WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned.

Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, (Canada))

1991-05-01

2

Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

1991-01-01

3

NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.

Renê Gerhard

2010-06-01

4

FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a popular, reliable and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to review cases of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid by FNA, and assess the causes of cytologic misdiagnosis and their impact on clinical management. Methods: Clinical data, FNA smears and follow-up surgical specimens of cases diagnosed with primary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. Resul...

Shah Sejal; Faquin William; Izquierdo Roberto; Khurana Kamal

2009-01-01

5

Benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms after childhood irradiation for Tinea capitis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of all thyroid surgery was studied among 10,842 persons whose thyroid glands had been exposed in childhood to an average dose of 9 rads of x-radiation during treatment for tinea capitis and among 2 matched control groups. A statistically significant increased risk for both benign and malignant neoplasms was found in the exposed group. The excess risk was 8.3 cases/year/rad/million population. There were no differences in other surgical conditions between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Persons irradiated under age 6 years had the highest excess risk for developing carcinomas. The incidence of thyroid neoplasms was approximately threefold higher in women than in men among the irradiated persons and among the controls, but the relative risk for the irradiated group of women was greater than the addition of the relative risks of the other groups. Low-dose radiation is instrumental in the development of both benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms

1980-01-01

6

FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a popular, reliable and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to review cases of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid by FNA, and assess the causes of cytologic misdiagnosis and their impact on clinical management. Methods: Clinical data, FNA smears and follow-up surgical specimens of cases diagnosed with primary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. Results: Of the 365 cases with a malignant diagnosis by FNA over a period of 11 years, nine (2.4 %) were identified with discrepant histologic diagnosis with regard to the type of primary thyroid malignancy. In addition, four cases were added from the consultation files of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Areas of difficulty contributing to misclassification included overlapping cytologic features (n = 6), rarity of tumors (n = 3), and sampling limitations (n = 4). Of the 13 cases, 12 underwent total or near total thyroidectomy and one patient had concurrent surgical biopsy. Measurement of serum calcitonin levels in one case, with an initial cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, prevented unnecessary lymph node dissection. Misclassification of medullary carcinoma as papillary carcinoma precluded lymph node dissection in one case. Further management decisions were based on the final histologic diagnosis and did not require additional surgery. Two cases of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma were misdiagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma. Both patients received total thyroidectomies, which may not otherwise have been performed. Conclusions: A small subset of primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid may be misclassified with regard to the type of malignancy on FNA. The majority of primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed on FNA require thyroidectomy. However, initial cytologic misclassification of medullary carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma as other malignant neoplasms or vice versa may have an impact on clinical management.

Shah, Sejal S.; Faquin, William C.; Izquierdo, Roberto

2009-01-01

7

FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a popular, reliable and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to review cases of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid by FNA, and assess the causes of cytologic misdiagnosis and their impact on clinical management. Methods: Clinical data, FNA smears and follow-up surgical specimens of cases diagnosed with primary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. Results: Of the 365 cases with a malignant diagnosis by FNA over a period of 11 years, nine (2.4 % were identified with discrepant histologic diagnosis with regard to the type of primary thyroid malignancy. In addition, four cases were added from the consultation files of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Areas of difficulty contributing to misclassification included overlapping cytologic features (n = 6, rarity of tumors (n = 3, and sampling limitations (n = 4. Of the 13 cases, 12 underwent total or near total thyroidectomy and one patient had concurrent surgical biopsy. Measurement of serum calcitonin levels in one case, with an initial cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, prevented unnecessary lymph node dissection. Misclassification of medullary carcinoma as papillary carcinoma precluded lymph node dissection in one case. Further management decisions were based on the final histologic diagnosis and did not require additional surgery. Two cases of undifferentiated (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were misdiagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma. Both patients received total thyroidectomies, which may not otherwise have been performed. Conclusions: A small subset of primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid may be misclassified with regard to the type of malignancy on FNA. The majority of primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed on FNA require thyroidectomy. However, initial cytologic misclassification of medullary carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma as other malignant neoplasms or vice versa may have an impact on clinical management.

Shah Sejal

2009-01-01

8

Selective occurrence of ras mutations in benign and malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that point mutations in all three ras genes (H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras) may occur in thyroid neoplasia. However, the overall incidence of ras mutations in thyroid tumors and their frequency in specific histologic types varies widely in different series. Many earlier studies have chosen allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization approaches to examine ras mutations without further confirmation of the positive samples by DNA sequencing. In this study, mutational hot spots in exon 1 (codons 12/13) and exon 2 (codon 61) of the H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and sequenced with an automatic sequencer. ras mutations were detected in 4 of 89 (4.5%) benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Three of 8 follicular carcinomas exhibited mutations in codon 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras, respectively, and mutation at codon 61 of N-ras was found in 1 of 12 follicular adenomas. No mutations were observed in the other tumors, which included 20 nodular goiters, 5 Hürthle cell adenomas, 42 papillary carcinomas, and 2 undifferentiated carcinomas. Our results, obtained by the direct sequencing technique, indicate a lower overall prevalence of ras oncogenes in thyroid tumors than reports in earlier series. However, the frequency of ras mutations in specific histotype of thyroid tumors and their exclusive involvement of codon 61 in our series are similar to those studies utilizing DNA sequencing to detect or to confirm ras gene alterations. The selective occurrence of ras mutations in benign and malignant follicular neoplasms indicates that ras gene alterations have a specific and early role in the development of follicular type of thyroid tumors in Taiwan. PMID:15320975

Liu, Rue-Tsuan; Hou, Chia-Yi; You, Huey-Ling; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Hock-Liew; Chou, Fong-Fu; Wang, Pei-Wen; Cheng, Jiin-Tsuey

2004-08-01

9

Malignant neoplasms in organ transplant recipients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiologic and clinicopathologic features were analyzed in 29 recipients with 31 malignant neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms included ten non-Hodgkin lymphomas, one case of Hodgkin disease, and 19 carcinomas of the skin, colon, head and neck, thyroid, lung, uterus, and vulva. Lymphoma had the most widespread organ involvement, with spread to lymph nodes, central nervous system, liver, spleen, muscle, and native and transplanted kidney. Comparison of cyclosporine-treated and -untreated recipients indicated that the latter had a shorter interval from transplantation to tumor diagnosis (4 vs 54 months) and demonstrated more extensive tumor spread

1988-12-02

10

The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: An experience of 1,382 cases in a community practice setting with the implication for risk of neoplasm and risk of malignancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has provided a set of uniform diagnostic terminology including benign (B), atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), follicular neoplasm (FN), suspicious for malignancy (SM), malignancy (M), and nondiagnostic (ND) for the interpretation of thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA). We applied this terminology on our 1,382 thyroid aspirates in a community practice setting, which included 539 cases of B (39%), 376 cases of AUS (27.2%), 116 cases of FN (8.4%), 37 cases of malignant (2.7%), 36 cases of SM (2.6%), and 278 cases of ND (20.1%). Two hundred twenty-one cases (16%) of thyroid FNA had corresponding follow-up thyroidectomies. Each diagnostic category represented a unique association with risk of malignancy and risk of neoplasm. Based on histologic follow-up, the risk of neoplasm (including benign and malignant neoplasm) was B 14%, AUS 44%, FN 67%, SM 77%, and M 100% and the risk of malignancy was B 3%, AUS 6%, FN 22%, SM 56%, and M 100%. The classification and follow-up recommendation of TBSRTC are appropriate for each category. Both B and AUS are low-risk lesions with low probability of malignancy. FN predicts a higher rate for neoplasm but an intermediate rate for malignancy while SM carries a high risk for malignancy. PMID:21681976

Wu, Howard Her-Juing; Rose, Crystal; Elsheikh, Tarik M

2012-05-01

11

Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevent...

Kumar, Sanath

2012-01-01

12

Ultrasonography a useful adjunctive in management of thyroid neoplasms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fine needle aspiration cytology has been the gold standard of diagnosis in case of thyroid neoplasm. However ultrasonography of thyroid neoplasm is a useful guide for an operating thyroid surgeon. We in our study evaluated patients of thyroid neoplasm with USG thyroid & studied its role in the therapeutic management of neoplasm. In our study of 10 patients of thyroid neoplasm we found USG of the thyroid neoplasm as a valuable guide in management.

Latoo, Manzoor; Lateef, Mohammed; Kirmani, Omar

2007-01-01

13

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a fixed population of A-bomb survivors, 1. Thyroid cancer and breast cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a fixed population (7,564 A-bomb survivors) for Adult Health Study performed until December 1985, 28 A-bomb survivors (5 men and 23 women) were diagnosed as having thyroid cancer, and 79 (including one man) as breast cancer. There was an evident tendency among the group receiving 100 rad or more towards higher incidence of cancers of the thyroid and breast and synchronous or metachronous multiple primaries. The incidence of thyroid cancer tended to be higher in A-bomb survivors less than 20 years of age at the time of exposure; however, this tendency was not seen in the case of breast cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer - in contrast to breast cancer - tended to decrease from year to year. Multiple primaries were associated with thyroid cancer in 5 A-bomb survivors and breast cancer in 9 A-bomb survivors. Three A-bomb survivors had both thyroid and breast cancers. Among the 11 A-bomb survivors with multiple primaries, nine had received 100 rad or more. (Namekawa, K.).

Soda, Midori; Yokoyama, Naokata; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Takagi, Miwako; Kitano, Koei; Toyama, Kyoko; Fujikura, Toshio

1986-11-01

14

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

?aparevi? Zorica

2002-01-01

15

Malignant thyroid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs

1986-11-28

16

Molecular pathobiology of thyroid neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumors of thyroid follicular cells provide a very interesting model to understand the development of human cancer. It is becoming apparent that distinct molecular events are associated with specific stages in a multistep tumorigenic process with good genotype/ phenotype correlation. For instance, mutations of the gsp and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor genes are associated with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and adenomas while alterations of other specific genes, such as oncogenic tyrosine kinase alterations (RET/PTC, TRK) in papillary carcinoma and the newly discovered PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma rearrangement, are distinctive features of cancer. Although activating RAS mutations occur at all stages of thyroid tumorigenesis, evidence is accumulating that they may also play an important role in tumor progression, a role that is well documented for p53. Environmental factors (iodine deficiency, ionizing radiations) have been shown to play a crucial role in promoting the development of thyroid cancer, influencing both its genotypic and phenotypic features. It is possible that the follicular thyroid cell has unique ways to respond to DNA damage. Similarly to leukemia or sarcomas (and unlike most epithelial cancers), numerous specific rearrangements are being discovered in thyroid cancer suggesting preferential activation of DNA repair instead of cell death programs after environmentally induced genetic alterations. PMID:12665646

Tallini, Giovanni

2002-01-01

17

Radiation induced thyroid neoplasms 1920 to 1987: A vanishing problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation for benign diseases has been implicated as an etiologic factor in thyroid cancer. From 1930-60, over 2 million children may have been exposed to therapeutic radiation and it is estimated that up to 7% may develop thyroid cancer after a 5-40 year latency. Thyroid stimulating hormone, secondary to radioinduced hypothyroidism, has been implicated as causative in animals. Such data has led to expensive screening programs in high risk patients. Because of a decline in irradiation for benign diseases in children over the last 2 decades, we questioned whether the incidence of radiation induced thyroid neoplasms (RITN) was also decreasing. Twenty-six of 227 patients (11%) with thyroid malignancies seen at our institution from 1974-87 had a history of previous head and neck irradiation. These included 13 papillary, 3 follicular, and 7 mixed carcinomas as well as 2 lymphomas and 1 synovial cell sarcoma. None of these 26 patients had abnormal thyroid function tests at presentation. Mean latency from irradiation to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was 25.4 years (6-55 year range). Compared to the reported increasing incidence of RITN from 1940-70, there appears to be a significant decrease since 1970. Based on our analysis, the use of expensive screening programs in high risk populations may no longer be warranted. Additionally, the routine use of thyroid replacement in previously irradiated chemically hypothyroid patients is not recommended.30 references.

Mehta, M.P.; Goetowski, P.G.; Kinsella, T.J.

1989-06-01

18

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

1984-07-01

19

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical observations for multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN) were made on 94 autopsy cases including 23 A-bomb survivors exposed at ? 2,000 m (group 1), 32 exposed at > 2,000 m or entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and 39 non-exposed patients (group 3). The incidence of MPMN for men and women was highest in group 2 and in group 1, respectively. MPMN was the most common in the seventh and eighth decades. The average age was five-year older in men than in women. MPMN with leukemia and thyroid cancer had occurred in two young patients of group 1. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.4. The most common first primary was leukemia in group 1, lung cancer in group 2, and liver cancer in group 3; the second primary was thyroid cancer in groups 1 and 3, and gastric cancer in group 2. Multiple primaries tended to occur in association with cervical cancer, leukemia, and thyroid cancer in group 1, and with cancer of the stomach, colorectum, and lung in group 2. The common combination pattern was as follows: leukemia and thyroid cancer in group 1; lung cancer and gastric cancer in group 2; and gastric cancer and colorectal cancer or liver cancer and gastric and/or thyroid cancer in group 3. Autopsy-proven occult or early cancer accounted for 92 % of thyroid cancer, 50 % of endometrial cancer, and 38 % of prostatic cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

1986-01-01

20

Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated ...

Agarwal Dwarka; Soni Tej; Sharma Om; Sharma Shantanu

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The Role of CD56, HBME-1, and p63 in Follicular Neoplasms of the Thyroid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Carcinomas originating from thyroid follicular cells are the commonest of all endocrine system malignancies. In this study we evaluated the importance of the expressions of CD 56, HBME-1 and p63 in the differential diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from other follicular neoplasms.Material and Method: We re-evaluated 80 cases of thyroid neoplasms, comprising 40 cases of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and 40 cases of follicular neoplasm, diagnosed at Dicle University Medical School, Department of Pathology between 2005 and 2008. All neoplasms were stained with CD 56, HBME-1 and p 63 compared to each other. Statistical analysis was with Student's t test and the Yates corrected chi-square test.Result: There was no statistically significant difference in the expression of CD 56 between follicular neoplasms and papillary carcinomas, but HBME-1 and p63 expressions were statistically significantly different between these neoplasms (p=0.005, p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of HBME-1 and p63 may be helpful in differentiating papillary carcinoma, particularly follicular variant, from follicular neoplasms.

Hülya ETEM

2010-09-01

22

Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

1984-01-01

23

Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

2006-12-15

24

Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours is usually secondary to surgical treatment. Operation should be as radical as possible but also be connected with as little risk as possible and take account of the possibility of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy here means radioiodine therapy as well as external radiotherapy. Radioiodine therapy is employed for local treatment of the thyroid with the objective of radical tumour destruction, either to destroy tumour foci or residues in apparently normal thyroid tissue or for complete elimination of the thyroid as metastases can be detected and treated reliably only after elimination of the thyroid. Radioiodine therapy is also used for the treatment of accumulating metastases; especially in small-focus lung metastases, it has a remittent or even a curative effect. Practical aspects of 131I-therapy are discussed, including radiation protection regulations and side-effects. Generally, external megavolt therapy with an intended curative effect on the primary tumour and the regional excretory ways is used in all types of tumour with the exception of differential thyreocyte carcinomas of stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 or in case of metastases distant from the primary tumour (M1). Palliative radiotherapy should be applied as early as possible in order to prevent pathological fractures, to give relief of pain, and to reduce local symptoms. Aspects of information and guidance of the patient and after-care are discussed. Results of the treatment and the prognosis of the patient are determined by the following factors: Histology, tumour stage, sex, age. The best prognosis is given for women under 40 with differentiated carcinoma and stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 (five-years survival rate 80%). Early detection, advances in surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy, and adherence to the above guidelines have improved the prognosis significantly. (orig./MG)

1980-10-15

25

Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

2013-03-01

26

Nm23 protein expression in thyroid neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nm23 gene production has been heralded as a suppressor of metastasis in many human tumours but it is not clear at which stage in the metastatic process nm23 protein exerts its effect. The aim of this study was to test whether nm23 protein is associated with occurrence or category of angioinvasion. We have made use of the well documented fact that follicular carcinoma of the thyroid may show vascular invasion whereas papillary carcinomas may metastasis via the lymphatics. 65 thyroid tumours (20 follicular adenomas, 22 papillary carcinomas, 23 follicular carcinomas) were stained for nm23 protein using an immunopurified polyclonal antibody. Nm23 protein status showed no correlation with category of thyroid tumour. This is indirect evidence that nm23 does not suppress metastasis by influencing vascular invasion in this tumour type. PMID:7808792

Royds, J A; Silcocks, P B; Rees, R C; Stephenson, T J

1994-06-01

27

Aftercare of malignant thyroid growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'standard programme of aftercare for patients with malignant thyroid growths' practised in our department comprises the following measures: - Searching for residual tissues and recurrences in the neck/throat region and for metastases by means of physical examination, scintigraphy, x-ray diagnosis and laboratory tests (including determination of tumour markers); - monitoring and treatment of side effects by thyroidectomy (recurrent paresis, parathyroprival tetany); - prevention, detection and treatment of side effects of high-dosed radio-iodine therapy (on salivary glands and bone marrow) or those of cytostatic treatment (on heart muscle and bone marrow); - monitoring substitutive and suppressive treatment with thyroxines; - psychological guidance and genetic counselling. Corresponding to therapeutic approach, the overall aftercare programme is aimed primarily at papillary and follicular carcinoma and C-cell carcinoma. However, aftercare is hardly effective with anaplastic carcinoma owing to its persistently bad prognosis and its 50% survival time of some three months. (orig./MG)

1981-04-03

28

Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

1983-01-01

29

Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

Penelope Korkolopoulou

2012-01-01

30

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas ...

Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

2013-01-01

31

Original paper Thyroid neoplasms – errors of the cytological diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: the evaluation of the diagnostic value of a cytological examination and its limitations for the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.Material and methods: From 1995 to 2004 nine hundred ninety eight patients were operated on for nodular lesions of the thyroid gland in our department. Cytological and histopathologic diagnoses were compared retrospectively in all cases where a neoplasm was suspected (true positive, false negative and false positive diagnoses. The verification was carried out independently by two pathologists. It enabled the establishment of interpretation errors (IE. The cases where cytological and histopathologic diagnoses were incompatible were interpreted as a sampling error (SE.Results: As a result of the verification 45 cytological and histopathologic diagnoses were changed compared with the primary ones. In the analysed material the following diagnoses were put: true positive – 144, true negative – 824, false positive – 12, false negative – 18. The sensitivity of FNAB was 0.89, specificity 0.99, accuracy 0.97 and a positive predictive diagnostic value 0.92. False cytological diagnoses were found in 75 cases (7.5%. In 45 cases (4.5% a diagnosis was changed compared with a primary one – interpretation error. In the remaining 30 cases (3% a false diagnosis was caused by a sampling error. Conclusions: FNAB is an examination of high diagnostic value for the detection of thyroid neoplasms in the hands of an experienced pathologist. False cytological diagnoses comprised only a small part (7.5% of their total number and were caused by interpretation error in 4.5% and by sampling error in 3.0%. The percentage of interpretation errors can be decreased by a multiple independent assessment of samples.

S?awomir Jab?o?ski

2005-09-01

32

Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

2014-02-13

33

Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries. Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers. There is no clear etiology for the development of secondary malignancies in patients with IPMN. Although population-based studies have shown different results from single institution studies regarding the exact incidence of additional primary cancers in IPMN patients, both have reached the same conclusion: there is a higher incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies in patients with IPMNs than in the general population. This finding has significant clinical implications for both the initial evaluation and the subsequent long-term follow-up of patients with IPMNs. If a patient has not had recent colonoscopy, this should be performed during the evaluation of a newly diagnosed IPMN. Upper endoscopy should be performed in patients from Asian countries or for those who present with symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal disease. Routine screening studies (breast and prostate should be carried out as currently recommended for patient’s age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

Jaime Benarroch-Gampel

2010-10-01

34

Second Malignant Neoplasms after Radio-Chemotherapy of Hodgkins Lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to identify the second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL)in long-term survivors (LTS) of Hodgkins disease (HD) patients who were regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI). 42 LTS were studied. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files were revised for date of diagnoses, original site(s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on blood pressure, pulse, chest and cardiac examination, visceromegaly and the presence of lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations included CBC, ESR and bone marrow aspirate and/or biopsy. Radiodiagnostic studies were done whenever indicated. One LTS had acute myeloid leukemia [AML] as a second malignant neoplasm. Finally, the study documented the risk of secondary malignancy [AML] was one of the long-term sequelae of radio-chemotherapy in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD and Screening for early detection of late effects were discussed. New strategies with reduction or elimination of radiation dose are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children.

2013-01-01

35

Can fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodule help in determining the extent of surgery in follicular and Hurthle cell neoplasm at a community teaching institution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was used to evaluate cold thyroid nodules in 179 patients treated between 1990 and 1998. The purpose of this study was to see whether FNAB findings of follicular or Hurthle cells could help in planning the extent of thyroid surgery. Group I patients (47) had findings suggestive of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm. Group II patients (132) had inconclusive results. In group I FNAB was 100 per cent correct in diagnosing follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasm with a high percentage of malignant findings (malignancy 85 per cent and benign adenoma 15 per cent). In Group II malignancy was found in 16 per cent and benign pathology in 84 per cent. Women were more likely to have malignancy than men. The average age was over 50 years in patients with either malignant or benign nodules. In addition there was no significant difference in average size of benign or malignant nodules (2.9 vs 2.6 cm respectively). When an FNAB finding was suggestive of neoplasm malignancy was found in 85 per cent. On the other hand when an FNAB was inconclusive malignancy was present in 16 per cent. Thus we conclude that using FNAB finding can guide surgical resection and recommend performing total or subtotal thyroidectomy when FNAB is suggestive of neoplasm and lobectomy when FNAB is inconclusive. PMID:12412723

Hawasli, Abdelkader; Rizzo, Paul; Khoury, Habib; McCaffrey, Joy L

2002-10-01

36

Dupuytren's disease and the risk of malignant neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The object of this study was the investigation of the risk of occurrence of malignant neoplasms in 508 patients with Dupuytren's disease (DD) and in 2157 of their 1st degree relatives. In the first stage of the study, we evaluated the tumour spectrum as well as the age of the patient at diagnosis of cancers in DD families along with the observed and expected frequencies of malignancies. In the second stage of the study, we examined the distribution of 20 common mutations/polymorphisms in 12 known cancer susceptibility genes among DD patients and 508 matched healthy controls. No such study has been published to date. Results. No significant differences were noted between malignancies diagnosed among members of DD families and the general population. Molecular examination of 20 mutations/polymorphisms in 12 cancer susceptibility genes in Dupuytren's patients and controls showed a statistically significant association of one mutation with Dupuytren disease: D312M in XPD (OR?=?1.75, p?=?0.004). We observed a tendency toward changed frequencies of occurrence of central nervous system tumors, laryngeal cancer and non-melanoma skin cancers in DD families. The results of our study indicate a lack of a strong association between Dupuytren disease and familial cancer risk. PMID:24598251

Zyluk, Andrzej; Paszkowska-Szczur, Katarzyna; Gupta, Satish; Scott, Rodney J; Lubi?ski, Jan; D?bniak, Tadeusz

2014-01-01

37

Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

1996-01-01

38

Autopsy findings of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Autopsy findings in 26 cases of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation were analysed and following results were obtained. 1. Causes of death except for neoplastic extension were 58% (15/26) and infection was the single predominant cause of death (73% : 11/15) with 50% (4/8) in lung cancer. 2. Distant metastases were found in 73% (19/26). In 7 cases, no obvious metastasis was found before and after autopsy. On the other hand, the patients with metastases over 2 organs before autopsy revealed metastases in 82% (9/11) to the other organs at autopsy. 3. Radiation therapy was effective and the primary tumor disappeared completely in 71% (10/14) with curative irradiation. In metastatic lesions, tumor cells were almost disappeared with dosage over 40 Gy.

Okazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Jun; Tatezawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Niibe, Hideo

1984-11-01

39

Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms / Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A punção aspirativa por agulha fina de tireóide é o método pré-cirúrgico mais importante na definição da malignidade de uma lesão nodular. Entretanto esse procedimento apresenta limitações, como características morfológicas comuns entre neoplasias malignas e benignas. A expressão de uma lectina liga [...] nte de b-galactosídeos chamada galectina-3, aumentada em neoplasias malignas de tireóide, poderia ser utilizada como marcador de malignidade para neoplasias de tireóide. Cinqüenta e sete casos, entre eles 14 carcinomas papilares, 22 carcinomas foliculares e 21 adenomas foliculares, foram estudados quanto à expressão da galectina-3 por métodos imuno-histoquímicos. O tecido tireoidiano normal, adjacente ao tecido neoplásico, também foi avaliado em 48 casos. Todos os casos de carcinoma papilar e 18 casos de carcinoma folicular apresentaram marcação citoplasmática; um caso de adenoma folicular apresentou marcação nuclear. Nenhum caso de tecido tireoidiano normal demonstrou imunomarcação. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo foram respectivamente 88%, 98%, 96% e 94%. A expressão da galectina-3 é uma evidência valiosa de malignidade nos casos em que as características citomorfológicas não forem conclusivas. A marcação por imunocitoquímica poderá aumentar a exatidão diagnóstica nos exames citológicos por aspiração de tireóide, tornando a indicação cirúrgica mais precisa. Abstract in english Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is [...] expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical staining against galectin-3. Normal thyroid adjacent to neoplastic tissue was also examined in 48 cases. All cases of papillary carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, 18 cases of follicular carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, and one case of follicular adenoma showed nuclear staining. No case of normal thyroid showed immunoreactivity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respective 88%, 98%, 96%, and 94%. Galectin-3 expression is a valuable evidence of malignancy in cases where cytomorphological features are not conclusive. This immunomediated method could increase diagnosis accuracy for FNAB, thus making surgery indication more precise.

Segura, Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara; Magalhães, Albino Verçosa de.

40

Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

2012-05-15

 
 
 
 
41

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

1980-01-01

42

Expression of pendrin in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Pendred syndrome gene (PDS) encodes a transmembrane protein, pendrin, which is expressed in follicular thyroid cells and participates in the apical iodide transport. Pendrin expression has been studied in various thyroid neoplasms by means of immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot and RT–quantitative real-time PCR. The expression was related to the functional activity of the thyroid tissue. Follicular cells of normal, nodular goitre and Graves' disease tissues express pendrin at the a...

Skubis-zegad?o, J.; Nikodemska, A.; Przytu?a, E.; Mikula, M.; Bardadin, K.; Ostrowski, J.; Wenzel, B. E.; Czarnocka, B.

2005-01-01

43

Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

2008-09-15

44

Differential expression of Galectin-3 in papillary projections of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic thyroid lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a a beta-galactoside binding protein recently proposed to be a promising presurgical molecular marker for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. We analyzed galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically in papillary areas of hyperplastic lesions of benign thyroid tissue in comparison with malignant papillary projections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. A monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and ABC immunohistochemical technique were used to evaluate galectin-3 expression in 26 cases of benign papillary hyperplasia (8 cases of hyperplastic adenoma, 8 cases of hyperplastic colloid goiter, 10 cases of Graves disease in comparison with 25 cases of PTC. Immunohistochemical results showed no reactivity for galectin-3 in papillary areas of benign hyperplastic lesions. Strong cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunoreactivity was found in all 25 cases of PTC. These results show that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant papillary projections but not of benign papillary hyperplasia. Thus, the immunohistochemical evaluation of galectin-3 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions with papillary projections.

Havelka Marija J.

2003-01-01

45

Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enlargement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable. PMID:24936737

Alves Filho, Wellington; Mahmoud, Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti; Ramos, Daniel Marin; Araujo-Filho, Vergilius José Furtado de; Lima, Patricia Picciarelli de; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Brandão, Lenine Garcia

2014-06-01

46

Galectin-3: A promising marker of thyroid malignancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Galectin-3 is an endogenous beta-galactoside binding lectin implicated in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. High levels of this lectin have recently been found in malignant thyroid tumors, but not in normal or benign thyroid tissue, suggesting galectin-3 as a promising presurgical marker of thyroid malignancy. Methods: We analyzed immunohistochemically galectin-3 expression in thyroid tissue using a monoclonal antibody. The total of 108 tissue specimens included 55 cases of thyroid carcinoma (30 papillary, 15 follicular, and 10 anaplastic type, 15 samples of follicular adenoma, 15 samples of normal thyroid tissue, and 23 thyroid tissue specimens from human fetuses (16 to 37 weeks of intrauterine life. Results: The results showed galectin-3 expression in 20/30 papillary carcinomas, 11/15 follicular carcinomas, 10/10 anaplastic carcinomas, and 4/15 follicular adenomas. Thyroid follicular cells in normal adult and fetal tissue were negative. Conclusions: These results further confirm that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant thyroid cells, and that immunohistochemical detection of galectin-3 could be useful in thyroid carcinoma diagnostics. The absence of galectin-3 in thyroid cells during fetal development suggests that galectin-3 is expressed de novo during malignant transformation of thyroid epithelium, thus it should not be considered an oncofetal antigen.

Cveji? Dubravka S.

2003-01-01

47

Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs) were shown to induce cancer cel...

Pula Bartosz; Domoslawski Pawel; Podhorska-Okolow Marzena; Dziegiel Piotr

2012-01-01

48

MR imaging of the liver. Primary malignant neoplasms in the adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant liver neoplasms of the adult are discussed with emphasis on hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common neoplasm. The clinical and pathologic aspects of the following neoplasms are correlated with imaging features: hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, angiosarcoma, epithelial hemangioendothelioma, other sarcomas, and lymphoma. The complementary role of ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging in characterizing these lesions and determining resectability is highlighted. PMID:9113676

Buetow, P C; Midkiff, R B

1997-05-01

49

Sentinel lymphoscintigraphy in patients with malignant cutaneous neoplasms using combined SPECT/CT system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In observations of sentinel lymphoscintigraphs in patients with malignant cutaneous neoplasms, significant difference in the confidence value of considered sentinel lymph nodes did not occur through analysis of fused single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT images. On the other hand, positional information about the sentinel lymph node becomes more detailed by adding the fused SPECT/CT images. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using combined SPECT/CT system is useful for guiding sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with malignant cutaneous neoplasms. (author)

2010-11-01

50

Isolated Thyroid Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma with Unknown Primary Origin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clinically significant metastases to the thyroid gland are very rare; however, they can present as the initial malignancy. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman referred to our Endocrinology outpatient clinic for a thyroid nodule, which was in fact metastasis of malignant melanoma. Because fine-needle aspiration biopsy was not diagnostic and the nodule was considered malignant nodule according to the ultrasonographic examination, bilateral total thyroidectomy and modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathologic examination of the nodule was consistent with malignant melanoma. The message from this unusual case is that all thyroid nodules need to be taken seriously and a thyroid lesion may be the sentinel event in a patient with a malignant melanoma.

Feridun Karakurt

2008-12-01

51

Thyroid malignancies: diagnostic strategy; Primaerdiagnostik des Schilddruesenkarzinoms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree of alimentary iodine deficiency and, hence, the prevalence of thyroid nodules influence the diagnostic strategy to be followed in order to - mostly - exclude malignancy. Besides clinical factors like patient age and gender, rapid growth and compressive signs it is primarily the finding of a hypoechoic nodule without radio-nuclide accumulation that makes fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) mandatory. The accuracy of up to 95% which can be obtained with sufficient skill and expertise leads to a reduction of surgical interventions by at least 80% and to an increase of malignancy found during surgery by a factor of 10. The use of FNAB in the case of a hypoechoic, cold nodule represents a sufficiently accurate and highly cost-effective management of this frequent finding in endemic goitre areas. (orig.) [German] Die Dignitaetsbestimmung von Schilddruesenknoten wird von deren Praevalenz und diese von der alimentaeren Iodversorgung beeinflusst. Neben klinischen Parametern, wie z.B. Patientenalter und -geschlecht, Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit und Verdraengungszeichen, kommen v.a. dem sonographischen Befund der Echoarmut und der fehlenden Radionuklidanreicherung im Szintigramm entscheidende Bedeutung fuer die Selektion zur Feinnadelaspirationsbiopsie zu. Bei einer Treffsicherheit von bis zu 95%, die bei entsprechender Erfahrung und ausreichender Praeparatqualitaet erzielbar ist, kann mit der Zytologie die Zahl unnoetiger Eingriffe um mindestens 80% gesenkt und die operative 'Ausbeute' an malignen Befunden um den Faktor 10 gesteigert werden. Der Beschriebene, diagnostische Ablauf liefert eine ausreichende Sicherheit fuer Arzt und Patient bei hoher Kosteneffizienz. (orig.)

Leisner, B. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

1999-12-01

52

Malignant struma ovarii with a focus of papillary thyroid cancer: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Struma ovarii is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm and its malignant transformation is even rarer. Because of its rarity, there is no consensus about its diagnosis and management in the literature. A 53-year-old woman with left adnexial mass underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy. Postoperatively, she was diagnosed with a malignant struma ovarii. Postoperative thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 0.5-cm solid nodule in the thyroid gland and total thyroidectomy was done. Pathology report was nodular hyperplasia of benign character. She is currently disease-free for 1 year but long-term follow-up with thyroglobulin levels is necessary due to reports of increasing recurrence rates. PMID:17882443

Doganay, Melike; Gungor, Tayfun; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Sirvan, Levent; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

2008-04-01

53

Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

1995-04-01

54

Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

2010-01-01

55

Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

1996-01-01

56

Malignant intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm of the common bile duct  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, several cases of intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm (IOPN) of the liver and hepatic bile ducts have been reported. The author herein reports the first case of IOPN of the common bile duct (CBD). A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of jaundice. Imaging modalities including US, CT, MRI revealed an intraductal tumor of the middle CBD and biliary dilation distal to the tumor. A partial resection of the CBD was performed. Grossly, a papillary tumor measuring 20 ?...

2012-01-01

57

Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid following irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of primary lymphocytic lymphoma of the thyroid is presented occurring in a 19-year-old woman. The young age of this patient, as well as the possibility of thymic radiation therapy as an infant, being a predisposing factor makes this case unique. The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been previously reported. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

58

Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

2006-12-15

59

Malignant primary neoplasms of the ear and temporal bone studied by high-resolution computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten patients with malignant primary neoplasms of the ear and temporal bone were examined with high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and the results correlated with the operative findings. CT was found to be highly accurate in establishing the presence and extent of tumor and is recommended as the procedure of choice for preoperative treatment planning

1983-01-01

60

CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation for the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation in treating malignant adrenal neoplasms. Methods: CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation was performed in 9 cases of malignant adrenal neoplasms with a total of 9 lesions. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plan system was used to design the distribution of 125I seeds for treatment. Under CT guidance, the 125I seeds of 29.6 MBq were implanted into the malignant adrenal neoplasms with an interval distance of 1.0-1.5 cm. A follow-up of 1-15 months was conducted. The postoperative efficacy was evaluated with enhanced CT scanning. Results: After the treatment, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 5 patients, partial remission (PR) in 3 patients and no change (NC) in 1 patients, with an overall effective rate of 88.9%. The main complication was slight bleeding (n=1). Conclusion: For the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms, CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation carries reliable short-term effectiveness, therefore, it is a safe, effective and minimally-invasive therapy. (authors)

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Malignant primary neoplasms of the ear and temporal bone studied by high-resolution computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten patients with malignant primary neoplasms of the ear and temporal bone were examined with high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and the results correlated with the operative findings. CT was found to be highly accurate in establishing the presence and extent of tumor and is recommended as the procedure of choice for preoperative treatment planning.

Bird, C.R.; Hasso, A.N.; Stewart, C.E.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.; Thompson, J.R.

1983-10-01

62

Thyroid and other neoplasms following childhood scalp irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1968, a comprehensive investigation of the long-term health effects of childhood scalp irradiation treatment for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) was undertaken in Israel. Topics studied included cancer incidence, mortality, mental disorders, scholastic aptitude and achievement, and measures of central nervous system (CNS) function. A second follow-up of cancer incidence and incidence of benign tumors of selected sites is now in progress, using the Israel Cancer Registry, hospital pathology records, and discharge summaries as the main data sources. Because data from the first follow-up demonstrated a significantly elevated risk of cancer of the thyroid and brain but only a slight nonsignificant excess of leukemia, these three sites were chosen for early analysis. This paper presents preliminary data for these selected sites, based on the information available from the Cancer Registry between 1950 and 1978

1984-01-01

63

A rare case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting as primary renal neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Thyroid cancer is one of the common neoplasms accounting for 2% of all diagnosed neoplasms. Papillary carcinoma, If diagnosed and treated with radio iodine after thyroidectomy well in time, offers excellent survival benefit. Role of Radio iodine Whole body scan is crucial in these cases in detecting focal lesions and metastases. Common sites of metastases include cervical LN, trachea, esophagus, lungs, bones and brain. Metastases to kidneys are very rare and reported in very few cases. Our case is a 72 yrs old mother of serving soldier, a known case of CAD, DM, and HTN admitted with insidious onset right flank abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed BP of 170/100mmHg, no pallor, edema or puffiness. Abdomen examination revealed mild tenderness in the right renal angle. There was no free fluid or organomegaly. Subsequent evaluation with USG was inclusive. MRI abdomen revealed a mass lesion involving lower pole and distorting intra renal structures. The lesion was seen extending in to right renal artery. A diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) was made. She underwent right radical nephrectomy. Biopsy of post operative specimen revealed surprising histo pathological features of metastatic Papillary carcinoma of thyroid. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and thyroid specimen confirmed follicular variant of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid in the setting of multiple hypoechoic nodules. She had a markedly elevated Serum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post operative 131I Whole Body Scan revealed residual functional thyroid with skeletal metastases. She was given high dose radio iodine ablation with 218 mCi. She was reviewed twice subsequently in Feb 2009 and Aug 2009. She was given 221 mCi of 131I ablation given for solitary residual bone mets with raised Tg (345 ng/ml) while Aug 2009 WB Scan was normal along with normal serum Tg (2.1 ng/ml).This case describes an unusual case of elderly lady with FVPTC presenting as renal mass suspected to be a case of RCC with extension in to renal vein which would have carried worst prognosis as compared to thyroid carcinoma which was successfully made disease free over last two years. Treatment of kidney mass led to the discovery of primary thyroid neoplasm and its specific treatment. This also highlights importance of structural imaging such as USG,CT and MRI and subsequent histopathological confirmation

2010-01-01

64

Frequent hypermethylation of DBC1 in malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Allelic loss at chromosome 9q31-34 is a frequent event in many lymphoproliferative malignancies. Here, we examined DBC1 at 9q33.1 as a potential target in lymphomagenesis. DBC1 is a putative tumor suppressor that has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell growth and programmed cell death. The methylation status of the DBC1 promoter CpG island was examined by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, and methylation-specific melting curve analysis. DBC1 was hypermethylated in 5 of 5 B-cell-derived lymphoma cell lines, 41 of 42 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 24 of 24 follicular lymphomas, 5 of 5 mantle cell lymphomas, 4 of 4 small lymphocytic lymphomas, 1 of 2 lymphoplasmacytoid lymphomas, and in 12 of 12 acute lymphoblastic leukemias, but was unmethylated in 1 case of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, in 12 of 12 multiple myelomas, in 24 of 24 reactive lymph nodes, and in 12 of 12 samples of blood lymphocytes from random donors. DBC1 hypermethylation was associated with transcriptional silencing in lymphoma cell lines, and reexpression of this gene could be induced by treatment with the demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our data suggest that hypermethylation of the DBC1 promoter region is a frequent event during the development of lymphoproliferative malignancies, and that DBC1 hypermethylation may serve as a marker for these cancers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5

Grønbæk, Karin Elmegård; Ralfkiaer, U.

2008-01-01

65

Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life

1986-09-15

66

Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

1998-03-01

67

Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

1998-03-01

68

Ectopic production of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin by malignant ovarian neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensitive and specific radio-immunoassay for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin(..beta..-HCG) was performed on serum samples from 18 patients with large pelvic masses. No ..beta..-HCG level was detectable in 8 patients with either benign ovarian tumours or non-ovarian masses. Ten patients had a malignant ovarian neoplasm, and 6 of these (60%) had raised ..beta..-HCG levels. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary was the commonest malignant tumour (6/10) and the ..beta..-HCG was raised in 4 patients (66,6%) with this tumour. Serum ..beta..-HCG values therefore appear to be useful in the management of ovarian neoplasms, both for the early diagnosis of occult tumour and for monitoring response to treatment.

Tsalacopoulos, G.; Bloch, B. (Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology)

1982-09-25

69

Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors. Study of admitted patients and autopsy cases in Atomic Bomb Hospital  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.).

Hamada, Tadao

1984-03-01

70

Non Traumatic Myositis Ossificans Mimicking a Malignant Neoplasm: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Myositis ossificans is a benign self limiting condition that usually related to trauma. Despite a clinically and histologically distinct entity, myositis ossificans still causes considerable difficulties in diagnosis. A 33-year-old Moroccan woman presented with a 2-month history of left inguinal inflammatory pain with limping gait, MRI examination suggested a malignant neoplasm such as soft tissue osteosarcoma. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by incisional biopsy. Conservative man...

Latifa Tahiri; Laila Chbani; Siham Tizniti; Abdelmajid Elmrini; Taoufik Harzy

2012-01-01

71

Long-term risk of second malignant neoplasm after a cancer in childhood.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The risk of subsequent second malignant neoplasm was studied in a cohort of 634 patients, treated for a childhood cancer at the Gustave Roussy Institute between 1942 and 1969, and in complete remission five years after diagnosis. The most frequent types of first primary cancers (FPC) were Wilms' tumours (28% of the children), neuroblastomas (16%), lymphomas (12%) and soft tissue sarcomas (11%). Median follow-up duration after FPC was 19 years. Thirty-two patients (obs = 32) developed a total ...

Vathaire, F.; Schweisguth, O.; Rodary, C.; Frana?§ois, P.; Sarrazin, D.; Oberlin, O.; Hill, C.; Raquin, M. A.; Dutreix, A.; Flamant, R.

1989-01-01

72

Primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a child with nodal metastases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant teratomas of the thyroid are rare tumors. We report a case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a child with lymph node metastases. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of malignancy. Near-total thyroidectomy with right side neck dissection revealed a malignant teratoma of the thyroid with metastases in the lymph nodes. The patient is alive and in complete remission 4 years after the initial diagnosis.

Majhi Urmila

2009-01-01

73

Primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a child with nodal metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant teratomas of the thyroid are rare tumors. We report a case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a child with lymph node metastases. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was suggestive of malignancy. Near-total thyroidectomy with right side neck dissection revealed a malignant teratoma of the thyroid with metastases in the lymph nodes. The patient is alive and in complete remission 4 years after the initial diagnosis.

Majhi Urmila

2009-04-01

74

Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

Park, Jang Mi; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kwag, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-09-15

75

Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We reviewed our clinical experiences of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal cancer (EC) in 44 patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Among them, 34 were accompanied with synchronous tumors, 8 were accompanied with antecedent tumors and 8 with subsequent tumors. The sites of primary malignant neoplasms were as follows; stomach 24 (43.6%), head and neck 17 (30.9%), colon and rectum 4 (7.3%). Among the 19 patients with synchronous cancer in the stomach, 6 patients underwent gastrectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection before CRT, and the others received definitive CRT as initial treatment. While 5 patients were alive without recurrence of EC and gastric cancer, more than half of the patients died of EC. Among 11 patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), 9 patients underwent surgery for HNC before CRT, because the clinical stages of the HNC was more progressive than that of EC. Only 3 patients achieved complete cure of both EC and HNC. The number of patients who developed subsequent tumors after CRT for EC was too small for us to draw definitive conclusions from our discussion, so further long-term follow-up and analysis based on large-scale surveys are required. Although CRT has become one of the standard treatments for EC, there is no treatment strategy for patients with both EC and other malignant primary neoplasms. Our results suggest that we should consider the curability of EC by CRT when we treat such patients. (author)

2003-03-01

76

Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) Scan in Differentiation of Malignant Parotid Neoplasms: New Approaches for Better Diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

  Introduction: One of the most important preoperative concerns in patients with parotid neoplasms is the probability of malignancy. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of different findings of contrast-enhanced CT scan in differentiation of malignant parotid neoplasms. Also we have presented the results of new approaches in this regard. Materials and Methods: All patients with noninflammatory parotid masses were considered in this study in a one year period. All patients with one o...

Shervin Sharifkashany

2009-01-01

77

"MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the immunoreactivity of HBME-l in 90 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We found strong positive staining in the majority of papillary carcinomas (28/31, in some of follicular carcinomas (4/6,and in a few follicular adenomas (2/17. Negative staining was found in oxyphilic cell adenoma (0/4, nodular goiter (0/13 and undifferentiated carcinoma. The results suggest that monoclonal antibody HBME-l is useful in differentiating papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from benign lesions, especially in more differentiated lesions. Strong and generalized immunoreactivity for HBME-l in a follicular lesion should raise the suspicion of malignancy, but negative staining specially in poorly differentiated lesion does not rule out malignancy.

M. Mokhtari

2005-05-01

78

Dysphagia with a thyroid nodule: is there a primary aerodigestive malignancy?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three cases of laryngopharyngeal primary squamous cell carcinoma presenting with thyroid nodules are described. The key message to take away from these cases is that patients with advanced malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract can present with a thyroid nodule.

Michalopoulos, Konstantinos; Gunasekaran, Sinnappa; Moor, James W.; Bem, Chris

2008-01-01

79

Incidentally detected thyroid papillary carcinoma on positron emission tomography in a patient with malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal or diffusely increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG uptake in thyroid gland are occasionally seen during 18FDG positron emission tomography (PET scanning. Increased 18FDG uptake in thyroid nodules may be associated with benign or malignant tumours. In our case who was diagnosed as malignant melanoma, focally increased 18FDG uptake in a thyroid nodule was noticed. Thus, fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule was performed. On suspicious findings for the thyroid papillary cancer were reported, total thyroidectomy was performed. Histopathological evaluation revealed the thyroid papillary carcinoma. So, therapy for the incidental thyroid papillary carcinoma was commenced in this case who was under the follow-up for the malignant melanoma.J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 430-432Key words: Thyroid, papillary carcinoma, FDG-PET, thyroid incidentaloma

Zeki Dostbil

2012-09-01

80

18F-FDG PET/CT for malignant small intestinal neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, 18F-FDG PET/CT data of 19 malignant SINs (small intestinal neoplasms) were consecutively reviewed. Nine patients accepted PET/CT scan for preoperative diagnosis and staging, while ten patients presented follow-up after treatment and restaging. The results were correlated with abdomen enhanced CT and surgical pathological findings. Abdominal pain and weight loss were the most common findings. About 16% SINs located in the duodenum, 52% in the jejunum and 32% in the ileum. Lymphoma was the most frequent neoplasms. PET/CT revealed residual or recurrent malignant SINs in 5 patients who had negative or non-definite findings by abdomen CT and demonstrated extra-abdomen metastasis in 3 patients. Clinical decisions of treatment were changed for 6 patients after PET/CT examinations. The 18F-FDG PET/CT were better than CT in accuracy, negative predictive value and positive predictive value (89.5% vs 68.4%, 100% vs 66.7%, and 81.8% vs 69.2%, respectively). Whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT may be an effective molecular imaging method for staging and restaging of malignant SINs. (authors)

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Second primary malignant neoplasm following radiation therapy for head and neck cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This retrospective analysis reports the results of radiotherapy in 8272 patients with cancer who were treated at Tokyo Women's Medical College between 1966 and 1984. One thousand one hundred and four cases were irradiated for head and neck tumor during this period. Twenty-nine of the total number of patients (0.35 %) were found to have second primary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy according to the criteria of radiation-induced or related cancers. Twenty of these were head and neck tumors with an incidence of 1.81 % among all head and neck cancer patients. If recurrence of highly suspected cases was excluded, the incidence of radiation-induced or -related cancer was 0.18 % among all malignancies and 0.63 % among all head and neck tumors. Cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasm have been increasing in number and second cancer following radiotherapy has gradually become a big problem. However, the mechanisms of cancer etiology on which radiation and many other factors have an influence are not clear at this time, as there are many risks to human life. It is important not to underestimate the value of radiotherapy in cancer treatment today. (author)

1986-01-01

82

Role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the risk of second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of a cohort of 634 children treated from 1942 to 1969 at the Gustave Roussy Institute for a first cancer and alive 5 years after treatment, 32 later developed second malignant neoplasms (SMN). A case-control study was performed to determine the relationship between the dose of radiotherapy received on a given anatomical site for the treatment of a first cancer, and the risk of SMN development at the same anatomical site. Another aim of the study was to analyse the effects of the association o...

1989-01-01

83

Prevalence of malignancy in thyroid nodules with an initial nondiagnostic result after ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the rate of malignancy in thyroid nodules with an initial nondiagnostic fine needle aspiration. From October 2001 to April 2007, biopsies were performed on 1344 thyroid nodules in our practice. Biopsies were performed on nodules using 25-27 gauge needles, ultrasound guidance and multiple passes using both suction and capillary action. We retrospectively reviewed the results of these biopsies as well as any further management of nodules that received nondiagnostic results (IRB HUM00006459). Following initial biopsy, 295/1344 (21.9%) of nodules received nondiagnostic pathologic results. Of this population, 39 nodules (13.1%) were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 256 nodules that received a repeat FNA, surgical excision, or greater than 24 months of clinical and imaging follow-up, only five cancers were detected, representing only 2% of the population that received an initial nondiagnostic biopsy result. All of these cancers were papillary neoplasms. When rigorous, ultrasound-guided, fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules is performed, a nondiagnostic histopathologic result should not be interpreted as suspicious for thyroid cancer. Given the low rate of malignancy in this population (2%), we suggest that clinical and imaging follow-up of these nodules, opposed to repeat sampling, is warranted. PMID:22341051

Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L; Stephens, Tausha; Bude, Ronald O; Rubin, Jonathan M; Bailey, Janet E; Higgins, Ellen J; Fox, Giovanna A; Klein, Katherine A

2012-04-01

84

Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To assess the relative risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm in people with a diagnosis of cancer in childhood and adolescence. DESIGN--Register based follow up study. SETTING--Populations of Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--30,880 people under the age of 20 with a first malignant neoplasm diagnosed during the period 1943-87. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative and attributable risks of second malignant neoplasms by type of first cancer, age at first diagnosis, calendar period, sex...

Olsen, J. H.; Garwicz, S.; Hertz, H.; Jonmundsson, G.; Langmark, F.; Lanning, M.; Lie, S. O.; Moe, P. J.; Møller, T.; Sankila, R.

1993-01-01

85

Secondary malignant neoplasms following radiotherapy for primary cancer in children and young adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to investigate secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) occurrence following radiotherapy (RT) for cancer in children and young adults, to examine the spatial distribution of SMNs in relation to the irradiated field, and to evaluate a possible role of bystander effects in SMN distribution. Forty-two SMNs were identified among 7257 subjects diagnosed with cancer while living in Yorkshire, UK. Thirty-two of these occurred in patients receiving RT. Distances between SMN locations and RT field edge were estimated along with dose at SMN site. Expected radiation-induced SMN frequency in remote tissues receiving less than 0.1 Gy was predicted using risk estimates based on atomic bombing data. After a median follow-up period of 7.58 years, patients treated with RT were at a nearly five-fold increased risk of developing a subsequent primary neoplasm than the general population in the 0-29 years age range. The most common type of secondary malignancy associated with RT was of the central nervous system (28%), followed by sarcoma (25%) and leukemia (19%). Considering only solid SMNs developing 5 years or more from treatment, the spatial distribution showed a strong pattern of proximity to the irradiated field, with 68% occurring in-field or within 8 cm of the field edge. The SMN frequency in distant tissues receiving doses of less than 0.1 Gy was low but compatible with local absorbed dose. PMID:24087931

Harbron, Richard W; Feltbower, Richard G; Glaser, Adam; Lilley, John; Pearce, Mark S

2014-04-01

86

The value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the diagnosis of malignant bone neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the diagnosis of malignant bone neoplasms. Methods: Eighteen cases with consecutive primary malignant bone neoplasms of the knee were prospectively enrolled in the study. Each patient had a controlled preoperative MRI including a SSEPI-DWI sequence. With the help of a pathologist, spatially localized histological sampling study of the postoperative specimens was performed. ADCs of viable tumor (intra- and extraosseous part), peritumoral edema (including soft tissue edema and intramedullary edema), and tumor necrosis of the neoplasms confirmed by spatially localized histological sampling or following up were calculated and compared. Results: Mean ADCs of viable tumor, peritumoral muscle edema, peritumoral marrow edema, tumor necrosis, normal muscle, and normal marrow were (1.181 ± 0.236) x 10-3 mm2/s (intraosseous part)/(1.158 ± 0.259) x 10-3 mm2/s (extraosseous part), (2.347 ± 0.233) x 10-3 mm2/s, (1.997 ± 0.119) x 10-3 mm2/s, (2.230 ± 0.208) x 10-3 mm2/s, (0.486 ± 0.313) x 10-3 mm2/s, and (0.483 ± 0.288) x 10-3 mm2/s, respectively. Statistical differences were significant among all these tissues (F=153.131, P=0.000). The ADCs of viable tumor were higher than that of normal tissues (P<0.05) and lower than that of edematous or necrotic tissues (P<0.05). Conclusion: ADCs calculation will be a quantitative method in differentiating viable tumor from peritumoral edema , and viable tumor from tumor necrosis, thus, it may help in deciding the exact extent of the tumor and evaluating the volume of the necrotic tumor after chemotherapy. (author)

2004-11-01

87

Increased risk of colorectal malignant neoplasm in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a large study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been suggested to be a strong risk factor of colorectal benign adenomas and advanced neoplasms. The aim of this large cohort study was to further investigate the prevalence of colorectal malignant neoplasm (CRMN) in patients with NAFLD and determine whether association between NAFLD and CRMN exists. 2,315 community subjects (1,370 males and 945 females) who underwent a routine colonoscopy according to international colorectal cancer screening guideline were recruited. Nature of colorectal lesions determined by biopsy and NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the related associations. Prevalence of CRMN was 29.3 % (77/263) in patients with NAFLD, which was significantly higher than 18.0 % (369/2,052) in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, malignant neoplasm in NAFLD group occurred more frequently at sigmoid colon than in control group (14.3 vs. 11.9 %). The incidence of highly-differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma in NAFLD group was significantly higher than control group (62.3 vs. 9.8 %). Univariate analysis showed that NAFLD had strong association with CRMN (OR 2.043; 95 % CI 1.512-2.761; P < 0.05). After adjusting for metabolic and other confounding factors, NAFLD remained as an independent risk factor for CRMN (OR 1.868; 95 % CI 1.360-2.567; P < 0.05). NAFLD was an independent risk factor for CRMN. Sigmoid carcinoma and highly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma were more commonly found in NAFLD. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01657773, website: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01657773?term=zheng+minghua&rank=1 ). PMID:24449368

Lin, Xian-Feng; Shi, Ke-Qing; You, Jie; Liu, Wen-Yue; Luo, Ying-Wan; Wu, Fa-Ling; Chen, Yong-Ping; Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Yuen, Man-Fung; Zheng, Ming-Hua

2014-05-01

88

Fatores preditores de malignidade em neoplasias de células de Hurthle Predictor factors of malignancy in Hürthle cell neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: neoplasias de células de Hurthle são tumores da glândula tireóide de baixa incidência que apresentam muitas controvérsias quanto à distinção entre carcinomas e adenomas. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar fatores preditores de malignidade neste tipo específico de neoplasia. MÉTODOS: entre janeiro de 1999 e junho de 2006, 56 casos de neoplasia de células de Hurthle foram diagnosticados em nossa instituição e foram estudados retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS: trinta e sete pacientes apresentaram diagnóstico patológico de adenoma de células de Hurthle (ACH, enquanto 19 casos foram diagnosticados como carcinoma de células de Hurthle (CCH. No grupo de pacientes com adenomas a idade média foi de 47,8 anos, sendo que trinta e cinco (94% eram do sexo feminino e apenas dois (5,5% casos do sexo masculino. O tamanho médio dos adenomas foi de 2,1 cm variando de 0,3 a 6,0 cm. Entre os 19 casos de carcinomas a média de idade foi de 51,1 anos, sendo quatorze casos em mulheres (73% e cinco em homens (26,4%. O tamanho médio dos nódulos neste grupo foi de 3,8 cm, variando de 2,0 cm a 7,5 cm. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com neoplasias de células de Hurthle apresentando nódulos maiores que três centímetros, principalmente em homens, apresentam maior risco de malignidade.BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms are uncommon thyroid gland tumors that present a diagnostic challenge due to difficulties to differentiate between adenomas and carcinomas. The purpose of this study is to identify preoperative predictor factors of malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients and tumor characteristics of 56 Hürthle cell tumors cases diagnosed in our institution between January 1999 and June 2006 was done. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients presented with adenoma, 35 women (94.5% and 2 men (4.5% with average age of 47.8 years. Medium tumor size in this group was 2.1 cm (ranging from 0.3 to 6.0 cm. Nineteen patients with Hürthle cell carcinoma were found in this series with 14 (73% female and 5 male patients with average age of 51.1 years. Tumor size in this group ranged between 2.0 and 7.5 cm (medium of 3.8 cm. CONCLUSION: Patients with Hürthle cell neoplasm nodules larger than 3.0 cm, in the greatest diameter, especially in male patients, are predictor factors of having malignancy.

Carlos Augusto Fischer

2008-08-01

89

Indications and limitations of the radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. 2. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

General remarks on the topic of oncoradiology precede the discussion of the problems of special oncoradiology concerning the respiratory system, the digestive tract, the mamma, the female genitals, the male genitals, the urinary tract, the nervous system, the hematopoietic system, the non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and malignant meoplasms of the supporting apparatus, of the thyroid, of the eye including malignant exophthalmus, of the ear, and of the skin. Each chapter contains introductory notes on morphological, radiobiological, and clinical aspects followed by discussions of the results of treatment, of the planning of radiotherapeutic measures as well as of problems of the patient's follow-up care. Numerous bibliographic references conclude the individual chapters. Of interest to physicians and scientists working in the field of radiotherapy

1978-01-01

90

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

Eduardo Cambruzzi

2013-02-01

91

Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

92

Carcinoma ex microcystic adenoma of the pancreas: a report of a novel form of malignancy in serous neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are generally considered benign lesions. Malignant counterparts have been occasionally described, and the diagnosis of malignancy is based solely on the presence of synchronous or metachronous metastases to the lymph nodes or liver, direct tumor invasion into adjacent organs, or vascular invasion. However, these malignant serous cystic tumors are lined by benign-appearing glycogen-rich cuboidal cells, which have been morphologically indistinguishable from benign microcystic serous cystadenoma in all the cases reported so far. We report a unique case of microcystic serous cystadenoma giving rise to carcinoma with distinctive histologic features including signet ring-like cells and solid nests. We believe that this case represents the first case of a cytologically malignant neoplasm arising from a benign serous cystadenoma (carcinoma ex microcystic serous cystadenoma). PMID:22189969

Zhu, Hongfa; Qin, Lihui; Zhong, Minghao; Gordon, Ronald; Raoufi, Mohammad; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Schwartz, Myron; Roayaie, Sasan; Klimstra, David S

2012-02-01

93

Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck; Zlosliwe nowotwory neurogenne glowy i szyi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author) 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

1996-12-31

94

Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

Brigitte Gómez J.

2012-08-01

95

Chromosome aberration observed in children with malignant neoplasms given antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increased use of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy in the pediatric field are producing the concern about chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberration was quantitatively examined in lymphocytes from peripheral blood and marrow cells. Forty one children with malignant neoplasms were classified into 2 groups, chemotherapy group (group Ch) and combined use group of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (group Ch + R). Blood samples were collected regularly 5 times at 6 month intervals. The results demonstrated significant difference in the incidence of aneupoid and structural abnormality of chromosomes compared with control or pretreatment samples, and showed a tendency to accumulate structural abnormality, especially in the peripheral blood. Influence of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy was suspected. The incidences of abnormality in the peripheral blood and that of the marrow were not in good accordance, varying depending upon the disease or the therapy. (Ueda, J.)

1981-01-01

96

Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

2007-01-01

97

Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

2006-05-15

98

Differentiation between Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid Nodules Using an US Classification System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new ultrasound (US) classification system for differentiating between benign and malignant solid thyroid nodules. In this study, we enrolled 191 consecutive patients who received real-time US and subsequent US diagnoses for solid thyroid nodules, and underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration. Each thyroid nodule was prospectively classified into 1 of 5 diagnostic categories by real-time US: 'malignant,' 'suspicious for malignancy,' 'borderline,' 'probably benign,' and 'benign'. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US and the cut-off US criteria by comparing the US diagnoses of thyroid nodules with cytopathologic results. Of the 191 solid nodules, 103 were subjected to thyroid surgery. US categories for these 191 nodules were malignant (n = 52), suspicious for malignancy (n = 16), borderline (n = 23), probably benign (n 18), and benign (n = 82). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the US diagnosis for solid thyroid nodules using the 5-category US classification system was very good. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of US diagnosis were 86%, 95%, 91%, 92%, and 92%, respectively, when benign, probably benign, and borderline categories were collectively classified as benign (negative). The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid US for solid thyroid nodules is high when the above-mentioned US classification system is applied.

Lee, Young Hun; Kim, Dong Wook; In, Hyun Sin; Park, Ji Sung; Kim, Sang Hyo; Eom, Jae Wook; Kim, Bomi [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Joo [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15

99

Imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel: new trends and perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the recent advances in radiological imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel and provides an outline of new trends and perspectives that can be anticipated. The introduction of multidetector row technology, which allows the acquisition of submillimeter and isotropic voxels, has dramatically improved the capabilities of computed tomography in the investigation of the mesenteric small bowel. This technology combined with optimal filling of small bowel loops through the use of appropriate enteral contrast agents has markedly changed small bowel imaging. Computed tomography-enteroclysis, which is based on direct infusion of enteral contrast agent into the mesenteric small bowel through a naso-jejunal tube, provides optimal luminal distension. By contrast, computed tomography-enterography is based on oral administration of enteral contrast agent. These two techniques are now well-established ones for the detection and the characterization of small bowel neoplasms. During the same time, combining the advantages of unsurpassed soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging has gained wide acceptance for the evaluation of patients with suspected small bowel neoplasms. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging sequences used in combination with specific enteral contrast agents generate superb images of the mesenteric small bowel so that magnetic resonance-enteroclysis and magnetic resonance-enterography are now considered as effective diagnostic tools for both the detection and the characterization of neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel. Recent improvements in image post-processing capabilities help obtain realistic three-dimensional representations of tumors and virtual enteroscopic views of the small bowel that are useful for the surgeon and the gastroenteroenteologist to plan surgical or endoscopic interventions. Along with a better knowledge of the potential and limitations of wireless capsule endoscopy and new endoscopic techniques, these recent developments in radiological imaging reasonably suggest that substantial changes in the investigation of small bowel tumors may be anticipated in a near future, thus potentially create a new paradigm shift after standard small bowel follow-through study has been universally abandoned. PMID:21035353

Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Fishman, Elliot K; Hoeffel, Christine; Dray, Xavier; Manfredi, Riccardo; Marteau, Philippe

2011-10-01

100

Induction of thyroid neoplasm following plant medicine marine algae (sargassum): a rare case and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study induction of neoplasm in thyroid gland of one postoperative patient with breast cancer was conducted by marine algae (also seaweed, sargassum), which is presented here. A 41-year-old women was diagnosed as her right breast cancer complicated with lymph node metastasis in her right axilla on February, 1999. In June 19, 1999 she was given the combination chemotherapy of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, 5-Fluorouracil and cinobufacini drugs due to two lymph nodes on her right superclavicular following radical mastectomy. During chemotherapy she was also taken the adjuvant treatment of traditional medicine. Traditional medicine consisted of seaweed plant drugs (containing iodine 362,400 ug/kg). As to intermittent maintance treatment the total dosage of seaweed herb was at least exceeded 500 gram. Induction of thyroid tumor (thumb size) was found in June, 2001. A thyroidectomy due to thyroma was successfully performed. Histologically there revealed thyroid tissue without the evidence of metastasis of breast cancer. She had a 5-year survivor. The data indicated oncogenic function of some traditional herbs, and further experience of traditional medicine in treating thyroid disease especially in thyroid cancer. PMID:24433506

Zhu, George; Musumeci, Fabio; Byrne, Peter

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparison of Na+/I- symporter expression rate in malignant and benign thyroid diseases: immunohistochemical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have not showed consistent results for the level of expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid diseases, especially malignant tumor. We undertook this study to evaluate the distribution of NIS expression in malignant thyroid diseases and compare with that in benign thyoid disease. Total patients were 119 cases (Men 15, 48±13 yrs). Total number of samples were 205 pieces. In malignant thyroid disease, there were 153 samples: 90 in papillary carcinoma, 4 in follicular carcinoma, 2 in medullary carcinoma and 57 in metastatic lymph node. In benign thyroid disease, there were 52 samples: 36 in goiter/cyst, 11 in thyroiditis and 5 in follicular adenoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we probed 205 samples with monoclonal anti-NIS Ab. Grading of staining was scored as 0 (negative or absent), 1 (weakly positive), 2 (moderately positive) or 3 (strongly positive). Expression rate (ER) of NIS positivity in individual disease entity was expressed as percentage of total number divided by number in 2 plus 3 grade. ERs of malignant thyroid diseases were 63% in papillary carcinoma, 81% in metastatic lymph node, 71% in follicular carcinoma and 100% in medullary carcinoma. ERs of benign thyroid disease were 53% in goiter/cyst, 64% in thyroiditis and 40% in follicular adenoma. ER of benign thyroid deceases was higher than benign thyroid diseases (71% vs 54%). Grading of NIS expression in papillary carcinoma or goiter/cyst was heterogeneously distributed in considerable cases. Normal tissue also showed heterogeneous distribution or NIS expression, which was not correlated with that of primary lesion. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, distribution of NIS expression was heterogeneous and increased, and not different compared with that of benign thyroid disease

2006-02-01

102

The Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration at Identifying Thyroid Malignancy in Tayside  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid lumps are common with as much as 8% of the adult population having a palpable lump and up to 70% having an incidental nodule found on ultrasound. Although most thyroid nodules are benign, a significant number are malignant and therefore need to be investigated thoroughly using fine needle aspiration +/? ultrasound.

Rachael Allan

2012-02-01

103

Early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of the patients with thyroid malignancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Aim of the paper was to give a reviw of an early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of patients with thyroid malignancy (TM). The paper presented the algorithm of early diagnosis: clinical, scintigraphic and ultrasonographic examination together with fine needle biopsy, cythologic analysis of the smear and biopsy ex tempore of the clear and suspected thyroid node to malignancy. Therapy of all TM forms was mainly surgical; postsurgical treatment was dependent on the type of ma...

Maleševi? Milica ?.; Mihailovi? Jasna; Voji?i? Jelena V.; Popadi? Silvija M.

2003-01-01

104

Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells. The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer. We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CBX7 expression progressively decreased with malignancy grade and neoplasia stage. Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas. This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis. CBX7 loss of heterozygosity occurred in 36.8% of PTC and in 68.7% of ATC. Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells. In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients. PMID:18701502

Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Federico, Antonella; Berlingieri, Maria Teresa; Bianco, Mimma; Ferraro, Angelo; Forzati, Floriana; Iaccarino, Antonino; Russo, Maria; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Leone, Vincenza; Sacchetti, Silvana; Troncone, Giancarlo; Santoro, Massimo; Fusco, Alfredo

2008-08-15

105

Galectin-3 promotes chronic activation of K-Ras and differentiation block in malignant thyroid carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are deadly tumors that are highly invasive, particularly into the bones. Although oncogenic Ras can transform thyroid cells into a severely malignant phenotype, thyroid carcinomas do not usually harbor ras gene mutations. Therefore, it is not known whether chronically active Ras contributes to thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation, although galectin-3 (Gal-3), which is strongly expressed in thyroid carcinomas but not in benign tumors or normal glands, is known to act as a K-Ras chaperone that stabilizes and drives K-Ras.GTP nanoclustering and signal robustness. Here, we examined the possibility that thyroid carcinomas expressing high levels of Gal-3 exhibit chronically active K-Ras. Using cell lines representing three types of malignant thyroid tumors--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic--we investigated the possible correlation between Gal-3 expression and active Ras content, and then examined the therapeutic potential of the Ras inhibitor S-trans, trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS; Salirasib) for thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid carcinoma cells strongly expressing Gal-3 showed high levels of K-Ras.GTP expression, and K-Ras.GTP transmitted strong signals to extracellular signal-regulated kinase. FTS disrupted interactions between Gal-3 and K.Ras, strongly reduced K-Ras.GTP and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and enhanced the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 as well as of the thyroid transcription factor 1, which is involved in thyroid cell differentiation. FTS also inhibited anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in nude mice. We conclude that wild-type K-Ras.GTP in association with Gal-3 contributes to thyroid carcinoma malignancy and that Ras inhibition might be a useful treatment strategy against these deadly tumors. PMID:20682656

Levy, Ran; Grafi-Cohen, Meital; Kraiem, Zaki; Kloog, Yoel

2010-08-01

106

Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia [2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)]. Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author)

1985-01-01

107

Risk of second malignant neoplasm following proton versus intensity-modulated photon radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most common cancer in the world, is a global health concern. Radiotherapy for HCC is uncommon, largely because of the likelihood of radiation-induced liver disease, an acute side effect that is often fatal. Proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer HCC patients a better option for treating the diseased liver tissue while largely sparing the surrounding tissues, especially the non-tumor liver. However, even advanced radiotherapies carry a risk of late effects, including second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unclear whether PBT or IMRT confers less risk of an SMN than the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risk of developing an SMN for a patient with HCC between PBT and IMRT. For both treatments, radiation doses in organs and tissues from primary radiation were determined using a treatment planning system; doses in organs and tissues from stray radiation from PBT were determined using Monte Carlo simulations and from IMRT using thermo-luminescent dosimeter measurements. Risk models of SMN incidence were taken from the literature. The predicted absolute lifetime attributable risks of SMN incidence were 11.4% after PBT and 19.2% after IMRT. The results of this study suggest that using proton beams instead of photon beams for radiotherapy may reduce the risk of SMN incidence for some HCC patients.

Taddei, Phillip J.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Krishnan, Sunil; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

2010-12-01

108

Specific Detection of CD56 (NCAM) Isoforms for the Identification of Aggressive Malignant Neoplasms with Progressive Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alternative splicing of transcripts from many cancer-associated genes is believed to play a major role in carcinogenesis as well as in tumor progression. Alternative splicing of one such gene, the neural cell adhesion molecule CD56 (NCAM), impacts the progression, inadequate therapeutic response, and reduced total survival of patients who suffer from numerous malignant neoplasms. Although previous investigations have determined that CD56 exists in three major isoforms (CD56120kD, CD56140kD, a...

Gattenlo?hner, Stefan; Stu?hmer, Thorsten; Leich, Ellen; Reinhard, Matthias; Etschmann, Benjamin; Vo?lker, Hans-ulrich; Rosenwald, Andreas; Serfling, Edgar; Christian Bargou, Ralf; Ertl, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Mu?ller-hermelink, Hans-konrad

2009-01-01

109

Assessment of enzymatic activity of salinary glands in comprehensive radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms of head and neck  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in the course of combined radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumour localization in the head and neck increase in the activity of alpha-amylase of saliva and decrease in enzymatic activity, depending on the absorbed isoeffective dose, take place. Suppression of enzymatic activity of saliva was more clearly pronounced in the patients subjected to neutron radiation, than those subjected to the standard conditions of gamma-therapy. Indices of saliva enzymatic activity in the process of combined radiotherapy were used as criterion of tolerance of salinary glands in the patients with malignant neoplasms in the head and neck. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

1992-06-16

110

Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

Basu S

2005-01-01

111

More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

2014-06-11

112

Thyroid suppression and medical ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Patients with thyroid cancer benefit from treatment with exogenous thyroid hormone for two reasons: it provides adequate levels of thyroid hormone to peripheral tissues, and it reduces the level of thyrotropin, which may be an important growth factor in patients with differentiated malignant neoplasms. The use of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer is highly controversial. Its most appropriate applications are in follicular cancers, in older patients, and in distant functioning metastases. Its value in papillary cancer is questionable, particularly in young patients. There is a great need for effective basic and clinical research on the natural course of differentiated thyroid cancer and the effects of specific therapies

1986-01-01

113

Dose to the site of second malignant neoplasms development after radiotherapy among patients treated in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: In spite of the improvements in treatment techniques, radiotherapy always involves unwanted irradiation of healthy organs and tissues. Our aim was to quantify the dose to the site of the second malignant neoplasm (S.M.N.) development. The study focused on 155 patients with S.M.N. among a cohort of 4,581 individuals, at least 2-year survivors, treated between 1942 and 1986, for a solid cancer during childhood in 8 centres in France and Great Britain. The software package Dos-EG was used to estimate the radiation doses. Concepts introduced by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements about the volumes were used to specify relative doses. Thus, we were able to determine the relative position of S.M.N. development with respect to the target volume. About 25% of S.M.N. occurred in sites where the estimated radiation dose was lower than 0.9 Gy and 35 % in sites where doses were lower than 5 Gy. The median dose to the site of origin of S.M.N. was about 12.9 Gy (range: 0 -73 Gy). Among all cases, 19.13 % occurred within the treated volume enclosed in the 95 % isodose surface, 25.22 % within the irradiated volume between the 95% and 50 % isodose surfaces, 35.65 % in the penumbra region between the 50 % and 20 % isodose surfaces, and 20.00 % were beyond the penumbra region. With the introduction of sophisticated treatment techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, both treated volume and irradiated volume are reduced but the volume receiving low doses is substantially enlarged. This study showed that a notable fraction of S.M.N. occurred in regions where the dose received is lower than 5 Gy. These results should be considered when assessing whether the benefit of the treatment is higher than the risk. (authors)

2006-05-15

114

Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p < 0.05). The pattern of vascularity as determined by PDUS analysis was not a statistically significant criterion to suggest benign or malignant disease in this study (p > 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

Algin, Oktay [Ataturk Training and Research Hospital Bilkent, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Algin, Efnan [Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Gokalp, Gokhan; Ocakog, Gokhan; Erdog an, Cuneyt; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Ercan Tuncel, Prof [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa (Turkmenistan)

2010-12-15

115

Canine cutaneous neoplasms: prevalence and influence of age, sex and site on the presence and potential malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in dogs from Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Histopathological examination was performed on cutaneous biopsies from 900 dogs with skin lesions from Zimbabwe, collected from 1996 to 2000. Clinical data were collected from medical records. Sixty per cent (540/900 of the cases were tumours and 40% (360/900 were non-neoplastic inflammatory or degenerative diseases. Thirty different histological types of tumour were diagnosed. The prevalence of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphohistiocytic and melanocytic tumours was 39.4 %, 44.4 %, 7.4 % and 8.7 %, respectively. The 10 most common tumours, comprising 73.7% of all cutaneous neoplasms, were mast cell tumours, squamous cell carcinomas, perianal gland adenomas, lymphomas, benign melanomas, haemangiosarcomas, sebaceous gland adenomas, fibrosarcomas, lipomas and malignant melanomas. The prevalence of various neoplasms, age of affected dogs and sites of occurrence were similar to surveys in other countries, except that in Zimbabwe there was a greater prevalence of lymphomas and of tumours associated with increased exposure to ultraviolet light (squamous cell carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas and melanomas. For all classes of tumours the sex of the dog did not have any significant influence on the likelihood of developing a tumour. For a dog diagnosed with a tumour located on the trunk, the tumour was significantly more likely to be an epithelial tumour than a non-epithelial tumour. The occurrence of melanocytic tumours on the trunk was significantly lower than at other sites. Lymphohistiocytic tumours were 10 times more likely to occur at multiple locations as opposed to single locations.

S. Mukaratirwa

2012-06-01

116

Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

2006-04-01

117

The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

2010-02-01

118

Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

1996-12-01

119

Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of "1"3"1I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

1980-01-01

120

Pattern of thyroid malignancy at a University Hospital in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim is to study the incidence of thyroid cancer in surgically treated nodular thyroid disease, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment results. A retrospective review of 45 patients with thyroid malignancy at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a 3-years period between January 2000 through to December 2003 was carried out. Analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, outcome of surgery and radioiodine treatment. A total of 120 thyroidectomies were performed during the 3-years period, January 2000 through to December 2003 at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital. Forty-five (37.5%) patients had histopathology confirmed diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Eighty-two point two percent cases of papillary carcinoma, 4.4% follicular type and 6.7% anaplastic and medullary carcinoma of thyroid. Mean age was 40.5 +/- 14.8 years. Male preponderance was seen in this study with males: females ratio is 1.1:1. Nodular goiter was the most frequent presentation, observed in 30 (66.7%) cases. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of malignancy in 76% of cases. Ninety-seven patients with papillary carcinoma received ablative dose of radioiodine with average dose of 100-200 mCi. One female patient with follicular carcinoma of thyroid with bone, lung, and brain metastases received 4 doses of radioiodine with total dose of 800 mCi. Mortality rate was (2.2%), one patient died of complication of invasive anaplastic carcinoma with invasion of the trachea. There is a lot of controversy regarding thyroid malignancy investigations and management. We recommend that thyroid cancer patients should be treated by a team of endocrinologist, pathologist, experience thyroid surgeon, nuclear medicine and external radiotherapy physician to achieve an optimum care and good prognosis. (author)

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

An antibody-like peptide that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an urgent need for biomarkers to identify malignant thyroid nodules from indeterminate follicular lesions. We have used a subtractive proteomic strategy to identify novel biomarkers by selecting ligands to goiter tissue from a 12-mer random peptide phage-displayed library using the BRASIL method (Biopanning and Rapid Analysis of Selective Interactive Ligands). After three rounds of selection, two highly reactive clones to the papillary thyroid tumor cell line NPA were further evaluated, and their specific binding to tumor proteins was confirmed using phage-ELISA. The antibody-like peptide CaT12 was tumor-specific, which was further tested by immunohistochemistry against TMAs (tissue microarrays) comprised of 775 human benign and malignant tissues, including 232 thyroid nodular lesions: 15 normal thyroid tissues, 53 nodular goiters (NG), 54 follicular adenomas (FA); 69 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); and 41 follicular carcinomas (FC). CaT12 was able to identify PTC among thyroid nodular lesions with 91.2% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity, despite its non-specificity for thyroid tissues. Additionally, the CaT12 peptide helped characterize follicular lesions distinguishing the follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) from FA with 91.9% accuracy; FVPTC from NG with 83.1% accuracy; FVPTC from the classic PTC with 57.7% accuracy; and FVPTC from FC with 88.7% accuracy. In conclusion, our strategy to select differentially expressed ligands to thyroid tissue was highly effective and resulted in a useful antibody-like biomarker that recognizes malignancy among thyroid nodules and may help distinguish follicular patterned lesions. PMID:23462224

Reis, Carolina Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Paula; Vieira, Carlos Ueira; Fujimura, Patrícia Tiemi; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Silva, Sindeval José da; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Ward, Laura Sterian

2013-07-28

122

Significance of ultrasound features in predicting malignant solid thyroid nodules: Need for fine-needle aspiration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to provide sonographic and colour flow criteria helpful for differentiation between benign and malignant solid thyroid nodules. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi Pakistan from 01.05.07 to 31.12.08. Sonographic scans of 78 thyroid nodules in 66 patients were performed and characteristics of thyroid nodules that were studied included microcalcifications, an irregular or microlobulated margins, marked hypoechogenicity, a shape that was taller than it was wide and color flow pattern in Color Doppler ultrasound. The presence and absence of characteristics of nodules were classified as having positive or negative findings. If even one of these sonographic features was present, the nodule was classified as positive (malignant). If a nodule had none of the features described, it was classified as negative (benign). The final diagnosis of a lesion as benign (n = 53) or malignant (n = 25) was confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy, and patients who were proved to have benign lesions were followed-up for 6 months and malignant lesions which were proved on histopathology after FNA were subjected to surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were then calculated on the basis of our proposed classification method. Results: Among 78 solid thyroid nodules 35 lesions were classified as positive considering the sonographic characteristics and 23 of them were proved to be malignant on histopathology. Out of 43 lesions which were classified as negative, 2 were proved to be malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy based on our sonographic classification method were 93.8%, 66%, 56.1%, 95.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasound is valuable for identifying many malignant or potentially malignant thyroid nodules. No single ultrasound criterion is reliable in differentiating all benign from malignant thyroid nodules, but many US features aid in predicting the benign or malignant nature of a given nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as positive, regardless of palpability. (author)

2010-10-01

123

Local radiation dose and solid second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer in Germany: a nested case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with the development of solid second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of cumulative doses of previous RT received at the SMN body region, at all other body regions and at body regions adjacent to the SMN, on the risk of developing a solid SMN. A total of 190 cases diagnosed with a solid second malignant neoplasm in 1980-2002 were matched with 368 controls with single neoplasm from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR) (33,809 patients at cut-off date). The GCCR registers approximately 97 % of all childhood malignancies which occur at an age of less than 15 years in Germany since 1980. It was found that 147 (77.4 %) cases had received RT compared to 208 (56.6 %) controls with cumulative focus doses from 8 to 110 Gy. Fifty per cent of the SMNs and 60 % of RT affected the head region. RT was shown to increase the risk of a solid second tumour within the body region of radiation by 5.3 % per Gy (odds ratio 1.053; 95 % confidence interval 1.036-1.071). With increasing age at diagnosis and with more recent treatment eras, this effect decreased. Cumulative RT doses received at all other body regions or only at body regions adjacent to the SMN did not show an additional effect on the risk of developing an SMN. It is thus concluded that RT is the main risk factor for the development of SMNs within the irradiated body region. Late effects surveillance of former patients should give special attention to the originally irradiated parts of the body. PMID:24859016

Hennewig, Ulrike; Kaatsch, Peter; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

2014-08-01

124

Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid after 131I therapy for thyrotoxicosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 69 year old female presented with a cervical mass of eight months. After operation and histological examination the mass was primary malignant lymphoma in the thyroid. She received radiation therapy after total thyroidectomy and now she is free from any distress. The patient had been subjected to radioiodine therapy (131I) for thyrotoxicosis 18 years prior to her present illness. The possible role of the 131I treatment in the development of the malignant lymphoma is discussed. (auth.)

1976-01-01

125

[Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas--a rare malignant tumor of pancreas].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper presents two cases of solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas (SPENP)--a rare pancreatic neoplasm in a 45-year-old woman admitted to the hospital with the diagnosis of pancreatic tail tumor and 22-year-old woman with the diagnosis of pancreatic head tumor. First patient was subjected to peripheral pancreatic resection; the second patient was subjected to Whipple pancreatoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination confirmed SPENP. The authors present cases and review of the literature on SPENP. PMID:16786800

Solecki, Rafa?; Kedra, Bogdan; Czupryna, Antoni; Nowak, Krystyna

2005-01-01

126

Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical and Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS)[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and needle biopsy under ultrasonography. This was followed by surgical removal of the thyroid, and each case the malignancy was confirmed. These findings would suggest that 6% of the ME/CFS patients seen, or 6,000 cases per 100,000, had a confirmed thyroid malignancy. Unfortunately, these figures may be conservative since we are in the process of obtaining needle biopsies on six further cases of these first 100 patients. In addition, we have not yet performed thyroid ultrasound on all 100 cases. We are in the process of further investigation of those patients who had not yet been investigated by thyroid ultrasound. Previously, it has been noted that the increased incidence of thyroid malignancy in the general population is only associated with increased radiation exposure. Patients presenting with symptoms of ME/CFS or Fibromyalgia may have significant higher thyroid malignancy incidence. NeuroSPECT was performed with the radiopharmaceutical NeuroliteTM and processed with the software Neurogam by Segami Corp.( Maryland USA.) (au)

2007-10-01

127

Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical & Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a thyroid malignancy, (b persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT, (c failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed.Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000, In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS, I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and needle biopsy under ultrasonography. This was followed by surgical removal of the thyroid, and each case the malignancy was confirmed. These findings would suggest that 6% of the ME/CFS patients seen, or 6,000 cases per 100,000, had a confirmed thyroid malignancy. Unfortunately, these figures may be conservative since we are in the process of obtaining needle biopsies on six further cases of these first 100 patients. In addition, we have not yet performed thyroid ultrasound on all 100 cases. We are in the process of further investigation of those patients who had not yet been investigated by thyroid ultrasound.Previously, it has been noted that the increased incidence of thyroid malignancy in the general population is only associated with increased radiation exposure. Patients presenting with symptoms of ME/CFS or Fibromyalgia may have significant higher thyroid malignancy incidence.NeuroSPECT was performed with the radiopharmaceutical NeuroliteTM and processed with the software Neurogam by Segami Corp.( Maryland USA.

Tracy, Green

2007-10-01

128

Thyroid carcinoma after treatment for malignancies in childhood and adolescence: from diagnosis through follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

With improvements in the survival rates after childhood cancer, many clinicians have turned their attention to reporting on late effects, and how they might be prevented or treated. In childhood the thyroid gland is especially vulnerable to the carcinogenic action of ionizing radiation. This retrospective study focused on secondary thyroid cancers seen at our institution over more than 30 years (between 1980 and 2012) in patients treated for other malignancies in pediatric age. 36 patients were identified. In most cases, the primary cancer had been Hodgkin disease, and all the patients had been administered radiotherapy for their first malignancy. The secondary thyroid cancers were treated with total thyroidectomy in 27 cases (six with lymphadenectomy), and hemithyroidectomy in nine (one with lymphadenectomy). 12 Patients were also given radiometabolic therapy. All but two had TSH suppression therapy. The histological diagnoses were: 31 papillary and five follicular carcinomas. At 5 and 10 years, the OS was 100 and 95 %, respectively, and the PFS was 96 and 83 %. None of the patients died of their thyroid disease. Nodal involvement at onset was the only factor correlating with recurrence. Surgical sequelae only occurred in patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. Survival in these patients did not depend on the extent of surgery on the thyroid parenchyma. Our data confirm a good prognosis for secondary thyroid cancer, prompting us to encourage a minimalist approach to the treatment of these particular patients wherever possible. PMID:25015396

Podda, Marta Giorgia; Terenziani, Monica; Gandola, Lorenza; Collini, Paola; Pizzi, Natalia; Marchianò, Alfonso; Morosi, Carlo; Luksch, Roberto; Ferrari, Andrea; Casanova, Michela; Spreafico, Filippo; Polastri, Daniela; Meazza, Cristina; Catania, Serena; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Biassoni, Veronica; Massimino, Maura

2014-08-01

129

Retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with cytostatic drugs and Co60 because of genital malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of application of cytostatic drugs and telegammatherapy (Co60) was tested by means of cutaneous hyperactivity reactions in 89 women treated because of malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. The skin tests with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivate (PPD) were used. The group 1 constituted of 36 women treated with cytostatic drugs through a period of 7 months to 4 years. The appearance of retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. In cases of improvement of the clinical state the skin reactions were more intensive, when the disease progreded the reactions became weak or disappeared. When the clinical state remained unchanged - the same was true with the skin reactions. In the group 253 women were treated by means of irradiation (Co60) because of similar diagnosis of malignant genital neoplasm. In all cases a regression of the retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD was observed, together with a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the peripheric blood. Correlation of the individual skin reactions to DNCB and PPD demonstrated that the latter gave a smaller percent of positive reactions in comparison with the former agent, these reactions were also less sensitive. (author)

1978-01-01

130

Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential of the urinary bladder: clinicopathologic and outcome analysis from a single academic center.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few long-term single-center studies have addressed the outcome of patients with papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential. Our study evaluates the behavior of these tumors occurring as primary urinary bladder lesions. For this purpose, 34 primary in-house cases diagnosed and treated between 1998 and 2008 were identified from our medical records. Upon review, 3 cases were upgraded to noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinomas and excluded from further evaluation. During follow-up (range, 3-108 months; mean, 42 months), 13 patients developed recurrences; and 9 patients progressed to a noninvasive higher grade lesion (8 to low-grade and 1 to high-grade urothelial carcinomas). None of our patients developed stage progression (>pTa) or died of bladder cancer. Size of the primary tumor was associated with the risk of recurrence (P = .043), whereas the number of episodes of recurrence was associated with the likelihood of grade progression (P = .034). In conclusion, recurrences were observed in 42% of all our patients, with a grade progression rate of 29%. None of our patients developed invasive carcinoma or died as a consequence of their disease. Considering the low but definitive risk of recurrence and grade progression, appropriate clinical follow-up of patients with primary papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential is warranted. PMID:21777949

Lee, Thomas K; Chaux, Alcides; Karram, Sarah; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Miller, Jeremy S; Fajardo, Daniel A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J

2011-11-01

131

Benign vs malignant soft tissue neoplasms: Limitations of magnetic resonance imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Various features have been described in the literature to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. The aim of the present study was to study the accuracy of each of these features and that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients presenting with neoplastic (both benign and malignant) lesions diagnosed clinically and on ultrasound were studied and their MRI features were compared with ...

Sen J; Agarwal S; Singh S; Sen R; Goel S

2010-01-01

132

Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

1988-01-01

133

Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoid Malignancies: The Expanding Spectrum of Hematopoietic Neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects not only B cells but also T and NK cells, and is associated with various lymphoid malignancies. The spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies is expanding from Burkitt lymphoma to the newly defined systemic EBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma. However, some EBV-associated malignancies are not defined well and overlap other diseases. Furthermore, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of lymphoid malignancies is still not clear. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies for a better classification of each disease and for the establishment of effective treatment.

JUN-ICHI KAWADA

2013-08-01

134

"MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the ...

Mokhtari, M.; Sadeghi, M.; Talebi, A.

2005-01-01

135

An Unusual Presentation of a Thyroid Malignancy: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patient with thyroid mass rarely presents in emergency situation. It is because the nature of the mass is that it usually increases slowly in size. Thus, any surgical intervention can be planned electively. The most common condition that necessitates urgent intervention, is upper airway compromise due to sudden rapid increase in size of the swelling. This can be due to intralesional bleeding or superimposed infection on the enlarged gland. We report a case of urgent completion thyroidectomy p...

2010-01-01

136

Integral Analysis of Blood Plasma Biochemical Parameters as an Optimizing Diagnostic Technique of Epithelial Tissue Malignant Neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the interaction of tumor marker level, the indices of protein and mineral metabolism, free radical oxidation in blood plasma and the tumor-forming stage in malignant processes in epithelial tissues. Materials and Methods. Blood plasma of 73 patients with epithelial tissue malignant neoplasms and 31 apparently healthy people were studied. Blood plasma biochemical parameters were assessed using the analyzers: free-radical activity — by induced biochemiluminescence; oxidative protein modification — by the level of carbonyl derivatives; elemental analysis — using atomic emission spectrometry. Results. Low diagnostic value of the determination of oncomarkers at early stage of the studied oncological diseases was shown. We observed the change of blood plasma biochemical parameters at early carcinogenesis stage: the albumin level reduction and the concentration increase of urea, alpha1- and gamma-globulin fractions. Cancer patients were found to have impaired element homeostasis: Na, Fe, Cu, Li level decrease, K, P, Sr increase. We revealed the activation of free-radical oxidation and oxidative protein modification, the correlation of the intensity of these processes with the content of some elements in blood plasma. Integral analysis of blood plasma biochemical parameters increases diagnostic value of the determination of tumor markers in the detection of malignant tumors of epithelial tissues.

?.I. Erlykina

2013-08-01

137

Malignant thyroid tumours. Diagnosis, therapy, aftercare. Schilddruesenmalignome. Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subjects dealt with at the symposium cover all topical aspects of pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy, and aftercare of the malignant thyroid tumours. A survey of the histological classification of the thyroid tumours and a review of the latest findings concerning the radiocarcinogenesis are followed by a detailed discussion of the most significant tumours. There are also papers dealing with controversial aspects of the histological classification, the value of diagnostic methods, radicality of the therapy, or after care. For five conference papers, separate records are available in the database. (orig./ECB) With 59 figs.; 57 tabs.

Boerner, W.; Reiners, C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

138

Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of thyroid neoplasms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In order to test the possibility of association between GSTT1 and M1 (glutathione S-transferase null allele variant, in which the entire gene is absent, and the risk of TCO (thyroid carcinoma with cell oxyphilia, the case-control study was carried out. Methods: Genotypes for GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined by multiplex PCR in the DNA from 108 healthy individuals and in DNA from samples of thyroid tumors from 130 patients of the same race and origin as the control group (Caucasian, Italian. The following types of NMTC were analyzed: oxyphilic adenoma (OA, oxyphilic carcinoma (OC papillary thyroid carcinoma with oxyphilic features (PTCof, follicular adenoma (FA, follicular carcinoma (FC, follicular variant of PTC (fvPTC and classical PTC. Associations between prevalence of particular genotypes and the occurrence of TCO (versus controls and other subtypes of NMTC were tested. Associations were quantified by calculating OR (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. StatGraphics Plus v. 5 software (Manugistics was used for statistical analysis. Results: In this study of the association between the GSTT1 and M1 null genotype and the increased risk of TCO, the frequency of GSTT1 null genotype of 19.2% in cases and 15.7% in controls was found with an adjusted odds ratio (OR of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-2.81, and the frequency of GSTM1 null genotype of 59% in cases with oxyphilic tumors and of 55.6% in controls (OR 1.24; 95% CI, 0.62-2.48. Conclusion: These results indicate that the GSTT1 and M1 null genotypes do not increase the risk of development of oxyphilic tumors, as well as other types of NMTC that have been included in this study.

Stankov Karmen

2003-01-01

139

Characteristic Dynamic Enhancement Pattern of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Malignant Thyroid Tumor: A Preliminary Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic dynamic enhancement pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for malignant thyroid tumor. Eight patients who were pathology proven to have a malignant thyroid tumor, preoperatively. There are 5 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 1 fine needle aspiration biopsy proven atypical cell. Based on preoperative MR imaging, we compared the dynamic MR enhancement pattern relating to the pathologic type. On contrast agent-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted image (T1WI), 5 papillary carcinoma and one medullary carcinoma showed delayed enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. In addition, one follicular carcinoma shows stronger enhancement than normal parenchyma, with one papillary carcinoma showing a persistent decrease in enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. Although this study is limited by a small patients population, the data suggests that delayed enhancement on enhanced dynamic T1WI is a possible characteristic MR finding of a malignant thyroid tumor. I think that the comparison of MR imaging between benign and malignant nodules is required for a correct characterization.

2011-11-01

140

Characteristic Dynamic Enhancement Pattern of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Malignant Thyroid Tumor: A Preliminary Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic dynamic enhancement pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for malignant thyroid tumor. Eight patients who were pathology proven to have a malignant thyroid tumor, preoperatively. There are 5 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 1 fine needle aspiration biopsy proven atypical cell. Based on preoperative MR imaging, we compared the dynamic MR enhancement pattern relating to the pathologic type. On contrast agent-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted image (T1WI), 5 papillary carcinoma and one medullary carcinoma showed delayed enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. In addition, one follicular carcinoma shows stronger enhancement than normal parenchyma, with one papillary carcinoma showing a persistent decrease in enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. Although this study is limited by a small patients population, the data suggests that delayed enhancement on enhanced dynamic T1WI is a possible characteristic MR finding of a malignant thyroid tumor. I think that the comparison of MR imaging between benign and malignant nodules is required for a correct characterization.

Park, Young Nam; Hwang, Hee Young; Shim, Young Sup; Byun, Sung Su; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gachon University College of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
141

[Synchronous malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas requiring left hepatectomy and total pancreatectomy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN-P) have striking similarities and are recognized as counterparts. However, simultaneous occurrence of IPMN-B and IPMN-P is extremely rare. A 66 year-old female presented with recurrent epigastric pain and fever. During the past 9 years, she had three clinical episodes related to intrahepatic duct stones and IPMN-P in the pancreas head and was managed by medical treatment. Laboratory test results at admission revealed leukocytosis (12,600/mm(3)) and elevated CA 19-9 level (1,200 U/mL). Imaging study demonstrated liver abscess in the Couinaud's segment 4, IPMN-B in the left lobe, and IPMN-P in the whole pancreas with suspicious malignant change. Liver abscess was drained preoperatively, followed by left lobectomy with bile duct resection and total pancreatectomy with splenectomy. On histologic examination, non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma arising from various degree of dysplastic mucosa of the liver and pancreas could be observed. However, there was no continuity between the hepatic and pancreatic lesions. This finding in our case supports the theory that double primary lesions are more likely explained by a diffuse IPMN leading to synchronous tumors arising from both biliary and pancreatic ducts rather than by a metastatic process. Herein we present a case of simultaneous IPMN of the bile duct and pancreas which was successfully treated by surgical management. PMID:24561701

Moon, Deok-Bog; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Park, Yo-Han; Park, Hyung-Woo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Koo; Yu, Eun-Sil; Kim, Ji-Hoon

2014-02-01

142

Non-traumatic myositis ossificans mimicking a malignant neoplasm in an 83-year-old woman: a case report  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Myositis ossificans is a benign, self-limiting condition that usually affects young, athletically active men. To the best of our knowledge, this case report describes the oldest recorded patient with myositis ossificans. Case presentation Our patient was an 83-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a one week history of a palpable mass in the left thigh. She had a history of surgery for transverse colon cancer and lung cancer at the ages of 73 and 80, respectively. Clinical and radiological examinations suggested a malignant neoplasm such as metastatic carcinoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by core needle biopsy. Our patient was asymptomatic and had no recurrence at one year follow-up. Conclusion Clinicians should consider myositis ossificans as a possible diagnosis for a soft tissue mass in the limb of an older patient, thereby avoiding unnecessarily aggressive therapy.

2010-01-01

143

Non-traumatic myositis ossificans mimicking a malignant neoplasm in an 83-year-old woman: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Myositis ossificans is a benign, self-limiting condition that usually affects young, athletically active men. To the best of our knowledge, this case report describes the oldest recorded patient with myositis ossificans. Case presentation Our patient was an 83-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a one week history of a palpable mass in the left thigh. She had a history of surgery for transverse colon cancer and lung cancer at the ages of 73 and 80, respectively. Clinical and radiological examinations suggested a malignant neoplasm such as metastatic carcinoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. A diagnosis of myositis ossificans was made by core needle biopsy. Our patient was asymptomatic and had no recurrence at one year follow-up. Conclusion Clinicians should consider myositis ossificans as a possible diagnosis for a soft tissue mass in the limb of an older patient, thereby avoiding unnecessarily aggressive therapy.

Nishio Jun

2010-08-01

144

Comparison of Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter expression rate in malignant and benign thyroid diseases: immunohistochemical study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous studies have not showed consistent results for the level of expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid diseases, especially malignant tumor. We undertook this study to evaluate the distribution of NIS expression in malignant thyroid diseases and compare with that in benign thyoid disease. Total patients were 119 cases (Men 15, 48{+-}13 yrs). Total number of samples were 205 pieces. In malignant thyroid disease, there were 153 samples: 90 in papillary carcinoma, 4 in follicular carcinoma, 2 in medullary carcinoma and 57 in metastatic lymph node. In benign thyroid disease, there were 52 samples: 36 in goiter/cyst, 11 in thyroiditis and 5 in follicular adenoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we probed 205 samples with monoclonal anti-NIS Ab. Grading of staining was scored as 0 (negative or absent), 1 (weakly positive), 2 (moderately positive) or 3 (strongly positive). Expression rate (ER) of NIS positivity in individual disease entity was expressed as percentage of total number divided by number in 2 plus 3 grade. ERs of malignant thyroid diseases were 63% in papillary carcinoma, 81% in metastatic lymph node, 71% in follicular carcinoma and 100% in medullary carcinoma. ERs of benign thyroid disease were 53% in goiter/cyst, 64% in thyroiditis and 40% in follicular adenoma. ER of benign thyroid deceases was higher than benign thyroid diseases (71% vs 54%). Grading of NIS expression in papillary carcinoma or goiter/cyst was heterogeneously distributed in considerable cases. Normal tissue also showed heterogeneous distribution or NIS expression, which was not correlated with that of primary lesion. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, distribution of NIS expression was heterogeneous and increased, and not different compared with that of benign thyroid disease.

Kang, Do Young; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Heon Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun; Roh, Mee Sook [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2006-02-15

145

Notifiable malignant lesions in the RSA, 1979-1983--trends and mortality. I. Malignant neoplasms of the bronchus and lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant tumours of the bronchus, lung and pleura were introduced as notifiable medical conditions in August 1979. The western Cape, Natal and eastern Cape have been the regions with the highest notification rates. Small numbers of cases and deaths were notified from other areas (Orange Free State, southern Transvaal, northern Transvaal and northern Cape). During the period 1979-1983 one-fifth of deaths registered at Central Statistical Services were notified to the Department of National Health and Population Development. Mortality due to lung cancer, as registered, increased by 39.3% in coloured females; from 24.2/100,000 to 33.7/100,000. PMID:3603309

van Rensburg, A B

1987-08-01

146

Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT Scan in Differentiation of Malignant Parotid Neoplasms: New Approaches for Better Diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Introduction: One of the most important preoperative concerns in patients with parotid neoplasms is the probability of malignancy. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of different findings of contrast-enhanced CT scan in differentiation of malignant parotid neoplasms. Also we have presented the results of new approaches in this regard. Materials and Methods: All patients with noninflammatory parotid masses were considered in this study in a one year period. All patients with one or more of these conditions were excluded from the study: age under 15 years old, patients who underwent previous biopsy or fine needle aspiration and the time interval between imaging and surgery was more than 10 days. Finally 33 patients were entered to the study. Of all cases, 18 (54.6% were male and the mean age was 43.3±17.6 years (15-78. All patients underwent a facial and neck contrast enhanced CT scanning in the supine position and axial sections (5 mm thickness and 5 mm interval were performed from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ upper border to the thoracic inlet. Ten seconds after intravenous bolus injection of 100cc Omnipaque 240 mg I/cc, imaging began. For all parotid masses, 8 imaging findings were evaluated which consisted of the tumor size [maximum value of parotid tumor short-axis diameter], Hunsfield unit (HU [considered in section performed 120 seconds after contrast medium injection; region of interest (ROI was considered as a 5 mm diameter circle in the central part of the region with the highest visual density of the mass],visual density, heterogenecity, tumor border, tumor location, tumor extension to the other neck spaces and cervical adenopathy. Surgery was performed for all patients and the histopathologic evaluation was done as gold standard. For dichotomous variables, the diagnostic indices [including sensitivity(Se., specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value(NPV, positive likelihood ratio (LR+ and negative likelihood ratio (LR-] were calculated. For continuous variables (including tumor size and HU the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve was assessed and the selected cut points were yielded. Results: Totally 13 patients showed malignant tumor in pathology (39.4%. Deep lobe involvement, extension to the other neck spaces and adenopathy were higher in malignant tumors [all P-Values<0.018]. Among dichotomous variables, the best Se. was for enhancement pattern (Se=0.85 while Sp=0.4 and the best Sp. was for extension and adenopathy [Sp=0.95 for both, Se=0.38 for extension and 0.46 for adenopathy]. Among seven variables of enhancement pattern, density, tumor location, tumoral extension, lymphadenopathy, Hu greater than 69 and tumoral size greater than 29 mm, if the patient showed equal or greater than 6 variables in favor of malignancy, the Sp was 1. The area under the curve (AUC of ROC curve was 0.75 [95% CI=0.57-0.92] for Hu and 0.76 [95% CI=0.6-0.92] for size [both P-Values<0.02]. We multiplied the tumor size and Hu and plotted the ROC curve for this new variable. The AUC of this new variable was 0.83 [P-Values=0.002,95% CI=0.68-0.96]. Considering the cut off point of 2050 for this variable yielded the Se of 0.85 and Sp of 0.75 for malignant tumors. Conclusion: Considering individual findings together could improve the diagnostic accuracy of CT.

Shervin Sharifkashany

2009-01-01

147

Abdominal wall actinomycosis simulating a malignant neoplasm: Case report and review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abdominal wall actinomycosis is a rare disease frequently associated with the presence of an intra uterine device. We report on a case of a 47-year-old woman who had used an intrauterine device for many years and had removed it about a month prior to the identification of an abdominal wall abscess caused by Actinomyces israelii. The abscess mimicked a malignancy and the patient underwent a demolitive surgical treatment. The diagnosis was obtained only after histopathological examination. Post...

2010-01-01

148

Distribution of malignant neoplasms reported at different pathology centers and hospitals in Jaipur, Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Cancer data from Rajasthan are limited. Only two studies, one from Western Rajasthan, and the other from Eastern Rajasthan have been published by Sharma et al. in 1992 and 1996. Aims: To put the cancer profile from this region in proper perspective, we conducted the present study on the patterns of various malignancies in Jaipur region, i.e., Eastern Rajasthan. Setting and Design and Material and Methods: The study spans over one and half decade (1...

Sharma R; Kumar R.; Jain S; Jhajhria S; Gupta N; Gupta S; Rawtani S; Kohli K; Prajapati L; Gupta R.; Swamy N; Pathak D; Verma H; Ratnawat S

2009-01-01

149

[Effect of methisoprinol on postoperative immunodepression in subjects with malignant neoplasms].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors investigated the state of immunity, before and after surgery, in a group of 6 methisoprinol-treated patients and in a 10-patient control group both affected by malignant neoplasia. All the patients exhibited various degrees of immuno-depression. Versus the control group the group treated with 1-g methisoprinol injections at the dosage of 4 g daily for 7 days after surgery showed a positive effect on post-surgical immuno-depression. PMID:6165936

Catania, G; Basile, F; Card\\i, F; Azzarello, G; Di Stefano, A; Messina, L; Giovinetto, A

1981-03-10

150

Prognostic factors in patients with malignant salivary gland neoplasms in a Brazilian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the difficulty of follow-up for long periods, information about the survival rates of malignant salivary gland tumors is deficient in the global scientific literature. This study was aimed at investigating the epidemiological profile and prognostic factors that might affect survival in patients with primary malignant salivary gland tumors in Brazil. Patients were investigated regarding histopathological subtypes, age, gender, anatomic localization, smoking and alcohol intake, tumor size, clinical stage, histological grade, recurrence, metastasis, and treatment on clinicopathological outcomes. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log rank test and Cox regression, respectively. A total of 63 cases were analyzed, females being slightly predominant (50.8%), with ages ranging from 13 to 87 years. The most common diagnosis was adenoid cystic carcinoma and the most affected anatomical location was the parotid. Tumors were predominantly classified as stage I and high-grade at the diagnosis. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 84.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 71.6% (5 years) and 56.6% (10 years). Univariate analysis showed significant effects of tumor size and clinical stage on the DFS (P<0.0001 for both), and Cox regression analysis confirmed clinical stage as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.035). Our results highlight the relevance of clinical stage as an independent prognostic parameter for malignant salivary gland tumors. PMID:21545195

Oliveira, Lucinei Roberto; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; Oliveira-Costa, Joao Paulo; Zorgetto, Veronica Assalin; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo

2011-01-01

151

The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children) d...

Moncayo Roy; Kroiss Alexander; Oberwinkler Manfred; Karakolcu Fatih; Starzinger Matthias; Kapelari Klaus; Talasz Heribert; Moncayo Helga

2008-01-01

152

Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein AVEN contributes to increased malignancy in hematopoietic neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

AVEN has been identified as an inhibitor of apoptosis, which binds to the adaptor protein, APAF-1, and thereby prevents apoptosome formation and mitochondrial apoptosis. Recent data have demonstrated high expression levels of AVEN messenger RNA in acute leukemias as well as a positive correlation between AVEN mRNA overexpression and poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. On the basis of these data, we investigated the potential involvement of AVEN in tumorigenesis. First, we confirmed the overexpression of AVEN in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL) patient samples. We then established a transgenic mouse model with T-cell-specific overexpression of AVEN, with which we demonstrated the oncogenic cooperation of AVEN with heterozygous loss of p53. Finally, we used a subcutaneous xenograft mouse model to show that AVEN knockdown in the T-ALL cell lines, MOLT-4 and CCRF-CEM, and in the acute myeloblastic leukemia cell line, Kasumi-1, leads to a halt in tumor growth owing to the increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation of tumor cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the anti-apoptotic molecule, AVEN, functions as an oncoprotein in hematopoietic neoplasms. PMID:22751129

Eißmann, M; Melzer, I M; Fernández, S B M; Michel, G; Hrab? de Angelis, M; Hoefler, G; Finkenwirth, P; Jauch, A; Schoell, B; Grez, M; Schmidt, M; Bartholomae, C C; Newrzela, S; Haetscher, N; Rieger, M A; Zachskorn, C; Mittelbronn, M; Zörnig, M

2013-05-16

153

Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

An attempt has been made to identify the carotenoids present in the tissue of neoplastic tumors and the surrounding fatty tissue taken from women with histologically diagnosed cancer (ca ductale infiltrans, G2,G3; n=20) and those with benign changes (fibroadenoma, n=20). Carotenoid pigments were isolated using column and thin-layer chromatography. Prior to chromatography, the material was homogenized with acetone under nitrogen in dark glass bottles and the extracts kept in a refrigerator until analyzed. In the present study, we isolated 13 carotenoids belonging to provitamin A and nonprovitamin A carotenoids. The total content of carotenoids in microg/g of tissue was slightly lower in cancers and the surrounding fatty tissues in comparison to benign changes, but in general it was higher in the fatty tissue surrounding the tumors, irrespective of their histological structure (the mean values for cancers 20.433+/-10.64 vs fatty tissue 25.361+/-12.025, phigs. Such carotenoids as 3'-lutein, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin were sporadic. No reoccurring carotenoid "sequences" were found despite the same histopathological diagnosis. No relationship was found between the neoplasm histopatological grade, lesion diameter and the occurrence of specific carotenoids. PMID:12937841

Czeczuga-Semeniuk, E; Wo?czy?ski, S; Markiewicz, W

2003-01-01

154

Clinical evaluation of 24 cases of primary thyroid malignant lymphoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We analyzed open biopsy in diagnosing primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and tumor management with compression symptoms and therapy. We retrospectively studied 24 subjects diagnosed with PTL from December 1997 to June 2010.Open biopsy was done in 23 of 24 subjects. Incisional biopsy was done in 14, 13 of whom yielded sufficient materials in the first biopsy. Excisional biopsy was done in the remaining 9, 2 of whom developed permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after biopsy. The five with airway obstruction underwent incisional biopsy followed by immediate steroid administration of dexamethasone or methylprednisolone. All had histopathologically confirmed diagnosis and airway symptoms were resolved within a few days. Multidisciplinary therapy including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery was applied in 20 of 24 subjects. Single therapy was done in 4-chemotherapy in 2 and radiotherapy and surgery in 1 each. Overall results were satisfactory, with a 92% 10-year disease-free survival rate and an 86% 10-year overall survival rate based on the Kaplan-Meier method with 46-month median follow up. When diagnosing PTL, especially large tumors spreading into extrathyroid tissue, incisional biopsy is more advantageous in histopathological diagnosis than excisional biopsy due to the lower risk of surgical complications. In a case involving a small intrathyroidal nodule, excisional biopsy is safer and more diagnostically accurate. In an airway obstruction emergency, once a definitive diagnosis is made, steroid administration plus endotracheal intubation, if necessary, for airway management is optimal management. Subjects with stage IE mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas can be treated with radiotherapy or surgery alone. Those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or greater than stage IE MALT lymphoma, however, should be treated with multidisciplinary therapy because they have a potentially poor outcome. (author)

2011-11-01

155

On the problem of radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms of the pharynx  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 5-year survival rate of patients with malignant pharyngeal tumors (exept lymphomas) treated with telecobalt therapy and being partly operated was 25% in epipharyngeal tumors, 4% in mesopharyngeal tumors and 15% in hypopharyngeal tumors. In epipharyngeal and mesopharyngeal tumors radiotherapy proved to be of the same value as combined surgical and radiological treatment, whereas in hypopharyngeal tumors the combined therapy was clearly superior to radiotherapy. The surgical treatment of the regional lymph nodes is to be preferred to telecobalt irradiation. The dose-time relation should be no means be lower than 1400 ret (48 Gy in 6 - 7 weeks) to the periphery of the tumor and 1700 ret (60 Gy in 6 - 7 weeks) to the centre of the tumor

1980-01-01

156

Undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (including lymphomas and metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies): Radio- and chemotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unsatisfactory results obtained with percutaneous irradiation of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas led to the search for improved methods of local radiotherapy. Among these are hyperfractionated irradiation, also in combination with chemotherapy, and combined pre- and postoperatively applied hyperfractionated radio- and chemotherapy. The incidence of local recurrences is markedly reduced under this therapy. Only few empirical reports on cytostatic therapy of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas exist. Remissions can be expected in one third of the cases and, with combined adriblastin/cis-platinum therapy, complete remissions are occasionally also achieved. There are good chances of the survival time being prolonged in responders. Cytostatics are not indicated for patients in a poor general condition. Malignant lymphomas of the thyroid are rare. Therapy is stage-related and consists in radiotherapy and/or cytostatic treatment. Metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies are surgically removed only if no further metastases are detectable in the rest of the body. Otherwise, any therapy applied depend on the metastasis-related symptoms. (orig./ECB)

1987-01-01

157

The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn and selenium (Se, and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children distributed as follows: control group (n = 687, benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults; malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults. Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C. Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease. The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED as well as from healthy active athletes. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 and 10:30 a.m. All patients lived in Innsbruck. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14.0. The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients. Results Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies. The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se. Low Se levels in the control group were found in 12%. Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 ± 23.1 ?g/l and 59.3 ± 20.1 ?g/l, respectively as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean Se level in the control group was 90.5 ± 20.8 ?g/l. Conclusion The H0 can be accepted for vitamin C and zinc levels whereas it has to be rejected for Se. Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls. Low levels of vitamin C were found in all subgroups of patients.

Starzinger Matthias

2008-01-01

158

Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

1990-01-01

159

Clinical study of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the curative effect and side effects of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms. Methods: Ninety-seven patients were divided into 4 groups respectively: group A, 89Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen (24 patients); group B, 89Sr + nicotinamide(22 patients); group C, 89Sr + carbogen (25 patients); group D, 89Sr, (26 patients). 89SrCl was intravenously injected at a dose of 1.48-2.22 MBq/kg. Nicotinamide was taken orally 1 hour before 89SrCl injection, 6 g/day, tid, d1-d5. Aspiration of carbogen(95%O2 + 5%CO2 ) gases, 6 L/min, 10 minutes, qd, d1-d5. Results: The effective rate of pain control and QOL improvement in A group were higher than in groups B, C and D (91.7% VS 77.3%, 76.0% and 69.2%, P=0.048). The lesions assessed by SPECT imaging in every group was not significantly different at three months after treatment. I to II degree toxic effect on bone marrow appeared in every group and there were no significantly inter-group differences. Conclusions: Combinative therapy using 89Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen is more effective to treat multiple metastatic bone pain and for improvement of QOL. The side effects are not increased. (authors)

2005-12-01

160

Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D. [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

2000-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Differential uptake of tritiated digoxin in benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to measure uptake of tritiated digoxin by neoplastic tissues known to have differential contents of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K + ATPase), the presumed receptor for digoxin. Tumor samples were removed at the time of craniotomy in seven patients with meningiomas (Group 1) and seven patients with more malignant central nervous system tumors (Group 2) (three astrocytomas, three glioblastomas, one meduloblastoma). Patients with meningiomas were found to have a significantly higher digoxin uptake (21.8 +/- 7.3 ng/gm tumor versus 5.7 +/- 5.2 ng/gm tumor; (p less than 0.01) and a significantly greater tissue/serum ratio (13.9 +/- 11.7 versus 3.26 +/- 3.7, p less than 0.0). This study provides the first demonstration of increased uptake of digoxin by noncardiac pathologic tissues. The results are most likely due to differences in the number of digoxin receptor sites. PMID:137673

Williams, R; Flanigan, S; Bissett, J; Doherty, J

1976-01-01

162

Malignant neoplasms morbidity tendencies between liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1986-2004)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the constantly increasing malignant tumors, the great interest towards the cancers induced by radiation appears. The analyze of such cancers is possible because of the detailed statistic data. 5965 Chernobyl clean-up workers were examined. In the years of 1986 - 2004 it was registered 128 cancers. 27,4 % - the cancers of pulmonary system; 26,9 % - the cancers of gastrointestinal system; 10,8 % - the cancers of blood and lymph system; 10,2 % - the lip and mouth cancers; 6,1% - the skin cancers. Among the clean-up workers who were worked in Chernobyl in the period of 1986-1987 years more often - the cancers skin, of blood and lymph system, the lip and mouth were detected. More often the cancers were detected in the age groups of 45-64 years with predomination of pulmonary and gastrointestinal system cancers, o in the age groups of 25-44 - with skin cancers, the cancers of blood and lymph system and the lip and mouth cancers. Comparing with Lithuanian men population the cancer predomination of Chernobyl clean-up workers is higher

2006-04-01

163

Epidemiología descriptiva de las neoplasias malignas en niños / Descriptive epidemiology of pediatric malignant neoplasms  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en los niños menores de 15 años a nivel mundial y nacional. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional de los artículos publicados sobre cáncer en los niños, seleccionando aquellos que trataran lo [...] s aspectos epidemiológicos de tiempo, lugar y persona y analizándose tanto la incidencia como la mortalidad por cáncer en niños. La incidencia mundial es de 100 a 150 casos x 10(6) niños/año. La incidencia específica varía de acuerdo al tipo cáncer, el país o región que se estudie. El patrón latinoamericano de neoplasias lo constituyen las leucemias, los linfomas y los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC); en el norteamericano y europeo los TSNC ocupan el segundo lugar; y en el africano predominan los linfomas. La incidencia es mayor en los menores de 5 años en el medio urbano y existe un incremento de 1% anual de cánceres en los niños de Estados Unidos de América. La mortalidad por cáncer en niños ha disminuido de forma importante principalmente en los países desarrollados, como Estados Unidos e Inglaterra; en los subdesarrollados permanece estable o hay una leve disminución. La incidencia es mayor en países desarrollados; sin embargo, en los países subdesarrollados puede estar subestimada. Aún hay muchos datos que se desconocen sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en el niño, por lo que son necesarios más estudios. Abstract in english The object of this study is to present the descriptive epidemiology of cancer in children at the world and national levels. The international and national literature published on cancer in children was comprehensively reviewed, with emphasis on reports treating epidemiological aspects of time, place [...] and person. For practical reasons and with the aim of integrating the information, only the more relevant publications were included. Incidence and child mortality were analyzed. Overall incidence is between 100 and 150 (annual rates = cases x 10(6) children). Specific incidence varies according to the type of cancer, the region and the country. The Latin American pattern of neoplasms is constituted by leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors (CNST); in the Northamerican/European pattern the CNST appear in second place and in the African pattern, lymphomas show predominance. Incidence is higher among the younger than 5 year olds, from urban environments, and there is a 1% annual increase of cancer in Northamerican children. Child mortality has diminished remarkably, mainly in developed countries, whereas in developing or underdeveloped countries, incidence remains stable or shows a slight fall. The incidence of cancer in children is greater in developed countries, but in underdeveloped countries it may be underestimated. These countries have not managed to reduce the incidence of child mortality caused by cancer, as have the United States or Great Britain. Further studies on the epidemiology of cancer in children are necessary, since many data remain unknown.

Arturo, Fajardo-Gutiérrez; Juan Manuel, Mejía-Aranguré; Leticia, Hernández-Cruz; Hilda Francisca, Mendoza-Sánchez; Juan, Garduño-Espinosa; María del Carmen, Martínez-García.

164

Potential value of elasto sonography in the diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A firm or hard consistency is associated with an increased risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Ultrasound (US) elasto sonography is a new powerful diagnostic technique that assesses hardness as indicator of malignancy that was recently applied in the diagnostic approach of nodular thyroid disease. The basic principle of elasto sonography is that tissue compression produces strain (displacement), that is less in hard than in soft tissues and is scored measuring the degree of distortion of US beam under the application of an external force, during the examination. The US elasto gram is displayed over the B-mode image in a colour scale that corresponds to tissue elasticity. The US elasto sonography performed on selected series of patients has displayed a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 98%. The predictivity of US elasto graphic measurement was independent from the nodule size, high sensitivity and specificity being observed also in nodules <1 cm. These data were also confirmed by other authors in smaller cytological series. Available data suggest that predictivity of US elasto sonography is maintained in indeterminate lesions. Conventional US maintains a pivotal importance to define which nodules are suitable for elasto graphic characterization. Indeed, nodules in which US reveals the presence of calcified shell and cystic nodules have to be excluded from the US elasto graphic evaluation. Another limitation is that the nodule to be examined must be clearly distinguishable from other nodules present in the thyroid. Thus, multi nodular goiters with coalescent nodules are not suitable for this analysis. US elasto sonography seems to have a great potential as a new tool for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, especially in nodules with indeterminate cytology.

2009-10-01

165

Expression of p53 and TP53 mutational analysis in malignant neoplasms arising in preexisting spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma, sporadic or associated with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed immunohistochemical assessment of p53 expression and TP53 mutational analysis of 15 malignant neoplasms arising from preexisting benign cylindroma, spiradenoma, and spiradenocylindroma, sporadic or associated with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. At least weak and focal p53 positivity was present in 13 of the 15 lesions. Successful PCR and sequencing were possible in 12 of the 15 cases. In one case only there were 2 p53 mutations, one being a c.673-1G>A splice-site mutation in the 3'-end of intron 6 (position--g.15289G>A, contig gb.AY838696.1) and the second being a c.743G>A (p.R248Q) mutation in exon 7 (position--15360G>A, contig gb.AY838696.1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in all 12 malignant cases analyzed. As a control group, we included 12 randomly selected sporadic cases of spiradenoma (n = 5), cylindroma (n = 4), and spiradenocylindroma (n = 3). None of the 12 benign control group cases harbored a TP53 mutation, whereas all 12 demonstrated single nucleotide polymorphisms identical to those detected in the malignant tumor group. Immunohistochemically, 1 cylindroma and 2 spiradenomas demonstrated weak and focal p53 positivity. In conclusion, we found a fairly high rate of p53 expression in malignant neoplasms arising from preexisting benign spiradenomas, cylindromas, and spiradenocylindromas. However, the mutation rate of TP53 was low. Whereas immunostaining for p53 has been suggested as an adjunct tool to differentiate benign spiradenoma, cylindroma, and spiradenocylindroma from their malignant counterparts, its utility is limited by its heterogeneous pattern of expression, especially the sometimes lack of staining in clearly malignant areas and the occurrence of focal, weak positivity in the benign residua or in unequivocally benign neoplasms. PMID:20075707

Kazakov, Dmitry V; Grossmann, Petr; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Vanecek, Tomas; Vazmitel, Marina; Kacerovska, Denisa; Zelger, Bernhard; Calonje, Eduardo; Michal, Michal

2010-05-01

166

Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16 acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) ma...

Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Al-modhwahi, Ibrahim; Andersen, Mette Klarskov; Behrendtz, Mikael; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik; Heyman, Mats; Kristinsson, Jon; Nersting, Jacob; Nygaard, Randi; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Vettenranta, Kim; Weinshilboum, Richard

2009-01-01

167

Proliferative activity is the most significant predictor of recurrence in noninvasive papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential and grade 1 papillary carcinomas of the bladder.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder cannot be predicted accurately by traditional criteria alone. This study examined the value of cell proliferative activity, morphometry, and expression of p53, c-erbB-2, and bcl-2 oncogenes in predicting recurrence of superficial papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential (LMP) and Grade 1 (G1) papillary carcinomas of the bladder. METHODS: Sixty-two patients (mean age, 62 years) with newly diagnosed superficia...

Navone, Roberto; Pich, Achille

2002-01-01

168

Evidence for Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Alterations of the Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in Hypofunctioning Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The uptake of iodide by epithelial thyroid cells requires the expression of a specific transporter, the Na+/I? symporter, NIS. Benign and malignant thyroid tumors of epithelial origin show a decrease up to a loss of iodide uptake activity. Previous studies of the human NIS (hNIS) gene expression in these tumors, based on the amplification of transcripts and/or immunohistochemical detection of the protein, have yielded divergent data; hNIS expression was found either increased or decreased. ...

Trouttet-masson, Se?verine; Selmi-ruby, Samia; Bernier-valentin, Franc?oise; Porra, Vale?rie; Berger-dutrieux, Nicole; Decaussin, Myriam; Peix, Jean-louis; Perrin, Agne?s; Bournaud, Claire; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Borson-chazot, Franc?oise; Franc, Brigitte; Rousset, Bernard

2004-01-01

169

Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Ultrasonography and Color Doppler in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Objective: As the usage of ultrasound in the evaluation of thyroid nodules is increasing, we decided to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US) and Doppler (CFD) findings in comparison with cytology (FNA) and eventually pathology results to establish the relative importance of US and CFD features as indicators of malignancy."nPatients and Methods: This prospective study started from June 2008 to October 2009. Two-hundred four patients with thyroid nodules were evaluat...

2010-01-01

170

Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM) of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women su...

Consorti Fabrizio; Di Tanna Gianluca; Milazzo Francesca; Antonaci Alfredo

2011-01-01

171

Multiple malignant primary neoplasms in patients with gastric neoplasms in the health district of León / Neoplasias primarias malignas múltiples en pacientes con cáncer gástrico en el área sanitaria de León  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: analizar las características de los pacientes con tumores gástricos diagnosticados de una neoplasia primaria maligna múltiple (NPMM) en el área sanitaria de León. Pacientes y método: utilizando los datos del Registro de Tumores del Hospital de León se han seleccionado aquellos pacientes c [...] on tumores gástricos diagnosticados entre 1993 y 2002. Se realizó un seguimiento hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2004 analizando las características de los pacientes diagnosticados de una segunda neoplasia durante el periodo de seguimiento. Resultados: la prevalencia de NPMM fue del 1,96%. El 56% de los pacientes tenían antecedentes oncológicos en familiares de primer grado. Las segundas neoplasias más frecuentes fueron las digestivas (26%) y las urológicas (21%). El 87% de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados del segundo tumor en los primeros dos años. No se observaron diferencias respecto a la supervivencia entre los pacientes con NPMM sincrónicas y metacrónicas. Conclusiones: las NPMM en los pacientes con cáncer gástrico son un problema relevante. Aunque los agentes carcinógenos externos puedan actuar como promotores en el desarrollo de una segunda neoplasia, en estos pacientes parece existir una base genética que favorece el desarrollo del una NPMM. La prevención secundaria es la mejor medida para evitar el desarrollo de una NPMM. Abstract in english Objectives: we analyzed the characteristics of patients with gastric tumors diagnosed with multiple malignant primary neoplasm (MMPN) in the Health District of León. Material and methods: using the information in the Tumor Registry at León Hospital patients selected were those with gastric neoplasms [...] diagnosed between 1993 and 2002. A follow-up was performed until December 31, 2004, and the characteristics of patients diagnosed with a second neoplasm were analyzed. Results: MMPN prevalence was 1,96%; 56% of patients had a history of cancer in first-degree relatives. The most frequent second neoplasms were digestive (26%) and urologic (21%); 87% of patients were diagnosed with a second neoplasm within the first two years. No significative differences in survival were observed among patients with synchronous or metachronous MMPN. Conclusions: MMPN in patients with gastric neoplasms is a relevant problem. While external carcinogenic agents could act as promoters in the development of second neoplasms, these patients seem to have a genetic background favoring the development of MMPN. Secondary prevention is the best measure to avoid MMPN development.

Muela Molinero, A.; Jorquera Plaza, F.; Ribas Ariño, T.; Malagón Rojo, R.; Espinel Díez, V.; Ballesteros del Río, B.; Olcoz Goñi, J. L.; Santos Calderón, J. A..

172

Thyroid neoplasia in long-term Segment III beagles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy-four (4.4%) of the 1680 Segment III beagles had one or more thyroid tumors as of December 31, 1979. Four sacrificed at 5 years of age and 13 sacrificed at 8 years of age had thyroid tumors. Ten malignant thyroid tumors have been removed surgically and 47 other dead dogs with thyroid neoplasms were found. Most tumors were of thyroid follicular cell origin and were near equally divided between benign and malignant varieties. Five dogs had tumors of the parafollicular cells (C-cells). To date, thyroid neoplasia does not appear to be associated with radiation exposure, but there does not appear to be an association with hypothyroidism. Forty-seven (68%) of the 69 dogs with thyroid follicular cell tumors were hypothyroid

1981-01-01

173

A cutaneous adnexal neoplasm with features of adamantinoid trichoblastoma (lymphadenoma) in the benign component and lymphoepithelial-like carcinoma in the malignant component: a possible case of malignant transformation of a rare trichoblastoma variant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a case of cutaneous adnexal tumor with a component reminiscent of adamantinoid trichoblastoma (lymphadenoma) that shows gradual transition to a high-grade carcinoma resembling lymphoepithelial-like carcinoma. The tumor was located above the upper lip of a 57-year-old woman and metastasized in regional lymph nodes. This seems to be the first documented report of malignant transformation of adamantinoid trichoblastoma. We discuss also other possibilities of histogenesis of this unique neoplasm. PMID:21915036

Kazakov, Dmitry V; Banik, Martin; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal

2011-10-01

174

Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid tumors by X-ray fluorescent analysis-comparison of cases from Russia and Albany, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intra thyroid iodine level in different types of thyroid neoplasms in Russia (126 cases) and USA (37 cases) were investigated by X-ray fluorescent analysis in vitro. A decrease in intra thyroid iodine concentration is associated with the stepwise loss of differentiation in thyroid tumors. In colloid goiter tissue from Russia, the intra thyroid iodine level is increased. The intra thyroid iodine level was markedly increased in micro follicular adenomas and colloid goiters from American patients which may reflect a higher iodine supply in the USA. X-ray fluorescent analysis together with careful clinical appraisal can be used for management of thyroid patients with suspicious nodules which should be treated by surgery

1996-03-18

175

Diagnostic value of HBME-1, CD56, Galectin-3 and Cytokeratin-19 in papillary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: We aimed to evaluate four immunohistochemical markers (HBME-1, Galectin-3, Cytokeratin-19 and CD56) used alone or in panels in a series of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and thyroid tumors of uncertain malignant potential (TT-UMP) cases. Materials and Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on a tissue micro-array of 11 PTCs [six classic (CPTC), five follicular variant (FVPTC)] and 31 TTs-UMP. A control group of 11 benign thyroid lesions÷tumors was also included. Results: CD56, whose expression is reduced or absent in thyroid carcinomas, was the most sensitive marker (81.8%), showing a "malignant" profile in 5÷6 CPTCs and 4÷5 FVPTCs. It was followed by HBME-1 (63.6% sensitivity). Cytokeratin-19 and Galectin-3 were the least sensitive antibodies (45.6%), but the most specific ones (100%). Three panels consisting of CD56 and÷or Cytokeratin-19÷Galectin-3 and HBME-1 and÷or CD56 reached the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and the highest negative predicting value (87.5 and 83.3, respectively). In TTs-UMP, Cytokeratin-19, Galectin-3, HBME-1 and CD56 stained negatively in most of the cases (90.3%, 83.9%, 87.1% and 61%, respectively) and no statistically significant differences compared to the benign thyroid lesions' immunoprofile could be observed. Conclusions: New panels of antibodies, consisting of CD56 and÷or Cytokeratin-19÷Galectin-3 and CD56 and÷or HBME-1 that were found to be highly sensitive for PTC in our study, are reported. Applying these panels to TTs-UMP seems also useful. Our results showed that these tumors have an immunoprofile similar to the benign thyroid lesions, suggesting that they are most likely to have a benign rather than a malignant biological behavior. PMID:24715165

Nechifor-Boil?, Adela; C?tan?, Ramona; Loghin, Andrada; Radu, Tatiana Georgiana; Borda, Angela

2014-01-01

176

Metastatic mesothelioma to the thyroid  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69 year-old male patient with a history of malignant mesothelioma treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection with removal of the right lung and right pleural pneumonectomy was clinically in remission for 1 ½ years. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan revealed limited uptake in the right pleural space, thought to represent post-surgical changes, and uptake in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a solid left lobe nodule with peripheral vascularity and absent microcalcifications. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a microfollicular arrangement of cytologically bland cells with variable Hürthle cell changes initially interpreted as suspicious for Hürthle cell neoplasm. Review at multidisciplinary conference raised the possibility of metastatic mesothelioma, supported by immunohistochemical studies in the cell block. The patient opted for left hemithyroidectomy with isthmusectomy which confirmed malignant mesothelioma. Repeat PET scan 6 months later revealed no further uptake in the thyroid bed, with limited uptake in the right pleural space. Metastatic tumors to the thyroid are uncommon with only one previous description of metastasis to the thyroid by mesothelioma. Metastasis of cytologically low grade tumors such as mesothelioma present problems for cytology due to the potential for overlap with the variable appearances of thyroid neoplasms. The value (if any) of ancillary tests, including mutation testing, expression profiling and immunohistochemistry is discussed.

Rao, Sarika N.; Swami, Archana; Khan, Ashraf; Toke, Madhavi; Whalen, Giles; Fischer, Andrew; Torres, Mira Sofia

2014-01-01

177

Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy.

Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15

178

Power Doppler US patterns of vascularity and spectral Doppler US parameters in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectral Doppler ultrasound (US) parameters, including resistive index (RI) and maximal systolic velocity (MSV), or vascular pattern can be used to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: We prospectively examined 169 thyroid nodules in 134 patients undergoing sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Vascularity as determined by power Doppler US imaging was defined as absent, perinodular alone, or intranodular. For each nodule, the RI and MSV values were recorded as the average of the recordings obtained. Results of the FNAB and surgical pathological examination, if available, were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. Results: Seven nodules were excluded from study because of non-diagnostic FNAB results due to hypocellular or insufficient cytological material. Of the remaining nodules, nine were malignant (all confirmed at surgery) and 153 were benign. Of the 145 nodules with intranodular vascularity, nine (6.2%) were malignant and the remaining 136 (93.8%) were benign. The malignant nodules had a mean RI of 0.60 on intranodular and 0.58 on perinodular arteries. These values were not significantly higher than those associated with benign nodules (RI = 0.57 and RI = 0.56, respectively). Malignant nodules had a mean MSV of 20.4 cm/s on intranodular and 35.3 cm/s on perinodular arteries that were also not significantly different from those associated with benign nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV are not useful parameters for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Therefore, Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV values of thyroid nodules can not be used as a diagnostic method to determine which nodules should undergo FNAB.

Tamsel, S. [Departments of Radiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: sadiktamsel@yahoo.com; Demirpolat, G. [Departments of Radiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Erdogan, M. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Nart, D. [Pathology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Karadeniz, M. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Uluer, H. [Biostatistics, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozgen, A.G. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

2007-03-15

179

Power Doppler US patterns of vascularity and spectral Doppler US parameters in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectral Doppler ultrasound (US) parameters, including resistive index (RI) and maximal systolic velocity (MSV), or vascular pattern can be used to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: We prospectively examined 169 thyroid nodules in 134 patients undergoing sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Vascularity as determined by power Doppler US imaging was defined as absent, perinodular alone, or intranodular. For each nodule, the RI and MSV values were recorded as the average of the recordings obtained. Results of the FNAB and surgical pathological examination, if available, were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. Results: Seven nodules were excluded from study because of non-diagnostic FNAB results due to hypocellular or insufficient cytological material. Of the remaining nodules, nine were malignant (all confirmed at surgery) and 153 were benign. Of the 145 nodules with intranodular vascularity, nine (6.2%) were malignant and the remaining 136 (93.8%) were benign. The malignant nodules had a mean RI of 0.60 on intranodular and 0.58 on perinodular arteries. These values were not significantly higher than those associated with benign nodules (RI = 0.57 and RI = 0.56, respectively). Malignant nodules had a mean MSV of 20.4 cm/s on intranodular and 35.3 cm/s on perinodular arteries that were also not significantly different from those associated with benign nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV are not useful parameters for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Therefore, Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV values of thyroid nodules can not be used as a diagnostic method to determine which nodules should undergo FNAB

2007-03-01

180

Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH24  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 groups received i.p. applications of 1-methyl-l-nitrosourea (MNU; 50 mg/kg body weight on the 50th and 113th day of age. Animals were randomly divided into five groups as follows: (1 Untreated control group - rats received saline only; (2 Cancer control group - rats received MNU and saline; (3 Dox group - rats received MNU and Dox 8 mg/kg; (4 Full/Dox group -rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg 30 min before Dox 8 mg/kg; (5 Full group - rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg. Tumor incidence was 4.94 +- 0.576 per rat. The animals were sacrificed 2 days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and ?-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p < 0.05, after an i.p. administration of doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower oc-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS level in the heart (p < 0.05. Ultra structural analysis of heart tissues from rats treated with doxorubicin and indicated that the hearts of the rats were protected from doxorubicin-induced subcellular damage. Doxorubicin/fullerenol rats did not appear to show significant cardiac damage although occasional focal loss of cristae in the mitochondria was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals.

Injac Rade

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography : a systematic review  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET or PET/computed tomography imaging. Methods: Studies evaluating thyroid carcinomas discovered incidentally in patients or healthy volunteers by (18)F-FDG PET were systematically searched in the PubMed database from 2000 to 2011. The main exclusion criteria were known thyroid disease, lack of assigned diagnoses, investigation of diffuse uptake only, or investigation of patients with head and neck cancer, or cancer in the upper part of the thorax. Results: Twenty-two studies met our criteria comprising a total of 125,754 subjects. Of these, 1994 (1.6%) had unexpected focal hypermetabolic activity, while 999 of 48,644 individuals (2.1%) had an unexpected diffuse hypermetabolic activity in the thyroid gland. A diagnosis was assigned in 1051 of the 1994 patients with a focal uptake, 366 of whom (34.8%) had thyroid malignancy. Likewise, a diagnosis was assigned in 168 of 999 patients with a diffuse uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p

Bonnema, Steen Joop; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

2012-01-01

182

Trends in the incidence and mortality rates of malignant neoplasms in regions with radio ecological problems (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective study is carried out to examine incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at high radioecological risk (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999. The analysis is made according to sex and age groups. Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. The analysis of incidence and mortality dynamics doesn't show an increase in the incidence/mortality rate of the selected radiation-related oncological diseases compared with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

2001-06-18

183

"Evaluation of thyroid’s cold nodules with 99mTc-MIBI and serum thyroglobulin for diagnosis of malignant and benign nodules "  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: As finding of an accurate noninvasive way for differential diagnosis between malignant and benign nodules is of great importance, recently 99mTc-MIBI is suggested for this purpose.In this study we evaluated the usefulness of this radiotracer, as well as, measuring of serum level of Tg as a differential diagnostic test of malignant and benign nodules. Methods: Twelve patients with ages of 25 to 65 years old, all of them had single cold nodule of thyroid in scan with 99mTco4- were e...

Gharepapagh, E.; Sh. Dabiri Oskooyi; Fooladi Sarabi, A.

2006-01-01

184

GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activating mutations of GNAq protein in a hotspot at codon 209 have been recently described in uveal melanomas. Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules. To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated. No mutations were identified. Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas. Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors. The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined. PMID:20714830

Cassol, Clarissa A; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

2010-12-01

185

Changes in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain better insight into molecular changes which reflect disturbances in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during progression of thyroid malignancy from papillary microcarcinoma (PMC via clinically manifest papillary carcinoma (PTC to anaplastic carcinoma (ATC. The apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and proliferation related marker (PCNA were analysed immunohistochemically in 120 archival cases comprising PMC (n=34, PTC (n=52 and ATC (n=34. In addition, in situ apoptotic cell death was analysed by the TUNEL method. The average Bcl-2 staining score did not differ between PMC and PTC (p>0.05, but was significantly lower in ATC (p<0.05.The Bax score was higher in PTCs and ATCs than in PMCs (p<0.05. Due to these changes, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a marked decrease from PMC to ATC (p<0.05, while proliferation activity increased significantly from PTC to ATC (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, the rate of apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas, especially in ATC, i.e. the increase in proliferative activity was not counterbalanced with appropriate cell death. Differences were found in the expression of apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bax, their ratio (Bcl-2 /Bax and in the rate of apoptotic cell death and proliferative activity between PMC, PTC and ATC, indicating that disturbances in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, in favour of the latter, occur gradually during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours.

S Selemetjev

2009-06-01

186

Analysis of the Malignancy Rate for Thyroid Nodules based on the Use of a Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Ultrasonography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was designed to analyze the malignancy rate for thyroid nodules determined after a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and ultrasonography (US) and to propose follow-up FNAB indications. A total of 287 patients (265 female, 22 male) who underwent repeated US-guided FNABs were included in the cohort study. The results of the FNABs were classified as inadequate, benign, indeterminate,suspicious for a malignancy and a malignancy. The US findings were assigned five grades according to the possibility of a malignancy present. The frequency of a malignant nodule was evaluated by the use of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional risk model. The malignancy rates of inadequate, benign, and indeterminate nodules were 12.8%, 8.2% and 37.5%, respectively, for the FNAB findings. The rates of grades 3, 4 and 5 were 38.6%, 50.0% and 53.8%, respectively,for the US findings. Inadequate and indeterminate nodules as determined by an FNAB and grades 3, 4 and 5 assigned after US showed a higher malignancy rate than other nodules and would be regarded as high risk lesions.The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 93.3%,38.4%, 22.0%, 96.9% and 47.0%, respectively, if the nodule was considered a high-risk lesion, based on the FNAB or US findings. Thyroid nodules should be evaluated based on an FNAB and US findings. If a thyroid nodule is classified as a high-risk lesion, a follow-up study is needed due to the high malignancy rate

Choi, Ju Wan; Park, Ji Won; Jeong, Han Young; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gab Chul; Kim, Yong Sun; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Hui Joong [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2008-12-15

187

[Epidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid].  

Science.gov (United States)

About thyroid neoplasms the epidermoidal carcinoma represents an ingrown minority (0.3-0.74%). Several etiopathological hypotheses are considered and this testifies the notable uncertainty that still winds the origin of the neoplasm. In the actual case, the more accredited hypothesis foresees the origin of the neoplasm from a histopathological of Hashimotos' tyhroiditis. The objectivity of the case in examination constitutes the clinical picture of reference of the malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: oligosintomatic low cervical mass of increased consistence, adherent to the imminent pianos strictly following laryngeal movements, dysfagia and dysfonia. Additionally they were present pulmonary and right cervical lymphonodal metastases. After an adjuvant treatment with Paraplatin and 5-FU, to some months from the intervention of total thyroidectomy, local relapse in form of a festered mass is highlighted in sovrajugular region with result in cutaneous-esophagustracheal fistula. The diagnosis of certainty of the neoplasm, despite the rarity, it doesn't constitute a problem, albeit the percents of survival, anyway substantially more favorable respect to anaplastic neoplasms, concerning to as numerical as chronological aspects, result to be hardly discouraging. PMID:9835109

Relmi, F; Russo, A; Magnacca, F; Leombruni, E; Buccoliero, G; Picardi, N

1998-01-01

188

Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Targeted Therapies and Future Directions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that accounts for approximately 5% of all thyroid malignancies. The natural history of MTC is characterized by early lymph node and distant metastases, making complete surgical cure often impossible. Conventional chemotherapy and external beam radiation have been largely ineffective in altering the natural history of MTC. Therefore, there is a great need to develop novel therapeutic strategies to affect symptom control and reduc...

Pinchot, Scott N.; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert

2009-01-01

189

A method for scintigraphy with 67-Gallium citrate of malignant thyroid tumors under conditions of previously induced hyperferremia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A modified method of Smith F. et al for scintigraphy of malignant thyroid tumors with "6"7Ga-citrate under conditions of previously induced hyperferremia has been applied for the first time in Bulgaria. The patient is injected intravenously with 100 mg Ferrum Hausman, followed two hours later by intravenous injection of "6"7Ga-citrate in dose 55,5 MBq. Thyroid scintigraphy is performed on the 24. hour. The method allows to shorten the period of patient examination by one day, to reduce signifficantly the radioactivity being introduced and the respective radiation load to the patient. The method may be applied in any radioisotopic laboratory

1985-01-01

190

Large Oncocytic Adrenocortical Tumor with Uncertain Malignant Potential  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oncocytoma is a neoplasm consisting of oncocytes that is found in the salivary gland, kidney, and thyroid. Adrenocortical oncocytoma is particularly uncommon, and most cases reported are benign and nonfunctioning. Here, we report a 20 cm adrenal mass associated with necrosis that was identified as an oncocytic adrenocortical tumor with uncertain malignant potential through histopathological evaluation after its resection.

Lee, Chang Ki; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Cha, Yoon Jin; Bum, Jung Ha; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Myung Soo; Park, Won Kyu; Yang, Seung Choul; Han, Woong Kyu

2011-01-01

191

A preoperative diagnostic test that distinguishes benign from malignant thyroid carcinoma based on gene expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Accurate diagnosis of thyroid tumors is challenging. A particular problem is distinguishing between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), where histology of fine-needle aspirates is not conclusive. It is often necessary to remove healthy thyroid to rule out carcinoma. In order to find markers to improve diagnosis, we quantified gene transcript expression from FTC, FTA, and normal thyroid, revealing 73 differentially expressed transcripts (P ? 0.0001...

2004-01-01

192

Second primary neoplasms among 53?159 haematolymphoproliferative malignancy patients in Sweden, 1958–1996: a search for common mechanisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse site-specific risk of second primary malignancies following 53?159 haematolymphoproliferative disorders (HLPD) diagnosed between 1958 and 1996. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of a second malignancy was calculated as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of second malignancies by applying site-, sex-, age-, period-, residence- and occupation-specific rates in the corresponding population in the Database to the appropriate person-...

2001-01-01

193

Neonatal neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To describe neoplasms diagnosed in children ? 28 days of age along with their treatment, associated congenital anomalies, and the long-term consequences of the diagnoses and treatments. Methods and Materials: Utilizing autopsy records, a computerized tumor registry, and medical records, we identified patients and stillborns at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) diagnosed with neoplasms at ? 28 days of age between 1930 and 1998. Results: Twenty-three neonates with neoplasms were identified. There were 7 males (30%) and 16 females (70%). Follow-up of survivors ranged from 4 months to 27 years (mean 9 years). The 20 patients identified via the computerized registry system for 1980-1998 constitute 2% (20/925) of all neoplasms seen in patients ? 16 years of age over this same time period at DUMC. The histologic diagnoses were teratoma/germ cell tumor (n = 8, 35%), neuroblastoma (n = 5, 22%), retinoblastoma (n = 4, 17%), primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor (n = 3, 13%), and one case each of rhabdomyosarcoma, glossal glial choristoma, and hemangioma in the setting of Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. Of the eight teratoma/germ cell tumor patients, 6 were female (75%) and 2 male (25%). There was one malignant germ cell tumor, 2 immature teratomas, and 5 teratomas. Two of the seven patients with immature teratomas or teratoma were long-term survivors following surgery. The one patient with malignant germ cell tumor, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, died. Associated anomalies were imperforate anus, congenital absence of a limb, left ventricular hypertrophy, fusion or absence of toes, coarctation of the aorta, and pulmonary valve dysplasia. Of the five children with neuroblastoma, 4 were female. INSS Stages were 1 (n = 1), 2A (n = 1), 3 (n = 1), and 4S (n = 2). Two were treated with surgery + chemotherapy + radiotherapy; two with surgery + chemotherapy; and one with surgery alone. Four children are long-term survivors. Associated congenital anomalies and medical problems were ventricular septal defect, seizure disorder, and Fanconi's anemia. A child with a dumbbell neuroblastoma, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, is paraplegic. Of the four children with retinoblastoma, two were female. Two had trilateral disease and two bilateral. Three of the four had a family history of retinoblastoma. The two children with trilateral retinoblastoma died after therapy with surgery, craniospinal and orbital irradiation, and chemotherapy. Two children with bilateral disease are long-term survivors: one treated with radiotherapy + chemotherapy and one with radiotherapy alone. They have marked orbital bone growth abnormalities. The three patients with CNS tumors were female. The histologies were glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, and malignant mixed oligodendroglioma. Two of the patients are long-term survivors after surgery + chemotherapy. Six children received eight courses of radiation therapy: 2 for Stage 4S neuroblastoma with respiratory compromise from an enlarging liver and 4 for retinoblastoma. The two infants with trilateral retinoblastoma received two courses of irradiation each: one of the treatment of intraocular tumor and a second, at an older age, for the pineal tumor. The most serious complication of anesthesia was a case of enterobacter cloacae sepsis in the central venous access line used for repetitively administering the anesthetic. Conclusion: The most common neonatal neoplasm histologic diagnoses are teratoma/germ cell tumor, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Neonatal neoplasms may be associated with congenital anomalies. Radiation therapy is administered infrequently in a population highly susceptible to late ill effects. When radiotherapy is required, anesthesia may be repetitively administered to aid in reproducible treatment

2000-04-01

194

Thyroiditis  

Science.gov (United States)

... the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes temporary thyrotoxicosis (high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) followed ... blood. These patients will experience the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, which are similar to hyperthyroidism (see Hyperthyroidism brochure ). ...

195

Pode a gestação influenciar a evolução de nódulo tireoidiano maligno? Can pregnancy influence the outcome of a malignant thyroid nodule?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um nódulo tireoidiano com padrões ultrassonográfico e citopatológico benignos que diminuiu mais de 50% em três anos e se modificou durante a gestação, constatando-se que era carcinoma papilífero. Conclui-se que a gestação pode aumentar o risco de malignização ou acelerar o crescimento de nódulo tireoidiano maligno preexistente, corroborando dados da literatura.The authors report the case of a patient with a thyroid nodule with benign sonographic and cytopathological features that had presented a decrease of more than 50% in three years and changed its pattern during her pregnancy, being diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. It was concluded that pregnancy can either increase the risk for malignant transformation or accelerate the growth of a malignant thyroid nodule, corroborating pre-existing literature data.

Lucy Kerr

2012-02-01

196

Pode a gestação influenciar a evolução de nódulo tireoidiano maligno? / Can pregnancy influence the outcome of a malignant thyroid nodule?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores descrevem um nódulo tireoidiano com padrões ultrassonográfico e citopatológico benignos que diminuiu mais de 50% em três anos e se modificou durante a gestação, constatando-se que era carcinoma papilífero. Conclui-se que a gestação pode aumentar o risco de malignização ou acelerar o cresc [...] imento de nódulo tireoidiano maligno preexistente, corroborando dados da literatura. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a patient with a thyroid nodule with benign sonographic and cytopathological features that had presented a decrease of more than 50% in three years and changed its pattern during her pregnancy, being diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. It was concluded that pregnancy can [...] either increase the risk for malignant transformation or accelerate the growth of a malignant thyroid nodule, corroborating pre-existing literature data.

Kerr, Lucy; Vidigal, Maria Edith Lutz; Rozenkwit, Deborah.

197

Contribution of scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology / Contribuição da cintilografia e ultrassonografia para a predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contribuição da cintilografia com 131I e da ultrassonografia na predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada em pacientes eutireoidianos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 102 pacientes com nódulos tireoidianos submetidos à punção aspir [...] ativa com agulha fina (PAAF), apresentando citologia indeterminada (neoplasia folicular). RESULTADOS: Malignidade foi encontrada em 19/25 (76%) nódulos suspeitos na ultrassonografia versus 5/77 (6,5%) naqueles sem características suspeitas. Quando a cintilografia com 131I mostrou nódulo hipo- ou hipercaptante, a chance de malignidade foi 38,5% e 2,5%, respectivamente, e em 10% dos pacientes esse exame foi inconclusivo. CONCLUSÕES: Cirurgia está indicada quando um nódulo tireoidiano com citologia indeterminada exibe características ultrassonográficas suspeitas. Quando não as exibe, a cintilografia com 131I pode dispensar a tireoidectomia se revelar captação correspondente ao nódulo, o que ocorre em metade dos casos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of 131I scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology in euthyroid patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 102 patients with thyroid nodules, submitted to FNAC and presenting an [...] indeterminate cytological diagnosis (follicular neoplasm). RESULTS: Malignancy was observed in 19/25 (76%) nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics versus 5/77 (6.5%) without suspicious findings. When 131I scintigraphy showed a cold or hot nodule, the chance of malignancy was 38.5% and 2.5%, respectively. This exam was inconclusive in 10% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is indicated when a thyroid nodule with indeterminate cytology exhibits suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics. Otherwise, 131I scintigraphy can exclude thyroidectomy when reveals uptake in the nodule, which is observed in half the cases.

Pedro Weslley, Rosário; Daniela Santos, Salles; Breno, Bessa; Saulo, Purisch.

198

Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

2013-06-01

199

ISL1 expression is not restricted to pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, but is also commonly found in well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms of extrapancreatic origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human insulin gene enhancer-binding protein islet-1 (ISL1) is a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of the neuroendocrine pancreatic cells. Recent studies identified ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. However, little is known about ISL1 expression in pancreatic poorly differentiated and in extrapancreatic well and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of ISL1 in 124 neuroendocrine neoplasms. Among pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, 12/13 with poor differentiation were negative, whereas 5/7 with good differentiation but a Ki67 >20% were positive. In extrapancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, strong positivity was found in Merkel cell carcinomas (25/25), pulmonary small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (21/23), medullary thyroid carcinomas (9/9), paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas (6/6), adrenal neuroblastomas (8/8) and head and neck neuroendocrine carcinomas (4/5), whereas no or only weak staining was recorded in pulmonary carcinoids (3/15), olfactory neuroblastomas (1/4) and basaloid head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (0/15). ISL1 stained the neuroendocrine carcinoma component of 5/8 composite carcinomas and also normal neuroendocrine cells in the thyroid, adrenal medulla, stomach and colorectum. Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms, regardless of their ISL1 expression, were usually TP53 positive. Our results show the almost ubiquitous expression of ISL1 in extrapancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms and neuroblastic malignancies and its common loss in pancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms. These findings modify the role of ISL1 as a marker for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and suggest that ISL1 has a broader involvement in differentiation and growth of neuroendocrine neoplasms than has so far been assumed. PMID:23503646

Agaimy, Abbas; Erlenbach-Wünsch, Katharina; Konukiewitz, Björn; Schmitt, Anja M; Rieker, Ralf J; Vieth, Michael; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Hartmann, Arndt; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Perren, Aurel; Klöppel, Günter

2013-07-01

200

Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

Milazzo Francesca

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? on incidence, benign/malignant ratio and multiplicity of rat mammary neoplasms - a preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is given of the effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? administration on mammary tumorigenesis in females of 3 rat strains, viz. the WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD. The 3 rat strains differed significantly in their spontaneous mammary tumor incidence. Female SD rats had the highest incidence (47%) and female BN/BiRij rats the lowest (17%). Female WAG/Rij rats had an intermediate incidence of 29%. The benign/malignant ratio in female WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD rats was 1.0, 2.0 and 7.3, respectively. The average number of mammary gland neoplasms per untreated tumor-bearing female was 1.2 in the WAG/Rij, 1.0 in the BN/BiRij and 1.6 in the SD, whereas the respective maximum numbers were 2, 1 and 5. Ovariohysterectomy almost entirely prevented mammary tumour formation in all 3 rat strains, whereas estrogen treatment enhanced it. In addition, estrogen treatment resulted in an increased number of mammary tumors per tumor-bearing female and changed the benign/malignant ratio into the direction of malignant. X-irradiation increased the mammary tumor incidence in all 3 rat strains, especially of the benign tumors. Estrogen potentiated the effect of irradiation. An effect of irradiation on mammary tumorigenesis was not observed in ovariohysterectomized females of all 3 rat strains. (author)

1986-01-01

202

Technetium-99m scintimammography in the diagnosis of malignant breast tumors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Technetium-99m (99mTc) tetrofosmin scintigraphy is a new imaging method for the diagnosis of various malignancies, such as lung, thyroid, and most frequently breast neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin breast scintigraphy in the detection of malignant breast disease. Methods. 99mTc -Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM) was performed in 28 patients with 30 breast lesions suspicious for malignancy. Standard mammography (MM) ...

2004-01-01

203

Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAs

2002-04-01

204

Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

2001-03-01

205

Prospective evaluation of multiparametric ultrasound and quantitative elastosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the clinical value of quantitative elastosonography compared with multiparametric ultrasound in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (32 males, 65 females, mean age, 54 years, range 20–81 years) with thyroid nodules previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated quantitative software (Elasto-Q, Toshiba) before surgery. Ultrasound examination and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. US features, color-Doppler pattern, and strain ratio value were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and sono-elastography were compared using X2 test and ROC curves. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of hypoechogenicity, irregular margins or suspicious halo features, CDUS blood flow pattern, and strain ratio in the diagnosis of malignant nodules were 56.8%, 62.2%, 54.1% and 97.3% and 71.7%, 93.3%, 28.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Elastosonography was more sensitive and specific than all ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy of the thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001). According to elastosonographic features the lesions characterized by strain ratio ?2 were highly likely to be of malignant nature (p < 0.0001, O.R. 396, 95%, CI: 44–3530). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that elastosonography with Q system is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be far more accurate than CDUS. These findings as well as those of previous studies support its use in selecting patients who are candidates for surgery

2012-10-01

206

Prospective evaluation of multiparametric ultrasound and quantitative elastosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To assess the clinical value of quantitative elastosonography compared with multiparametric ultrasound in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (32 males, 65 females, mean age, 54 years, range 20–81 years) with thyroid nodules previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated quantitative software (Elasto-Q, Toshiba) before surgery. Ultrasound examination and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. US features, color-Doppler pattern, and strain ratio value were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and sono-elastography were compared using X{sup 2} test and ROC curves. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of hypoechogenicity, irregular margins or suspicious halo features, CDUS blood flow pattern, and strain ratio in the diagnosis of malignant nodules were 56.8%, 62.2%, 54.1% and 97.3% and 71.7%, 93.3%, 28.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Elastosonography was more sensitive and specific than all ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy of the thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001). According to elastosonographic features the lesions characterized by strain ratio ?2 were highly likely to be of malignant nature (p < 0.0001, O.R. 396, 95%, CI: 44–3530). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that elastosonography with Q system is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be far more accurate than CDUS. These findings as well as those of previous studies support its use in selecting patients who are candidates for surgery.

Cantisani, Vito, E-mail: vito.cantisani@uniroma1.it [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy); D’Andrea, Vito [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Biancari, Fausto [Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland); Medvedyeva, Olena; Di Segni, Mattia; Olive, Matteo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy); Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; De Antoni E, Enrico [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Masciangelo, Raffaele [Department of Hygiene and Infectious Disease, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Frezzotti, Francesca [Department of Surgical Sciences, University “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Ricci, Paolo [Department of Radiology, Oncology, and Anatomy Pathology, University “La Sapienza”, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Itlay (Italy)

2012-10-15

207

Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Struma ovarii (SO) is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass loc...

Selvaggi Federico; Risio Domenico; Waku Mathew; Simo Daniela; Angelucci Domenico; D’Aulerio Alberto; Cotellese Roberto; Innocenti Paolo

2012-01-01

208

Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN, follicular neoplasm (FON and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN. This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359 and 72% (86/120 for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30% than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33% than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%. In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.

Deveci M Salih

2006-04-01

209

Evaluating the Degree of Conformity of Papillary Carcinoma and Follicular Carcinoma to the Reported Ultrasonographic Findings of Malignant Thyroid Tumor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change. The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001). Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001). A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001). The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas. The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for needle aspiration biopsy so that follicular carcinomas are not missed by too narrow and strict biopsy criteria.

Jeh, Su Kyoung; Jung, So Lyung; Kim, Bum Soo; Lee, Yoen Soo [The Catholic Medial Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

210

VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC pT1NxMxG1 (sclerous infiltrative 3 mm node on joint nodular goitre with metaplasia, hemorrhage, sclero hyalinisation and lymphomatous thyroiditis aspects. She was treated with L Thyroxin, chemotherapy (Cisplatinum, Dacarbazin and radioactive iodine therapy. After oncological evaluation she was addressed to the First Surgery Clinic for thyroidectomy totalisation and the treatment of an umbilical tumour occurred after the fourth cure (June-July 2005. The patient was evaluated by physical exam, ultrasonography and computed tomography (cervical and abdominal which revealed tumours in the cervical region and in the liver. Thyroidectomy totalisation with limphadenectomy and an abdominal laparoscopy and biopsy were performed. The pathologic exam diagnosed multiple metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM localized in the cervical region, in the liver, great omentum and cervical limphatic nodes. The postoperative follow-up revealed multiple bone mestastasis from the malignanat melanoma. The case particularities were: association of RD with 2 primitive malignant tumours (occult PTC and MM, both diagnosed histopathologically and the multiple bone metastasis developed in a short time.

D. Niculescu

2006-04-01

211

Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature / Tumor fibroso solitário maligno da tiroide: relato de caso e revisão da literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O tumor fibroso solitário (SFT) é uma neoplasia rara de células fusiformes que mais frequentemente envolve a pleura, raramente ocorrendo em áreas extratorácicas. Já foram descritos 26 casos de SFT da tiroide. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 60 anos de idade com um histórico de 8 meses de aumento [...] do pescoço associado à disfagia. A paciente foi submetida a uma hemitiroidectomia direita e foi diagnosticado um SFT de tiroide. A imuno-histoquímica mostrou resultados positivos para o marcador CD34, e o grande número de mitoses e a presença de atipia celular sugerem que o tumor era maligno. Em nosso conhecimento, este é o segundo caso de STF da tiroide maligno já relatado. Dada a rara ocorrência desses tumores, a indicação de tratamento adjuvante e o prognóstico são incertos. Recomenda-se o acompanhamento de longo prazo depois da ressecção cirúrgica. Abstract in english Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enla [...] rgement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

Wellington, Alves Filho; Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti, Mahmoud; Daniel Marin, Ramos; Vergilius José Furtado de, Araujo-Filho; Patricia Picciarelli de, Lima; Claudio Roberto, Cernea; Lenine Garcia, Brandão.

212

[Thyroiditis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common form of thyroiditis is undoubtedly chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis). It presents in the form of a small insignificant struma without any signs of inflammation, which is easily overlooked in our region (where once goiters due to iodine-deficiency have been common). Therapy is only indicated when the patient is disturbed by the size of the goiter or when he is hypothyroid. The disease can be easily diagnosed by palpation and investigation of autoantibodies. Repeated antibody-tests are not necessary, however, it is useful to measure TSH every two years since some of the patients develop hypothyroidism. In contrast to the relatively mild findings in Hashimoto's thyroiditis the subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (de Quervain) presents with an impressive clinical picture with pain, fever, malaise and elevated blood sedimentation rate, that may alarm the patient as well as the unexperienced physician. Treatment with prednisone is extremely effective and leads to complete remission. PMID:8296130

Bürgi, H

1994-01-18

213

Cytogenetic study of a nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid after irradiation for Hodgkin's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe cytogenetics of a case of nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid with papillary microcarcinoma following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. The chromosomal pattern found was very heterogeneous with a clonal abnormality of chromosome 10, among others. Together with some recent data from the literature, this finding may point to an important role of chromosome 10 abnormalities in the pathogenesis of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms

1991-01-01

214

Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

Penn, I.

1982-02-01

215

Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

1982-01-01

216

RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid nodules: studies in irradiated and not irradiated, malignant and benign thyroid lesions in children and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene may occur in both naturally occurring and radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinomas. Conflicting results on the frequency and type of RET/PTC rearrangements have been reported in relation to age, radiation exposure, and histological tumor variant. We designed the present study to evaluate in a single laboratory, using the same methodologies, the pattern of RET/PTC activation in thyroid tumors from different groups of patients (exposed or not exposed to radiation, children or adults, with benign or malignant tumors) in relationship to the above mentioned variables. We studied 154 patients with benign nodules (n = 65) or papillary thyroid cancer (n = 89). In the last group, 25 were Belarus children exposed to the post-Chernobyl radioactive fallout, 17 were Italian adults exposed to external radiotherapy for benign diseases, and 47 were Italian subjects (25 children and 22 adults) with no history of radiation exposure. Among patients with benign thyroid nodules, 21 were Belarus subjects (18 children and 3 adults) exposed to the post-Chernobyl radioactive fallout, 8 were Italian adults exposed to external radiation on the head and neck, and 36 were Italian adults with naturally occurring benign nodules. The overall frequency of RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid cancer was 55%. The highest frequency was found in post-Chernobyl children and was significantly higher (P = 0.02) than that found in Italian children not exposed to radiation, but not significantly higher than that found in adults exposed to external radiation. No difference of RET/PTC rearrangements was found between samples from irradiated (external x-ray) or not irradiated adult patients, as well as between children and adults with naturally occurring, not irradiated, thyroid cancer. When analyzing the type of RET/PTC rearrangement (RET/PTC1 or RET/PTC3), no major difference was apparent. In addition, eight cases with an unknown RET/PTC rearrangement and three cases with the concomitant expression of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were found. No significant correlation was observed between the frequency and/or the type of RET/PTC rearrangement and clinical-epidemiological features of the patients such as age at diagnosis, age at exposure, histological variant, gender and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) categories. RET/PTC rearrangements were also found in 52.4% of post-Chernobyl benign nodules, in 37.5% of benign nodules exposed to external radiation and in 13.9% of naturally occurring nodules (P = 0.005, between benign post-Chernobyl nodules and naturally occurring nodules). The relative frequency of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 in rearranged benign tumors showed no major difference. In conclusion, our results indicate that the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements in thyroid tumors is not restricted to the malignant phenotype, is not higher in radiation-induced tumors compared with those naturally occurring, is not different after exposure to radioiodine or external radiation, and is not dependent from young age. Other factors, probably influenced by ethnic or genetic background, may act independently from or in cooperation with radiation, to trigger the DNA damage leading to RET proto-oncogene activation. PMID:11443191

Elisei, R; Romei, C; Vorontsova, T; Cosci, B; Veremeychik, V; Kuchinskaya, E; Basolo, F; Demidchik, E P; Miccoli, P; Pinchera, A; Pacini, F

2001-07-01

217

BRAF--a new player in hematological neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

BRAF oncogenic kinase has become a target for specific therapy in oncology. Genetic characterization of a predominant V600E mutation in melanoma, thyroid cancer, and other tumors became a focus for developing specific inhibitors, such as vemurafenib or dabrafenib. Our knowledge regarding the role of mutated BRAF in hematological malignancies has grown quickly as a result of new genetic techniques such as next-generation sequencing. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the role of BRAF in lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms, with a focus on hairy-cell leukemia, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease. PMID:24495477

Machnicki, Marcin M; Stoklosa, Tomasz

2014-01-01

218

Second malignant neoplasms in digestive organs after childhood cancer: a cohort-nested case-control study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diag...

Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima; Anderson, Harald; Hawkins, Mike; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Sankila, Risto; El Fayech, Chiraz; Winter, Dave; Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile; Mo?ller, Torgil; Langmark, Froydis; Tryggvadottir, Laufey

2012-01-01

219

Thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Give the differential diagnosis for thyroiditis. (1) Acute (suppurative) (2) Subacute (granulomatous) (3) Autoimmune Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto's disease) Atrophic (primary myxedema) Juvenile Postpartum (4) Painless (nonpostpartum) (5) Riedel's struma...

R. C. Smallridge

1994-01-01

220

Evaluación clínica de la salud oral de niños con neoplasias malignas Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio de carácter descriptivo visó evaluar clínicamente niños con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relación entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatológicas. Pacientes y métodos: la salud bucal de 40 niños con neoplasias malignas (grupo I fue evaluada clínicamente mediante examen físico extra e intra oral, obtención del índice de placa visible, índice de sangrado gingival e índice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultáneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatológicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de éstos niños fue comparado al de niños saludables (grupo II. Resultados: los niños del grupo I presentaron índices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el índice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los niños del grupo I, sin embargo, sólo hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002. En el grupo I, 16 niños desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatológicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontáneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusión: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplásico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatológicas.Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neoplasm (group I through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II. Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002. In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

MA Gordón-Núñez

2005-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor metastatic to the thyroid: A case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ossifying fibromyxoid tumors are rare soft-tissue neoplasms, usually with an indolent course. However, atypical/malignant variants have been described, showing either local recurrence after complete excision or metastasis to the lungs, mediastinum, adrenals, or soft tissue. We report the case of an ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of the left ankle that metastasized to the lung and thyroid gland 12 years after the initial diagnosis and surgical treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this neoplasm metastasizing to the thyroid gland. PMID:24932821

Lastra, Ricardo R; Newman, Jason G; Brooks, John S; Huang, Jui-Han

2014-06-01

222

Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases; Stellenwert des Serum-Thyreoglobulinspiegels bei der Diagnostik benigner und maligner Schilddruesenerkrankungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroidvolume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist es, neue und bislang zum Teil kontrovers diskutierte Indikationen zur Bestimmung des Thyreoglobulins (Tg) bei unterschiedlichen Schilddruesenerkrankungen in der klinischen Routine zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: Die Studie umfasst folgende Kollektive: 250 gesunde Probanden, 50 Patienten mit euthyreoter Struma diffusa, 161 Patienten mit euthyreoter Knotenstruma (davon 108 operierte Faelle, wobei sich 17 Karzinome fanden), 60 hyperthyreote Patienten mit autonomer Knotenstruma, 150 Patienten mit Thyreoiditis Hashimoto und 30 hyperthyreote Patienten mit M. Basedow. Ergebnisse: Die Grenze des Referenzbereichs errechnete sich zu 30 ng Tg/ml. Die Analyse der diffusen Strumen zeigte eine lineare Abhaengigkeit des Tg-Spiegels von der Schilddruesengroesse, wobei der Erwartungswert in etwa dem Organvolumen in ml entsprach. Knotige Veraenderungen fuehrten zu einem ueberproportionalen Tg-Anstieg, der allerdings einer grossen Varianz unterlag und daher im Einzelfall nur schwer abzuschaetzen war. Von den 17 Patienten mit Schilddruesenkarzinom lag der Tg-Spiegel in 10 Faellen unterhalb des Erwartungswertes, 2 Patienten zeigten einen Tg-Wert von >1000 ng/ml. Bei Autonomien fand sich bezogen auf eine durch Substitution extrem supprimierte Vergleichsgruppe ein signifikant hoeherer mittlerer Tg-Spiegel. Aufgrund der hohen Varianz der Tg-Werte beider Kollektive war die Diagnose der Autonomie anhand der Tg-Bestimmung jedoch kaum moeglich. In der Gruppe mit Thyreoiditis Hashimoto zeigte sich im Vergleich zum Normalkollektiv ein erniedrigter Tg-Spiegel. Bei M. Basedow war die mittlere Tg-Konzentration signifikant hoeher als in der Vergleichsgruppe mit Struma diffusa, dennoch lagen 47% aller Werte noch im Referenzbereich. Schlussfolgerung: Hohe Tg-Werte fuehren bei Verdacht auf Malignitaet, Autonomie oder M. Basedow zu einer hoeheren Krankheitswahrscheinlichkeit. Da niedrige Tg-Spiegel die entsprechende Erkrankung

Rink, T.; Schroth, H.J. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum, Hanau (Germany); Dembowski, W.; Klinger, K. [Medizinische Klinik, St. Vinzenz Krankenhaus, Hanau (Germany)

2000-08-01

223

Assessment of malignancy for atypia of undetermined significance in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy evaluated by whole-slide image analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) in thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has a low to intermediate incidence of malignancy, and objective criteria could allow for improved assessment of malignancy. Consecutive thyroid FNA AUS cases with surgical excision were selected. Whole-slide images (WSIs) were evaluated for basic criteria by image analysis, including total groups and nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio. The 44 cases encompassed 23 benign and 21 malignant entities. Seventeen (81%) of 21 malignant cases and 11 (48%) of 23 benign cases had an N/C ratio of 0.50 or less. An N/C ratio of 0.50 or less had an odds ratio for malignancy of 4.64 (P = .03). A combined category of an N/C ratio of 0.50 or less and greater than 20 cell groups had an odds ratio for malignancy of 7.0 (P = .04). Establishing defined objective WSI criteria has the potential to provide an assessment of malignancy for AUS thyroid FNA cases. PMID:23690115

Collins, Brian T; Collins, Laura E

2013-06-01

224

Amyloid precursor protein as a potential marker of malignancy and prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common carcinoma of the thyroid gland and has a relatively favorable prognosis. However, it is important to identify PTC characteristics that indicate a high risk for recurrence and metastasis. Recent data indicate that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is involved in cell adhesion, motility and proliferation. At present, the expression levels of APP and their prognostic significance in PTC have not been studied. In the present study, the APP ge...

2012-01-01

225

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%. Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma. The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%: the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.

Ayper KAÇAR

2010-05-01

226

Primary and secondary neoplasms of the spleen.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the exception of lymphoma involving the spleen, other primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and infrequently encountered. Primary malignant neoplasms involving the spleen are lymphoma and angiosarcoma. Primary benign neoplasms involving the spleen include hemangioma, lymphangioma, littoral cell angioma and splenic cyst and solid lesions such as hamartoma and inflammatory pseudotumor. PMID:20713317

Kaza, R K; Azar, S; Al-Hawary, M M; Francis, I R

2010-01-01

227

Primary and secondary neoplasms of the spleen  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract With the exception of lymphoma involving the spleen, other primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and infrequently encountered. Primary malignant neoplasms involving the spleen are lymphoma and angiosarcoma. Primary benign neoplasms involving the spleen include hemangioma, lymphangioma, littoral cell angioma and splenic cyst and solid lesions such as hamartoma and inflammatory pseudotumor.

Azar, S.; Al-Hawary, M.M.; Francis, I.R.

2010-01-01

228

Primary and secondary neoplasms of the spleen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the exception of lymphoma involving the spleen, other primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and infrequently encountered. Primary malignant neoplasms involving the spleen are lymphoma and angiosarcoma. Primary benign neoplasms involving the spleen include hemangioma, lymphangioma, littoral cell angioma and splenic cyst and solid lesions such as hamartoma and inflammatory pseudotumor.

Kaza, R. K.; Azar, S.; Al-hawary, M. M.; Francis, I. R.

2010-01-01

229

[Guideline for therapy of malignant thyroid tumours: pleading for an actualization].  

Science.gov (United States)

Total (or near total) thyroidectomy (TE) followed by radioiodine ((131)I) ablation (RIA) of residual thyroid tissue is considered to be the ideal treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the actual guideline of the DGN (German Society of Nuclear Medicine) recommends for the so-called papillary micro-carcinoma of the thyroid (PMC) no further therapeutic strategy (no complete TE, no (131)I-ablation of the remaining lobe). PMC has been defined as papillary carcinoma measuring 1 cm (T1) in maximal diameter according to the World Health Organization classification system for thyroid tumours (1988). The new WHO-classification (starting in 2003) defines the T1-tumour measuring 2 cm in maximal diameter. The authors demand a new, modern guideline, following the new WHO classification. This includes, that despite the overall excellent prognosis for patients with PMC, the treatment of patients with T1-tumours of the new WHO-classification (including the "old" PMC) should be no different from the treatment of patients with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, i.e. complete surgery (TE and central lymph node dissection) followed by RIA of residual thyroid tissue. The authors argue that it is not appropriate to consider the tumour size as the single most important key factor for therapy and prognosis. Even small tumours may have poor prognostic factors, such as lymph node metastasis, multifocality or molecular characteristics (expression of oncogenes). PMID:15316578

Wieler, H; Bartenstein, P; Becker, H P; Bell, E; Decker, P; Jacob, R; Kirsch, C M; Musholt, T; Schwab, R; Schwerdtfeger, P; Trampert, L

2004-08-01

230

Estimate of the uncertainties in the relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms following proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical calculations have shown that proton therapy can reduce the incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) compared with photon therapy for patients with prostate cancer. However, the uncertainties associated with calculations of SMN risk had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to quantify the uncertainties in projected risks of secondary cancer following contemporary proton and photon radiotherapies for prostate cancer. We performed a rigorous propagation of errors and several sensitivity tests to estimate the uncertainty in the ratio of relative risk (RRR) due to the largest contributors to the uncertainty: the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the dose-response model for radiation carcinogenesis and interpatient variations in absorbed dose. The interval of values for the radiation weighting factor for neutrons and the dose-response model were derived from the literature, while interpatient variations in absorbed dose were taken from actual patient data. The influence of each parameter on a baseline RRR value was quantified. Our analysis revealed that the calculated RRR was insensitive to the largest contributors to the uncertainty. Uncertainties in the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the shape of the dose-risk model and interpatient variations in therapeutic and stray doses introduced a total uncertainty of 33% to the baseline RRR calculation.

2010-12-07

231

Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16 acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy (P = .02; longest for standard-risk patients) and presence of high hyperdiploidy (P = .07) were related to increased risk of SMN. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) methylates 6MP and its metabolites, and thus reduces cellular levels of cytotoxic 6-thioguanine nucleotides. Of 524 patients who had erythrocyte TPMT activity measured, the median TPMT activity in 9 patients developing an SMN was significantly lower than in the 515 that did not develop an SMN (median, 12.1 vs 18.1 IU/mL; P = .02). Among 427 TPMT wild-type patients for whom the 6MP dose was registered, those who developed SMN received higher average 6MP doses than the remaining patients (69.7 vs 60.4 mg/m2; P = .03). This study indicates that the duration and intensity of 6MP/MTX maintenance therapy of childhood ALL may influence the risk of SMNs in childhood ALL. PMID:19224761

Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Al-Modhwahi, Ibrahim; Andersen, Mette Klarskov; Behrendtz, Mikael; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik; Heyman, Mats; Kristinsson, Jon; Nersting, Jacob; Nygaard, Randi; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Vettenranta, Kim; Weinshilboum, Richard

2009-06-11

232

Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

Taddei, Phillip J; Mirkovic, Dragan; Zhang Rui; Giebeler, Annelise; Harvey, Mark; Newhauser, Wayne D [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Mahajan, Anita; Kornguth, David; Woo, Shiao, E-mail: ptaddei@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

2010-12-07

233

RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC, and other forms of thyroid cancer: molecular genetics and therapeutic advances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the ratio...

Lodish, Maya B.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

2008-01-01

234

Clinical value of virtual bronchoscopy in early diagnosis of central malignant lung neoplasm in high risk patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Virtual bronchoscopy (CT-VB) is a recently developed 3D visualization technique that employs thin-section spiral computed tomographic data of the thorax for non-invasive evaluation of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of multislice-CT virtual bronchoscopy in detecting early endobronchial manifestation of central lung cancer with that of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. For this purpose, a group of 50 high risk patients (cigarette pack-years, long standing history of COLD) underwent both FOB and CT-VB investigation. Multislice CT was performed using the following parameters: collimation, 1 mm; pitch factor, 0.937-1.375; reconstruction interval, 0.8 mm and postprocessing was based on volume rendering technique. Images of eight standard tracheo-bronchial sections were obtained from each patient both during FOB and CT-VB and were independently interpreted respectively by a pneumologist and a bronchiseptica. Airway evaluation was based on the analysis of changes in the mucosal architecture, the shape of the ostia and of the carinae and on the presence of secretion deposits as early signs of tumor onset. The sensitivity of virtual bronchoscopy in discriminating diseased from healthy patients was 94 % and its specificity 65 %. Its positive predictive value 56 % and its negative predictive value 96 %. According to the ROC analysis, except for the assessment of the secretion deposits, the other three criteria evaluated separately during virtual bronchoscopic assessment of the airways contributed equally in discriminating diseased from disease-free patients (areas under curve ranging between 0,797 and 0,845). The best AUC was associated with the evaluation of the sum of all three parameters together (0,858). Nevertheless, FOB and CT-VB results in the evaluation of the shape of the ostia resulted to agree moderately while just a fair agreement was observed with respect to the evaluation of the mucosal architecture and of the shape of the carinae (Kappa values ranging between 0,310 and 0,520). As to the evaluation of the secretion deposits, for example, the two diagnostic tests showed very poor agreement (negative Kappa value) concluding, this preliminary evaluation indicates that virtual bronchoscopy combined with the evaluation of MS-CT axial scans may be a promising and non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of patients at high risk of developing central lung neoplasm and can add important information about an intraluminal tumor and its relation to surrounding structures. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the potentials of this promising method as a tool to evaluate endoluminal growth in tumorous lung lesions. Even though it showed just fair agreement with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the evaluation of changes in the form of the carinae, in the shape of the ostia and the accurate analysis of modifications in the mucosal architecture as early signs of tumor growth, showed to be three valid separate diagnostic criteria for airway assessment by means of virtual bronchoscopy. From a technical point of view, multislice-CT allowed the optimization of examination parameters such as acquisition time and primary collimation resulting not only in a reduction of respiratory and pulsation artefacts but also in a dramatic improvement of the z-axis and hence a much better resolution of the 3-dimensional reconstructions. As a consequence, MS-CT virtual bronchoscopy provides enhanced detail fidelity and represents a valid diagnostic tool for the evaluation of the whole tracheo-bronchial tree up to its third generation bronchi. (author)

2003-01-01

235

Expression of DNA repair proteins MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions: An immunohistochemical study  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background DNA repair is a major defense mechanism, which contributes to the maintenance of genetic sequence, and minimizes cell death, mutation rates, replication errors, DNA damage persistence and genomic instability. Alterations in the expression levels of proteins participating in DNA repair mechanisms have been associated with several aspects of cancer biology. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of DNA repair proteins MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT in benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Material/Methods MSH2, MLH1 and MGMT protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from 90 patients with benign and malignant lesions. Results The expression levels of MLH1 was significantly upregulated in cases with malignant compared to those with benign thyroid lesions (p=0.038). The expression levels of MGMT was significantly downregulated in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p=0.001). Similar associations for both MLH1 and MGMT between cases with papillary carcinoma and hyperplastic nodules were also noted (p=0.014 and p=0.026, respectively). In the subgroup of malignant thyroid lesions, MSH2 downregulation was significantly associated with larger tumor size (p=0.031), while MLH1 upregulation was significantly associated with the presence of lymphatic and vascular invasion (p=0.006 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions Alterations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH2 and MLH1 and the direct repair protein MGMT may result from tumor development and/or progression. Further studies are recommended to draw definite conclusions on the clinical significance of DNA repair proteins in thyroid neoplasia.

Giaginis, Constantinos; Michailidi, Christina; Stolakis, Vasileios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Tsourouflis, Gerasimos; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Theocharis, Stamatios

2011-01-01

236

Malignant Transformation of a Mature Cystic Ovarian Teratoma into Thyroid Carcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Strumal Carcinoid: A Case Report and Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is an infrequent, often asymptomatic event. We report the first example of a struma ovarii with a focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (a), mucinous adenocarcinoma (b), and strumal carcinoid tumor (c)—all three arising in one mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. From our reviews, we found limited data to guide management when these malignant foci occur within an MCT. Consideration should be given to thyroidecto...

Hinshaw, Hilary D.; Smith, Ashlee L.; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Olawaiye, Alexander B.

2012-01-01

237

Plasma thyroglobulin in detecting thyroid carcinoma after childhood head and neck irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The level of thyroglobulin in plasma was measured in 904 subjects with a history of head and neck irradiation during childhood to evaluate its potential value in screening for and differentiating thyroid neoplasms. Mean plasma thyroglobulin level was significantly elevated in subjects with nodular thyroid disease versus those without evidence of nodules (49.8 versus 27.0 ng/ml). However, the overlap with normal subjects does not allow thyroglobulin assays to serve as the only screening procedure. The mean levels in subjects with benign and malignant thyroid nodules were indistinguishable (48.8 versus 53.9 ng/ml). Thirteen percent of otherwise normal-appearing subjects had elevated values that may represent clinically inapparent thyroid disease. It is concluded that in screening large numbers of persons at risk for thyroid neoplasia, thyroglobulin assays are useful in combination with other modes of evaluation. The assay is without value in distinguishing benign from malignant disease

1977-01-01

238

Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82–0.94] in thyroid nodules. The positive and negative predictive values of the model are 83% (95%CI: 76%–91% and 79% (95%CI: 72%–86%, respectively. Conclusion An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. This model warrants further validation testing in prospective clinical trials.

Eberhardt John

2009-08-01

239

Investigation of heavy trace elements in neoplastic and non-neoplastic human thyroid tissue: A study by proton-induced X-ray emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Within the context of developing techniques to facilitate the diagnosis of the thyroid diseases, the elemental composition of pathological thyroid tissue (neoplastic and non-neoplastic) was investigated by proton induced X-ray emission. The proton induced X-ray has been widely sued as a sensitive technique for trace elemental analysis in both biological and medical fields. Materials and Methods: The twenty-eight specimen of thyroid tissue (neoplastic, non-neoplastic and grossly normal tissue ) were obtained from operation of 14 patients with different thyroid diseases. Determination of the heavy trace elements distribution (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, I) was carried out by irradiating of the sample surface with a focused proton beam. Results: Fourteen grossly normal, eleven non-neoplastic and three malignant thyroid neoplasm cases were diagnosed. Trace element contents of the International Atomic Energy Agency M A-B-3/T M fluorescence in situ hybridisation tissue was used as standard for calibration of PIXE set up. Conclusion : The concentration of the heavy trace elements Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo in neoplasm of thyroid were higher than other samples. The concentration of the heavy trace elements, Fe, As, Br, Rb, I, are found to be much lower in neoplasm of thyroid than non-malignant and grossly normal thyroid tissue. The concentration of the Se, Co and I in this study is consistent with the others study but there are differences in the concentration of Fe in our study and consistent with the Iodine concentration was 11 times lower, on average in neoplasm compared with non-neoplastic tissue of thyroid. The low levels of I in thyroid neoplasm are correlated to some pathological factors

2004-03-01

240

Thyroid effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both "1"3"1I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to "1"3"1I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

1985-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

2011-01-01

242

Malignant thyroglossal duct cyst with synchronous occult thyroid gland papillary carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 52-year-old male was referred to our department with complaints of a painless midline neck swelling. Clinico-radiological evaluation suggested a 6 × 5 cm thyroglossal cyst with non-palpable nodules in isthmus and right lobe of thyroid gland. FNAC of the thyroglossal cyst was suggestive of papillary carcinoma. He underwent Sistrunk's operation, total thyroidectomy, and central compartment neck dissection. Co-existence of papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland and thyroglossal cyst is a rare presentation and in this report, we describe our management and propose an evidence-based algorithm to assist decision-making in the management of these patients in future. PMID:24083187

Senthilkumar, R; Neville, J F; Aravind, R

2013-09-01

243

Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica / Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expr [...] essão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10), bócio adenomatoso (n = 8), adenoma folicular (n = 12), adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3), carcinoma papilífero (n = 29), carcinoma folicular (n = 8), carcinoma insular (n = 4), carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4) e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6), selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL), no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%), adenoma folicular (16,7%), carcinoma papilífero (96,6%), carcinoma folicular (12,5%), carcinoma insular (50%), carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100%) e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%). Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistoc [...] hemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10), adenomatoid goiter (n = 8), follicular adenoma (n = 12), Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3), papillary carcinoma (n = 29), follicular carcinoma (n = 8), poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4), Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4), anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6), which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%), follicular adenoma (16.7%), papillary carcinoma (96.6%), follicular carcinoma (50%), Hürthle cell carcinoma (100%) and anaplastic carcinoma (50%). Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

Marilene Paladino, Rosa; Cristina T., Kanamura; Marcos Brasilino de, Carvalho.

244

Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10, bócio adenomatoso (n = 8, adenoma folicular (n = 12, adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3, carcinoma papilífero (n = 29, carcinoma folicular (n = 8, carcinoma insular (n = 4, carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4 e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6, selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL, no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%, adenoma folicular (16,7%, carcinoma papilífero (96,6%, carcinoma folicular (12,5%, carcinoma insular (50%, carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100% e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita.BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistochemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10, adenomatoid goiter (n = 8, follicular adenoma (n = 12, Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 29, follicular carcinoma (n = 8, poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4, Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4, anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6, which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%, follicular adenoma (16.7%, papillary carcinoma (96.6%, follicular carcinoma (50%, Hürthle cell carcinoma (100% and anaplastic carcinoma (50%. Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

Marilene Paladino Rosa

2005-02-01

245

Recurrent papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential. Subtle architectural disorder detected by quantitative analysis in DAXX-immunostained tissue sections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to identify subtle changes in the so-called architectural predominant order in nonrecurrent and recurrent papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP). Quantitative analysis was performed with a software package written in LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) in DAXX-immunostained tissue sections. Twelve cases of PUNLMP with papillary fronds sectioned lengthwise through the core were investigated and subdivided as follows: 7 nonrecurrent and 5 recurrent PUNLMP cases. Six cases of normal urothelium (NU) were included. When an epithelial thickness threshold is set at 108 ?m (ie, 400 pixels), there is a complete separation between NU and PUNLMP; however, nonrecurrent and recurrent cases fall in the same range of thickness. In setting a nuclear elongation factor threshold at 2.1, there are differences between the 2 PUNLMP groups, recurrent PUNLMP and NU cases, showing a somewhat similar proportion of elongated nuclei. The nuclear orientation separates nonrecurrent from recurrent PUNLMP groups; however, NU cases do not appear as a separate group from the 2 PUNLMP groups. In combining epithelial thickness, nuclear elongation, and orientation in a multivariate analysis, the 2 PUNLMP groups appear separate between them and from NU. NU is less thickened than the 2 PUNLMP groups and shows a combination of elongated and less elongated nuclei. Elongated nuclei are more numerous in nonrecurrent PUNLMP, whereas the nuclei in recurrent PUNLMP are less elongated and less polarized than in the other group. Such finding can be used routinely to identify those PUNLMP patients who will have recurrence. PMID:24565208

Castellini, Paolo; Montironi, Maria A; Zizzi, Antonio; Scarpelli, Marina; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Paone, Nicola; Montironi, Rodolfo

2014-04-01

246

Evaluación clínica de la salud oral de niños con neoplasias malignas / Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Este estudio de carácter descriptivo visó evaluar clínicamente niños con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relación entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatológicas. Pacientes y métodos: la salud bucal de 40 niños con neoplasias malignas (grupo I) [...] fue evaluada clínicamente mediante examen físico extra e intra oral, obtención del índice de placa visible, índice de sangrado gingival e índice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultáneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatológicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de éstos niños fue comparado al de niños saludables (grupo II). Resultados: los niños del grupo I presentaron índices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el índice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los niños del grupo I, sin embargo, sólo hubo diferencia estadísticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002). En el grupo I, 16 niños desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatológicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontáneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusión: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplásico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatológicas. Abstract in english Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neo [...] plasm (group I) through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II). Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002). In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

Gordón-Núñez, MA; Pereira Pinto, L; Souza, BL; Oliveira, PT; Fernandes, MZ.

247

Malignant transformation of a mature cystic ovarian teratoma into thyroid carcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and strumal carcinoid: a case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is an infrequent, often asymptomatic event. We report the first example of a struma ovarii with a focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (a), mucinous adenocarcinoma (b), and strumal carcinoid tumor (c)-all three arising in one mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. From our reviews, we found limited data to guide management when these malignant foci occur within an MCT. Consideration should be given to thyroidectomy followed by total-body scanning and serum studies for foci of thyroid carcinoma and adjuvant therapy with thyroidectomy and radioablation if residual disease is identified (a). Additionally, extrapolating from data for mucinous adenocarcinomas, consideration could be given to adjuvant chemotherapy after appropriate staging (b). Strumal carcinoid tumors should be treated as tumors of low malignant potential. Observation is appropriate if after complete staging, no invasive implants are noted (c). PMID:23029627

Hinshaw, Hilary D; Smith, Ashlee L; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Olawaiye, Alexander B

2012-01-01

248

Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Branchial Cleft Cyst without a Thyroid Primary: Navigating a Diagnostic Dilemma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of papillary thyroid carcinoma incidentally found within a branchial cleft cyst. Only four other cases have been described in the literature. A total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection was performed, and no evidence of occult primary disease was found after review of fine sections. Branchial cleft cysts are the most common lateral neck masses. Ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst is an unusual phenomenon, and papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from this tissue is extremely rare. Clinicians are left with a diagnostic dilemma when presented with thyroid tissue neoplasm within a neck cyst in the absence of a thyroid primary-is this a case of metastatic disease with a missed primary or rather carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue? A thorough discussion of the etiologies of these lateral neck masses is reviewed including the embryogenesis of thyroid tissue in a branchial cleft cyst. The prognosis of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma in lateral neck cysts without a primary site identified appears to be good following excision of the cyst and total thyroidectomy. Other management recommendations regarding these unique lateral neck malignancies are also presented. PMID:23956904

Ruhl, Douglas S; Sheridan, Mark F; Sniezek, Joseph C

2013-01-01

249

Neoplasm localization with radionuclides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tumor scintigraphic localization of neoplasms can be done in two ways: indirectly and directly. The first method shows alternations of the normal structure of the organ, such as 'cold lesions' in liver and thyroid. Abnormalities in function as increased permeability of the blood barrier results from abnormal deposition of the radionuclide in the brain scintigram of a patient with neoplasm. Increased focal areas of uptake of bone-seeking radionuclides are very characteristic of metastases. The direct methods depend on preferential uptake of the radionuclide by the neoplastic tissue resulting from altered metabolism (e.g. Se-75). Other agents such as Gallium-67 have affinity for neoplasms. Another approach is to use antineoplastic agents and radioactive antibodies which will localize in the tumor. At this stage the most useful neoplasm seeking agents are Gallium-67 citrate and 111In-Bleomycin, even though infections can give false positives. The possibility should be considered of enhancing the uptake of radionuclides by neoplastic cells using increased O2 concentration. (orig.)

1979-01-01

250

Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 is a Specific Marker of Benign but Not Malignant Feline Lung Tumours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feline lung tumours are currently subclassified according to the criteria of the World Health Organisation, but this scheme contains overlap in the tumour phenotype. The aims of the present study were to re-evaluate the histological features of feline lung tumours and to correlate these with expression of the markers thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 and Ki67. TTF-1 was found to be a highly specific marker for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung tissue and thyroid tissue, but was expressed only weakly in invasive lung tumours. A combined semiquantitative score for Ki67 and TTF-1 expression correlated well with differentiation and invasive behaviour of the tumours and may thus be of potential value for evaluation of feline lung tumours. PMID:24813152

Kujawa, A; Olias, P; Böttcher, A; Klopfleisch, R

2014-07-01

251

Malignant hyperthermia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant hyperthermia refers to covert myopathies, which do not affect the individual during daily life activities, but may lead to life-threatening tachycardia, rigor, labile blood pressure and most importantly high-grade temperature when exposed to general anesthesia. This conditions is mimicked by thyroid storm, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, phaeochromocytoma and sepsis. We present a presumptive case of malignant hyperthermia. (author)

2004-01-01

252

Evaluation of dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid disorders by means of iodine-124 and PET  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of {sup 124}I positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Phantom studies to assess the accuracy of PET were performed using an EEC phantom with spheres of different diameters filled with 3-30 MBq of {sup 124}I. Patient dosimetry was derived from PET data obtained 1-13 days after simultaneous oral administration of a therapeutic dose of {sup 131}I and a diagnostic dose of {sup 124}I. The obtained data were compared with findings from intratherapeutic probe measurements and clinical outcome. The phantom studies confirmed that {sup 124}I can be quantitated by PET (imprecision {<=}10%), and volumetry is feasible for nodules <13 mm (imprecision {<=}20%). Any influence of contamination with {sup 123}I or the simultaneous administration of {sup 131}I on the accuracy of the PET quantification and the probe measurements was ruled out by phantom measurements with solutions of {sup 131}I, {sup 124}I and{sup 123}I in various ratios. In autonomous nodular goitres, radioiodine uptake measured by PET varied from 25.4% to 64.3% and was not significantly different from that obtained by a scintillation probe (24.1%-73.1%, correlation coefficient r=0.91). Comparison of uptake and effective half-life in normal tissue versus autonomous nodules revealed significant differences in uptake but not in effective half-life [uptake 2.0-8.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in normal tissue vs 12.6-29.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in nodules; half-life 97.8-156.7 h in normal tissue vs 73.3-192.3 h in nodules]. Calculated radiation doses ranged between 177 and 633 Gy for autonomous nodules and between 47 and 126 Gy for normal tissue. In thyroid cancer patients, doses between 350 and 1,420 Gy were achieved in thyroid remnants and between 70 and 170 Gy in tumour metastases. It is concluded that {sup 124}I and PET are suitable for evaluation of the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid diseases. The applied technique might be particularly useful for quantitative dose-response studies in radioiodine treatment and further investigations of stunning phenomena. (orig.)

Eschmann, Susanne M.; Bilger, Kilian; Kupferschlaeger, Juergen; Thelen, Marcel H.; Dohmen, Bernhard M.; Besenfelder, Hariolf; Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Reischl, Gerald [Division of Radiopharmacy, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

2002-06-01

253

Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).

Deveci, M. Salih; Deveci, Gu?zin; Livolsi, Virginia A.; Baloch, Zubair W.

2006-01-01

254

Diagnostic imaging and therapy of neuroectodermal neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computed tomography (CT) and /sup 123/I- or /sup 131/I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy were compared for accuracy in tumor detection in 47 patients with neuroectodermal neoplasms. MIBG concentration was found in 12 of 13 pheochromocytomas, 12 of 12 neuroblastomas, 5 of 9 carcinoids, and 1 of 4 glomus tumors. MIBG uptake was not observed in medullary thyroid carcinomas, oat-cell carcinomas, Merkel tumors, 1 gastrinoma, and 2 unclassified neuroectodermal neoplasms. With regard to the different tumor manifestations, the sensitivity in detecting pheochromocytomas, neuroblastomas, and carcinoids was 87%, 77%, and 100% for CT, and 83%, 100% and 71% for MIBG scintigraphy. MIBG scintiscan was superior in the detection of small adrenal pheochromocytomas (< 1 cm diameter) and in the depiction of small bone metastases and bone marrow infiltration from neuroblastoma. In all, 25 cycles of high-dose MIBG therapy were performed in eight patients with surgically incurable tumors (4 malignant pheochromocytomas, 1 neuroblastoma, 3 carcinoids). The total therapeutic activity applied was 3.55-43.29 GBq /sup 131/I-MIBG. Tumor kinetics of MIBG were investigated before and during treatment. One patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma has been in complete remission for a follow-up period of 36 months since completion of treatment, and another patient is in partial remission. Tumor reduction or no change was observed in four patients. Two patients died of nonconcentrating recurrence and metastases.

Adolph, J.; Kimmig, B.

1989-01-01

255

Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia) / Presencia de tumores mamarios malignos con metástasis a pulmón en perras en Medellín (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Definir la presencia de metástasis pulmonar en perras con tumores mamarios. Materiales y métodos. En una muestra de 30 perras atendidas en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) con diagnóstico de tumores mamarios, al momento de la consulta, fueron regi [...] strados las variables clínicas y el grado de compromiso de las glándulas mamarias y de los nódulos linfáticos. Imágenes radiográficas latero-laterales y ventro-dorsales del tórax fueron tomadas para la identificación de hallazgos radiográficos compatibles con metástasis pulmonar. Biopsias mamarias afectadas fueron sometidas a estudio histopatológico y clasificación del tipo de tumor. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. La edad promedio (± error estándar) al diagnóstico clínico fue 10.87 ± 2.65 años de edad. La raza más frecuentemente afectada fue la French poodle (46.6%) seguida de perros cruzados (13.3%) y Schnauzer (10%). El carcinoma fue el tumor más hallado (81%) seguido del adenoma (8.1%) y otros tipos de tumor (10.8%). Las glándulas mamarias más afectadas fueron las inguinales derecha (70%) e izquierda (66.6%). Cinco de las 30 pacientes (16.6%), presentaron metástasis a pulmón. Entre estas, 4 de 5 (80%) tenían carcinoma complejo. Conclusiones. El carcinoma complejo fue la neoplasia más frecuente y es el tipo más relacionado con metástasis pulmonar. Abstract in english Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia) were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grad [...] e of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error) age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6%) cross-breed (13.3%) and Schnauzer (10%) were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%), followed by adenoma (8.1%), and other types (10.8%). The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively). Five out of 30 bitches (16.6%) had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80%) were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

Gómez J, Brigitte; Ramírez R, María; Maldonado E, Juan.

256

Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

1982-01-01

257

Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

Guhamallick M

2008-01-01

258

Cost-effectiveness of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Heinzel, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Juelich (Germany)

2014-01-15

259

Notable decrease of malignant pleural effusion after treatment with sorafenib in radioiodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is usually associated with a rapid fatal outcome and should be recognized as a grim prognostic indicator. A standard therapeutic strategy has not been established for this situation. Here, we report a radioiodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) patient in whom a notable decrease of MPE was achieved after treatment with sorafenib. Patient Findings: A 50-year-old patient underwent a total thyroidectomy and resection of recurrence for poorly differentiated FTC followed by radioiodine therapy with a negative whole body scan. One year later, dissection of the inferior lobe of the left lung was performed because two fluorodeoxyglucose-avid nodules were identified; pathological examination revealed a metastatic poorly differentiated FTC. Half a year later, he was referred to our clinic because of cough, thoracic pain, nausea, and loss of appetite. Chest computed tomography showed right lung multiple nodules, left pleural effusion, and left lung collapse with left-sided pleural thickening. We treated him with sorafenib. Clinical and radiographic assessments were performed periodically. Summary: Symptoms and signs improved dramatically and continuously after initiation of sorafenib treatment. A duration of more than 12 weeks of apparent reduction of pleural effusion was achieved, which was confirmed by consecutive computed tomography examinations. Despite grade 1 alopecia, no other obvious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusions: As a grim prognostic indicator for patients with DTC, no standard treatment recommendation for pleural effusion exists. Targeted therapy using sorafenib may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of MPE caused by FTC. PMID:24684401

Liu, Min; Shen, Yan; Ruan, Maomei; Li, Minghua; Chen, Libo

2014-07-01

260

Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

Kim Hoon

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies.

Glazer, G.M.

1986-01-01

262

A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122) were reexamined in 1985 and 1986, and information on the subjects' and their mothers' milk and vegetable consumption during the fallout period was obtained by telephone interview (n = 3545). After exclusions to eliminate missing data and confounding factors, 2473 subjects were available for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated by combining consumption data with radionuclide deposition rates provided by the US Department of Energy and a survey of milk producers. Relative risk models adjusted for age, sex, and state were fitted using maximum likelihood to period prevalence data for thyroid carcinomas, neoplasms, and nodules. RESULTS--Doses ranged from 0 mGy to 4600 mGy, and averaged 170 mGy in Utah. There was a statistically significant excess of thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant; n = 19), with an increase in excess relative risk of 0.7% per milligray. A relative risk for thyroid neoplasms of 3.4 was observed among 169 subjects exposed to doses greater than 400 mGy. Positive but nonsignificant dose-response slopes were found for carcinomas and nodules. CONCLUSIONS--Exposure to Nevada Test Site-generated radioiodines was associated with an excess of thyroid neoplasms. The conclusions are limited by the small number of exposed individuals and the low incidence of thyroid neoplasms

1993-11-03

263

The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.

Raymon H. Grogan

2010-05-01

264

Uncommon presentations of thyroid carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common presentation for carcinoma of the thyroid is as a cold nodule in the thyroid gland. Other appearances for thyroid carcinoma do exist, however; two such examples are presented. Incidence and presentation of thyroid carcinoma is discussed, as are guidelines for detecting patients that have a higher than average incidence of thyroid malignancy. PMID:3791789

Bartold, K P; Abghari, R; Sangi, V B

1986-11-01

265

Primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland: case report with review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary mucinous thyroid carcinoma (PMTC) are extremely rare lesions that are histologically indistinguishable from mucinous carcinoma of other sites. We describe the clinicopathological, histological and immunohistochemical features of this rare tumour with a review of the literature. We describe a case of thyroid tumour, in 56-year-old Tunisian man, composed of small nests and sheets of malignant epithelial cells associated with extensive extracellular mucin that entrapped the follicular parenchyma of thyroid. Thyroglobulin and thyroid-specific-transcription factor 1 (TTFl) were focally positive. Follow-up did not reveal another neoplasm at other sites. Based on these features, we classified this tumour as PMTC. Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland can be a cause of pitfall in differential diagnosis. For correct diagnosis, complete clinical history, restricted histological criteria and immunohistochemical panel are necessary. PMID:24466763

Mnif, H; Chakroun, A; Charfi, S; Ellouze, S; Ghorbel, M; Sallemi-Boudawara, T

2013-08-01

266

Multiple primary malignancies and subtle mucocutaneous lesions associated with a novel PTEN gene mutation in a patient with Cowden syndrome: Case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cowden syndrome (CS) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with increased risk of breast, thyroid, and endometrial cancers, and is characterized by development of benign mucocutaneous lesions. Case presentation Here we report on a 58-year-old woman with multiple primary malignancies and subtle mucocutaneous lesions such as small polyps and wart-like papulas. Over a period of 23 years, she developed various malignant neoplasms includi...

Vasov?ák Peter; Šenke?íková Mária; Hatlová Jana; K?epelová Anna

2011-01-01

267

[Malignant tumor of nasal cavity during pregnancy. Case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant neoplasm of the head and neck is rare disease of pregnant woman. The most common localization of this tumors are larynx, thyroid, melanoma and lymphoma. Many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (routinely used in patients with cancer) are contraindicated in the presence of pregnancy. The authors presents a case of a 28-year-old female with malignant tumor of nasal cavity during the 37 week of pregnancy. We performed caesarean section and radical surgery (lateral rhinotomy) with removing of the tumor. The histological examination result was: esthesioneuroblastoma. 5-weeks after surgery radiotherapy was realized. During the 6-year follow-up no recurrence was observed. PMID:23200566

Skorek, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Czes?aw; Preis, Krzysztof; Kici?ski, Krzysztof; I?ycka-?wieszewska, Ewa

2012-01-01

268

Hepatitis C Virus Infection is Probably Associated with Autoimmune Disorders and Malignancies but not with Autoimmune Thyroiditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study initially consecutive patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis (AT were taken in the Endocrinology Polyclinics. Beside that age and sex-matched patients with HCV infection and control cases were randomly studied in the Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine Polyclinics, respectively. One hundred and seventy-two patients with AT, 62 with HCV infection and 110 control cases were studied. AT was diagnosed in eight (12.9% cases of the HCV infecteds? group and this ratio was 11.8% (13 cases in the control group (p>0.05. Similarly, HCV infection was detected in one (0.5% case of AT group and this ratio was 0.9% (one case in the control group (p>0.05. Parallel to these results, prevalences of antithyroid peroxidase and/or antithyroglobulin antibodies were detected as 29.0% (18 cases and 32.7% (36 cases in the HCV infecteds? and control groups, respectively (p>0.05. As another face of the results, it was detected one case of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and one case of lichen planus in the HCV infecteds? group. As a conclusion, HCV infection may be associated with autoimmune disorders and malignancies but not with AT.

Guven Kuvandik

2007-01-01

269

Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)

1975-01-01

270

Parasitic thyroid nodule in hashimoto's thyroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of parasitic thyroid nodule in a 62-year-old woman with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy for a 15-mm nodule suspicious for malignancy. A recurrential ipsilateral lymph nodule was identified and removed. Conclusive histopathologic study confirmed that the mass was an extracapsular thyroid nodule (parasitic nodule). PMID:22975523

González-González, Abel; Mate, Luis A; Cabra, Jesús E

2008-08-01

271

Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs), papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is estimated to comprise 1–2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14–39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about one to two cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter) than in USA. ATC has a more complex geno...

2012-01-01

272

"Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%, compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injection of 15mCi of Tc-99m-MIBI in 4 phases (Angiography-First 10 minutes-15min and 2-3 hours after injection. Thyroid MIBI uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4 with no uptake as score 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with MIBI uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age=35.5 years+/- 13.6 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. MIBI uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules(P=0.73. Sensitivity and specificity of high MIBI uptake (score 3-4 for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The values for sensitivity and specificity were 69.2% and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as difference in uptake scores of late and early phases was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P=0.07. The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P=0.65. Conclusion: Thyroid MIBI scan has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidates for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation. Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity.

N. Forghani

2004-08-01

273

Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with <4 ?m axial resolution (OCT and OCM), and 14 ?m (OCT) and <2 ?m (OCM) transverse resolution. The system allows seamless switching between low and high magnifications in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence is observed between optical images and histological sections. Characteristic features that suggest malignant lesions, such as complex papillary architecture, microfollicules, psammomatous calcifications, or replacement of normal follicular architecture with sheets/nests of tumor cells, can be identified from OCT and OCM images and are clearly differentiable from normal or benign thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

2010-01-01

274

Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

1978-08-01

275

Thyroid bed fine needle aspiration in patients after thyroidectomy-a useful follow-up tool with proposed diagnostic categories.  

Science.gov (United States)

After thyroidectomy for primary thyroid malignancies, patients are closely monitored for recurrence or metastasis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been used as the appropriate diagnostic modality for occult masses identified radiographically in the thyroid bed. In this study, we report our institutional experience with FNA of the thyroid bed and propose practical diagnostic categories. A retrospective chart review of all thyroid bed FNAs between April 2008 and January 2013 was performed, and a cohort of 39 patients was retrieved. The cytology diagnoses were divided into 5 categories including nondiagnostic, inflammatory/reactive, bland follicular cells, suspicious for neoplasm/malignancy, and malignant. The follow-up histologic and/or clinical findings were collected for each category. The 39 patients included 9 males and 30 females (ages 15-79 years). Prior thyroidectomies were due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (31 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases), medullary carcinoma (1 case), Hürthle cell carcinoma (1 case), malignancy unspecified (1 case), follicular adenoma (1 case), and multinodular goiter (1 case). Overall, 33% (13 cases) of thyroid bed FNAs were nondiagnostic, and 10% (4 cases) were categorized as "inflammatory/reactive." None of the patients in these 2 categories demonstrated evidence of clinical recurrence. One patient with a "bland follicular cells" thyroid bed FNA diagnosis had metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma on follow-up histology. Of 14 patients in the "suspicious" and "malignant" categories, 10 had malignant follow-up diagnosis on histology. In conclusion, thyroid bed FNA with standardized diagnostic categories is a useful modality for follow-up in patients who have undergone thyroidectomy. PMID:24768495

Webster, Natalie; Fox, Christopher; Fan, Fang

2014-06-01

276

Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

1989-12-01

277

In vitro responsiveness to serum growth factors is inversely related to in vivo malignancy in human thyroid epithelial cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have examined the proliferative response (DNA synthesis) of primary thyroid epithelial cultures to serum and a defined serum-substitute. These cultures were derived from normal human thyroid and from thyroid adenomas and carcinomas. All normal cultures showed a dose-dependent response, with a maximum 3H-thymidine labelling index of around 50%. Three out of the four adenomas demonstrated a much reduced or delayed response under the same conditions. In two carcinomas, labelling was never mor...

Dawson, T. P.; Wyllie, F. S.; Wynford-Thomas, D

1991-01-01

278

Masa renal asintomática como primera manifestación de carcinoma folicular de tiroides / Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid manifested initially asymptom primary renal neoplasm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las metástasis de carcinoma de tiroides en riñón son raras. Presentamos el 10º caso, que conocemos publicado, de metástasis tiroidea en riñón y el primero del tipo folicular y asintomático. Se trata de una paciente de 75 años asintomática, que presenta una masa en el riñón derecho, que se decide rea [...] lizar nefrectomía parcial derecha. El diagnóstico provisional habla de tumor de células claras renales pero el definitivo es de metástasis de carcinoma folicular de tiroides, descubrimos un estado avanzado de la enfermedad tanto localmente como a distancia. Las fuentes de metástasis en el riñón así como las técnicas diagnósticas son discutidas en el caso. Abstract in english Metastases in the kidney are rare, evenmore if primary source is thyroid. We report the tenth case of metastases in the kidney from thyroid, and it is the first to be follicular type and absolutely asymptom. Sonography and computerized tomography with suspicion of renal tumour are showed in a asymto [...] m female 75 years old. Left partial nephrectomy was perfomed, initially it has been pathologically diagnosed as renal clear cells tumour, however the definitive pathologic report showed follicular tumour of thyroid. Local and systemic stage was discovered with complementary techniques. Sources of metastases in kidney and diagnoses techniques are discussed.

J.M., Regojo Balboa; D., Sánchez Zalabardo; J., Rioja Zuazu; J.M., Fernández Montero; J., López Ferrandis; J.J., Zudaire Bergera; D., Rosell Costa; J.E., Robles García; J.M., Berián Polo.

279

Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUVmax of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at pmax of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2.0, respectively. The result of this study indicates that FDG PET/CT can provide additional information for the differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the pancreas with mural nodules. (author)

2011-08-01

280

Evaluation of NDRG2 gene expression in primary papillary thyroid carcinoma and in metastases of this neoplasm to regional lymph nodes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background At present, researchers' attention has been concentrating on NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 as a new gene candidate in the development and progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. NDRG2, together with NDRG1, NDRG3 and NDRG4 are members of the NDRG family, a new class of genes, inhibited by N-Myc oncogene. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate NDRG2 mRNA expression in the primary PTC and its metastases to regional lymph nodes. Materials and methods Postoperative tissue and macroscopically changed lymph nodes of sixteen (16 patients with PTC constituted the studied material. In this group, metastases of the cancer to regional lymph nodes were confirmed histopathologically in 8 cases. Quantitative evaluation of NDRG2 mRNA expression was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR method. Results The mean values of NDRG2 mRNA expression in the primary tumour tissues were statistically significantly lower vs. the levels of NDRG2 mRNA expression in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue (p NDRG2 mRNA expression of primary tumours and that of their metastases to regional lymph nodes did not demonstrate any statistical differences (p > 0.05. A positive correlation was observed between NDRG2 mRNA expression in primary tumour cells and in the cancer metastases to lymph nodes (Rs = 0.7857; p NDRG2 mRNA expression level (p > 0.1. Conclusion The results of our study demonstrated decreased NDRG2 mRNA expression levels in PTC, when compared to macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue, which may point to the potential role of NDRG2 in the development and progression of cancer in question.

Mordalska Anna

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

O'Neill, J P

2010-03-01

282

Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

1976-01-01

283

Thoracoscopic surgery for pulmonary oncocytoma, an uncommon neoplasm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oncocytoma is an uncommon neoplasm with a characteristic histologic feature of abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm. It almost always occurs in kidney, thyroid, or salivary gland. Pulmonary oncocytoma is a rare pulmonary neoplasm, with fewer than 10 cases reported so far in the available English literature. We encountered one such case that was successfully managed by thoracoscopic lobectomy. PMID:24523615

Zhang, B; Jin, J; Ye, Z; Zheng, H

2014-02-01

284

Liver Resection for Primary Hepatic Neoplasms *)**)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subtotal hepatic resection was performed in 356 patients; 87 had primary hepatic malignancies, 108 had metastatic tumors, and 161 had benign lesions including 8 traumatic injuries. The global mortality was 4.2%. The experience has elucidated the role of subtotal hepatic resection both for benign and malignant neoplasms.

Starzl, Th E.; Iwatsuki, S.

1988-01-01

285

Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesothelioma treated with six cycles of Pemetrexed and Carboplatin completed 03/11/04 followed by radiotherapy to the drain site 250 Kv/TD20Gy/5F completed 13/12/2004. Then he developed multiple facial skin lesions 4 years later. These lesions were proved to be metastatic malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Conclusion Mesothelioma metastases should be suspected in any known Mesothelioma patient with newly developed skin lesion.

Lawrence Julia

2009-11-01

286

Myopathy following postoperative ablative radioiodine for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hermione C Price, Vijay JayagopalCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, York Hospital, York, UKAbstract: We highlight a case of disabling myopathy following radioablative iodine treatment for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. A 34-year-old man presented with a tender neck swelling, ultrasound and biopsy were suggestive of thyroid malignancy. Thyroidectomy was undertaken and histology confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Treatment with ablative radioiodine followed and within days the patient developed disabling myopathy. Investigations to date do not reveal any other cause for the myopathy and there is no evidence to suggest that this is a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We believe this is the first reported case of ablative radioiodine-induced mypoathy.Keywords: thyroid neoplasms, muscular diseases, iodine radioisotopes

Hermione C Price

2009-03-01

287

Syringomyelia and Intramedullary Neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinicopathologic review of 38 patients with syringomyelia revealed associated intramedullary neoplasms in 75 per cent of the cases. This surprisingly high incidence of neoplasms supports the thesis that syringomyelia and intramedullary neoplasms may be...

D. J. Ferry J. M. Hardman K. M. Earle

1969-01-01

288

Can benign and malignant thyroid nodules be differentiated with thallium 201. Le thallium 201 permet-il de differencier le nodule thyroidien benin du nodule malin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The merits of Thallium 201 radionuclide scanning of the thyroid mentioned as soon as 1976 by PALERMO have been confirmed in the 16 last studies published in the international literature. Over 1601 examinations, authors showed that any cold nodule (Tc 99 m or 1 123) which preferentially fixes Thallium 201 as compared to surround thyroid tissue must be operated since some of them are thyroid cancer carriers, some others are carriers of a traditional follicular adenoma or Hurthle-cell adenoma, or a follicular adenoma associated with varied cell atypisms which make difficult the diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules. The analysis of the results published show a 91.3% sensitivity of this diagnosis test, all analysis methods being considered. In case of negative test, it allows eliminating the cancer risk by more than 97% (negative predictive value). Such an examination - as opposed to a cytology test on the isolated nodule only - is valid for any type of nodule, being isolated, multiple or a multinodular goitre where the degeneration risk is close to, or even higher than, that of isolated nodules. (authors).

Hermans, J.; Schmitz, A.; Merlo, P.; Bodart, F.; Beauduin, M. (Hopital de Jolimont, Haine-Saint-Paul (Belgium))

1993-01-01

289

Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR) / Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillar [...] y thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%), and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%). CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

Pedro, Pineda B; Paula, Rojas G; Claudio, Liberman G; Leonor, Moyano S; Irmgadt, Goecke S.

290

Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%, and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%. CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

Pedro Pineda B

2003-09-01

291

Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Struma ovarii (SO is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component. Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up.

Selvaggi Federico

2012-05-01

292

Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Struma ovarii (SO) is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component.Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up. PMID:22613573

Selvaggi, Federico; Risio, Domenico; Waku, Mathew; Simo, Daniela; Angelucci, Domenico; D'Aulerio, Alberto; Cotellese, Roberto; Innocenti, Paolo

2012-01-01

293

Immunohistochemical Reactivity of the 14F7 Monoclonal Antibody Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Some Benign and Malignant Skin Neoplasms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evaluation of 14F7 Mab (anti-N-glycolyl GM3 ganglioside) immunorecognition in normal skin, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), and in lymph node metastases (LNM) has been previously reported. In this work we extended the study to benign (BMN) and dysplastic (DMN) melanocytic nevi, basal (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Immunohistochemical assays with 14F7 followed by a biotinylated link universal and streptavidin-AP in normal and pathological tissues were made. No reaction of 14F...

2011-01-01

294

Expression of the c-Met/HGF receptor in human melanocytic neoplasms: demonstration of the relationship to malignant melanoma tumour progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The c-MET proto-oncogene encodes the receptor for the Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor, which is known to mediate mitogenic, motogenic and invasive responses of several cell types. We have analysed by immunohistochemistry and biochemically the expression of c-MET in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The Met/HGF receptor which in the melanocytic lineage displays the structural features of the authentic receptor was undetectable in tissue melanocytes and in nevocytic nevi. Only f...

1993-01-01

295

Solitary thyroid nodule. 1. Clinical characteristics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The approach to management of an isolated thyroid nodule requires some understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer and other forms of nodular thyroid disease. The histologic classification of thyroid cancer is an important determinant of survival, as are the size of the primary tumor, presence of thyroid capsule invasion, and presence of distant metastases. Therapeutic radiation and radioactive fallout increase the risk that a thyroid nodule is malignant. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules are usually benign follicular adenomas and may cause thyrotoxicosis

1981-01-01

296

Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-yi

2008-01-01

297

Pregnancy and thyroid cancer: ultrasound study of foetal thyroid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, more frequently diagnosed in young women during childbearing age and approximately 10% of all thyroid cancers are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the early post-partum period. Thyroid cancer in young people has generally an excellent prognosis, and survival among women with thyroid cancer diagnosed during pregnancy may not differ from that in age-matched non-pregnant women with similar cancer. Pregnancy after treatment of thyroid carcin...

Zamperini, P.; Gibelli, B.; Gilardi, D.; Tradati, N.; Chiesa, F.

2009-01-01

298

Avaliação de fatores clínicos, laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos preditores de malignidade em nódulos tiroidianos / Evaluation of clinical, laboratorial and ultrasonographic predicting factors of malignancy in thyroid nodules  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar risco de malignidade de nódulos tiroidianos por meio de aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, ultrassonográficos e citológicos. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: 741 nódulos de 407 pacientes. RESULTADOS: A citologia foi benigna (60,5%), indeterminada (23,3%), maligna (8,6%) ou não diagnóstica (7,6% [...] ). A prevalência de câncer nas citologias indeterminadas foi 18,5% (16% nas lesões foliculares, 44% nas suspeitas). O diagnóstico de malignidade foi 17,2% (n = 70). A frequência de câncer em mulheres (15,2%) foi menor do que em homens (27,9%). Houve uma relação inversa entre idade e risco de câncer. Não houve significância estatística na prevalência de câncer de acordo com número, tamanho dos nódulos ou níveis de TSH. Hipoecogenicidade e microcalcificações ao ultrassom foram fatores de risco. CONCLUSÃO: O risco de malignidade foi maior em homens, nódulos hipoecogênicos, com microcalcificações e inversamente relacionado à idade. O nível de TSH não foi um preditor independente de malignidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules through clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and cytological aspects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 741 nodules of 407 patients. RESULTS: The cytology was benign (60,5%), indeterminate (23,3%), malignant (8,3%) or nondiagnostic (7,6%). The p [...] revalence of cancer in indeterminate citology was 18,5% (16% in follicular lesions, 44% in suspicious). The diagnosis of malignancy was 17,2% (n = 70). The frequency of cancer in women (15,2%) was lower than in men (27,9%). There was an inverse relation between age and cancer risk. There was no statistical significance in the prevalence of cancer according to number, size of nodules or TSH levels. Hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications on ultrasound were risk factors. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was higher in men, hypoechoic nodules, with microcalcifications and was inversely related to age. The TSH level was not an independent factor predictive of malignancy.

Rio, Ana Luiza Silva; Biscolla, Rosa Paula Mello; Andreoni, Danielle Macellaro; Camacho, Cléber Pinto; Nakabashi, Cláudia Cristina Doimo; Mamone, Maria da Conceição de Oliveira Carneiro; Ikejiri, Elza Setsuku; Matsumura, Luiza K.; Hidal, Jairo Tabacow; Maciel, Rui Monteiro de Barros; Furlanetto, Reinaldo Perrone.

299

[Thyroiditis from the surgical viewpoint].  

Science.gov (United States)

1296 Patients were treated for thyroid disorders in the Surgical Clinic of the University of Graz between 1975 and 1981. In 3.5% thyroiditis was diagnosed, 75% struma lymphomatosa Hashimoto and 25% subacute thyroiditis de Quervain. 75% of all cases were classified only by histological postoperative examination. Suspected malignancy leads in most cases to operative treatment, but there are also indications because of the inflammatory lesion. We do not believe that thyroiditis should be treated surgically as thyroid carcinoma, neither provides the low incidence between carcinoma and thyroid inflammation any radicality for preventing malignant disorders. PMID:6688214

Wolf, G; Kronberger, D; Smolle, J

1983-05-01

300

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

 
 
 
 
301

Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

2007-12-01

302

RTN4IP1 Is Down-Regulated in Thyroid Cancer and Has Tumor-Suppressive Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Previously we identified RTN4IP1 to be differentially expressed in thyroid cancer by sex and the gene is located on chromosome 6q21, a chromosomal region frequently deleted or with loss of heterozygosity in a variety of human malignancies including thyroid cancer. Objective: Because the expression and function of this gene is unknown, we sought to characterize its expression in normal, hyperplastic, and benign and malignant thyroid tissue samples and to evaluate its function in cancer cells. Design: RTN4IP1 expression was analyzed in normal and hyperplastic thyroid tissue and benign and malignant thyroid tissue samples. In 3 thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC1 from a papillary thyroid cancer, FTC133 from a follicular thyroid cancer, XTC1 from a Hürthle cell carcinoma), small interfering RNA knockdown of RTN4IP1 was used to determine its role in regulating the hallmarks of malignant cell phenotype (cellular proliferation, migration, apoptosis, invasion, tumor spheroid formation, anchorage independent growth). Results: We found RTN4IP1 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated in follicular and papillary thyroid cancer as compared with normal, hyperplastic, and benign thyroid neoplasms (P < .05). Moreover, RTN4IP1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in larger papillary thyroid cancers (P < .05). Small interfering RNA knockdown of RTN4IP1 expression increased cellular proliferation (2- to 4-fold) in all 3 of the cell lines tested and increased cellular invasion (1.5- to 3-fold) and migration (2- to 7.5-fold), colony formation (3- to 6-fold), and tumor spheroid formation (P < .05) in 2 of the 3 cell lines tested (FTC-133 and XTC1). Conclusions: This is the first study to characterize the expression and function of RTN4IP1 in cancer. Our results demonstrate RTN4IP1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and is associated with larger papillary thyroid cancer and that it regulates malignant cell phenotype. These findings, taken together, suggest that RTN4IP1 has a tumor-suppressive function and may regulate thyroid cancer progression.

Rahbari, Reza; Kitano, Mio; Zhang, Lisa; Bommareddi, Swaroop

2013-01-01

303

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland associated with multinodular goiter: case report and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) is a rare malignant neoplasm arising from plasma cells most commonly occurring in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and larynx. Thyroid involvement is rare and less than 75 cases of SEP of the thyroid gland have been reported to date. A 74-year-old woman with an history of multinodular goiter presented with dysphonia and painful neck swelling, related to a rapidly growing nodule in the right thyroid lobe. Thyroid function tests showed subclinical hypothyroidism; no evidence of Hashimoto's disease was found. Ultrasound confirmed the presence of an isoechoic nodule, 35 mm in diameter, with a CDIII vascular pattern. FNAC showed a monotonous population of atypical cells, interpreted as suspicious for malignant neoplasia (Thyr. 4). The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Histopathological examination showed a unencapsulated neoplasm composed of atypical tumour cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei. At immunohistochemistry, tumour cells revealed diffuse reactivity for CD138 and CD45RB and predominant staining for kappa chains. Pan-cytokeratins, TTF1, thyreoglobulin, calcitonin, CD20 and CD79a were negative. Clinically, a complete multiple myeloma workup was negative. On this basis, a definitive diagnosis of SEP was made. At 16 months follow-up, the patient showed good clinical conditions without evidence of multiple myeloma. In conclusion, SEP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a rapidly enlarging thyroid nodule. Clinical correlation and immunocytochemistry are crucial in avoiding pitfalls. Surgery remains the best modality of treatment whenever the lesion is localized and easily removable. PMID:22007566

Puliga, G; Olla, L; Bellisano, G; Di Naro, N; Ganau, M; Lai, M L; Faa, G; Tolu, G A

2011-06-01

304

Case presentation – thyroid lymphoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the thyroid gland account for about 1% of thenewly diagnosed malignant tumors each year, and their incidence inwomen is twice the incidence in men. According to the WHO classification (2004 thyroid tumors are divided into: carcinoma of the thyroid, adenoma and similar tumors, and other thyroid tumors which include: teratomas, angiosarcomas, paragangliomas and others, as well as primary lymphomas and plasmacytomas. Primary thyroid lymphomasare defined as lymphomas which originate in the thyroid gland. This study presents the case of a 68-year-old patient with a thyroid lymphoma, which caused compression of the airways. In the patientpresented there was reduced activity of the thyroid gland. The dominant symptoms were: breathing difficulties, hoarse voice and the enlargement of the thyroid. An ultrasound examination was performedbefore surgery on the neck, which showed a multinodular thyroid,with compromised and compressed trachea to the right and rear. Anemergency surgical procedure was performed to reduce the tumor.Pathohistological diagnosis confirmed diffuse large B cell lymphoma.The aim of the study was to present a patient with a thyroid lymphoma, who had previously not had any immunological changes to the gland,that is, she had not had any chronic lymphocyte thyroiditis, but due to the compressive syndrome it was necessary to perform an emergencysurgical procedure to reduce the tumor.

Belkisa Izi?

2011-11-01

305

Etiology of thyroid tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors.

Bellabarba, D. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1983-12-01

306

Follicular thyroid carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Follicular thyroid cancer is the second most common thyroid malignancy. This tumor has a predisposition for hematogenous dissemination an extrathyroid spread. Accurate cytological diagnosis of follicular thyroid cancer is not possible and this fact highlights the necessity for surgical treatment of any suspicious thyroid nodule. Aggressiveness of this tumor is greater than in the case of papillary thyroid cancer and it is the reason for radical surgical treatment of follicular thyroid cancer. Total thyroidectomy facilitates later adjuvant therapy with thyroid hormones and radioiodine. This procedure improves the outcome and the risk of relapse. Results of our study clearly demonstrate that diagnosis of follicular thyroid cancer in us is established in the early phase of the disease (78.57%, but the significant number of the patients (21.43% is still in the advanced phase of the disease.

Boži? Vesna D.

2003-01-01

307

Adverse effects of cancer therapy. Risk of secondary neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the long latency period for solid tumor induction (median 12-13 years), the radiation-induced malignancies now being observed are mostly related to the era of kilovoltage irradiation. Some tumors, such as thyroid cancer, have very low, if any, threshold dose for tumor induction. Sarcomas appear to require higher doses (approximately 100 rads) for induction. Controversy exists as to whether high doses of irradiation are less carcinogenic than lower doses due to greater cell killing at high doses. Acute leukemia has been induced by either irradiation alone or chemotherapy alone. Current intensive therapy protocols using combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or prolonged chemotherapy, are more leukemogenic, with the 4-year actuarial risk of leukemia in the range 4-17%. Immunosuppression due to various disease states or treatments had been accompanied by malignant tumors, often lymphomas in unusual sites such as the central nervous system. Unusual non-Hodgkin's lymphomas have recently been observed in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, suggesting that some secondary neoplasms in cancer patients are related to immunosuppression

1982-01-01

308

Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neda Stjepanovic, Jaume CapdevilaDepartment of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor.Keywords: thyroid cancer, lenvatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors, targeted therapies

Stjepanovic N

2014-04-01

309

Retrospective Comparison of Histopathologic Results of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the utility of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB in the evaluation of thyroid lesions at our faculty by comparing the results of FNAB and pathology report results of the patients who underwent surgery.Methods: The study population consisted of 347 ultrasonography guided thyroid nodule biopsies. The cytological results were classified as benign, suspicious for malignancy, malignant and inadequate material.Results: Cytological results were reported as 347 (84.1% benign nodules, 35 (3.8% malignant suspicious nodules, 21 (2.3% malignant nodules and 92 (9.9% inadequate materials. 35 patients (20.6% were male aged between 20-74 years old (45.0±6.2 and 135 patients (79.4% were female aged between 15-85 (36.6±7.1 years old. Examined the results of resection, FNA of the success of a benign diagnosis (sensitivity, 75.9%, 31.3% in the success of follicular neoplasm., success in the diagnosis of malignancy was 14.3%.Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a functional and reliable diagnosing method. The use of US guidance is helpful to obtain adequate sample from nodules. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has become the gold standard to diagnose thyroid nodules.

Erdem H et al.

2012-05-01

310

[Endometriosis and endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms].  

Science.gov (United States)

Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic gynecological disorder. Although endometriosis is a benign lesion, it shares several common characteristics with invasive cancer. Numerous epidemiologic studies indicate, that endometriosis patients have an increased risk of clear cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer. There is an intermediary lesion between endometriosis and malignant neoplasms - "atypical endometriosis". Genetic factors play a role in the malignant transformation through pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperestrogenism. PMID:24501879

Totev, T; Tomov, S; Gorchev, G

2013-01-01

311

A study of 875 cases of thyroid cancer observed over a fifteen-year period (1975-1989) at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid cancer (TC) is a common malignancy encountered at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC). Of 19,885 different malignant tumors seen during the period fro 1975 to 1989, there were 875 cases (4.4%) of TC. Of 1374 tumors of endocrine glands seen during the same period, 67% were thyroid neoplasms. TC represented 7.5% (618 cases) of all neoplasms in the females, second only to breast cancer. All types of TC were seen, with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PC) being the most common (79%). Anaplastic, medullary, follicular (FC), malignant lymphoma and Hürthle cell cancer accounted for 5.4%, 5.3%, 4.3%, 3.6% and 0.9% respectively. The frequency of PC was very similar (16%) in each of the third, fourth and fifth decades. The relative frequency (RF) of different types of TC was highest for PC with a ration of 18:1 between PC and FC, which could be the highest ever reported. There was a clearly progressive increase in the number of thyroid tumors referred between 1975 and 1989. Although this increase was evident for both sexes, it was more apparent for females. There was also a distinct increase (P<0.01) in the RF of PC from 76% (1975 to 1980) to 85% (1986 to 1989) with a decrease in FC from 9% to 2.5% over the same periods. PMID:17589014

Ahmed, M; Al-Saihati, B; Greer, W; Al-Nuaim, A; Bakheet, S; Abdulkareem, A M; Ingemansson, S; Akhtar, M; Ali, M A

1995-11-01

312

Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

Weller, R.E.

1989-05-01

313

Analysis of BRAFV600E mutation and DNA methylation improves the diagnostics of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration biopsy specimens (FNABs) have a ~20% risk of thyroid cancer. BRAF V600E mutation and DNA methylation are useful markers to distinguish malignant thyroid neoplasm from benign. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined detection of BRAF V600E mutation and methylation markers on FNABs could improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid cancer. Methods Using pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) methods, FNABs from 79 and 38 patients with thyroid nodules in training and test groups, respectively, were analyzed for BRAF V600E mutation and gene methylation. Results BRAF V600E mutation was found in 30/42 (71.4%) and 14/20 (70%) FNABs in training and test groups, respectively. All BRAF V600E -positive samples were histologically diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after thyroidectomy. As expected, BRAF mutation was not found in all benign nodules. Moreover, we demonstrated that the five genes, including CALCA, DAPK1, TIMP3, RAR-beta and RASSF1A, were aberrantly methylated in FNABs. Of them, methylation level of DAPK1 in PTCs was significantly higher than that in benign samples (P <0.0001). Conversely, methylation level of RASSF1A in PTCs was significantly lower than that in benign samples (P =0.003). Notably, compared with BRAF mutation testing alone, combined detection of BRAF mutation and methylation markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy of PTC with excellent specificity. Conclusion Our data have demonstrated that combine analysis of BRAF mutation and DNA methylation markers on FNABs may be a useful strategy to facilitate the diagnosis of malignant thyroid neoplasm, particularly PTC. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/6080878071149177.

2014-01-01

314

Thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management and prognosis for thyroid carcinomas is very much related to the histologic type of the lesion and its extent when discovered. Papillary and follicular malignancies have long-term survival rates approaching that of an age-matched population when tumors are ''occult'' or intrathyroidal. Anaplastic carcinoma is a relatively uncommon lesion and has an exceptionally poor prognosis; about 60% of patients will be dead in six months. Medullary carcinoma is again much less common that papillary or follicular carcinoma. The tumor shows a wide variation in growth rate and 20-to-30 year survivals with delayed recurrences are not uncommon. Primary thyroid lymphoma is also variable in its natural history, depending mainly on the histologic type. Several imaging techniques have been used to evaluate patients with known or suspected thyroid malignancies. Ultrasonography is used mainly for screening purposes; radionuclide imaging is useful for both detecting and staging malignancies; while computed tomography is used infrequently to show the extent of a tumor that is likely to have extended beyond the capsule to involve the trachea or esophagus

1985-01-01

315

Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 10-year old spayed, female Labrador retriever, with an 8-month history of weight loss, increased heart rate, and hyperactivity, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and a thyroid neoplasm. Thyrotoxic heart disease is documented in this case.

Bezzola, Pauli

2002-01-01

316

Uterine neoplasms, version 1.2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (also known as endometrial cancer or more broadly as uterine cancer or carcinoma of the uterine corpus) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in the United States. An estimated 49,560 new uterine cancer cases will occur in 2013, with 8190 deaths resulting from the disease. Uterine sarcomas (stromal/mesenchymal tumors) are uncommon malignancies, accounting for approximately 3% of all uterine cancers. The NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms describe malignant epithelial carcinomas and uterine sarcomas; each of these major categories contains specific histologic groups that require different management. This excerpt of these guidelines focuses on early-stage disease. PMID:24586086

Koh, Wui-Jin; Greer, Benjamin E; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Apte, Sachin M; Campos, Susana M; Chan, John; Cho, Kathleen R; Cohn, David; Crispens, Marta Ann; Dupont, Nefertiti; Eifel, Patricia J; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Fisher, Christine M; Gaffney, David K; George, Suzanne; Han, Ernest; Huh, Warner K; Lurain, John R; Martin, Lainie; Mutch, David; Remmenga, Steven W; Reynolds, R Kevin; Small, William; Teng, Nelson; Tillmanns, Todd; Valea, Fidel A; McMillian, Nicole; Hughes, Miranda

2014-02-01

317

A case of quadruple primary malignancies including breast, tongue, and thyroid cancers and osteosarcoma in a young female without karyotype abnormality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient was a 41-year-old, premenopausal woman with a chief complaint of well-circumscribed palpable, right breast mass without nipple discharge. Although she noticed the lump 3 months previously, the size of the tumor (1.1 × 0.9 cm(2)) had been stable. The patient's mother suffered from gastric cancer. Her previous history of the triple different malignancies was as follows: (1) left osteosarcoma [amputation of left lower leg at 15 years old (y/o)]. After the operation, she was treated with various kinds of anticancer drugs including a total of 45 g ifosphamide and 342 g methotrexate; (2) tongue cancer (right radical neck resection; 23 y/o); and (3) thyroid cancer (right lobectomy; 40 y/o). There was no evidence of recurrence of these malignancies at the present consultation. At the time of tongue cancer operation, chromosome abnormality was investigated, but the results were normal. Physical examination showed a well-delimited, elastic-firm, mobile tumor in the central outer right breast. Regional lymph nodes were not palpable. Mammography showed a focal asymmetry in the right upper breast on the mediolateral oblique view. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass with irregular margins. Distant metastases could not be detected by whole-body computed tomography scan. The histology of the Mammotome(®) (vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy) specimen revealed that this tumor was low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). She underwent breast-conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy. On permanent histopathological examination, the diagnosis of the tumor was intracystic papilloma with low-grade DCIS. Surgical margin was negative, and sentinel lymph node metastases could not be observed. Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) were strongly positive, but human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) overexpression was not tested because the lesion was DCIS. She has received no adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free 3 months after surgery. PMID:21562838

Kousaka, Junko; Fujii, Kimihito; Yorozuya, Kyoko; Mouri, Yukako; Yoshida, Miwa; Nakano, Shogo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Takahashi, Emiko; Yokoi, Toyoharu

2014-07-01

318

The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid fine needle aspirates: A cytologic study with histologic follow-up  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology represents a major step towards standardization, reproducibility, improved clinical significance, and greater predictive value of thyroid fine needle aspirates (FNAs). Aims: To elucidate the utility of the Bethesda system in reporting thyroid FNAs. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed thyroid FNAs between April 2009 and March 2012, classified them using the Bethesda system, found out the distribution of cases in each Bethesda category, and calculated the malignancy risk for each category by follow-up histopathology. Results: Of the 1020 FNAs, 1.2% were non-diagnostic, 87.5% were benign, 1% were atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AFLUS), 4.2% were suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 1.4% were suspicious for malignancy (SM), and 4.7% malignant. Of 69 cases originally interpreted as non-diagnostic, 12 remained non-diagnostic after re-aspiration. In 323 cases, data of follow-up histopathologic examination (HPE) were available. Rates of malignancy reported on follow-up HPE were non-diagnostic 0%, benign 4.5%, AFLUS 20%, SFN 30.6%, SM 75%, and malignant 97.8%. Conclusions: Reviewing the thyroid FNAs with the Bethesda system allowed a more specific cytological diagnosis. In this study, the distribution of cases in the Bethesda categories differed from some studies, with the number of benign cases being higher and the number of non-diagnostic and AFLUS cases being lower. The malignancy risk for each category correlated well with other studies. The Bethesda system thus allows standardization in reporting, improves perceptions of diagnostic terminology between cytopathologists and clinicians, and leads to more consistent management approaches.

Mondal, Santosh Kumar; Sinha, Simanti; Basak, Bijan; Roy, Dipanwita Nag; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

2013-01-01

319

Thyroid Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

... Information on Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases : Thyroid Tests Thyroid Tests On this page: What is the thyroid? ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a 2-inch-long, butterfly- ...

320

Thyroid Disorders  

Science.gov (United States)

... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: thy -royd) is a gland, ... keeps the temperature just right. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid ...

 
 
 
 
321

Morphologic features of focal hyperplasia and neoplasia of the thyroid in CRHL beagles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report outlines criteria for the differentiation of focal hyperplasia, adenomas, and carcinomas of the beagle thyroid. A classification scheme for benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia is outlined

1979-08-01

322

Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

1978-03-17

323

Metastasis of distal esophageal carcinoma to the thyroid with presentation simulating primary thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Metastasis to the thyroid is extremely rare. There is a lack of awareness of and adequate preparation for this situation, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. We describe a rare case of a 61-year-old man in whom a primary distal esophageal carcinoma gave rise to a metastatic palpable mass in the thyroid gland. Palliative bilateral near-total thyroidectomy was performed with pathology showing squamous cell carcinoma and tracheostomy was carried out simultaneously due to airway compression with related symptoms. A review of the literature only reveals 4 similar cases. Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary malignant lesion is seldom encountered, however, in order to make appropriate treatment, the most critical problem is to distinguish the difference between the above two and the final diagnosis can only be confirmed on pathologic examination. Although the prognosis of thyroid metastasis is commonly felt to be poor, improvement of living quality and prolongation of survival may be obtained in such patients through correct diagnosis and treatment.

2014-01-01

324

Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and -management of thyroid lesions: A study on 434 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis and management of thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: A review was conducted of FNAC of diffuse or nodular thyroid lesions performed on 434 patients over a period of three years. The cytological results were correlated with clinical features, biochemical investigations, and subsequent histopathological examination and management of the patients. Results: The most frequently encountered lesion was the colloid goiter in 250 (57.60% cases followed by thyroiditis in 119 (27.41% cases, ten (2.30% adenomatous goiters and two (0.004% thyroglossal cysts. In the neoplastic group, 14 (1.38% cases were reported as follicular/Hurthle cell neoplasms and 17 (3.91% as malignant tumors. When compared with the clinical diagnosis, FNAC proved to be an improvement on the diagnosis of thyroiditis and malignancy when compared with that of goiter. FNA revealed a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 96% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusions: FNAC is a minimally invasive, highly accurate and cost-effective procedure for the assessment of patients with thyroid lesions. It also helps in differentiating lesions that require surgery from those that can be managed otherwise.

Handa Uma

2008-01-01

325

Evaluation of thyroid scintigraphy for thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One hundred and thirty-two patients with preoperatively palpable thyroid nodules (TN) underwent sup(99m)Tc- and "2"0"1Tl-scintigraphies. When differential diagnosis of benign or malignant TN was based on thyroid uptake of RI, sensitivity and specificity of sup(99m)Tc-scintigraphy were 82 % and 18 %, respectively; those of "2"0"1Tl-scintigraphy were 46 % and 69 %, respectively. These methods did not serve to distinguish benign from malignant TN. When TN were histopathologically classified into the group with possible benign nodules and the group with possible malignant nodules, sup(99m)Tc-scintigraphy was useful in distinguishing benign from malignant TN (sensitivity 71 %, specificity 70 %); and "2"0"1Tl-scintigraphy provided a guidline as to whether or not operation is indicated (sensitivity 68 %, specificity 55 %). (Namekawa, K.)

1985-01-01

326

The etiology of thyroid tumours  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

1983-01-01

327

Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

Walsh, S

2012-02-01

328

Biliary tract neoplasms: diagnosis and staging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most biliary tract neoplasms are malignant and have been traditionally divided into cancers of the gallbladder, the extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater. Although infrequent, bile duct carcinomas and cancer of the gallbladder are not rare. In the United States, an estimated 6000–7000 new cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder and 3000–4000 new cases of carcinoma of the bile ducts are diagnosed annually. Familiarity with the imaging characteristics of gallbladder and bile duct neop...

Gore, Richard M.; Shelhamer, Ryan P.

2007-01-01

329

Follicular thyroid carcinoma masquerading as subacute thyroiditis diagnosis using ultrasonography and radionuclide thyroid angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rare presentation of a follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking the clinical and radionuclide features of subacute thyroiditis is described. Granulomatous thyroiditis was initially suspected on the clinical basis. Repeat fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of acinar proliferation with hyperfunction. Ultrasonography revealed a solid nodule with a peripheral sonolucent halo. Radionuclide angiography showed intense arterial flow of Tc-99m pertechnetate through the right lobe thyroid enlargement suggestive of malignant thyroid pathology. Surgical excision and histopathological examination revealed a follicular carcinoma involving the right lobe. 31 refs., 4 figs

1991-01-01

330

Pediatric choroid plexus neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are rare childhood neoplasms. The relatively small number of reported cases and the controversies surrounding the clinical and pathological classification of these tumors have made it difficult to define a standard of care for these patients. Our intention is to contribute to the body of knowledge of these tumors and further define the role of adjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 14 children with choroid plexus neoplasms referred to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between October 1985 and December 1987. Ten patients had choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) based on pathologic criteria and evidence of brain invasion at surgery or leptomeningeal disease (M+); 4 patients had choroid plexus papilloma (CPP). Patients with CPP were initially treated with surgery alone whereas patients with CPC were generally treated with postoperative therapy that included chemotherapy (CT) and/or craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with a focal boost to the primary site. For most patients CT consisted of combinations of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine, and a platinum agent. The median CSI dose was 35.2 Gy (range 24-46.2 Gy). The median primary site dose was 55.2 Gy (range 49.6-64 Gy). Results: Seven of the 10 CPC cases presented with leptomeningeal dissemination; two of these patients have succumbed to disease. Of the 3 patients with M0 status, all are alive with no evidence of disease (NED). The medial time to relapse from the time of surgery was 5.3 mo (range 3-25 mo). Seven CPC patients were treated with gross total resection (GTR). Three of these patients (2 M0, 1 M+) received CT without CSI and are currently NED (27, 69, and 60 mo respectively). One M+ patient progressed on CT and has stable disease after CSI (6 mo), one (M0) received CT and CSI and is NED (120 mo), one (M+) is currently on CT with objective response (3 mo) and one (M+) died of progressive disease (24.5 mo) despite CT and CSI. Three patients with CPC had subtotal resection (STR). One of these patients (M+) received CT and CSI and is NED (23 mo), one (M0) had an elective second resection GTR alone and is currently NED (153 mo), and one (M+) developed progressive disease (13.5 mo) while on CT and died despite CSI. Among the 4 CPP patients, GTR was performed in two; both were NED at 54 and 81 mo. Two patients with CPP (one with focal atypia) were treated with STR initially; both transformed to CPC at 7 and 27 mo, respectively. Both were currently NED following salvage with (1) GTR and CSI alone (98 mo) or (2) STR, CT, and CSI (62 mo). Six of the 12 survivors in this series had significant neuropsychological sequelae. Conclusion: The prognosis of CPP is good for patients treated with GTR. Malignant transformation occurred in 2 CPP patients with less than GTR. Patients with localized CPC who undergo GTR have had a favorable outcome with the addition of chemotherapy or irradiation. CSI may not be routinely indicated in M0 children following GTR. There is evidence that salvage with radiation therapy may be successful following progression on chemotherapy. For patients treated with STR, the use of CT and CSI appears to be necessary

1999-05-01

331

Usefulness of fine-needle aspiration in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions: an institutional experience of 340 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the results of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis, its correlation with histology, to highlight its limitations and diagnostic pitfalls as well as the impact of FNAC on the decreased rate of surgery in clinically suspect thyroid lesions.Study design: FNAC was performed on 340 patients with thyroid enlargement over a period of six years. The cytological results were correlated with clinical features, thyroid function tests and histopathological examination.Results: Among non- neoplastic group, the most frequently encountered lesion was colloid goiter in 231 (67.94% cases followed by thyroiditis in 68 (20% cases, five (1.47% adenomatous goiter and four (1.17% thyroglossal cysts. Among the neoplasticgroup, twelve (3.52% cases were reported as follicular neoplasm, seven (2.05% cases as Hürthle cell neoplasm and four (1.17% as malignant tumors. The cytological and histological concordance was determined. A false positive cytologic diagnosis of neoplasms was made in five cases. Presence of Hürthle cell metaplasia, hyperplastic nodules and papillary hyperplasia were responsible for the false positive diagnoses. For the entire series, the false negative rate was 8.57% and the false positive rate was 7.14%. FNA revealed a sensitivity of 62.5%, a specificity of 90.74%, a positive predictive value of 66.66% and a negative predictive value of 89.09%.Conclusion: FNAC is thus an accurate, cost- effective, minimally invasive and reliable diagnostic tool for assessment of patients with thyroid lesions and their management.

Pinki Pandey

2013-12-01

332

Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments.

BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

2012-01-01

333

Thyroid cancer cell lines: Critical models to study thyroid cancer biology and new therapeutic targets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is rising. Currently, there are no effective treatments for patients with advanced forms of thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid represents the most severe form of the disease with 95% mortality at 6 months. It is therefore critical to better understand the mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer development and progression in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies. Cell lines derived from thyroid tumors repr...

Schweppe, Rebecca E.

2012-01-01

334

Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cystic neoplasms of pancreas are rare lesions. Following the Compagno-Oertel classification, we differenciate serous microcystic adenomas (SMA) from mucinous macrocystic adenomas/adenocarcinomas (MMA). The former are benign tumors with slow growth, composed by innumerable small and tiny cystic with centra calcifications, resulting in a ''honeycomb'' pattern. They have a mixed US structure while CT densitometric values reflect a mixture of connective tissue and proteinaceous fluid. Postcontrast enhancement is frequently seen. MMA are potential (adenoma) or frankly (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumors. They appears as moltilocular cystic masses containing septa and/or papillary bulgings, with thickened walls. Both US and CT demonstrate their predominantly cystic character, and the eventual presence of excrescences. WE report a series of 23 cases (6 SMA, 17 MMA) of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas studied during the past five years. A correct diagnosis of SMA was possible in all 6 cases, while MMA was correctly diagnosed in 17 out of 18 cases. There were no false negatives, and 1 falsa positive. All differential diagnoses are also discussed

1988-01-01

335

Primary pulmonary neoplasms in children: A report of five cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary pulmonary neoplasms are uncommon in children and represent a wide spectrum of pathology from benign to malignant. They are quite different in their histopathologic distribution from that of adults. This study was done to analyze the histopathologic spectrum of primary lung tumors in children. All the resected specimens of lung in children over a period of 5 years were studied and only the cases of primary pulmonary neoplasms were further analyzed. There were two cases of inflammatory ...

2011-01-01

336

Oral malignant melanoma. A case report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of middle age, has predilection for the palate and maxillary gingiva or alveolar ridge and about 1/3rd of these neoplasms may develop from existing melanosis. A case of malignant melanoma in a 55 year old male is being reported. The patient was treated surgically. It is emphasised that the presence of pigmented oral mucosa must alert the clinician to the possibility of malignant melanoma.

Mody R; Puranik S

1992-01-01

337

Thyroid Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

338

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, or TSH. TSH causes the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone. ... pituitary gland can damage the area that secretes TSH. Without TSH, the thyroid gland does not make ...

339

Thyroid Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... metabolism. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the blood to make the thyroid hormone. A small gland ... the levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood. It secretes a hormone known as Thyroid Stimulating ...

340

Medullary thyroid carcinoma: Sporadic, hereditary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is uncommon thyroid tumor with specific characteristics which undoubtedly divide this tumor from other thyroid malignances. Patients with sporadic or hereditary form of MTC differ in clinical presentation, recurrence of the disease and outcome. The aim of study was to establish surgical characteristics of MTC as well as clinical factors that influence surgical treatment. The study group consisted of 68 patients with MTC managed at the Center for Endocrine Surger...

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Incidence of salivary gland neoplasms in a defined UK population.  

Science.gov (United States)

To establish a true prevalence of salivary gland tumours in a fixed population in the United Kingdom (UK), we searched the unified computerised pathology records of two teaching hospitals, including two private hospitals, for all salivary gland neoplasms (benign and malignant) over two 10-year periods (January 1988-December 1997, and January 1998-December 2007). Reports included needle biopsy, open biopsy, or excision biopsy. Equivocal results were checked by review of the medical notes. Patients referred from outside the catchment area were excluded. Both series combined showed that all neoplasms confirmed the 10:1:1 rule of distribution, but the benign to malignant ratio did not conform to standard teaching. The data suggest that 70-75 benign, and 8-14 malignant neoplasms present annually/million population, which is consistent with established patterns. However, this points towards a lower incidence of cancer in the major salivary glands than was traditionally thought. PMID:23103239

Bradley, Patrick J; McGurk, Mark

2013-07-01

342

Horner syndrome as a manifestation of thyroid carcinoma: a rare association / Síndrome de Horner como manifestação clínica de carcinoma da tireoide: uma associação rara  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Paciente de 82 anos apresentando-se com nódulo tireoidiano de crescimento progressivo e ptose palpebral esquerda. O exame oftalmológico revelou ainda miose ipsilateral e achados diagnósticos de síndrome de Horner. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa tireoidiana de 7,5 cm infiltrando os grande [...] s vasos do pescoço. Apesar dos dados clínicos e imagiológicos sugestivos de um carcinoma pouco diferenciado da tireoide, a citologia aspirativa foi diagnóstica de carcinoma papilar. Em função do estádio avançado da neoplasia e das comorbilidades significativas, foi proposta para terapêutica paliativa. A síndrome de Horner é uma manifestação clínica infrequente em tumores tireoidianos, estando as condições benignas maioritariamente implicadas. As neoplasias malignas da tireoide representam uma causa rara de síndrome de Horner. Contudo, um diagnóstico adequado e expedito é fundamental para o tratamento atempado nos raros casos de malignidade da tireoide. Abstract in english An 82-year-old patient presented a progressively growing hard thyroid nodule, and left ptosis. Additionally, ophthalmologic evaluation revealed ipsilateral miosis, diagnostic findings of Horner syndrome. Computerized tomography revealed a 7.5-cm thyroid mass infiltrating the main neck vessels. Altho [...] ugh clinical and imaging data were suggestive of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, fine-needle aspiration led to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Paliative care was proposed to the patient due to the advanced stage of the neoplasm and to significant comorbidities. Horner syndrome is an infrequent manifestation of thyroid disorders and benign etiologies are more often implied. Malignant thyroid neoplasms represent a rare cause of Horner syndrome. However, an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is paramount for timely treatment of rare thyroid malignancies.

Bernardo, Pereira; Tiago, Silva; Henrique, Luiz; Isabel, Manita; Luísa, Raimundo; Jorge, Portugal.

343

Lateral ectopic thyroid: a case diagnosed preoperatively.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid is an uncommon condition defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. When the process of embryologic migration is disturbed, aberrant thyroid tissue may appear. In most cases, ectopic thyroid is located along the embryologic descent path of migration as either a lingual thyroid or a thyroglossal duct cyst. In rare cases, aberrant migration can result in lateral ectopic thyroid tissue. Approximately 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Ectopic tissue frequently represents the only presence of thyroid tissue; a second site of orthotopic or ectopic thyroid tissue is found in other cases. The presentation of ectopic thyroid as a lateral mass should be differentiated from metastatic thyroid cancer; other differential diagnoses include a submandibular tumor, branchial cleft cyst, carotid body tumor, and lymphadenopathy of various etiologies. In addition to the history and physical examination, the workup for a patient with a submandibular mass suspicious for ectopic thyroid should include (1) technetium-99m or iodine-131 scintigraphy, (2) ultrasonography and either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, (3) fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and (4) thyroid function testing. No treatment is required for asymptomatic patients with normal thyroid function and cytology, but hypothyroid patients should be placed on thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Most cases are diagnosed postoperatively. Surgical treatment of ectopic thyroid should be considered when a malignancy is suspected or diagnosed, when the patient is symptomatic, or when thyroid suppression therapy fails. PMID:22522360

Prado, Héctor; Prado, Alejandro; Castillo, Bertha

2012-04-01

344

Thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ectopic thyroid tissue comprises a rare clinical entity which can clinically manifest with the whole spectrum of thyroid disorders, including thyroid malignancy. Thyroid carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare, with only a few cases described in the literature so far. We present a very unusual case of a primary papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a left lateral branchial cyst, describing our diagnostic and therapeutic approach for this uncommon clinical entity. This is the first case where recombinant thyrotropin was used along with radioiodine treatment in primary ectopic thyroid cancer. PMID:23608867

Karras, Spyridon; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Noussios, George; Pontikides, Nikolaos

2013-01-01

345

Characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis and nodular goiter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The biology of thyroid cancer represents a spectrum of behavior ranging from well - differentiated lesions with an excellent prognosis to anaplastic carcinoma, wich is almost fatal. For this reason, it is important that clinicians have methods at their disposal to asses the characteristics of patient's thyroid malignancy. In this work we discuss the behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer in associated diseases of thyroid as : Graves’ disease, chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis - Hashimoto and nodular goiter. This is retrospectively reviewing of 50 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Department of surgery, Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica from 1998 until 2003. We evaluated occurrence, as well as the role of this diseases in patients with thyroid cancer.We found a more favorable course of thyroid cancer in the presence of chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis and nodular goiter, a contrary Graves’ disease. In associated diseases of thyroid, a significantly greater proportion of patients with thyroid cancer, have modular goiter.

Paunovi? Ivan R.

2003-01-01

346

Significance of mucin expression in pancreatobiliary neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucins are high molecular weight glycoproteins that play important roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. We have described, for the first time, that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) with an aggressive behavior and a poor outcome expressed MUC1 (pan-epithelial membrane-associated mucin) but did not express MUC2 (intestinal-type secreted mucin), whereas intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) with indolent behavior and a favorable outcome did not express MUC1 but did express MUC2. These expression profiles of MUC1 and MUC2 related to the prognoses of the patients were also observed in biliary neoplasms such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)-mass-forming type (MF), mucin-producing bile duct tumor (MPBT), and extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma (EHBDC). We also found recently that high expression of MUC4 (tracheobronchial membrane-associated mucin) in PDACs, ICCs-MF, and EHBDCs was a new independent poor prognostic factor, although MUC4 was not expressed in normal pancreatobiliary tissue. High de novo expression of MUC5AC (gastric-type secreted mucin) was observed in many types of pancreatobiliary neoplasms, including all grades of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN), and all types of IPMNs and MPBTs, as well as PDACs and ICCs-MF, although MUC5AC was not expressed in normal pancreatobiliary tissue. The combined status of MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC expression may be useful for the early detection of pancreatobiliary neoplasms and evaluation of their malignancy. In regard to the mechanism of mucin expression, we have recently reported that MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC gene expression is regulated by epigenetics (DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 modification) in cancer cell lines, including PDAC cells. Translational research of mucin gene expression mechanisms, including epigenetics, in pancreatobiliary neoplasms may give us new tools for the early and accurate detection of these neoplasms. PMID:19787286

Yonezawa, Suguru; Higashi, Michiyo; Yamada, Norishige; Yokoyama, Seiya; Goto, Masamichi

2010-03-01

347

Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

2009-01-01

348

A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

Kelly, Michael E

2012-02-01

349

Radiation carcinogenesis in man: new primary neoplasms in fields of prior therapeutic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine patients are presented in whom new malignant neoplasms developed in fields of prior irradiation. The prior irradiation had been administered to these patients for previously confirmed cancers, lesions suspected of being cancer (but never confirmed as such), and for non-neoplastic disorders. Each of these cases is relatively unique and several present the first association between prior radiation therapy and the subsequent neoplasm or neoplasms which developed

1981-09-01

350

Radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms. A report of three possible cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pathologic findings are described in three patients who developed second intracranial neoplasms after irradiation for central nervous system malignancy. The second neoplasms were an astrocytoma, an ependymoma, and multiple meningiomas. All were histologically different from the first neoplasms and appeared in the field of irradiation between 3 and 15 years later. It is suggested that therapeutic irradiation was a causative factor in the development of these tumors.

Anderson, J.R.; Treip, C.S.

1984-02-01

351

Radiation carcinogenesis in man: new primary neoplasms in fields of prior therapeutic radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine patients are presented in whom new malignant neoplasms developed in field of prior irradiation. The prior irradiation had been administered to these patients for previously confirmed cancers, lesions suspected of being cancer (but never confirmed as such), and for nonneoplastic disorders. Each of these cases is relatively unique and several present the first association between prior radiation therapy and the subsequent neoplasm or neoplasms which developed

1981-09-01

352

Malignant pleural disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vast majority of pleural neoplasms invade the pleura secondarily and can be seen in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, breast cancer, lymphoma, and ovarian or gastric carcinoma. Primary pleural neoplasms are less common, although they have developed notoriety since the up-surge of malignant mesothelioma and the knowledge of its connection to asbestos exposure. Other malignant primary tumors include localized fibrous tumor and pleural liposarcoma. In most patients with diffuse malignant pleural disease the chest radiograph shows pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening. Computed tomography (CT) usually provides precise localization and extent of the disease and may be of value in assessing chest wall and mediastinal involvement. In specific situations, magnetic resonance (MR) may be useful as a problem-solving tool when CT findings of chest wall or diaphragmatic invasion are equivocal or in patients with contraindication to intravenous administration of ionic contrast material

2000-05-01

353

Malignant pleural disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast majority of pleural neoplasms invade the pleura secondarily and can be seen in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, breast cancer, lymphoma, and ovarian or gastric carcinoma. Primary pleural neoplasms are less common, although they have developed notoriety since the up-surge of malignant mesothelioma and the knowledge of its connection to asbestos exposure. Other malignant primary tumors include localized fibrous tumor and pleural liposarcoma. In most patients with diffuse malignant pleural disease the chest radiograph shows pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening. Computed tomography (CT) usually provides precise localization and extent of the disease and may be of value in assessing chest wall and mediastinal involvement. In specific situations, magnetic resonance (MR) may be useful as a problem-solving tool when CT findings of chest wall or diaphragmatic invasion are equivocal or in patients with contraindication to intravenous administration of ionic contrast material.

Bonomo, Lorenzo E-mail: l.bonomo@radiol.unich.it; Feragalli, Beatrice; Sacco, Rocco; Merlino, Biagio; Storto, Maria Luigia

2000-05-01

354

Malignant pleural disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vast majority of pleural neoplasms invade the pleura secondarily and can be seen in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, breast cancer, lymphoma, and ovarian or gastric carcinoma. Primary pleural neoplasms are less common, although they have developed notoriety since the up-surge of malignant mesothelioma and the knowledge of its connection to asbestos exposure. Other malignant primary tumors include localized fibrous tumor and pleural liposarcoma. In most patients with diffuse malignant pleural disease the chest radiograph shows pleural effusion with or without pleural thickening. Computed tomography (CT) usually provides precise localization and extent of the disease and may be of value in assessing chest wall and mediastinal involvement. In specific situations, magnetic resonance (MR) may be useful as a problem-solving tool when CT findings of chest wall or diaphragmatic invasion are equivocal or in patients with contraindication to intravenous administration of ionic contrast material. PMID:10874176

Bonomo, L; Feragalli, B; Sacco, R; Merlino, B; Storto, M L

2000-05-01

355

The neoplasms imagery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

1996-11-01

356

Staging of neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 10 chapters and 10 case studies. Some of the chapter titles are: Metastatic Disease to the Thorax, CT Staging of Esophageal Carcinoma, CT Staging of Renal Carcinoma, CT Staging of Lymphoma, Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, and Initital Experience with MRI Staging of Neoplasms.

Glazer, G.M.

1986-01-01

357

Thyroid Nodules  

Science.gov (United States)

MENU Return to Web version Thyroid Nodules Overview What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a small gland located at the base of your throat (near your ... which your body burns calories. What is a thyroid nodule? A thyroid nodule is a lump in ...

358

Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in 'cold' thyroid nodules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study fined needle aspiration (FNA) was performed to ascertain a preoperative diagnosis in patients with cold thyroid nodules. A brief clinical history comprising of general physical and local examination was recorded on a proforma. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules were performed with 5 ml disposable syringe (22g needle). Local anesthesia was not used. Four slides were prepared in each case, two were fixed in 95% alcohol for Pananicolau's stain and the Haematoxylin and Eosin while other two slides were air dried for May Grunwald Giemsa stains. Surgical specimens were received at the Department of Pathology and processed as per routine. Cytological and histological reporting was done separately and independently. Special stains were performed when required. A total of 91 patients were studied, in 14 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 21 cases surgery was not performed. In 56 patient, histological correlation was available. Forty were reported benign, out of which 37 proved correct on histological examination. Of the eleven smears reported as follicular neoplasm, 9 proved correct and 2 reported as 'suspicious' and 3 as 'malignant' also proved malignant on histological examination. Sensitivity was 86.36% and specificity was 100%. Efficiency of the test was 94.9%. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was found to be simple and valuable technique for a reliable preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. (author)

1999-01-01

359

Criterios ecográficos diagnósticos de neoplasia maligna en el nódulo tiroideo: correlación con la punción por aspiración con aguja fina y la anatomía patológica Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. La ecografía de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnóstica para neoplasia maligna del nódulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qué nódulos requieren biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el diagnóstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecográficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo a tres años para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecográficos y la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatología. Se evaluó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlación. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 años; el tamaño promedio del nódulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectomía; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografía. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnóstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecográficos relacionados con cáncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adición de aumento del flujo intranodular, resultó alta. Conclusiones. La combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna.Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignancy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

Andrés Ignacio Chala

2013-03-01

360

Identification of Thyroid Carcinoma Related Genes with mRMR and Shortest Path Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Thyroid cancer is a malignant neoplasm originated from thyroid cells. It can be classified into papillary carcinomas (PTCs) and anaplastic carcinomas (ATCs). Although ATCs are in an very aggressive status and cause more death than PTCs, their difference is poorly understood at molecular level. In this study, we focus on the transcriptome difference among PTCs, ATCs and normal tissue from a published dataset including 45 normal tissues, 49 PTCs and 11 ATCs, by applying a machine learning method, maximum relevance minimum redundancy, and identified 9 genes (BCL2, MRPS31, ID4, RASAL2, DLG2, MY01B, ZBTB5, PRKCQ and PPP6C) and 1 miscRNA (miscellaneous RNA, LOC646736) as important candidates involved in the progression of thyroid cancer. We further identified the protein-protein interaction (PPI) sub network from the shortest paths among the 9 genes in a PPI network constructed based on STRING database. Our results may provide insights to the molecular mechanism of the progression of thyroid cancer.

Ji, Zhenhua; Liu, Haibin; Liu, Yueyang; Peng, Hu; Wu, Jian; Fan, Jingping

2014-01-01