follicular adenomas (N-ras codon 61 CAAgln-->CGAarg x 2, CAAgln-->AAAlys). None of the cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma was positive for ras oncogene abnormalities. The lack of K-ras mutations was confirmed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization (ASOH), and by sequencing in five cases. Somatic point mutations in p53 were found by SSCP in 2/33 papillary thyroid carcinomas, with one missense mutation (exon 5, codon 160 ATGmet-->GTGval) and another silent mutation (codon 182, TGCcys-->TGTcys). Immunohisto-chemically, focally positive p53 staining was found in four papillary carcinomas being primarily confined to solid and poorly-differentiated areas in tumors. These data demonstrate that as opposed to the few reports on tumors arising after therapeutic external irradiation, ras mutations are not primary events in the development of post-Chernobyl thyroid papillary carcinomas. p53 mutations do not appear to be important in the development of these tumors, but may in some cases have a role in progression to a more aggressive phenotype that has not yet fully manifested in these pediatric neoplasms. PMID:8761289

Nikiforov, Y E; Nikiforova, M N; Gnepp, D R; Fagin, J A

1996-08-15

265

Comparative evaluation of angiography and computed tomography in 34 cases with malignant neoplasm of the liver, bile duct, gallbladder and pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 34 cases with malignant neoplasm of the liver, bile duct, gallbladder and pancreas, angiographic and CT finding were studied. 1) As CT findings, the margin of many hepatomas and almost all liver metastasis were able to be found except for some hepatomas. In many hepatomas, it was also found that there were lower parts in low density area. These lesions are seemed due to necrosis or hemorrhage. Metastatic carcinomas which had angiographic finding of much diffuse hypervasculature were seen as uniform low density area. On the other hand, those which had peripheral hypervasculature and of which the angiographic findings were some ring-like tumor stains were shown as the more obvious low density areas. These lesions became smaller by contrast enhancement, because the peripheral part of the lesion was changed to isodensity as normal liver. This phenomenon was not seen in the large a vasculer liver metastasis. 2) The dilatation of the partial intrahepatic bile duct was found in many intrahepatic cholangiomas (hiler type), but rare in hepatoma and liver metastasis. At the same time, CT showed low density areas which had ill-defined margin and did not coincide with tumor location. The low density area may suggest inflammatory change but it was not certified why these area did not coincide with tumor location. 3) In most extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the encasement of portal vein was shown on angiography. CT showed bile duct dilatation in all patient. These two findings tation in all patient. These two findings might be rarely found in gallbladder carcinoma because of its location. 4) Unresectable pancreas carcinomas were easily diagnosed by CT and angiography, but it is impossible to find early pancreas carcinoma by conventional second generation CT examination. (author)

266

Risk of a Second Malignant Neoplasm After Cancer in Childhood Treated With Radiotherapy: Correlation With the Integral Dose Restricted to the Irradiated Fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: After successful treatment of cancers in childhood, the occurrence of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) came to the fore. Few studies have considered the relationship between the radiation dose received and the risk of developing an SMN. To take into account the heterogeneity of the dose distribution so as to evaluate the overall risk of an SMN after a childhood cancer, we therefore focused on the integral dose restricted to the irradiated fields. Methods and Materials: The study was performed in a cohort of 4,401 patients who were 3-year survivors of all types of childhood cancer treated between 1947 and 1986 in France and Great Britain. For each patient, the integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. Results: We found a significant dose-response relationship between the overall risk of an SMN and the estimated integral dose. The excess relative risk for each incremental unit of the integral dose was only 0.008 in a linear model and 0.017 when a negative exponential term was considered, when adjusted for chemotherapy. The risk of SMN occurrence was 2.6 times higher in the case of irradiation. However among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those who had received the highest integral dose actually had a higher risk. Conclusions: The integral dose in our study cannot be considered as a good predictor of later risks. However other studies with the same study design are obviously needed to evaluate the use of the integral dose as evaluate the use of the integral dose as a tool for decision making concerning different radiotherapy techniques

267

Evaluación clínica de la salud oral de niños con neoplasias malignas / Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Este estudio de carácter descriptivo visó evaluar clínicamente niños con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relación entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatológicas. Pacientes y métodos: la salud bucal de 40 niños con neoplasias malignas (grupo I) [...] fue evaluada clínicamente mediante examen físico extra e intra oral, obtención del índice de placa visible, índice de sangrado gingival e índice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultáneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatológicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de éstos niños fue comparado al de niños saludables (grupo II). Resultados: los niños del grupo I presentaron índices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el índice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los niños del grupo I, sin embargo, sólo hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002). En el grupo I, 16 niños desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatológicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontáneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusión: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplásico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatológicas. Abstract in english Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neo [...] plasm (group I) through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II). Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002). In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

MA, Gordón-Núñez; L, Pereira Pinto; BL, Souza; PT, Oliveira; MZ, Fernandes.

2005-06-01

268

Características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de pacientes operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea / Clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for suspected thyroid malignancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el carcinoma tiroideo se caracteriza por su lenta evolución y elevado porcentaje de curación. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de los pacientes operados. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron para obtener el d [...] ato primario las historias clínicas de los pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión: operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea, mayores de 18 años de edad que contaron con datos completos demográficos, clínicos, sonográficos y anatomopatológicos, y que estuviesen inscritos en el hospital. Se confeccionaron tablas de distribución de frecuencias. Se aplicó la prueba de comparación de proporciones para describir la significación estadística de las variables estudiadas en relación con la malignidad tiroidea. Resultados: el 81,8 % de los pacientes afectados de malignidad tiroidea correspondió al género femenino. El 39,4 % de estos correspondieron al grupo de edad entre 41 y 50 años, el 75,8 % de este grupo de pacientes correspondió al examen sonográfico con un área del nódulo tiroideo mayor de 10 mm, el 53,3 % de estos pacientes presentó como morfología tiroidea el nódulo único, y el 75,8 % presentó como resultado de la citología con aguja fina un carcinoma de tiroides. El 91 % presentó como clasificación histológica carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: la mayor frecuencia de carcinoma fue la variante papilar. Se encontró de forma predominante en mujeres con edades entre los 41 y 50 años que tenían nódulos mayores de 1 cm. Abstract in english Introduction: thyroid carcinoma is characterized by slow progression and high recovery percentage. Objective: to describe the clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for thyroid malignancy. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study for which the [...] primary data were collected from the medical histories of patients who met the inclusion criteria. These criteria comprised surgery for suspected thyroid malignancy, age over 18 years, and complete demographic, clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological data and registration at the hospital. Frequency distribution tables were drawn up. The ratio comparison test was applied to describe the statistical significance of the studied variables with respect to the thyroid malignancy. Results: in the group of patients with thyroid malignancy, 81.8 % were females, 39.4 % aged 41 to 50 years. The ultrasonographic test showed that 75.8 % of them had a thyroid nodule area greater than 10 mm, 53.3 % presented solitary nodule morphology whereas the result of the fine needle aspiration cytology was thyroid carcinoma. The histological classification yielded papillary carcinoma in 91 % of patients. Conclusions: the papillary carcinoma was the most common, particularly in females aged 41 to 50 years who had over 1 cm nodules.

Adalberto, Infante Amorós; Zussel, Rodríguez Obret; Regla, Ramos Duarte.

2014-08-01

269

Cost-effectiveness of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?  

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For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Heinzel, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Juelich (Germany)

2014-01-15

270

Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor. From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility. The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy. Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm. There were 12 males and 11 females with a median age at RT of 6.6 years (range, 2 months to 20 years). There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%). The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient. One child was treated using 15-MeV electrons. Fourteen had chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 23.2 years (range, 5.3 to 44.4 years). For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years. The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Ten of the 14 SMN (71%) were at the edge or inside the RT field. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field. The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1. Only 5 (36%) of the 14 benign tumors occurred in the RT field, with osteochondroma being the most common. Of 189 deaths occurring in 429 patients, only 3 (1.6%) were secondary to radiation-induced malignancy. Not all SMN in children receiving RT occur in the irradiated field. More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN. PMID:15804994

Paulino, Arnold C; Fowler, B Zach

2005-03-01

271

Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

Kim Hoon

2012-09-01

272

Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases  

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Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

Guhamallick M

2008-01-01

273

The influence of various amounts of 131-iodine on the proliferation of benign and malignant thyroid cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of our work was to find a method to predict the sensitivity of different thyroid diseases towards 131-iodine individually for each patient who is going to have a 131-iodine treatment. We tried to determine the 131-iodine-uptake of benign primary thyroid cells and malignant thyroid (carcinoma) cell-lines (follicular -UCLA RO 82 W-1 and papillary -NPA'87). The following culture dishes were used: 75 cm2-flasks, 24-well plates and Palladium-covered dishes. We incubated 350000 cells per well with 3,7; 9,25; 18,5; 37; and 185 mbq 131-iodine/500 ?l Hanks Balanced Salt Solution and 10 (5; 100; 0,1 and 0) ?M non-active sodium-iodide for 2 minutes up to 72 hours. The amount of 131-iodine stored by the cells was measured with a Gamma-counter. The ability of the tested two cell-lines to take up 131-iodine was pretty low (about 0,02 % - 0,9 % of the added 131-iodine doses). In addition to that we controlled and determined the cell proliferation by staining them with Trypan-blue and counting using a phase-contrast-microscope. From the cell numbers we collected during 8 days control a growth curve could be prepared. There was a remarkable difference in the growth rate between 131-iodine-incubated (3,7 mbq) and non-incubated cells. The number of the irradiated cells was about 30 % lower. Furthermore we added 10 ?M 13-cis retinoic acid to the nutrition media to attempt to rise the extent of the cells differentiation and therefor also the 131-iodine-uptake. Four defor also the 131-iodine-uptake. Four days preparation with retinoic acid in the media caused a slight increase (10 %) of the 131-iodine-uptake in the RO 82 W-1-cells, 28 days incubation decreased the 131-iodine-uptake significantly (about 30 % - 70 %) and the cells died. After 10 days preparation with retinoic acid the NPA'87-cells also showed a decrease in the 131-iodine-uptake (?40-50 %) and the cells died. (author)

274

Real Time Ultrasound Elastography for the Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules  

OpenAIRE

The 78 nodules in these patients were examined by conventional ultrasound, and ultrasound elastography. The final diagnosis was obtained from cytological findings. Tissue stiffness on ultrasound elastography was scored from 1 (low stiffness over the entire nodule) to 5 (high stiffness over the entire nodule and surrounding tissue). On real-time ultrasound elastography, 47 of 62 benign nodules (76%) had a score of 1 or 2, whereas 15 of 16 malignant nodules had a score of 3 to...

Eltyib, Hamad Elniel H.; Awad, Ibrahim A.; Elsayed, Naglaa M.; Jastaniah, Saddig D.

2014-01-01

275

Study on the diagnostic value of 99Tcm-MIBI dynamic blood flow perfusion imaging and double-phase radionuclide imaging in benign and malignant cold thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the value of 99Tcm-MIBI dynamic blood flow perfusion imaging and double-phase radionuclide imaging in benign and malignant cold thyroid nodules. Methods: Retrospective analysis of surgical treatment of cold thyroid nodules of 28 patients. Use dual-head SPECT with low energy and high resolution collimator to get dynamic 99Tcm-MIBI blood flow perfusion imaging, 30 min early-phase and 130 min delayed-phase static planar imaging. The images are comprehensive analysed by T/NT and other methods. Results: Nine cases of thyroid cancer in the dynamic blood flow perfusion, 30 min early-phase and 130 min delayed-phase static planar imaging, contain positive imaging 5, 6 and 7 cases respectively. 19 cases of benign lesions contain negative imaging 14, 11 and 16 cases respectively. Sensitivity of 99Tcm-MIBI dynamic perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is 55.56%, specificity is 73.86%, accuracy is 667.85%. Sensitivity of 30 min early-phase static planar in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is 66.67%, specificity is 557.89%, accuracy is 667.85%. Sensitivity of 130 min delayed-phase static planar imaging in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer is 77.78%, specificity is 84.12%, accuracy is 82.14%. Conclusion: 99Tcm-MIBI dual-phase imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules has some value, comprehensive analysis of the blood perfusion andensive analysis of the blood perfusion and the T/NT of 99Tcm-MIBI dual-phase imaging can reduce the occurrence of false positive and false negative cases. (authors)

276

Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia) / Presencia de tumores mamarios malignos con metástasis a pulmón en perras en Medellín (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Definir la presencia de metástasis pulmonar en perras con tumores mamarios. Materiales y métodos. En una muestra de 30 perras atendidas en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) con diagnóstico de tumores mamarios, al momento de la consulta, fueron regi [...] strados las variables clínicas y el grado de compromiso de las glándulas mamarias y de los nódulos linfáticos. Imágenes radiográficas latero-laterales y ventro-dorsales del tórax fueron tomadas para la identificación de hallazgos radiográficos compatibles con metástasis pulmonar. Biopsias mamarias afectadas fueron sometidas a estudio histopatológico y clasificación del tipo de tumor. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. La edad promedio (± error estándar) al diagnóstico clínico fue 10.87 ± 2.65 años de edad. La raza más frecuentemente afectada fue la French poodle (46.6%) seguida de perros cruzados (13.3%) y Schnauzer (10%). El carcinoma fue el tumor más hallado (81%) seguido del adenoma (8.1%) y otros tipos de tumor (10.8%). Las glándulas mamarias más afectadas fueron las inguinales derecha (70%) e izquierda (66.6%). Cinco de las 30 pacientes (16.6%), presentaron metástasis a pulmón. Entre estas, 4 de 5 (80%) tenían carcinoma complejo. Conclusiones. El carcinoma complejo fue la neoplasia más frecuente y es el tipo más relacionado con metástasis pulmonar. Abstract in english Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia) were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grad [...] e of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error) age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6%) cross-breed (13.3%) and Schnauzer (10%) were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%), followed by adenoma (8.1%), and other types (10.8%). The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively). Five out of 30 bitches (16.6%) had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80%) were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

Brigitte, Gómez J; María, Ramírez R; Juan, Maldonado E.

2983-29-01

277

Long-term follow-up sonography of benign cystic thyroid nodules after a percutaneous ethanol injection: the incidence of malignancy-mimicking nodules  

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To evaluate the incidence of malignancy-mimicking sclerosed thyroid nodules, from long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) after an US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). We examined 86 benign cystic thyroid nodules from 80 patients. The nodules were classified into two groups based on whether an aspiration (Group A, n = 26) or non-aspiration (Group B, n 60) of infused ethanol was performed. The final follow-up US over 12 months was performed in all patients. Of the 86 nodules, the cystic portion of 82 (95.3%) cases, from 76 patients, completely disappeared subsequent to the first follow-up US (Group A, n = 24, Group B, n = 58) (Chi-square test, {rho} > 0.05). Moreover, 46 sclerosed thyroid nodules showed two or more of the 'five sonographic criteria' upon a follow-up US (Group A, n = 13, 50.0%, Group B, n = 32, 53.3%). A higher ratio of the cystic portion of the nodules was associated with a higher incidence of the 'five sonographic criteria' for malignancies detected via a follow-up US ({rho} < 0.01; Student's t-test). For the long-term follow-up US, the 'five sonographic criteria' were observed in half the patients who received US-guided PEI. Also, by acknowledging the possibility that sonographic findings mimic a malignancy, since the sclerosed thyroid nodule, patients may avoid an unnecessary biopsy.

Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, Choong Ki; Choi, Seok Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Masan (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

278

Evaluation of non-palpable thyroid nodules by ultra sound guided fine needle aspiration cytology  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see the usefulness of fine needle aspiration by “theBethesdasystem for reporting Thyroid Cytopathology” (TBS- RTC for non palpable thyroid nodules through ultrasound-guidance for the evaluation and treatment planning of nonpalpable thyroid lesions. This study was conducted on 200 patients with non palpable thyroid nodules which are very low lying or felt on swallowing; in Department of Pathology and Radiology since January 2011 to June 2012. The patients were scanned and USG- FNAC was performed and reporting was done by “TBSRTC”. Of the 200 specimens 17 samples were nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory (Class I, 145 samples were benign (Class II, 20 samples were showing Atypical of Undetermined Significance (AUS or Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance (FLUS; (Class III, 6 were showing follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (Class IV, 7 samples were suspicious for malignancy (Class V and 5 samples were positive for malignancy (Class VI. On comparison of ultrasound guided FNAC with histopathology the sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 93%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 37%, negative predictive value was 99% and accuracy was 86%. USG-FNAC is a useful modality for the evaluation and treatment planning of nonpalpable thyroid lesions smaller than5 mmin the maximum diameter. TBSRTC is the best method of reporting but class III and IV are the main pitfall of this system for reporting Thyroid Cytopathology and show high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

Kanwal Saba

2013-02-01

279

Risk of Late Mortality and Second Malignant Neoplasms among 5-Year Survivors of Young Adult Cancer: A Report of the Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer Survivors Research Program  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a population-based retrospective study to assess the long-term risks of overall and cause-specific mortality and second malignant neoplasm (SMN) among survivors of young adult cancer compared to the risk in British Columbia (BC) population and to evaluate the effects of demographic and clinical factors on risk. 1248 5-year survivors of young adult cancer diagnosed 1970–1995 between 20 and 24 years of age were identified from the BC Cancer Registry and followed to the end of 200...

Yang Zhang(Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark); Karen Goddard; Spinelli, John J.; Carolyn Gotay; Mcbride, Mary L.

2012-01-01

280

"Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%, compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injection of 15mCi of Tc-99m-MIBI in 4 phases (Angiography-First 10 minutes-15min and 2-3 hours after injection. Thyroid MIBI uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4 with no uptake as score 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with MIBI uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age=35.5 years+/- 13.6 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. MIBI uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules(P=0.73. Sensitivity and specificity of high MIBI uptake (score 3-4 for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The values for sensitivity and specificity were 69.2% and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as difference in uptake scores of late and early phases was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P=0.07. The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P=0.65. Conclusion: Thyroid MIBI scan has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidates for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation. Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity.

N. Forghani

2004-08-01

281

Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

282

Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule  

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Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

283

Thyroid cytopathology reporting by the bethesda system: a two-year prospective study in an academic institution.  

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Background. The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has attempted to standardize reporting and cytological criteria in aspiration smears. Aims. The objective of this study was to analyze the thyroid cytology smears by TBSRTC, to determine the distribution of diagnostic categories and subcategories, to analyze cytological features, and to correlate the cytopathology with histopathology, wherever surgery was done. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of 225 fine needle aspirations (FNA) of thyroid nodules. All fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnoses were classified according to the features given in the monograph of TBSRTC into nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory (ND/UNS), benign, atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS), follicular neoplasm/suspicious of a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN), suspicious for malignancy (SFM), and malignant. Cytohistological correlation was done, when surgical material was available. Results. The distribution of various categories from 225 evaluated thyroid nodules was as follows: 7.2% ND/UNS, 80.0% benign, 4.9% AUS/FLUS, 2.2% FN, 3.5% SFM, and 2.2% malignant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Conclusions. TBSRTC is an excellent reporting system for thyroid FNA. It also provides clear management guidelines to clinicians to go for follow-up FNA or surgery and also the extent of surgery. PMID:25688327

Mehra, Payal; Verma, Anand Kumar

2015-01-01

284

Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

O'Neill, J P

2010-03-01

285

Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUVmax of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at pmax of the malignant IPMNhe SUVmax of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2.0, respectively. The result of this study indicates that FDG PET/CT can provide additional information for the differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the pancreas with mural nodules. (author)

286

Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesothelioma treated with six cycles of Pemetrexed and Carboplatin completed 03/11/04 followed by radiotherapy to the drain site 250 Kv/TD20Gy/5F completed 13/12/2004. Then he developed multiple facial skin lesions 4 years later. These lesions were proved to be metastatic malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Conclusion Mesothelioma metastases should be suspected in any known Mesothelioma patient with newly developed skin lesion.

Lawrence Julia

2009-11-01

287

Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

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In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

288

Evidence for a role of the amyloid precursor protein in thyroid carcinogenesis.  

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We have recently found an increased expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cold thyroid nodules that are difficult to classify as a truly benign thyroid neoplasm or a lesion with the potential for further dedifferentiation. Since differences in APP activity have been found in other human cancers, we asked whether thyroid carcinogenesis might be associated with an altered APP expression and function. APP regulation was studied in vitro in differentiated (FRTL-5) and dedifferentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC-133) thyroid cells after specific inhibition or activation of the cAMP-PKA, the PI3K/AKT or the protein kinase c (PKC) cascades. In vivo analysis of APP expression and downstream signalling was performed in benign and malignant thyroid tissues. We found that upregulation of APP expression and sAPP secretion is induced by TSH in differentiated thyroid cells and by insulin in thyroid cancer cells. PKC is a strong activator of APP cleavage and in FTC-133 confers prolonged release of the APP ectodomain. FTC-133 but not FRTL-5 cells show a prominent cell surface expression of the APP ectodomain, which has been suggested to function as an autocrine growth factor. Thyroid cancers are characterized by APP upregulation, increased membrane targeting of the APP ectodomain and significantly increased mRNA levels of the APP scaffold proteins JIP1, ShcA and Fe65. PMID:18480379

Krause, Kerstin; Karger, Stefan; Sheu, Sien-Yi; Aigner, Thomas; Kursawe, Romy; Gimm, Oliver; Schmid, Kurt-Werner; Dralle, Henning; Fuhrer, Dagmar

2008-08-01

289

Clinical and ultrasound features of cytology diagnosed follicular neoplasm.  

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The purpose of this study was to identify clinical and ultrasound (US) features of malignancy in patients using cytological results of follicular neoplasm (FN) in the thyroid. We followed 165 patients with cytology diagnosed FN and evaluated the final surgical histopathology outcomes in 114 patients between March 2006 and November 2008. Patient histopathology, age, sex, tumor size, and US characteristics and the color flow pattern of the lesions were analyzed and compared between benign and carcinomas. Twenty five (21.9%) of the 114 FN were found to be follicular carcinomas (FC); 15 minimally invasive FC, 4 widely invasive FC, and 6 FVPTC. Benign included 78 FA, 8 atypical FA, and 3 Hurthle cell adenomas. The incidence of malignancy was 31.8% (7/22) in men and 19.6% (18/92) in women (p=0.253); and it was similar throughout the different age (45) and nodule size groups (2 cm, 4 cm). The difference of shape, margin, the presence of a halo, internal content, and calcifications was not statistically significant (p value =0.05). In malignancy more frequent internal central color Doppler flow was present (p=0.030). Color Doppler flow pattern of FN with other clinicopathological factors should be carefully considered when predicting the malignant potential of FN. PMID:19164864

Choi, Yoon Jung; Yun, Ji Sup; Kim, Dong Hoon

2009-01-01

290

Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR) / Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillar [...] y thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%), and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%). CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

Pedro, Pineda B; Paula, Rojas G; Claudio, Liberman G; Leonor, Moyano S; Irmgadt, Goecke S.

2003-09-01

291

Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR  

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Full Text Available Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%, and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%. CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

Pedro Pineda B

2003-09-01

292

Masa renal asintomática como primera manifestación de carcinoma folicular de tiroides / Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid manifested initially asymptom primary renal neoplasm  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las metástasis de carcinoma de tiroides en riñón son raras. Presentamos el 10º caso, que conocemos publicado, de metástasis tiroidea en riñón y el primero del tipo folicular y asintomático. Se trata de una paciente de 75 años asintomática, que presenta una masa en el riñón derecho, que se decide rea [...] lizar nefrectomía parcial derecha. El diagnóstico provisional habla de tumor de células claras renales pero el definitivo es de metástasis de carcinoma folicular de tiroides, descubrimos un estado avanzado de la enfermedad tanto localmente como a distancia. Las fuentes de metástasis en el riñón así como las técnicas diagnósticas son discutidas en el caso. Abstract in english Metastases in the kidney are rare, evenmore if primary source is thyroid. We report the tenth case of metastases in the kidney from thyroid, and it is the first to be follicular type and absolutely asymptom. Sonography and computerized tomography with suspicion of renal tumour are showed in a asymto [...] m female 75 years old. Left partial nephrectomy was perfomed, initially it has been pathologically diagnosed as renal clear cells tumour, however the definitive pathologic report showed follicular tumour of thyroid. Local and systemic stage was discovered with complementary techniques. Sources of metastases in kidney and diagnoses techniques are discussed.

J.M., Regojo Balboa; D., Sánchez Zalabardo; J., Rioja Zuazu; J.M., Fernández Montero; J., López Ferrandis; J.J., Zudaire Bergera; D., Rosell Costa; J.E., Robles García; J.M., Berián Polo.

2004-04-01

293

Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy  

OpenAIRE

The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful in the diagnosis of PTC, its accuracy and utility would be greatly facilitated by the development of specific markers for PTC and its common variants. We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 micro...

Finn, S. P.; Smyth, P.; Cahill, S.; Streck, C.; O’regan, E. M.; Flavin, R.; Sherlock, J.; Howells, D.; Henfrey, R.; Cullen, M.; Toner, M.; Timon, C.; O’leary, J. J.; Sheils, O. M.

2007-01-01

294

Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions. Although fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful in the diagnosis of PTC, its accuracy and utility would be greatly facilitated by the development of specific markers for PTC and its common variants. We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology). TaqMan(R) reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the expression portfolios of 50 selected transcripts. Our data corroborates potential biomarkers previously identified in the literature, such as LGALS3, S100A11, LYN, BAX, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms. Diminished expression of metallothioneins featured strongly among these and suggests a possible role for this family as tumour suppressors in PTC. Fifteen transcripts were significantly associated with FVPTC morphology. Surprisingly, these genes were associated with an extremely narrow repertoire of functions, including the major histocompatibility complex and cathepsin families. PMID:17252232

Finn, S P; Smyth, P; Cahill, S; Streck, C; O'Regan, E M; Flavin, R; Sherlock, J; Howells, D; Henfrey, R; Cullen, M; Toner, M; Timon, C; O'Leary, J J; Sheils, O M

2007-03-01

295

Avaliação de fatores clínicos, laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos preditores de malignidade em nódulos tiroidianos / Evaluation of clinical, laboratorial and ultrasonographic predicting factors of malignancy in thyroid nodules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar risco de malignidade de nódulos tiroidianos por meio de aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, ultrassonográficos e citológicos. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: 741 nódulos de 407 pacientes. RESULTADOS: A citologia foi benigna (60,5%), indeterminada (23,3%), maligna (8,6%) ou não diagnóstica (7,6% [...] ). A prevalência de câncer nas citologias indeterminadas foi 18,5% (16% nas lesões foliculares, 44% nas suspeitas). O diagnóstico de malignidade foi 17,2% (n = 70). A frequência de câncer em mulheres (15,2%) foi menor do que em homens (27,9%). Houve uma relação inversa entre idade e risco de câncer. Não houve significância estatística na prevalência de câncer de acordo com número, tamanho dos nódulos ou níveis de TSH. Hipoecogenicidade e microcalcificações ao ultrassom foram fatores de risco. CONCLUSÃO: O risco de malignidade foi maior em homens, nódulos hipoecogênicos, com microcalcificações e inversamente relacionado à idade. O nível de TSH não foi um preditor independente de malignidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules through clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and cytological aspects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 741 nodules of 407 patients. RESULTS: The cytology was benign (60,5%), indeterminate (23,3%), malignant (8,3%) or nondiagnostic (7,6%). The p [...] revalence of cancer in indeterminate citology was 18,5% (16% in follicular lesions, 44% in suspicious). The diagnosis of malignancy was 17,2% (n = 70). The frequency of cancer in women (15,2%) was lower than in men (27,9%). There was an inverse relation between age and cancer risk. There was no statistical significance in the prevalence of cancer according to number, size of nodules or TSH levels. Hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications on ultrasound were risk factors. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was higher in men, hypoechoic nodules, with microcalcifications and was inversely related to age. The TSH level was not an independent factor predictive of malignancy.

Ana Luiza Silva, Rio; Rosa Paula Mello, Biscolla; Danielle Macellaro, Andreoni; Cléber Pinto, Camacho; Cláudia Cristina Doimo, Nakabashi; Maria da Conceição de Oliveira Carneiro, Mamone; Elza Setsuku, Ikejiri; Luiza K., Matsumura; Jairo Tabacow, Hidal; Rui Monteiro de Barros, Maciel; Reinaldo Perrone, Furlanetto.

2011-02-01

296

Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Struma ovarii (SO is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component. Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up.

Selvaggi Federico

2012-05-01

297

Suspision of focal neoplasm in the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stage-by-stage diagnosis of patients with suspension of focal neoplasm in the liver is presented. It includes: 1 stage -sonography - is used in case of instrumental examination of the liver; if neoplasm has the signs of simple cyst, hemangioma, focal nodal hyperplasia, then examination is near completion; in case neoplasm character is not clear CT is necessary. 2 stage -CT of the liver using intravenous contrast substance; examination is near completion if neoplasm has signs of a cyst, hemangioma, focal fatty degeneration; if suspended neoplasm is primary malignant tumor thin-needle biopsy is necessary; in case of expected neoplasm extirpation it is a good idea to do hepatic arteriography. Precise determination of focal character is important for selection of therapeutic methods

298

Pregnancy and thyroid cancer: ultrasound study of foetal thyroid  

OpenAIRE

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, more frequently diagnosed in young women during childbearing age and approximately 10% of all thyroid cancers are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the early post-partum period. Thyroid cancer in young people has generally an excellent prognosis, and survival among women with thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy may not differ from that in age-matched non-pregnant women with similar cancer. Pregnancy after treatment of thyroid carcin...

Zamperini, P.; Gibelli, B.; Gilardi, D.; Tradati, N.; Chiesa, F.

2009-01-01

299

The triage efficacy of fine needle aspiration biopsy for follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using the Bethesda reporting guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is challenging. In this retrospective review, we evaluated triage efficacy (i.e., potential for triggering surgical intervention) in 44 archived FNA biopsies of surgically confirmed FVPTC obtained between December 2006 and December 2008. We compared the original FNA diagnoses with reclassified diagnoses based on 2007 National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Bethesda recommendations, and reviewed FNA cytologic features. Original FNA diagnoses included colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical follicular cells (5%, 2/44), follicular lesion (11%, 5/44), follicular neoplasm (16%, 7/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (27%, 12/44), and papillary thyroid carcinoma (34%, 15/44). Reclassified diagnoses included indeterminate (5%, 2/44), colloid nodule (7%, 3/44), atypical cells of undetermined significance [ACUS] (7%, 3/44), Hurthle cell neoplasm (2%, 1/44), follicular neoplasm (7%, 3/44), suspicious for malignancy/PTC (25%, 11/44), and PTC (48%, 21/44). Triage efficacy was 77% (34/44) for original diagnoses versus 82% (36/44) for reclassified FNA diagnoses. We frequently observed cytologic features of PTC, such as nuclear grooves and fine chromatin; conversely, intranuclear inclusions, though present in 77% cases, were scant. Our review findings suggest that lack of characteristic cytologic features of PTC,coexistence with other thyroid lesions, and small tumor size arethe major obstacles to FNA diagnosis of FVPTC. Reclassification of thyroid FNA diagnoses does not significantly improve triage efficacy. Furthermore, FNA diagnoses of follicular neoplasm and suspicious for malignancy are valuable in patients with FVPTC because they trigger triage toward surgical intervention. PMID:21538966

Kurian, Elizabeth M; Dawlett, Marilyn; Wang, Jianping; Gong, Yun; Guo, Ming

2012-05-01

300

The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ?1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

Ay?e Karaday?

2012-06-01

301

Point mutations of ras oncogenes are an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis.  

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Identifying the nature of the genetic mutations in thyroid neoplasms and their prevalence in the various tumor phenotypes is critical to understanding their pathogenesis. Mutational activation of ras oncogenes in human tumors occurs predominantly through point mutations in two functional regions of the molecules, codons 12, 13 (GTP-binding domain) or codon 61 (GTPase domain). We examined the prevalence of point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the oncogenes K-ras, N-ras, and H-ras in benign and malignant human thyroid tumors by hybridization of PCR-amplified tumor DNA with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes. None of the eight normal thyroid tissues harbored point mutations. Four of nineteen nodules from multinodular goiters (21%), 6/24 microfollicular adenomas (25%), 3/14 papillary carcinomas (21%), and 0/3 follicular carcinomas contained ras point mutations. The predominant mutation was a valine for glycine substitution in codon 12 of H-ras. None of the multinodular goiter tumors known to be polyclonal (and thus due to hyperplasia) had point mutations, whereas one of the two monoclonal adenomas arising in nodular glands contained in H-ras codon 12 valine substitution, which was confirmed by sequencing the tumor DNA. These data show that ras activation is about equally prevalent in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms, and thus may be an early event in the tumorigenic process. PMID:2283998

Namba, H; Rubin, S A; Fagin, J A

1990-10-01

302

Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

Chiofalo Maria

2012-02-01

303

Histochemical study of fibrillar proteins of the extracellular matrix in benign and malignant mammary neoplasms in dogs / Estudo histoquímico de proteínas fibrilares da matriz extracelular em neoplasias mamárias benignas e malignas na espécie canina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A finalidade do presente trabalho foi estudar algumas das proteínas fibrilares da matriz extracelular de 54 neoplasias mamárias benignas e malignas na espécie canina, utilizando métodos histoquímicos: Picrosirius associado à polarização para fibras colágenas , método de Gordon - Sweats para fibras r [...] eticulares e método de Weigert com e sem oxidação para fibras elásticas. Evidenciou-se na matriz uma grande variabilidade na quantidade, distribuição e características dos componentes matriciais presentes nos diferentes tipos de neoplasias. Detectou-se, assim, colágeno I, III e elementos do sistema elástico, distribuídos diferentemente nas neoplasias benignas e malignas. O método Picrosirius simples e associado à polarização permitiu a visualização do colágeno sob a forma de fibras espessas distribuídas irregularmente no estroma dos carcinomas e de modo mais ordenado e regular nas neoplasias benignas e, fibras mais finas, em menor quantidade, irregularmente e aleatoriamente dispostas nos carcinomas e regularmente nas neoplasias benigna. Sob luz polarizada os feixes de fibras colágenas , apresentaram diferentes comprimentos, avermelhados ou amarelados e fortemente birrefringentes, sugerindo serem colágeno tipo I e, entremeando as fibras, algumas mais finas ,pálidas, esverdeadas e fracamente birrefringentes, presumivelmente colágeno tipo III. Em áreas condrometaplásicas, tanto nos carcinomas como nas neoplasias benignas notou-se que os feixes colágenos apresentavam-se com fibras finas, paralelas, limitando regiões estreitas onde os condrócitos se aninhavam, e, rodeando esta área, feixes de fibras espessas, anastomosadas, dispostas irregularmente nos carcinomas e ordenadamente e paralelas nas neoplasias benignas. Sob luz polarizada, essa população entre condrócitos era formada por fibras pálidas e amareladas, sugerindo padrão tipo II e na faixa circundante, feixes fortemente birrefringentes, sugerindo o padrão do colágeno tipo I.. O uso do método - Gordon & Sweats, permitiu a visualização do colágeno sob a forma de fibras finas, dispostas tanto nos estromas densos como nos frouxos, com densidade variada mas, principalmente , margeando os ácinos e túbulos. Quanto à presença do sistema elástico em tumores benignos e malignos, verificou-se que há predomínio dessas fibras nos malignos, principalmente na pseudocápsula e ao redor de ácinos e túbulos. Elementos do sistema elástico não foram observados em espécimes submetidos à coloração de Weigert sem oxidação. Neste mesmo material, com oxidação, as fibras oxitalâmicas foram mais evidentes principalmente ao redor de ácinos, túbulos e pseudocápsula. Elementos do sistema elástico na (MEC) foram raros, tanto em amostras com e sem oxidação. Isto pode ser observado de maneira semelhante tanto em tumores benignos e malignos. Os resultados deste estudo enfatizam as profundas alterações estruturais dos componentes colagenosos e fibras do sistema elástico na matriz extracelular de neoplasias mamárias da espécie canina. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to study some of the proteins that form the extracellular matrix of 54 benign and malignant mammary neoplasms in dogs, using histochemical methods: Picrosirius and polarization microscopy for collagenous fibers, Gordon -Sweats's method for reticular fibers and Weiger [...] t's fucsine-resorcine method for elastic fibers. A large variability in quantity, distribution and characteristics of the matrix components was observed in the different types of neoplasms. Collagen type I, III and elements of the elastic system had different distribution in benign and malignant neoplasms. The simple Picrossirius method and under polarization enabled visualization of collagen as thick fibers irregularly distributed in the stroma of carcinomas and in a more orderly and regular fashion in benign neoplasms. A smaller amount of thin fibers was observed in an irregular and random dispos

Ana Maria Cristina Rabello Pinto da Fonseca, Martins; Elia, Tamaso; José Luiz, Guerra.

304

Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: lung adenocarcinoma metastasizing to a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

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Cancer-to-cancer metastasis into a thyroid neoplasm is an uncommon phenomenon with possible diagnostic difficulties. Here, we describe a case of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic into a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). A 60-year-old woman with no prior history of malignant neoplasm presented with a nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, some masses in the left lung were found by radiological examination. Histopathological examination of the thyroidectomy specimen demonstrated two different components of carcinoma in a single thyroid nodule; one was FVPTC and the other was high-grade adenocarcinoma. Although both components shared the TTF-1+/CK7+/CK19+/CK20-/SP-A- immunoprofile, only the former was positive for thyroglobulin, and only the latter was positive for CEA. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation at exon21 (L858R) was present only in the latter. The lung biopsy specimen showed cytological, immunohistochemical, and EGFR genotypic features similar to those of the high-grade adenocarcinoma component of the thyroid nodule. These findings resulted in a reliable diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma metastasizing into an FVPCT and treatment with EGFR-targeted therapy. These results demonstrate that a panel of immunohistochemical staining and molecular analysis is helpful for both diagnosis and appropriate postoperative treatment for a patient with cancer-to-cancer metastasis. PMID:21707848

Hashimoto, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Nakano, Takafumi; Oyama, Minako; Shiratsuchi, Hideki; Nakashima, Torahiko; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Komune, Shizuo; Oda, Yoshinao

2011-07-01

305

Neoplasias malignas múltiples en pacientes con cáncer de próstata en el área sanitaria de León / Multiple malignant neoplasms in patients with prostate tumors in the health district of León  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Analizar las características de los pacientes con tumores prostáticos que desarrollaron una neoplasia primaria maligna múltiple (NPMM) en el área sanitaria de León, el impacto sobre la supervivencia y las posibles variables pronósticas. Material y métodos: Utilizando los datos del Registr [...] o de Tumores del Hospital de León se han seleccionado aquellos pacientes con tumores prostáticos diagnosticados entre 1993 y 2002, creando dos grupos: el primero constituido por 67 pacientes con NPMM y el segundo formado por 145 pacientes con tumores únicos diagnosticados entre 1996 y 1997. Resultados: La prevalencia de NPMM fue del 5,57%. Los pacientes con NPMM fueron 3 años más jóvenes que los pacientes con tumores únicos, con una elevada proporción (41%) de antecedentes familiares oncológicos en familiares de primer grado. La asociación más frecuente fue el cáncer urológico sincrónico. El 86% de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados del segundo tumor en los primeros dos años. La supervivencia de los pacientes con NPMM metacrónicas fue inferior a la de los pacientes con NPMM sincrónicas, siendo las variables con significación pronóstica la edad, el padecimiento de una NPMM metacrónica, el estadio del segundo tumor y el padecimiento de un segundo tumor urológico. Conclusiones: Las NPMM en pacientes con tumores prostáticos son relativamente frecuentes en nuestro medio. Parece existir una base genética en estos pacientes. El pronóstico de los pacientes con NPMM metacrónicas es peor. No existen diferencias significativas en cuanto al pronóstico con respecto a los pacientes con tumores únicos. Abstract in english Objetive: We analize the characteristics of the patients with prostate tumours who developed a multiple malignant primary neoplasms (MMPN) in the health district of León, the impact on survival and the prognostic variables. Material and methods: We have used the data from the Tumour Registry of the [...] Hospital of León and we have selected all those patients who were diagnosed of a prostate tumor between 1993 and 2002. Later we made two groups: the first with 67 patients with MMPN and a second group with 145 patients with single prostate tumours diagnosed during 1996 and 1997. Results: Prevalence of MMPM was of 5.57 percent. Patients with MMPN were 3 years younger thant those with single tumours, with a high frecuency (41 percent) of familial oncologic antecedents on first degree parents. The more frequent association was the synchronous urologic neoplasm. During the next two years from diagnosed of prostate tumour, 86 percent of patients with MMPN were diagnosed of their second neoplasm. Survival of metachronous MMPN patients was lower than synchronous MMPN patients, being the variables with prognosis significance the age, metachronous MMPN, stage of second neoplasms and if the second neoplasms was or not urologic. Conclusions: MMPN in patients with prostatic tumours are frequent in our medium. A genetic base may be associated in these patients. Prognosis of metachronous MMPN patients is worse. No differences were observed about prognosis with single tumour patients.

A., Muela Molinero; F., Jorquera Plaza; R., Malagón Rojo; M. T., Ribas Ariño; M., Muñoz Rodríguez.

2005-01-01

306

Risk of Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Acromegaly – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND) and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. Materials and Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cinahl, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada and Clinical Key databases were searched to identify studies containing. Random–effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and risk ratios of TND in acromegaly. Studies which not included control groups were systematically reviewed. Results TND was more frequent in acromegaly than in control groups (OR?=?6.9, RR?=?2.1). The pooled prevalence of TND was 59.2%. Also thyroid cancer (TC) proved to be more common in acromegalic patients (OR?=?7.5, RR?=?7.2), prevalence was 4.3%. The pooled rate of malignancy (calculated per patient) was equal to 8.7%. Conclusions This study confirms that both TND and TC occur significantly more often in acromegalic patients than in general population. These results indicate that periodic thyroid ultrasound examination and careful evaluation of eventual lesions should be an important part of follow-up of patients with acromegaly. PMID:24551163

Wolinski, Kosma; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Ruchala, Marek

2014-01-01

307

Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms  

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We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

2015-01-01

308

Equivalent doses in thyroid tissue and residual body dose from radioiodine treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the thyroid as determined under therapeutic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The doses actually administered to patients undergoing radiotherapy for hyperthyroidism (104), autonomous adenoma (16) and goiter without functional anomaly (22) averaged 90, 165 and 100 Sv. Attempts were made to elucidate the causes of deviations between the predetermined dose and that actually administered, which occurred quite irrespective of whether a one-staged or split-dose regimen was used. Significant differences were occasionally also seen between the individual doses of fractionation regimens in respect of their uptake and effective half-life in the thyroidal tissue. It was calculated that the mean body dose remaining after each administration of radioactivity amounted to 0.6 mSv/MBq. In the majority of patients examined, clinical follow-up observations could be made for periods ranging from 6 to 41 months. Records were kept of all the results obtained. Further analyses were made to assess the mean residual body dose of carcinoma bearers subjected to wholebody radioiodine scintigraphy in the follow-up (14 patients) as well as of patients, in which secondary radioiodine treatment was carried out after thyroidectomy (59 patients). This was found to vary between 0.05 and 0.07 mSv/MBq. The significant discrepancies formerly determined for uptake rate and effective half-life between the individual sessions of one treatment course were confirmed by these examinations. (VHE)

309

Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib  

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Full Text Available Neda Stjepanovic, Jaume CapdevilaDepartment of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor.Keywords: thyroid cancer, lenvatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors, targeted therapies

Stjepanovic N

2014-04-01

310

Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

311

[Ultrasound of the thyroid].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active versus inactive nodes, and in particular benign versus malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up.?According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also show promising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity. PMID:25775171

Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

2015-03-01

312

Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe  

OpenAIRE

We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and ...

Tae Kwun Ha; Dong Wook Kim; Ha Kyoung Park; Soo Jin Jung

2014-01-01

313

Carcinossarcoma tireoidiano em um cão / Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma cadela de dois anos de idade, sem raça definida, apresentou disfagia e aumento de volume da região cervical ventral, correspondendo à região tireoidiana. Duas massas localizadas nessa região foram removidas cirurgicamente. O cão morreu poucos dias após a cirurgia e não foi necropsiado. O diagnós [...] tico de carcinossarcoma de tireóide baseou-se na presença de componentes neoplásicos epiteliais e mesenquimais malignos, os quais foram confirmados pela reação imunoistoquímica positiva para citoqueratina e vimentina, respectivamente. A origem tireoidiana foi confirmada pela imunomarcação positiva para tireoglobulina nas células epiteliais foliculares e no colóide. Este é um neoplasma raramente diagnosticado em cães. Abstract in english A two year-old female mongrel dog was presented with dysphagia and focal swelling at the thyroid region. Two masses were surgically removed from that site. The dog died a few days after surgery and it was not submitted to necropsy. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinosarcoma was based on malignant epith [...] elial and mesenchymal cell components of the neoplasm and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. The thyroid origin was confirmed based on the positive immunostaining for thyroglobulin on the follicular epithelial cells and colloid. This is a neoplasm rarely diagnosed in dogs.

Aline, Rodrigues; Eduardo Kenji, Masuda; Maria Andréia, Inkelmann; Adriano Tony, Ramos; Brenda Maria Ferreira Prado, Marques; Tessie Beck, Martins; Glaucia Denise, Kommers.

1188-11-01

314

Thyroid metastasis from breast carcinoma accompanied by papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

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Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy. PMID:25232322

Yang, Song-I; Park, Kwang-Kuk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

2014-05-01

315

Thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management and prognosis for thyroid carcinomas is very much related to the histologic type of the lesion and its extent when discovered. Papillary and follicular malignancies have long-term survival rates approaching that of an age-matched population when tumors are ''occult'' or intrathyroidal. Anaplastic carcinoma is a relatively uncommon lesion and has an exceptionally poor prognosis; about 60% of patients will be dead in six months. Medullary carcinoma is again much less common that papillary or follicular carcinoma. The tumor shows a wide variation in growth rate and 20-to-30 year survivals with delayed recurrences are not uncommon. Primary thyroid lymphoma is also variable in its natural history, depending mainly on the histologic type. Several imaging techniques have been used to evaluate patients with known or suspected thyroid malignancies. Ultrasonography is used mainly for screening purposes; radionuclide imaging is useful for both detecting and staging malignancies; while computed tomography is used infrequently to show the extent of a tumor that is likely to have extended beyond the capsule to involve the trachea or esophagus

316

Adverse effects of cancer therapy. Risk of secondary neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the long latency period for solid tumor induction (median 12-13 years), the radiation-induced malignancies now being observed are mostly related to the era of kilovoltage irradiation. Some tumors, such as thyroid cancer, have very low, if any, threshold dose for tumor induction. Sarcomas appear to require higher doses (approximately 100 rads) for induction. Controversy exists as to whether high doses of irradiation are less carcinogenic than lower doses due to greater cell killing at high doses. Acute leukemia has been induced by either irradiation alone or chemotherapy alone. Current intensive therapy protocols using combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or prolonged chemotherapy, are more leukemogenic, with the 4-year actuarial risk of leukemia in the range 4-17%. Immunosuppression due to various disease states or treatments had been accompanied by malignant tumors, often lymphomas in unusual sites such as the central nervous system. Unusual non-Hodgkin's lymphomas have recently been observed in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, suggesting that some secondary neoplasms in cancer patients are related to immunosuppression

317

Risk of Subsequent Primary Thyroid Cancer after Another Malignancy: Latency Trends in a Population-based Study  

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Purpose To evaluate the risk of a subsequent primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in patients with common invasive cancers, with attention to latency trends and histology associations. Methods Patients with one of 10 common invasive cancers were followed from 1975 to 2008 in 9 registries participating in the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for SPTC were determined by the multiple primary-SIR program in SEER*Stat. Results A total of 2502 SPTCs were observed. Greatly elevated SIRs for SPTC were noted for 9 of 10 evaluated cancers in the 12 months after initial diagnosis. The SIRs remained elevated 12–59 months after diagnosis for all cancers except leukemia, uterine, and bladder cancers. Increased risks persisted 60–119 months beyond diagnosis for renal (SIR 2.56) and breast cancer (SIR 1.16); and 120+ months for renal cancer (SIR 2.46). Increased SPTC risk after renal and female breast cancers was mostly seen in nonirradiated patients. The principal histology association was between papillary thyroid cancer and renal cell carcinomas. Conclusions Many common cancers are associated with increased risk of SPTC beyond 12 months of initial diagnosis. Although this can be explained partly by continued surveillance bias, radiation effects, and known rare familial associations for some tumors, these factors alone are unlikely to explain the persistent, significant two-way association with renal and breast cancers. Additional research is needed to further define the biological and environmental mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:22227921

Lal, Geeta; Groff, Megan; Howe, James R.; Weigel, Ronald J.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Lynch, Charles F.

2015-01-01

318

Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

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Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma which is presented as subcutaneous swelling with sinus formation. PMID:23133761

Patil, Vijayraj S.; Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Natikar, Neelamma

2012-01-01

319

"Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "  

OpenAIRE

Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injec...

Forghani, N.; Mehrabi, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Mousavi, Z.

2004-01-01

320

Focus on the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas  

OpenAIRE

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are rare pancreatic tumours, accounting for less of 1-2% of all neoplasms of the gland. Main characteristics of IPMNs are their favourable prognosis as these pre-malignant or frankly malignant lesions are usually slow-growing tumours and radical surgery is frequently possible. According with the localization of the lesions, three different entities are identified: the main-duct IPMN (type I), the branch-duct IPMN (type II) and the mixed type (t...

Gallucci, Fernando; Langellotto, Assunta; Ritis, Rosaria; Uomo, Generoso

2012-01-01

321

Atypical Fibroxanthoma: An Unusual Skin Neoplasm in Xeroderma Pigmentosum  

OpenAIRE

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV) damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-y...

Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Nag, Dipanwita; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

2012-01-01

322

Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

323

JAK-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

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Although the Janus family of kinases (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2) has been extensively characterized and investigated, the role of Janus kinase activation in the pathogenesis and therapy of human malignancies was not fully appreciated until recently when multiple studies identified a recurrent somatic mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) in the majority of patients with BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and primary myelofibrosis. Other mutations that activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway have since been identified in JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients and in a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoid leukemia. In addition, dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of epithelial neoplasms. In this chapter, we will review the recent studies that identified genetic alterations that activate JAK signaling in different malignancies, and discuss the recent efforts aimed at developing small-molecule inhibitors of JAK kinase activity for the treatment of MPNs and other malignancies. PMID:21823028

Levine, Ross L

2012-01-01

324

Cutaneous malignancies of the perineum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review discusses multiple cutaneous malignancies that can present on the perineum. Although all of these neoplasms are uncommon, a focus will be on the more common neoplasms including extramammary Paget disease, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Other more rare entities discussed are superficial leiomyosarcoma, giant solitary trichoepithelioma, and cutaneous endometriosis. PMID:25517758

Carr, David; Pootrakul, Llana; Harmon, Jenna; Trotter, Shannon

2015-03-01

325

Thyroid Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

... Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid include a thyroid scan and a radioactive iodine uptake test. People often ... at www.thyroid.org/faq-low-iodine-diet . Thyroid scan. A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear ...

326

Thyroid Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... is not making enough of the thyroid hormones. Thyroid scan A thyroid scan usually uses the same radioiodine dose that was ... used for the radioiodine uptake test or the thyroid scan. Surgery to remove most of the thyroid. Beta ( ...

327

Tumors of the Thyroid Gland  

OpenAIRE

The epithelial tumours of the thyroid are divided into benign, malignant, and C-cell categories. The malignant tumours are described under the following names: follicular carcinoma, solid and solid—follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and anaplastic carcinoma. The malignant mesenchymal tumours are described as fibrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma. There are also coexistent tumours and carcinosarcomas.

Dillard, Morris

1985-01-01

328

Diagnosis of thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to sonographic and autoptic findings, approximately 50% of the healthy population in regions with sufficient iodine supply or only marginally iodine deficiency have thyroid nodules. These nodes are in children and adolescents more frequently malignant as in adults (appr. 10% vs. 5%). Ionizing radiation is the only established risk factor for thyroid cancer. Symptoms of thyroid carcinoma are unspecific; rapid growth of solitary nodes and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck (after exclusion of inflammatory processes) have to be considered as suspicious. Ultrasonographically, thyroid cancer typically presents in more than 90% of the cases as solid lesions with poor echogenicity. Doppler sonographic findings - e. g. increased intranodular perfusion - allow no accurate differentiation of malignant from benign neoplasias. Scintigraphically, thyroid cancer typically presents without uptake. In adults aged 40-50 appr. 10% of the cold nodes are malignant; this percentage amounts to 25% in patients aged more than 65 years. The most accurate method to differentiate malignant from benign nodules is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA), which is applied not frequently enough in Germany. Today FNA should be performed preferentially with ultrasound guidance. Additional imaging procedures as planar radiographs and computed or magnetic resonance tomography have to be restricted to special indications; similarly, thyroid specific tumor markers (i. e. thyroglobulin and calcitonin)rkers (i. e. thyroglobulin and calcitonin) should not be used routinely. (orig.)

329

NEOPLASMS-POULTRY  

Science.gov (United States)

Depending on whether the etiologic agent is known, neoplasms of poultry are divided into two main categories: a) virus-induced neoplasms, and 2) neoplasms of unknown etiology. There are three economically important virus-induced neoplastic diseases of poultry, namely Marek's disease, caused by a her...

330

The Australian experience with the Bethesda classification system for thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the initial investigation of choice for thyroid nodules. The Bethesda system, which classifies thyroid FNABs into different categories each linked to a risk of malignancy, has been widely adopted. However, the risk of malignancy implied by each Bethesda category is likely to vary due to population characteristics and inconsistency in the application of diagnostic criteria.We present our experience of the Bethesda system in 2076 thyroid nodules from 1410 patients. Categories were as follows: 266 (12.8%) were category 1 (B1) non-diagnostic, 1551 (74.7%) category 2 (B2) benign, 97 (4.7%) category 3 (B3) atypia of uncertain significance, 98 (4.7%) category 4 (B4) suspicious for follicular neoplasm, 16 (0.8%) category 5 (B5) suspicious for malignancy and 48 (2.3%) category 6 (B6) malignant.Surgery was performed on 425 nodules from 315 patients. Malignancy rates in the target nodules were B1 4.2%, B2 0.26%, B3 9.3%, B4 15.3%, B5 79% and B6 100%. Twelve patients with B3 nodules underwent repeat FNAB, with eight reclassified as B2, one as B3, one as B1 and two as B4. An incidental microcarcinoma separate to the target nodule was identified in 11.1%.As applied in our institution, and despite very sparing use of B3 and B5 categories, our audit has demonstrated risks of malignancy broadly in keeping with that predicted. Of note, the risk of malignancy in the clinically indeterminate categories of B1, B3 and B4 were all at the lower ranges of those predicted in the Bethesda atlas and mostly lower than those reported by other studies. PMID:25393248

Sarkis, L M; Norlen, O; Aniss, A; Watson, N; Delbridge, L W; Sidhu, S B; Sywak, M S; Gill, A J

2014-12-01

331

Incidental Thyroid Carcinoma Diagnosed after Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: Incidence and Association with Thyroid Disease Type and Laboratory Markers  

OpenAIRE

Objective. Currently, total thyroidectomy (TT) is widely used to treat benign thyroid diseases and thyroid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid disorders and the potential identification of thyroid microcarcinomas with biochemical markers remain controversial. This retrospective study aimed to estimate the prognostic validity of thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin (Tg), and the thyroid disease type in diagnostic approaches regarding the co-existence of ...

Askitis, D.; Efremidou, E. I.; Karanikas, M.; Mitrakas, A.; Tripsianis, G.; Polychronidis, A.; Liratzopoulos, N.

2013-01-01

332

Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanese man was found to have multiple cystic lesions and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the neck of the pancreas. Histological examination revealed a main-duct and branch-duct type IPMN, of the gastric-type, involving the neck of the pancreas, associated with a 0.5 cm SPN in the caudal side of the IPMN. We diagnosed this case as synchronous SPN and IPMN. As far as we know, only one other case of synchronous SPN and IPMN has been reported. Both the present case and the previously reported case showed abnormal nuclear expression of ?-catenin in SPN, whereas IPMN showed no abnormal nuclear expression. These results suggest that ?-catenin abnormality is not a common pathogenetic factor of synchronous SPN and IPMN. PMID:23745041

Hirabayashi, Kenichi; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Nakagohri, Toshio; Nakamura, Naoya

2013-06-01

333

Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanese man was found to have multiple cystic lesions and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the neck of the pancreas. Histological examination revealed a main-duct and branch-duct type IPMN, of the gastric-type, involving the neck of the pancreas, associated with a 0.5 cm SPN in the caudal side of the IPMN. We diagnosed this case as synchronous SPN and IPMN. As far as we know, only one other case of synchronous SPN and IPMN has been reported. Both the present case and the previously reported case showed abnormal nuclear expression of ?-catenin in SPN, whereas IPMN showed no abnormal nuclear expression. These results suggest that ?-catenin abnormality is not a common pathogenetic factor of synchronous SPN and IPMN.

Kenichi Hirabayashi

2013-01-01

334

Lack of BRAF mutations in hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm (HTN) of the thyroid is an unusual and controversial lesion. Some consider it a peculiar type of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) because of its nuclear features and presence of psammoma bodies. Others consider it an adenoma. Molecular studies have found RET/PTC translocations in some examples, supporting HTN as a PTC; however mutations in BRAF (another marker for PTC) have not been found. We report two cases of classic HTN and a case of trabecula...

Baloch Zubair W; Puttaswamy Kanchan; Brose Marcia; LiVolsi Virginia A

2006-01-01

335

Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

Walsh, S

2012-02-01

336

Burn Scar Neoplasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Marjolin's ulcer is a rare and aggressive cutaneous malignancy that occurs in previously traumatized and chronically inflamed skin, especially after burns. The majority of burn scar carcinomas are seen after a lag period in burns that were not grafted following injury. Between 2000 and 2006, 48 patients with Marjolin's ulcer were treated in our centre (Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Emergency Hospital). All the lesions were secondary to burns from various causes. The medical records of these 48 patients were reviewed prospectively. The mean age at tumour diagnosis was 40 yr and the ratio of male to female was 2:1 (67% males and 33% female). Upon histological examination, all the cases were diagnosed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The scalp was most frequently affected (16 patients = 33.3%), followed by the lower limb (14 patients = 29.1%). Treatment of the neoplasm consisted of excision and grafting in 36 patients (75.0%), excision and reconstruction with flaps in eight patients (16.6%), and amputation in three patients (6.2%). A chemotherapy combination of the above treatments was used in two patients (4.1%). Local recurrence was noted in 16 patients (33.3%) out of the 48, and all died from these recurrences. PMID:21991095

Kadir, A.R.

2007-01-01

337

[Paratesticular fibrosarcoma. A rare malign neoplasm].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereby we wish to present the clinical and pathological results of a rare paratesticular sarcome of the spermatic cord. This tumor was a fibrosarcoma in a 55 year old male that started in a most unusual way and developed very quickly. We practised a radical orquitectomy with inguinal ligation of the pedicule without post-operatory therapy. After a 5 year follow up, there is no trace of clinical or radiological recurrence in the region or metastasis. We consider radical surgery to be the only therapeutic alternative, even for cases of fast developing, being in our case a good pronostic. PMID:17058616

Blasco Alfonso, J E; Sales Maicas, M A; Pallás Costa, Y

2006-01-01

338

Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Evaluation of subjective estimates using a Bayesian analysis Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos. Evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The main purpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs.
Objective. To assess the subjective probabilities of malignancy that are as-signed to the clinical characteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clini-cal suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data.
Material and methods. A Bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consulta-tion. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed.
Results. The highest probability of malignancy (94% was assigned to the pooled case of a male who was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%.
Conclusion. Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteris-tics of the nodules.
Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si este corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones subjetivas.
Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las característi-cas clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de in-fluencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de malignidad en comparación con los datos objetivos.
Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de malignidad en un nódulo tiroideo basado en la relación causal conocida de factores clínicos y demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los ci-rujanos.
Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de malignidad (94% se asignó al caso clíni-co de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de creci-miento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de ti-roides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de malignidad, la probabilidad de malignidad asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59%, para los de alto riesgo fue de 75,54%.
Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creen-cias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos.

Alvaro Sanabria

2011-06-01

339

Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules, evaluation of subjective estimates using a bayesian analysis / Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos, evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si éste corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones [...] subjetivas. Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las características clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de influencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de un proceso maligno en comparación con los datos objetivos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de un proceso maligno en un nódulo tiroideo, con base en la relación causal conocida de los factores clínicos y los demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los cirujanos. Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de un proceso maligno (94 %) se asignó al caso clínico de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de crecimiento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de tiroides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm, de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de un proceso maligno, la probabilidad de éste asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59 % y para los de alto riesgo de 75,54 %. Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creencias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos. Abstract in english Introduction: Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The mainpurpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs. Objective: To assess the subjective p [...] robabilities of malignancy that are assigned to the clinicalcharacteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clinical suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data. Material and methods: A bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consultation. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed. Results: The highest probability of malignancy (94%) was assigned to the pooled case of a malewho was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%. Conclusion: Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteristics of the nodules.

Edgar, Alfonso; Álvaro, Sanabria; Mario, Castillo.

2011-12-01

340

Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point n astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

341

Orbital neoplasms in cats: 21 cases (1974-1990).  

Science.gov (United States)

Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common neoplasm found in a review of case records of 21 cats with histopathologically confirmed orbital neoplasms. Other neoplasms found were lymphosarcoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, malignant melanoma, adenocarcinoma, fibrosarcoma, chondroma, and hemangiosarcoma. Three (14%) neoplasms were primary, 15 (71%) were secondary, invading the orbit from adjacent tissues, and 3 (14%) were a manifestation of multicentric disease. The most common clinical sign was exophthalmia, followed by chronic epiphora, enophthalmia, and strabismus. Mean survival time after diagnosis was 1.9 months. Ten cats were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis because of extensive disease. Mean survival time of the other 11 cats was 4.3 months. Skull radiography was helpful in diagnosing orbital neoplasms in 8 of 11 cats that had invasion of the orbit by adjacent neoplasms. PMID:1429140

Gilger, B C; McLaughlin, S A; Whitley, R D; Wright, J C

1992-10-01

342

Chain of rings: a radiographic sign of papillary thyroid cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common form of thyroid malignancy in children and adult with frequent metastases to the cervical lymph nodes. We present a case of metastatic papillary thyroid cancer with remarkable imaging findings of consecutive metastatic calcified lymph nodes resembling a chain of rings. While accompanying by a coarsely calcified thyroid mass, possible thyroid cancer should be considered and serve as a guide to warrant further thyroid cancer evaluation. PMID:25324190

Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Hsuan, Huei-Fang; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yu, Chin-Wei; Liu, Hui; Lin, Yu-Ching

2014-10-16

343

Multiple Hürthle cell adenomas in a patient with thyroid hormone resistance  

OpenAIRE

Background: Thyroid hormone resistance (RTH) is a rare cause of thyroid dysfunction. High TSH levels, as described in RTH syndrome, are known to be associated with an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules with subsequent growth and malignancy.

Xifra, Gemma; Mauri, Silvia; Girone?s, Jordi; Rodri?guez Hermosa, Jose? Ignacio; Oriola, Josep; Ricart, Wifredo; Ferna?ndez-real, Jose? Manuel

2013-01-01

344

Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. Case report A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. Conclusions The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland.

Ristevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Gjorceva, Daniela Pop

2015-01-01

345

Primary de novo malignant giant cell tumor of kidney: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclast-like giant cell tumors are usually observed in osseous tissue or as tumors of tendon sheath, characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear stromal cells. It has been reported in various extraosseous sites including breast, skin, soft tissue, salivary glands, lung, pancreas, female genital tract, thyroid, larynx and heart. However, extraosseus occurrence of such giant cell tumors in the kidney is extremely rare and is usually found in combination with a conventional malignancy. De-novo primary malignant giant cell tumors of the kidney are unusual lesions and to our knowledge this is the second such case. Case Presentation We report a rare case of extraosseous primary denovo malignant giant cell tumor of the renal parenchyma in a 39-year-old Caucasian female to determine the histogenesis of this neoplasm with a detailed literature review. Conclusion Primary denovo malignant giant cell tumor of the kidney is extremely rare. The cellular origin of this tumor is favored to be a pluripotential mesenchymal stromal cell of the mononuclear/phagocytic cellular lineage. Awareness of this neoplasm is important in the pathological interpretation of unusual findings at either fine needle aspiration or frozen section of solid renal masses.

Torkian Bahman

2004-06-01

346

Horner syndrome as a manifestation of thyroid carcinoma: a rare association / Síndrome de Horner como manifestação clínica de carcinoma da tireoide: uma associação rara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Paciente de 82 anos apresentando-se com nódulo tireoidiano de crescimento progressivo e ptose palpebral esquerda. O exame oftalmológico revelou ainda miose ipsilateral e achados diagnósticos de síndrome de Horner. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa tireoidiana de 7,5 cm infiltrando os grande [...] s vasos do pescoço. Apesar dos dados clínicos e imagiológicos sugestivos de um carcinoma pouco diferenciado da tireoide, a citologia aspirativa foi diagnóstica de carcinoma papilar. Em função do estádio avançado da neoplasia e das comorbilidades significativas, foi proposta para terapêutica paliativa. A síndrome de Horner é uma manifestação clínica infrequente em tumores tireoidianos, estando as condições benignas maioritariamente implicadas. As neoplasias malignas da tireoide representam uma causa rara de síndrome de Horner. Contudo, um diagnóstico adequado e expedito é fundamental para o tratamento atempado nos raros casos de malignidade da tireoide. Abstract in english An 82-year-old patient presented a progressively growing hard thyroid nodule, and left ptosis. Additionally, ophthalmologic evaluation revealed ipsilateral miosis, diagnostic findings of Horner syndrome. Computerized tomography revealed a 7.5-cm thyroid mass infiltrating the main neck vessels. Altho [...] ugh clinical and imaging data were suggestive of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, fine-needle aspiration led to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Paliative care was proposed to the patient due to the advanced stage of the neoplasm and to significant comorbidities. Horner syndrome is an infrequent manifestation of thyroid disorders and benign etiologies are more often implied. Malignant thyroid neoplasms represent a rare cause of Horner syndrome. However, an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is paramount for timely treatment of rare thyroid malignancies.

Bernardo, Pereira; Tiago, Silva; Henrique, Luiz; Isabel, Manita; Luísa, Raimundo; Jorge, Portugal.

2013-08-01

347

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

348

Thyroid Metastasis from Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Background. Thyroid metastases are rare. Clinically, they represent less than 4% of thyroid malignancy in clinical studies. Aim. To assess various presentations and therapy for patients with lung cancer metastatic in the thyroid. Materials and Methods. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung to the thyroid. We reviewed similar reports through PubmMed search from 1997 until 2013. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old lady was seen in the clinic for an adenocarcinoma of left upper ...

Tariq Namad; Jiang Wang,; Ralph Shipley; Nagla Abdel Karim

2013-01-01

349

Somatic deletions and mutations in the Cowden disease gene, PTEN, in sporadic thyroid tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of familial medullary thyroid neoplasms are associated with germ-line mutations of the RET proto-oncogene, yet very little is known about the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic nonmedullary thyroid tumors. A subset of thyroid tumors have loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 10q22-23, a region harboring the gene responsible for Cowden disease, an autosomal dominant hamartoma syndrome associated with thyroid and breast tumors. PTEN/MMAC1/TEP1 codes for a dual-specificity phosphatase and is likely a tumor suppressor gene. We sought to determine the PTEN status in a series of epithelial thyroid neoplasms. We studied 95 sporadic thyroid tumors, of which 39 were papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 12 were follicular carcinomas, 9 were anaplastic carcinomas, 5 were Hürthle cell carcinomas, 21 were nonfunctioning follicular adenomas, and 9 were Hürthle cell adenomas. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products was performed for all nine exons of PTEN. Two polymorphic markers, one located in intron 8 and another, a dinucleotide repeat marker, AFMa086wg9, located within intron 2, were analyzed in paired blood-tumor DNA samples to assess hemizygous deletions of PTEN. We found a somatic frameshift mutation in one PTC, which was expected to generate a premature stop codon 2 amino acids downstream. Twenty-six % of informative benign tumors (four follicular adenomas and three Hürthle cell adenomas) and only 3 of 49 (6.1%) informative malignant tumors (one PTC, one follicular carcinoma, and one anaplastic carcinoma) showed evidence of hemizygous deletion of PTEN (P = 0.046). We conclude that a subset of thyroid tumors have somatic deletions of the PTEN gene, predominantly the benign forms, and that small intragenic mutations of PTEN are infrequent in thyroid tumors. We speculate that other mechanisms of PTEN inactivation, rather than small intragenic mutations, might occur in the hemizygously deleted samples and act as the "Knudson second hit." Alternatively, other tumor suppressor genes mapping to chromosome 10q22-23 could be the actual targets for such deletions and thus represent the various hits in the pathway of multistep carcinogenesis. PMID:9354427

Dahia, P L; Marsh, D J; Zheng, Z; Zedenius, J; Komminoth, P; Frisk, T; Wallin, G; Parsons, R; Longy, M; Larsson, C; Eng, C

1997-11-01

350

Incidence of malignant hemopathies and thyroid carcinomas in infants less than 15 years old around the nuclear site of Marcoule; Incidence des hemopathies malignes et des cancers thyroidiens chez les enfants de moins de 15 ans autour du site nucleaire de Marcoule  

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The objective was to determine, for the last ten years (1985-1995), the incidence of malignant blood diseases and thyroid carcinomas for children less than fifteen years old in a periphery of 35 km around the nuclear site of Marcoule. The conclusions are that it does not seem to exist a sur-incidence of these pathologies around Marcoule. But a surveillance register is placed for these carcinomas for the coming years, because of the choices made by the site of Marcoule and the expected developments. (N.C.).

Bouges, S.; Daures, J.P. [Montpellier Institut Universitaire de Recherche Clinique, 34 - Montpellier (France); Arthus, J.C. [Centre Hospitallier Universitaire de Nimes, 30 - Nimes (France); Vidonne Sartre, O. [Medecin Inspecteur Chef, 83 - Gard (France)

1997-03-01

351

Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging  

OpenAIRE

Most biliary tract neoplasms are malignant and have been traditionally divided into cancers of the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater. Although infrequent, bile duct carcinomas and cancer of the gallbladder are not rare. In the United States, an estimated 6000–7000 new cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 3000–4000 new cases of carcinoma of the bile ducts are diagnosed annually. Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of gallbladder and bile duct neop...

Gore, Richard M.; Shelhamer, Ryan P.

2007-01-01

352

Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a biologically distinct form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid neoplasms. Twenty percent of MTC can occur in a familial setting either by itself or as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasm syndromes. A disciplined approach is necessary in the work-up of these patients to rule out coexistent endocrine tumors (pheochromocytomas and parathyroid). Cacitonin is a sensitive tumor marker secreted by MTC that is of prognostic value and important in the follow-up of patients. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a total thyroidectomy and centre compartment clearance being the minimum for patients without cervical adenopathy. Radiotherapy has a limited role and is only indicated as a palliative measure in patients with advanced/metastatic disease not amenable to surgery

353

Challenging epithelioid mesenchymal neoplasms: mimics and traps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epithelioid mesenchymal malignancies represent a major diagnostic challenge. Epithelioid morphology can be observed in a variety of soft tissue neoplasms, however there exist specific subtypes in which an epithelioid apperance constitutes the most distinctive morphological feature. Moving from epithelioid sarcoma of Enzinger (the prototype of sarcoma with epithelioid morphology), this review will focus on the most relevant entities: namely epithelioid haemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma, pseudomyogenic haemangioendothelioma, epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour, epithelioid sclerosing fibrosarcoma, epithelioid pleomorphic liposarcoma, alveolar soft part sarcoma, and undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma with epithelioid morphology. Differential diagnoses and major pitfalls will be discussed in detail. PMID:24384587

Cacciatore, Matilde; Dei Tos, Angelo P

2014-02-01

354

Correlation between CT perfusion and vascular endothelial growth factor in neoplasm of head and neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the correlation between the CT perfusion and microvessel density (MVD), expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplasm of head and neck. Methods: Eighty-eight lesions of head and neck were scanned by spiral CT. The largest axial surface of the mass was searched on unenhanced imaging, and at this level the dynamic contrast enhanced scan series was acquired. Time-density curves (TDC) were created from circular or oval regions of the interest drawn over the mass, target artery by Toshiba Xpress/SX spiral CT with perfusion functional software. The parameters were measured including: peak height (PH), peak time (PT), mean transit time (MTT), contrast enhancement ratio (RPH), and perfusion flow (PF). Histopathological slides of 35 masses were carefully prepared for the anti-CD34 and VEGF immunohistochemical staining and tumor microvessel density and calculation of VEGF expression scores. The parameters of CT perfusion were correlatively study with MVD and VEGF. Results: (1) The TDC of CT perfusion imaging could be classified into 3 types. The TDC of 53/77 (68.9%) malignant tumors presented the type with rapid ascending and rapid descending after injecting contrast. The TDC of 6/9 malignant lymphomas showed low platform curve o (2)The PF median of thyroid carcinoma was 82. 2(41.0,183.4)ml·min-1·100 g-1. There was significantly difference in the parameters of CT perfusion among thyroid carcinoma and squamousion among thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell cancer (Median 23.8 (7.0, 108.4) ml·min-1·100 g-1) and lymphomas (Median 24.5 (13.2, 78.6) ml·min-1·100 g-1). (3) MVD in benign tumors was (44.7±3.4), and in malignant tumors, it is (49.6±14.8). There was no significantly difference in MVD between benign and malignant tumors. High VEGF expression was found in 15 malignant tumors and 1 benign tumors, low VEGF expression was found in 9 malignant tumors and 10 benign tumors. (4)There were no significantly difference in VEGF expression and MVD. There was good correlation between MVD (M 40.0) and PH (M 26.9), RPH (M 14.5), PF (M 46.8) (r=0.35, 45.49, 0.41). There was correlation between VEGF (M 4.0) and MTT (M 16.7) (r=-0.41). Conclusion: The TDC and CT perfusion could be helpful to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. CT perfusion in neoplasm of head and neck is correlated with MVD and VEGF, and may reflect MVD and expression of VEGF. (authors)

355

The course, diagnosis, and treatment of thyroid tumors in the presence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis  

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Full Text Available The results of treatment were analyzed in 101 patients in whom thyroid malignancies were concurrent with autoimmune thyroiditis, which complicated a preoperative diagnostic process. The specific feature of thyroid cancer was a larger number of microcarcinomas,multifocal and multicentric forms, which makes thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymphadenectomya more warranted on choosing the surgical scope.

E V Raybchenko

2012-09-01

356

Malignant pleural disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast majority of pleural neoplasms invade the pleura secondarily and can be seen in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, breast cancer, lymphoma, and ovarian or gastric carcinoma. Primary pleural neoplasms are less common, although they have developed notoriety since the up-surge of malignant mesothelioma and the knowledge of its connection to asbestos exposure. Other malignant primary tumors include localized fibrous tumor and pleural liposarcoma. In most patients with diffuse malignant pleural disease the chest radiograph shows pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening. Computed tomography (CT) usually provides precise localization and extent of the disease and may be of value in assessing chest wall and mediastinal involvement. In specific situations, magnetic resonance (MR) may be useful as a problem-solving tool when CT findings of chest wall or diaphragmatic invasion are equivocal or in patients with contraindication to intravenous administration of ionic contrast material.

Bonomo, Lorenzo E-mail: l.bonomo@radiol.unich.it; Feragalli, Beatrice; Sacco, Rocco; Merlino, Biagio; Storto, Maria Luigia

2000-05-01

357

A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

Kelly, Michael E

2012-02-01

358

Importance of computerized tomography evaluation in bone neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conventional radiology defines and characterizes the bone neoplasms in majority of cases, but computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging give indispensable information to surgery planning. The authors show the tomographic aspects of 17 bone neoplasms and the method's importance in pre and posttreatment of these tumors. It was studied 17 cases (5 benigns and 12 maligns) with a short revision about the subject. (author). 11 refs, 17 figs

359

Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cystic neoplasms of pancreas are rare lesions. Following the Compagno-Oertel classification, we differenciate serous microcystic adenomas (SMA) from mucinous macrocystic adenomas/adenocarcinomas (MMA). The former are benign tumors with slow growth, composed by innumerable small and tiny cystic with centra calcifications, resulting in a ''honeycomb'' pattern. They have a mixed US structure while CT densitometric values reflect a mixture of connective tissue and proteinaceous fluid. Postcontrast enhancement is frequently seen. MMA are potential (adenoma) or frankly (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumors. They appears as moltilocular cystic masses containing septa and/or papillary bulgings, with thickened walls. Both US and CT demonstrate their predominantly cystic character, and the eventual presence of excrescences. WE report a series of 23 cases (6 SMA, 17 MMA) of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas studied during the past five years. A correct diagnosis of SMA was possible in all 6 cases, while MMA was correctly diagnosed in 17 out of 18 cases. There were no false negatives, and 1 falsa positive. All differential diagnoses are also discussed

360

Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in 'cold' thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study fined needle aspiration (FNA) was performed to ascertain a preoperative diagnosis in patients with cold thyroid nodules. A brief clinical history comprising of general physical and local examination was recorded on a proforma. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules were performed with 5 ml disposable syringe (22g needle). Local anesthesia was not used. Four slides were prepared in each case, two were fixed in 95% alcohol for Pananicolau's stain and the Haematoxylin and Eosin while other two slides were air dried for May Grunwald Giemsa stains. Surgical specimens were received at the Department of Pathology and processed as per routine. Cytological and histological reporting was done separately and independently. Special stains were performed when required. A total of 91 patients were studied, in 14 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 21 cases surgery was not performed. In 56 patient, histological correlation was available. Forty were reported benign, out of which 37 proved correct on histological examination. Of the eleven smears reported as follicular neoplasm, 9 proved correct and 2 reported as 'suspicious' and 3 as 'malignant' also proved malignant on histological examination. Sensitivity was 86.36% and specificity was 100%. Efficiency of the test was 94.9%. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was found to be simple and valuable technique for a reliable preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. (author)

361

Malignant thymona with symptoms of myasthenia gravis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rare case of malignant tumor of thymus - Thymoma malignum was described. The initial diagnosis was difficult, because of the irregular symptoms of myasthenia gravis. The diagnostic difficulties, treatment and clinical features of this neoplasm were also discussed. (author)

362

Rheumatoid nodules in the thyroid bed following total thyroidectomy: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Rheumatoid nodules occur in 30 percent of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Common sites include the buttocks or the extensor surface of the forearm, with one group documenting their presence in the thyrohyoid membrane. To the best of our knowledge, rheumatoid nodules have not been described in the thyroid bed. Case presentation We present the case of a 46-year-old Caucasian woman with active rheumatoid arthritis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis who presented with compressive neck symptoms. An ultrasound scan revealed that both lobes of her thyroid were enlarged. The right lobe measured 7.9×3.4×3.3cm and the left 8.3×3.3×3.1cm. A solitary 1.0×0.6×0.8cm nodule was seen in the right lower lobe. Her thyroid-stimulating hormone level was 4.22uU/mL (0.34 to 5.60). A total thyroidectomy was performed due to her symptoms and the possible growth of a nodule when on levothyroxine. A postoperative ultrasound scan showed no remaining thyroid tissue. The pathology revealed several small neoplasms ranging from a well-encapsulated adenoma to highly atypical follicular and papillary Hurthle cell lesions in the setting of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Low-dose radioactive iodine (33.4mCi) was given. Four months later, our patient complained of a feeling of fullness in her neck. A solid nodule of mixed echogenicity (5.6×3.3×2.3cm) was seen in the right level VI of the neck, and solid tissue of mixed echogenicity (2.9×2.3×1.7cm) on the left. Following repeat surgery, the pathology from the right specimen showed Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. The left specimen had areas of granuloma formation with fibrinoid necrosis and palisading histiocytes, consistent with the histology of rheumatoid nodules. No evidence of malignancy was seen. The patient continues to do well and remains disease-free. Conclusions Rheumatoid nodules have not been reported in the thyroid bed. Their pathogenesis is not clear. Postoperative release of tumor necrosis factor alpha and local vascular damage may have triggered the nodule formation in this case. Rheumatoid nodules must be kept in the differential diagnosis of an enlarging thyroid in the setting of active rheumatoid arthritis. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy may show granuloma formation and be the most cost-effective initial diagnostic step, especially if there is a concern for malignancy. Early identification of these nodules will help decrease morbidity from unnecessary interventions and result in treatment that is both timely and appropriate. PMID:24168730

2013-01-01