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Sample records for malignant thyroid neoplasms

  1. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

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    Renê Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant, follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001. A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas (P = 0.043. In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007 and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES high-risk group (P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.

  2. NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renê, Gerhard; Suely, Nonogaki; José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro, Fregnani; Fernando Augusto, Soares; Maria Aparecida, Nagai.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stim [...] uli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage. Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined. METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody. RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P

  3. Benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms after childhood irradiation for Tinea capitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of all thyroid surgery was studied among 10,842 persons whose thyroid glands had been exposed in childhood to an average dose of 9 rads of x-radiation during treatment for tinea capitis and among 2 matched control groups. A statistically significant increased risk for both benign and malignant neoplasms was found in the exposed group. The excess risk was 8.3 cases/year/rad/million population. There were no differences in other surgical conditions between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Persons irradiated under age 6 years had the highest excess risk for developing carcinomas. The incidence of thyroid neoplasms was approximately threefold higher in women than in men among the irradiated persons and among the controls, but the relative risk for the irradiated group of women was greater than the addition of the relative risks of the other groups. Low-dose radiation is instrumental in the development of both benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms

  4. FNA of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid: Impact on clinical management

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    Shah Sejal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a popular, reliable and cost effective technique for the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. The aim of our study was to review cases of misclassified primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid by FNA, and assess the causes of cytologic misdiagnosis and their impact on clinical management. Methods: Clinical data, FNA smears and follow-up surgical specimens of cases diagnosed with primary thyroid carcinoma were reviewed. Results: Of the 365 cases with a malignant diagnosis by FNA over a period of 11 years, nine (2.4 % were identified with discrepant histologic diagnosis with regard to the type of primary thyroid malignancy. In addition, four cases were added from the consultation files of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Areas of difficulty contributing to misclassification included overlapping cytologic features (n = 6, rarity of tumors (n = 3, and sampling limitations (n = 4. Of the 13 cases, 12 underwent total or near total thyroidectomy and one patient had concurrent surgical biopsy. Measurement of serum calcitonin levels in one case, with an initial cytologic diagnosis of medullary carcinoma, prevented unnecessary lymph node dissection. Misclassification of medullary carcinoma as papillary carcinoma precluded lymph node dissection in one case. Further management decisions were based on the final histologic diagnosis and did not require additional surgery. Two cases of undifferentiated (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were misdiagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma. Both patients received total thyroidectomies, which may not otherwise have been performed. Conclusions: A small subset of primary malignant neoplasms of the thyroid may be misclassified with regard to the type of malignancy on FNA. The majority of primary malignant neoplasms diagnosed on FNA require thyroidectomy. However, initial cytologic misclassification of medullary carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma as other malignant neoplasms or vice versa may have an impact on clinical management.

  5. Horner's syndrome and thyroid neoplasms

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    Leuchter, Igor; Becker, Minerva; Mickel, Robert; Dulguerov, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Although thyroid goiter is a common condition, it rarely results in Horner's syndrome. We report a case of a patient with an intrathoracic multinodular goiter complicated by Horner's syndrome. Benign thyroid disease was confirmed pathologically, and the patient's symptoms improved after surgery. In the literature, the major cause of Horner's syndrome is neoplasia, with malignant lesions being twice as frequent as benign tumors. An extensive review of the literature demonstrates a different re...

  6. Juvenile thyroid malignancy

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    Parelkar Sandesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid malignancy is an uncommon tumor of the pediatric population. Patients can present with asymptomatic thyroid nodule and it requires thorough work up to rule out the malignancy. Radiological and pathological procedures are a standard part of the management. A 10-year-old girl had asymptomatic thyroid nodule; the cytological examination and the frozen section and final histology of the nodule was different each time. The girl had to undergo total thyroidectomy on the basis of histology of the nodule which was well differentiated papillary carcinoma of thyroid and is under regular follow-up for last two years on thyroid supplementation.

  7. Past obstetric history and risk of malignant breast neoplasms.

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    Pieta, B; Opala, T; Wilczak, M; Grodecka-Gazdecka, S; Kramer, L; Samulak, D; Wieznowska-Maczy?ska, K

    2008-01-01

    Many studies indicate hormonal disorders as a crucial reason for breast pathology. They are also probably responsible for the development of benign neoplasms and play a role in the origin and development of breast carcinoma. Although the mammary gland is under the influence of many steroid and peptide hormones such as thyroid hormones, prolactin, growth hormone, glucocorticosteroids, it is estrogen that plays an important role in the development of breast cancer. The purpose of the study was to analyze the obstetrical past of patients and the potential influence on the risk of developing malignant breast neoplasms. The participants in the study were healthy women with no changes in mammary glands (control group) and women with diagnosed malignant or benign breast neoplasms (study group). The total number of participants was 555 females aged 35-70 years. The study was carried out in the Greater Poland and Lubuskie province between 2005 and 2006. Hormonal disorders in childhood and puberty symptoms of early menarche play a crucial role in increasing the risk of malignant breast neoplasms. In women who experienced one or more miscarriages the risk of malignant breast neoplasms is significantly increased. On the basis of our study we calculated the odds ratio (OR) of malignant breast neoplasms among women who during lactation experienced problems needing medical intervention (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.20-4.19) in comparison to women who experienced no problems). PMID:18714573

  8. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

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    ?aparevi? Zorica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland. Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years. Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas. The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis. Clinical presentation Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor. Diagnosis To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary. An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis. Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management. A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue. After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy may improve the prognosis in patients with intrathyroidal disease only. It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP and radiotherapy protocols. Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone. Conclusion The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.

  9. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

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    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  10. Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood

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    Chung, C.J.; Fordham, L.A. [Department of Radiology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bui, V. [School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hill, J. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Bulas, D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs.

  11. Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.)

  12. Unusual presentations of thyroid malignancies — a case series

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    Raju, G.; Kameswaran, Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Unusual presentations of thyroid neoplasms have been reported from time to time. Four such cases of bizarre presentations of thyroid malignancies seen in the ENT Department of ESIC Hospital, K.K. Nagar, Chennai, India are presented. These cases highlight certain important issues concerning the diagnosis and management. A review of the literature on the subject is discussed.

  13. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical observations for multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN) were made on 94 autopsy cases including 23 A-bomb survivors exposed at ? 2,000 m (group 1), 32 exposed at > 2,000 m or entering the city after the bombing (group 2), and 39 non-exposed patients (group 3). The incidence of MPMN for men and women was highest in group 2 and in group 1, respectively. MPMN was the most common in the seventh and eighth decades. The average age was five-year older in men than in women. MPMN with leukemia and thyroid cancer had occurred in two young patients of group 1. Overall, the ratio of men to women was 1.4. The most common first primary was leukemia in group 1, lung cancer in group 2, and liver cancer in group 3; the second primary was thyroid cancer in groups 1 and 3, and gastric cancer in group 2. Multiple primaries tended to occur in association with cervical cancer, leukemia, and thyroid cancer in group 1, and with cancer of the stomach, colorectum, and lung in group 2. The common combination pattern was as follows: leukemia and thyroid cancer in group 1; lung cancer and gastric cancer in group 2; and gastric cancer and colorectal cancer or liver cancer and gastric and/or thyroid cancer in group 3. Autopsy-proven occult or early cancer accounted for 92 % of thyroid cancer, 50 % of endometrial cancer, and 38 % of prostatic cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Malignant lung neoplasm and inhalation radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most complete data on radiation exposure due to inhalation in relation to malignant neoplasms of the lungs come from long-term cohort studies of miners in Czechoslovakia, the USA and Sweden. The results concurrently confirmed the incidence of lung tumours as being dependent on the magnitude of cumulated exposure to 222Rn daughter products, on the miners' age at the onset of exposure, on the size of the annual radiation dose, and on cigarette smoking. There was nothing to confirm the previous assumption of the existence of a specific histological type of tumour after exposure to radiation, and there was no evidence of a higher than expected death rate caused by other malignant neoplasms. Studies of this kind are described as significant for reaching the present high standard of radiation protection in miners. (author)

  15. [Malignant gynecologic neoplasms during menopause. Authors' experience].

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    Patacchiola, F; Carta, G; Mascaretti, G; Di Stefano, L; Panella, A; Facioni, L; Porzio, G

    1995-06-01

    From January 1991 to December 1993 409 post-menopausal women were observed at the Center for the Study of Climateric Disorders of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of L'Aquila. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of gynecologic neoplasm among this group of women. A total of 48 women at risk for malignant tumors were detected. The relationship between the climateric age and the oncologic risk is discussed. PMID:7478091

  16. Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Lung Carcinoma Metastasizing to Thyroid Neoplasms.

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    Wey, Shiuan-Li; Chang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is extremely rare in the thyroid glands, and only seven cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid tumors have been reported in the literature. We report another two cases of lung carcinoma metastasizing to thyroid neoplasms and review of the literature. The first case was a 64-year-old man presenting with neck mass, hoarseness, and easy choking for 2 months. Image studies showed several nodular lesions within bilateral thyroid glands. A histological examination after radical thyroidectomy revealed lung small cell carcinoma metastasizing to a thyroid follicular adenoma. The second case was a 71-year-old woman with a history of lung adenosquamous carcinoma. The PET/CT scan showed left lower lung cancer and a hypermetabolic area in the right thyroid lobe, highly suspicious for malignancy. Radical thyroidectomy and left lung lobectomy were performed, and the thyroid gland revealed lung adenosquamous carcinoma metastasizing to a papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:25685581

  17. Tumors Metastatic to Thyroid Neoplasms: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Todd M.; Richards, Alan T.; Chhanda Bewtra; Poonam Sharma,

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis into a thyroid neoplasm—tumor-to-tumor metastasis—is exceedingly rare. We describe the 28th documented case of a tumor metastatic to a thyroid neoplasm and review the literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis involving a thyroid neoplasm as recipient. All cases showed a recipient thyroid neoplasm with an abrupt transition to a morphologically distinct neoplasm. Metastasis into primary thyroid neoplasm was synchronous in 33% of cases and metachronous in 67%. Follicular adenoma was...

  18. Synchronous malignancies of breast and thyroid gland: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal Dwarka; Soni Tej; Sharma Om; Sharma Shantanu

    2007-01-01

    The relationship and coincidence of breast cancer with thyroid disorders is a subject of extensive debate and controversy. Many studies have shown that thyroid diseases are common among women with breast cancer. We present a case of concomitant malignancy of breast and thyroid with review of literature on the association of breast with thyroid neoplasm. The potential association and plausible mechanisms of breast carcinoma development after or before the thyroid carcinoma should be evaluated ...

  19. Galectin-3 immunodetection in follicular thyroid neoplasms: a prospective study on fine-needle aspiration samples

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    Collet, J. F.; Hurbain, I.; Prengel, C.; Utzmann, O.; Scetbon, F.; Bernaudin, J. F.; Fajac, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology, which is well established to be accurate for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, may be inconclusive for the follicular thyroid neoplasms. As galectin-3 was suggested to be a marker of malignant thyrocytes, we investigated whether this protein might be helpful in the diagnosis of aspirates classified as undeterminate by cytology. After establishing an easy processing of aspirates for galectin-3 immunodetection, a series of aspirates categorised as benign (n=63), ...

  20. Clinical photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasms

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    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litwin, Gregory; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the results of treatment of 379 malignant neoplasms with PDT in 89 patients has been made. Photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated derivative) -- both produced in Russia -- were used as photosensitizers. An argon-pumped dye- laser called `Innova 200' (Coherent USA), a Russian dye laser with copper vapor pumping (Yakhroma 2), a gold vapor laser (630 nm and 627.8 nm, accordingly) for Photogem, and a solid aluminate ittrium laser (672 nm) for Photosense were used. Up to now we have had follow-up control of 75 patients for the period of 2 months to 2.5 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 90.7% (68 out of 75); including complete regression -39 (52%), partial (50 - 100%), -in 29 (38.7%).

  1. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Molecular Markers in Differential Diagnostics of Follicular Neoplasms of the Thyroid

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    E Troshina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a basic method of morphological diagnostics at the preoperative examination, although it has some limitations. In 10-30 % of the cases, cytological examination results defined as indefinite or suspicious to malignant nodules, including follicular neoplasm, as according to the results of a cytological examination it does not appear to be possible to make the difference between follicular attendance the molecular markers adenomas and follicular cancer. Molecular medicine progress let us put an additional examination in a cytological, or surgical aspirates with the molecular markers. The most effective molecular markers in the clinical practice are thyroid peroxidases (TPO, telomerase and galectin-3. The application FNAB with the following immunocytochemistry examination in the thyroid tissue let us improve a differential diagnostics between benign and malignant nodules of the thyroid.

  3. Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

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    Jaime Benarroch-Gampel; Riall, Taylor S.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in west...

  4. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collecticancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  5. Second malignant neoplasms after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980 and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% ± 2.9%, 31.1% ± 6.2%, and 18.3% ± 3.8%, respectively). Five-year survival estimates for AML were 11.2% ± 2.9% for 125 patients diagnosed before 2000 and 34.1% ± 6.3% for 61 patients diagnosed after 2000 (P < .001); 5-year survival estimates for MDS were 17.1% ± 6.4% (n = 36) and 48.2% ± 10.6% (n = 33; P = .005). Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation failed to improve outcome of secondary myeloid malignancies after adjusting for waiting time to transplantation. Five-year survival rates were above 90% for patients with meningioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and parotid gland tumor, and 68.5% ± 6.4% for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Eighty-nine percent of patients with brain tumors had received cranial irradiation. Solid tumors were associated with cyclophosphamide exposure, and myeloid malignancy was associated with topoisomerase II inhibitors and starting doses of methotrexate of at least 25 mg/m(2) per week and mercaptopurine of at least 75 mg/m(2) per day. Myeloid malignancies with monosomy 7/5q- were associated with high hyperdiploid ALL karyotypes, whereas 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML or MDS was associated with ALL harboring translocations of t(9;22), t(4;11), t(1;19), and t(12;21) (P = .03). CONCLUSION: SMNs, except for brain tumors, AML, and MDS, have outcomes similar to their primary counterparts.

  6. Malignant pulmonary neoplasms causing airspace consolidation : CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the CT findings of consolidative malignant neoplasms of the lung. Seventeen patients in whom pulmonary consolidation was seen on chest radiography were involved in this study. In all cases malignancy was subsequently proven;the neoplasms involved were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (n=9), malignant lymphoma (n=4), mucoepidermoid tumor (n=1), metastasis from colon cancer (n=2), and metastasis from pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (n=1). CT images were retrospectively analyzed in terms of enhancement pattern of the consolidation, morphologic appearance of an air-bronchogram, CT angiogram sign, pseudocavitation, and lymphadenopathy. Visually assessed enhancement pattern of the consolidation showed lower attenuation than adjacent muscles in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (8/9) and metastasis (1/3);isoattenuation in malignant lymphoma (3/4), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1/1), and metastasis (1/3); and higher attenuation in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (1/9), malignant lymphoma (1/4), and metastasis (1/3). Among the 15 of 17 patients for whom an airbronchogram was available, a stretching and squeezing pattern was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). CT angiogram sign was identified in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (5/9), malignant lymphoma (2/4), and metastasis (3/3). Pseudocavitation was observed in two patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, while lymphadenopathy was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/s seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). Conglomerate and extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are commonly associated with malignant lymphoma. Malignant neoplasms which apper as consolidative lung lesions appear not only as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, which is well known, but also in other forms. Although these lesions cannot be differentiated on the basis of air-bronchography and CT angiography, poor enhancement of consolidative lesion and pseudocavitation are characteristic findings of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and conglomerate or extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are also characteristic of malignant lymphoma

  7. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  8. Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer [to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer], medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas mis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references

  9. DIAGNOSTIC VALIDITY OF CYTOLOGICAL IMPRINT IN THYROID FOLLICULAR NEOPLASM

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    I Pustaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy/FNAB examination, imprint cytology and frozen section intraoperative has big implications for diagnosis and surgical strategy of thyroid nodules with follicular neoplasm cytology. FNAB and frozen section has its limitations, it is difficultto detect the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion of thyroid follicular carcinoma. Whereas imprint cytology can preserve cellular overview (especially the cell nucleus, including the capsular and/or vascular invasion. In addition, imprint cytology is faster than frozen section. Frozen sectionexamination could not indicate the presence of capsular and/or vascular invasion in most cases so that imprint cytology is used to replace frozen section as an alternative.Method: This research is a diagnostic test study using a descriptive design. This is a prospective study to assess the sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV of imprint cytology in patients with thyroid follicular neoplasm cytology. Results: In our study; sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of imprint cytology for follicular neoplasm was found as 84.21%, 95.45%, 94.12%, 87.50% and 90.24% respectively. The outcome was based on likelihood ratio value of 18.21 and the ROC curve, area under the curve obtained at 0.879 and Kappa value of 0.802.Conclusion: Imprint cytology has a value of a gooddiagnostic validity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasm of thyroid nodules with sensitivity and specifity values of 84.21% and 95.45%. Imprint cytology is a technique that is simple, inexpensive, and has good reliability so that it can be used instead of frozen section.

  10. Hot nodules and thyroid malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief article illustrates how failure to report all previous exposure to medical irradiation when requesting a thyroid scintigram could be potentially dangerous for a patient. A hot thyroid nodule which showed up on a scintigram was removed from a patient and, without knowledge of the patient's past history of irradiation to the thyroid, was diagnosed as a papillary carcinoma but was then discovered to be an unusual follicular adenoma with severe radiation damage in the remainder of the gland. (U.K.)

  11. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hadjidakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

  12. Pediatric thyroid nodules and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatana, Kris R; Zimmerman, Donald

    2015-02-01

    Proper management of pediatric thyroid nodules is crucial to achieving good outcomes. It is important to obtain a thorough history, including prior radiation exposure and family history of thyroid cancer and any symptoms of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. A complete physical examination with special attention to the thyroid gland and any cervical lymphadenopathy is important. Nodules between 5 and 10 mm with risk factors (clinical or sonographic) and all nodules greater than 10 mm should undergo a fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A comprehensive center of pediatric specialists is the best environment for treatment of these patients. PMID:25439549

  13. Hot nodules and thyroid malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, A.P.; Tindall, H.

    1987-12-01

    A brief article illustrates how failure to report all previous exposure to medical irradiation when requesting a thyroid scintigram could be potentially dangerous for a patient. A hot thyroid nodule which showed up on a scintigram was removed from a patient and, without knowledge of the patient's past history of irradiation to the thyroid, was diagnosed as a papillary carcinoma but was then discovered to be an unusual follicular adenoma with severe radiation damage in the remainder of the gland. (U.K.).

  14. Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Benarroch-Gampel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries. Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers. There is no clear etiology for the development of secondary malignancies in patients with IPMN. Although population-based studies have shown different results from single institution studies regarding the exact incidence of additional primary cancers in IPMN patients, both have reached the same conclusion: there is a higher incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies in patients with IPMNs than in the general population. This finding has significant clinical implications for both the initial evaluation and the subsequent long-term follow-up of patients with IPMNs. If a patient has not had recent colonoscopy, this should be performed during the evaluation of a newly diagnosed IPMN. Upper endoscopy should be performed in patients from Asian countries or for those who present with symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal disease. Routine screening studies (breast and prostate should be carried out as currently recommended for patient’s age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

  15. Actinomycosis of the parotid masquerading as malignant neoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland is of rare occurrence and can mimic a malignant neoplasm both clinically as well as radiologically. Case presentation We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. Conclusions Clinical presentation of cervico-facial actinomycosis is characterized by the presence of a suppurative or indurative mass with discharging sinuses. The lesion demonstrates characteristic features on fine needle aspiration cytology and histology, however at times the findings are equivocal.

  16. Four primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60-year-old Caucasian male, with a previous history of a 10-year occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and a long history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, developed synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Four years later, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were diagnosed. In this case report, we suggest that increased exposure to multiple carcinogenic factors may result in an increased incidence of both synchronous and metachronous primary malignant neoplasms

  17. Galectin-3: A promising marker of thyroid malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Cveji? Dubravka S.; Savin-Žegarac Svetlana B.; Paunovi? Ivan R.; Tati? Svetislav B.; Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Galectin-3 is an endogenous beta-galactoside binding lectin implicated in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. High levels of this lectin have recently been found in malignant thyroid tumors, but not in normal or benign thyroid tissue, suggesting galectin-3 as a promising presurgical marker of thyroid malignancy. Methods: We analyzed immunohistochemically galectin-3 expression in thyroid tissue using a monoclonal antibody. The total of 108 tissue specimens included 55 ...

  18. Differential expression of Galectin-3 in papillary projections of malignant and non-malignant hyperplastic thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Marija J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 is a a beta-galactoside binding protein recently proposed to be a promising presurgical molecular marker for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. We analyzed galectin-3 expression immunohistochemically in papillary areas of hyperplastic lesions of benign thyroid tissue in comparison with malignant papillary projections of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. A monoclonal antibody to galectin-3 and ABC immunohistochemical technique were used to evaluate galectin-3 expression in 26 cases of benign papillary hyperplasia (8 cases of hyperplastic adenoma, 8 cases of hyperplastic colloid goiter, 10 cases of Graves disease in comparison with 25 cases of PTC. Immunohistochemical results showed no reactivity for galectin-3 in papillary areas of benign hyperplastic lesions. Strong cytoplasmic galectin-3 immunoreactivity was found in all 25 cases of PTC. These results show that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant papillary projections but not of benign papillary hyperplasia. Thus, the immunohistochemical evaluation of galectin-3 might contribute to differential diagnosis between malignant and benign thyroid lesions with papillary projections.

  19. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  20. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising from a papillary epithelial neoplasm.

    OpenAIRE

    AREZZO, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland. The simultaneous association of papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a Hashimoto's thyroiditis makes the present observation unusual. Surgery was limited due to local extension of the neoplasm. The patient consequently underwent external radiotherapy followed by radiometabolic therapy. The patient survived 11 months after diagnosis. As far as the histogenesis of the neoplasm is concerned, we believe that mucoepidermoid ar...

  1. Galectin-3: A promising marker of thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cveji? Dubravka S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galectin-3 is an endogenous beta-galactoside binding lectin implicated in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. High levels of this lectin have recently been found in malignant thyroid tumors, but not in normal or benign thyroid tissue, suggesting galectin-3 as a promising presurgical marker of thyroid malignancy. Methods: We analyzed immunohistochemically galectin-3 expression in thyroid tissue using a monoclonal antibody. The total of 108 tissue specimens included 55 cases of thyroid carcinoma (30 papillary, 15 follicular, and 10 anaplastic type, 15 samples of follicular adenoma, 15 samples of normal thyroid tissue, and 23 thyroid tissue specimens from human fetuses (16 to 37 weeks of intrauterine life. Results: The results showed galectin-3 expression in 20/30 papillary carcinomas, 11/15 follicular carcinomas, 10/10 anaplastic carcinomas, and 4/15 follicular adenomas. Thyroid follicular cells in normal adult and fetal tissue were negative. Conclusions: These results further confirm that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant thyroid cells, and that immunohistochemical detection of galectin-3 could be useful in thyroid carcinoma diagnostics. The absence of galectin-3 in thyroid cells during fetal development suggests that galectin-3 is expressed de novo during malignant transformation of thyroid epithelium, thus it should not be considered an oncofetal antigen.

  2. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  3. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara Segura

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical staining against galectin-3. Normal thyroid adjacent to neoplastic tissue was also examined in 48 cases. All cases of papillary carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, 18 cases of follicular carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, and one case of follicular adenoma showed nuclear staining. No case of normal thyroid showed immunoreactivity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respective 88%, 98%, 96%, and 94%. Galectin-3 expression is a valuable evidence of malignancy in cases where cytomorphological features are not conclusive. This immunomediated method could increase diagnosis accuracy for FNAB, thus making surgery indication more precise.A punção aspirativa por agulha fina de tireóide é o método pré-cirúrgico mais importante na definição da malignidade de uma lesão nodular. Entretanto esse procedimento apresenta limitações, como características morfológicas comuns entre neoplasias malignas e benignas. A expressão de uma lectina ligante de b-galactosídeos chamada galectina-3, aumentada em neoplasias malignas de tireóide, poderia ser utilizada como marcador de malignidade para neoplasias de tireóide. Cinqüenta e sete casos, entre eles 14 carcinomas papilares, 22 carcinomas foliculares e 21 adenomas foliculares, foram estudados quanto à expressão da galectina-3 por métodos imuno-histoquímicos. O tecido tireoidiano normal, adjacente ao tecido neoplásico, também foi avaliado em 48 casos. Todos os casos de carcinoma papilar e 18 casos de carcinoma folicular apresentaram marcação citoplasmática; um caso de adenoma folicular apresentou marcação nuclear. Nenhum caso de tecido tireoidiano normal demonstrou imunomarcação. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo foram respectivamente 88%, 98%, 96% e 94%. A expressão da galectina-3 é uma evidência valiosa de malignidade nos casos em que as características citomorfológicas não forem conclusivas. A marcação por imunocitoquímica poderá aumentar a exatidão diagnóstica nos exames citológicos por aspiração de tireóide, tornando a indicação cirúrgica mais precisa.

  4. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms / Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara, Segura; Albino Verçosa de, Magalhães.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A punção aspirativa por agulha fina de tireóide é o método pré-cirúrgico mais importante na definição da malignidade de uma lesão nodular. Entretanto esse procedimento apresenta limitações, como características morfológicas comuns entre neoplasias malignas e benignas. A expressão de uma lectina liga [...] nte de b-galactosídeos chamada galectina-3, aumentada em neoplasias malignas de tireóide, poderia ser utilizada como marcador de malignidade para neoplasias de tireóide. Cinqüenta e sete casos, entre eles 14 carcinomas papilares, 22 carcinomas foliculares e 21 adenomas foliculares, foram estudados quanto à expressão da galectina-3 por métodos imuno-histoquímicos. O tecido tireoidiano normal, adjacente ao tecido neoplásico, também foi avaliado em 48 casos. Todos os casos de carcinoma papilar e 18 casos de carcinoma folicular apresentaram marcação citoplasmática; um caso de adenoma folicular apresentou marcação nuclear. Nenhum caso de tecido tireoidiano normal demonstrou imunomarcação. Sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e negativo foram respectivamente 88%, 98%, 96% e 94%. A expressão da galectina-3 é uma evidência valiosa de malignidade nos casos em que as características citomorfológicas não forem conclusivas. A marcação por imunocitoquímica poderá aumentar a exatidão diagnóstica nos exames citológicos por aspiração de tireóide, tornando a indicação cirúrgica mais precisa. Abstract in english Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is [...] expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical staining against galectin-3. Normal thyroid adjacent to neoplastic tissue was also examined in 48 cases. All cases of papillary carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, 18 cases of follicular carcinoma were cytoplasmic stained, and one case of follicular adenoma showed nuclear staining. No case of normal thyroid showed immunoreactivity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were respective 88%, 98%, 96%, and 94%. Galectin-3 expression is a valuable evidence of malignancy in cases where cytomorphological features are not conclusive. This immunomediated method could increase diagnosis accuracy for FNAB, thus making surgery indication more precise.

  5. Role of metallothioneins in benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pula Bartosz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings in the past two decades have brought many insights into the biology of thyroid benign and malignant lesions, in particular the papillary and follicular thyroid cancers. Although, much progress have been made, thyroid cancers still pose diagnostic problems regarding differentiation of follicular lesions in relation to their aggressiveness and the treatment of advanced and undifferentiated thyroid cancers. Metallothioneins (MTs were shown to induce cancer cells proliferation, mediate resistance to apoptosis, certain chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy. Therefore, MTs may be of utility in diagnosis and management of patients with benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid.

  6. Secondary Malignant Neoplasms Following Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bomken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving survival rates in children with malignancy have been achieved at the cost of a high frequency of late adverse effects of treatment, especially in intensively treated patients such as those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, many of whom suffer the high burden of chronic toxicity. Secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs are one of the most devastating late effects, cause much morbidity and are the most frequent cause of late (yet still premature treatment-related mortality. They occur in up to 7% of HSCT recipients by 20 years post-HSCT, and with no evidence yet of a plateau in incidence with longer follow-up. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and risk factors of the three main categories of post-HSCT SMNs. A wide range of solid SMNs has been described, usually occurring 10 years or more post-HSCT, related most often to previous or conditioning radiotherapy. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplasia occurs earlier, typically three to seven years post-HSCT, mainly in recipients of autologous transplant and is related to previous alkylating agent or topoisomerase II inhibitor chemotherapy. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders occur early (usually within two years post-HSCT, usually presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  7. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-05-15

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  8. Malignancy-associated X chromosome allelic losses in foregut endocrine neoplasms: further evidence from lung tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Papotti, Mauro Giulio

    2005-01-01

    Association of X chromosome allelic losses with tumor malignancy has been identified in foregut but not in midgut endocrine neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of deletions on X chromosome with malignancy in lung neuroendocrine tumors, another family of foregut neoplasms comprising four categories with increased malignancy: typical and atypical carcinoids, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas. To evaluate loss of heterozygosity, DNA extracte...

  9. The frequency of malignancy and the relationship between malignancy and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutuncu, Yasemin; Berker, Dilek; Isik, Serhat; Akbaba, Gulhan; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Kucukler, Ferit Kerim; Göcmen, Erdal; Yalc?n, Yavuz; Aydin, Yusuf; Guler, Serdar

    2014-02-01

    Various approaches are available for the management of nodules that are evaluated to be indeterminate according to the results of thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the rate of malignancy and the ultrasonographic features that could be used as predictor of malignant pathologies at the nodules with indeterminate cytology. A total of 201 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and whose fine needle aspiration biopsy results were evaluated to be Hurthle cell lesion (n = 99), follicular neoplasm (n = 61) and [corrected] suspicious for malignancy (n = 41) were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 178 were females (88.6 %) and 23 were males (11.4 %). The rates of malignancy were found to be 33.3 % in the Hurthle cell lesion group, 23.0 % in the follicular neoplasm group and 53.7 % in the suspicious for malignancy group (p = 0.006). The comparison of the ultrasonographic characteristics of the malignant and benign nodules revealed hypoechogenicity and microcalcification to be more common in malignant nodules (34.3 vs. 16.9 %, p = 0.005; 27.1 vs. 13.1 %, p = 0.014; respectively). While 92.3 % of the malignant nodules were ?1 cm, 82.9 % of the benign nodules were ?1 cm (p = 0.042). We believe that as the patients at Hurthle cell lesion group have higher risk of malignancy than the patients with Follicular Neoplasia so total thyroidectomy will be suitable for these patients. [corrected]. In addition, microcalcification and hypoechoic nodules at patients with indeterminate cytology can be related with increased risk of malignancy. [corrected]. PMID:23504651

  10. Diagnostic utility of PETCT in thyroid malignancies: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram; Subramanyam, Padma

    2013-10-01

    The primary clinical application of (18)F FDG PET/CT ((18)Fluorine labeled flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma is in the identification of active disease in thyroglobulin (Tg) positive (>10 ng/ml), whole body iodine scan negative patients. The impact of FDG PET/CT in diagnosis, surveillance, cure, and progression-free survival of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients remains to be seen. Five main indications of FDG PET/CT in thyroid cancer have been recommended by revised American thyroid association guidelines 2009. This review aims to provide a complete picture of PET imaging in thyroid malignancies and enumerates each indication with literature review. This review also highlights recent advances in targeted molecular imaging. Currently differentiated thyroid cancer is best imaged using conventional single photon emission computed tomography-based radioiodine tracers ((123)I/(131)I). Although the utility of FDG PET in well differentiated thyroid cancer patients who are iodine negative but with raised Tg is well established, evidence is emerging on the advantages of FDG PET/CT in other histological types of thyroid malignancy, such as Hurthle cell, medullary, and the anaplastic malignancies. Novel PET radiotracers, such as (124)Iodine ((124)I), (18)F-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine), and (68)Ga-DOTA peptides are revolutionizing the way thyroid malignancies are imaged. Newer concepts on targeted molecular imaging and theranostics are ushering in new possibilities for imaging and treating thyroid cancer. PMID:23801405

  11. Occult malignant neoplasm in patients with deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R J; Seneff, M; Gore, J M; Anderson, F A; Greene, H L; Wheeler, H B; Dalen, J E

    1987-02-01

    An association between venous thrombosis and cancer was first suggested by Armand Trousseau and subsequently confirmed by multiple postmortem studies. In a previous study, patients with pulmonary embolism, as assessed by pulmonary angiography, were at significantly increased risk of occult cancer with a comparison group of patients without pulmonary embolism. This nonconcurrent prospective epidemiologic study extends these findings by demonstrating a significantly increased risk of occult cancer in patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) confirmed by impedance plethysmography as compared with those with suspected DVT in whom the diagnosis was ruled out. Differences in the incidence of malignant neoplasms were greatest within the first two years after the diagnosis of DVT, and patients younger than 50 years with venous thrombosis were at particularly increased risk of occult cancer (relative risk, 19.0). These findings indicate that all patients with DVT or pulmonary embolism should have an appropriate diagnostic workup and careful follow-up, particularly with regard to the risk of occult cancer. PMID:3813741

  12. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balica Nicolae Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Our study included 38 laryngeal carcinomas as follows: adenoid cystic carcinoma (2 cases, malignant papilloma (2 cases and squamous cell carcinoma (34 cases. The combined technique of CD 34-alcian blue safranin (ABS was used to identify microvessel and mast cell density, which was quantified by the hot spot method. A significant correlation was found between both mast cell and microvascular density, and G1/G2 histological grade (p=0.002 and p=0.004, respectively. Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly correlated with mast cell density (p=0.003, but not with microvascular density (p=0.454.

  13. The changing pattern of malignant neoplasms among females in Asir region of Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Archibong, E. I.; Sobande, A. A.; Sadek, A. A.; Ajao, O. G.; Khan, A. R.; Fawehinmi, O.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of the various types of malignant neoplasms affecting females in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia during the years 1996-1998, to the experience of a previous report (1987 to 1989) in the same population with rapid advancing health care services. METHODS A retrospective descriptive approach was adopted. Histopathological records of Asir Central Hospital were reviewed to extract data on female malignant neoplasms seen in the...

  14. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003. Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to global solar radiation level. People residing in regions with lower solar radiation and lower temperatures may be at higher risk of development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and climatic factors, such as the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in Japan. Results The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034 and -2.81 (p Conclusion This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.

  15. Spatio-temporal models for incidence of malignant neoplasms in the area subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from oncology studies performed in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer (including leukemia) from 1980 through 1990 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are summarized in this paper. Spatio-temporal models for determining the incidence of malignant diseases in the population were developed. The analysis of possible correlations between dose equivalents and incidence of cancer in populations living in the contaminated areas were performed. The incidence of malignant neoplasms, including hemoblastoses, was found to be trending upward during both the pre- and post-accident periods, and the increases were not related to radiation dose. There have been no statistically significant increases in incidences of any tumors (with the possible exception of thyroid tumors), attributable to radiation doses, even in the most contaminated open-quotes controlled areaclose quotes (CA). Three cases of thyroid cancer in 1990 in children living in areas where considerable amounts of radioactive iodine were deposited suggests that the absorbed doses from the intake of radioiodine may have resulted in an increased incidence of thyroid cancers. However, this and other conclusions of the study are necessarily limited by the fact that this is an ecological study with no data on individual cancer cases, and the limited follow-up period of the results of the study signify the need for thorough epidemiological studies based on the ough epidemiological studies based on the study of individuals. 3 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  16. [Predictive elements of malignancy of isolated thyroid nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouar, Meriem; Slimene, Hédia; Kamoun, Merfet; Abid, Hafaoua; Ferjaoui, Mohamed; Haddad, Ali

    2002-09-01

    The clinically revealed thyroid nodules are very frequent (3 to 5% of the general population), among them, fewer than 10% are malignant. The objective of this retrospective study type witness-case is to determinate the malignity predictive clinical and paraclinical elements for 45 patients presenting a thyroid malignant nodule and 45 others matched by age and sex presenting a thyroid isolated nodule. These patients were treated at the ORL ward of Charles Nicolle Hospital over a period of 10 years from 1989 to 1999. The average age of advent of malignant nodule is 43.2 + 14.4 years old with a clear female predominance (sex ratio = 4). The elements clearly linked to the hazard of thyroid cancer are loss of weight (p = 0.05; OR = 8.11), hard consistency of nodule (p = 0.002), the presence of cervical adenopathies (p = 0.05; OR = 4.22), vocal cords paralysis (p = 0.04), the presence of anemia (p = 0.01; OR = 5.7), a solid structure at sonography (p = 0.05) and the presence of a flux at doppler-sonography (p = 0.02). Personal antecedents of non malignant thyroid pathology, the nodule location and size and hypoechogenic features have not been clearly associated with the hazards of thyroid cancer. PMID:12632767

  17. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N. N.; Grynyeva, E. N.; Blagosklonnaya, Y. V.

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  18. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriweera, Eranga Himalee; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon

    2010-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

  19. [Second primary malignant neoplasms in patients treated radically for carcinoma of oral cavity, larynx and lungs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlega, J; Geleta, M; Dyba, T; Rachtan, J

    1994-01-01

    About 1% of the patients with oral cavity, larynx, and lung cancer get second primary malignant neoplasms every year. For laryngeal cancer the percentage exceeds 10. Second primary tumors in oral cavity, larynx, and lung cancer patients are also tobacco-related neoplasms. Smoking cessation by patients with oral cavity, larynx, and lung cancer may have significant influence on the prognosis. Vitamin A (retinol) and its analogues are promising for human cancer prevention. PMID:8090486

  20. Osteosarcoma as Malignant Mural Nodule in Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms of Intestinal Type: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Marie; Dina, Roberto; Fisher, Cyril; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2015-07-01

    Mural nodules, which may be benign or malignant, are well recognized in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, especially of borderline type. Malignant mural nodules most commonly comprise anaplastic carcinoma but sarcomas of various types have been reported. We report 2 cases of osteosarcoma occurring in young women (aged 18 and 34) as malignant mural nodules in a Grade 1 ovarian mucinous carcinoma of intestinal type and a borderline mucinous tumor of intestinal type. Primary osteosarcomas of the ovary have been described either arising within a teratoma or as a pure neoplasm but, to the best of our knowledge, osteosarcoma occurring as a mural nodule in an ovarian mucinous neoplasm has not been reported. In both our cases, the tumor was Stage 1 at presentation and the patients were treated with surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. Both patients are free of disease with follow-up of 12 and 18 mo. PMID:25760909

  1. Manifestation of hepatic malignant neoplasm on static Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the manifestation of hepatic malignant neoplasm on static Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging, which supports the diagnosis of hepatic malignant neoplasm using Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. Methods: In total 29 lesions of hepatic malignant neoplasm underwent both non-enhanced MR imaging and Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. The images were divided into non-enhanced and static groups. The number, margin, signal intensity of lesions and bile duct system manifestations obtained in the delayed enhanced scan were analyzed respectively. Results: All the marginal area of lesions was clear and sharp. The lesions were enhanced while their signal intensity were lower than that of adjacent liver. On static phase all the extra-hepatic bile passages and the first class branches of intratiepatic bile ducts were well enhanced. Conclusion: In static Gd-BOPTA enhancd MR imaging boundaries of neoplasm lesions were clear and sharp, with a lower signal intensity than liver. This feature may support the diagnosis of hepatic malignant neoplasm using Gd-BOPTA enhanced MR imaging. (authors)

  2. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of primary lymphocytic lymphoma of the thyroid is presented occurring in a 19-year-old woman. The young age of this patient, as well as the possibility of thymic radiation therapy as an infant, being a predisposing factor makes this case unique. The association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been previously reported. (U.S.)

  3. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  4. The diagnostic utility of combination of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR testing in thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Long; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Henry, Michael R; Erickson, Lori A; Sebo, Thomas J; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors in some cytologic and histologic specimens remains challenging. High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) expression and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein-3 (IMP3) expression were evaluated by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR was diagnostically useful in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from 120 patients including 56 benign lesions and 64 carcinomas were used. The available 80 corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid tissues from 66 patients were also included in this study. HMGA2 and IMP3 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR and reported as relative fold change after normalizing with a calibrator. The diagnostic utilities of HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR tests were evaluated individually and in combination. In FNA specimens, HMGA2 and IMP3 expression was consistently higher in thyroid malignancies compared with benign lesions in all subgroups except in Hürthle cell tumors. After exclusion of Hürthle cell tumors, the sensitivity was 90.2% for HMGA2, 88.2% for IMP3, and 98% for HMGA2+IMP3; the specificity was 97.1% for HMGA2, 79.4% for IMP3, and 79.4% for HMGA+IMP3. qRT-PCR data showed similar results in FFPE tissues: the sensitivity was 84.2% for HMGA2, 85.7% for IMP3, and 94.7% for HMGA2+IMP3; the specificity was 96.9% for HMGA2, 91.2% for IMP3, and 90.6% for HMGA2+IMP3. qRT-PCR data were concordant between FNA and FFPE samples for HMGA2 (97.4%) and IMP3 (96.9%). The results indicate that HMGA2 qRT-PCR with high specificity may be a useful ancillary technique to assist in the classification of difficult thyroid specimens, excluding Hürthle cell tumors. The HMGA2 and IMP3 qRT-PCR combination model with increased sensitivity and negative predictive value (96.4%) may be useful in screening thyroid cytology specimens. PMID:25356939

  5. Radionuclide therapy in the treatment of thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleševi? Milica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the principles of performance of radionuclide therapy, its adverse effect, together with mentioned complications obligation to use it only according to directions and the success of the therapy, which is seen through the length of a patient's survival rate. All types of thyroid malignancies are primary cured surgically, by the total or near-total thyreoidectomy, together with lymph node dissection of the neck and with a long-term suppressive- therapy or only substitutive L-thyroxin therapy. Radionuclide therapy is used only for the types of thyroid malignancies where a radionuclide was detected, beta emitter which is distinguished by its selective entering into the primary tumor and metastatic tissue. This therapy is used for patients with differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (DTC and patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. By the means of 131-I we additionally cure patients with DTC, by MIBG-131-I we treat patients with MTC, but we also try to cure this malignancy by the specific monoclonal antibodies, marked by 131-I or 90-Y, which is still a part of clinical trial studies. It is very likely that the radioimmune therapy will be the means of cure for malignant thyroid lymphoma (MLT, since this therapy is successful in healing the lymphomas in other locations.

  6. Microvessel and mast cell densities in malignant laryngeal neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Balica Nicolae Constantin; Ceausu Raluca Amalia; Gaje Pusa Nela; Doros Caius; Poenaru Marioara

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal neoplasm contributes to 30-40% of carcinomas of the head and neck. Mast cells are normal connective tissue residents, well represented in the respiratory tract. Experimental evidence suggests that the growth of a tumor beyond a certain size requires angiogenesis, which may also permit metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between mast cell density, microvascular density, histopathological type and histological grade. Ou...

  7. Small thyroid nodules: ultrasonographic differentiation between benign and malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation between benignity and malignancy in the evaluation of small thyroid nodules (the longest diameter <10 mm). Fine needle aspiration or surgery was performed for the evaluation of seventy two (44 benign and 28 malignant) small thyroid nodules from fifty eight patients. Ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively reviewed for the margin, echogenecity, presence of microcalcification, intranodular cystic change and peripheral hypoechoic halo. Ill-defined margin was more common in malignant nodules (61% vs 11%, p<0.05). In internal echogenecity, either iso- or hyperechogenicity was more common in benign nodules (45% vs 18%, p<0.05) while malignant nodules were often markedly hypoechoic (39% vs 18%, p<0.05). Malignant nodules contained more microcalcifications (36% vs 9%, p<0.05) whereas benign nodules often showed intranodular cystic change(39% vs 7%, p<0.05) and hypoechoic halo (41% vs 18%, p<0.05). Ultrasonography can be useful in the differentiation between benign and malignant small thyroid nodules.

  8. CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation for the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation in treating malignant adrenal neoplasms. Methods: CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation was performed in 9 cases of malignant adrenal neoplasms with a total of 9 lesions. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment plan system was used to design the distribution of 125I seeds for treatment. Under CT guidance, the 125I seeds of 29.6 MBq were implanted into the malignant adrenal neoplasms with an interval distance of 1.0-1.5 cm. A follow-up of 1-15 months was conducted. The postoperative efficacy was evaluated with enhanced CT scanning. Results: After the treatment, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 5 patients, partial remission (PR) in 3 patients and no change (NC) in 1 patients, with an overall effective rate of 88.9%. The main complication was slight bleeding (n=1). Conclusion: For the treatment of malignant adrenal neoplasms, CT-guided radioactive seed 125I implantation carries reliable short-term effectiveness, therefore, it is a safe, effective and minimally-invasive therapy. (authors)

  9. Thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodules in hematological malignancies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrizia, Mondello; Alessandro, Sindoni; Vincenzo, Pitini; Claudio, Scisca; Giuseppe, Altavilla; Salvatore, Benvenga.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Hematological malignancies encompass a large spectrum of disease entities whose treatment by chemo/radiotherapy could lead to thyroid complications. To the best of our knowledge, no study has simultaneously addressed thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodularity. Therefore, we decided to c [...] onduct one.Materials and methods We evaluated 82 Caucasian patients (36 women and 46 men), who were treated at our Oncology division for hematological malignancies (multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and polycythemia vera) and compared them with a control group of 104 patients. Patients who had received or were receiving external head/neck radiotherapy were excluded. All oncological patients and control individuals underwent thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function and autoimmunity tests.Results A lower prevalence of enlarged thyroid and nodules were found in patients with respect to controls. The rate of thyroid nodules was the highest in multiple myeloma and polycythemia vera, and the lowest in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had the smallest thyroid nodules while men with multiple myeloma the biggest ones. No patient had hypothyroidism, while 5.6% of patients had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, within the control group the rates of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, overt and subclinical, were 3.8%, 20.2%, 0% and 0% respectively. Moreover, the overall rate of thyroid autoantibody positiveness in patients was significantly lower than controls.Conclusion In our experience, we found a significantly lower prevalence of thyroid abnormalities in hematologic patients who underwent chemotherapy, but not radiotherapy, with respect to controls. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):236-44

  10. The thyroid malignancies at the Esslingen Radiation Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns itself with the results of the therapy of thyroid malignancies in the years 1968-1979. The frequency of differentiated/undifferentiated tumors was 90.9/9.1%, follicular/papillary carcinomas 71.4/19.5%. Three times as many women suffer from thyroid cancer as men. Differentiated carcinomas appear preferably in middle age (50 a), undifferentiated around 60 to 70 years. Papillary carcinomas metastasise in 26.7% of the cases in the neck region and 6.7% in the lungs, follicular in 34.5%, the most frequent, in the lungs. The therapy method used was I 131 and/or telecobalt. The 3-year survival rate with undifferentiated tumors was 27%, the 5-year survival rate of papillary carcinoma was 40%, of follicular carcinoma 33%. Clearly papillary carcinomas have the best prognosis of all thyroid malignancies, especially when they appear in younger patients. (orig./TRV)

  11. Serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in thyroid tissue in female patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Guang; Meng, Xian-Ying; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Dong, Su

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thyroid cancer; however, little is known regarding the levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum and the expression of ER, PR, FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHR) in thyroid tissues of patients with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescence, and expression of ER, PR, FSHR, and LHR in thyroid tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry in female patients with thyroid adenoma (n = 70), nodular goiter (n = 73), thyroid papillary cancer (n = 149), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 8) and in normal controls (n = 60). The positive rates of serum estrogen level and ER? expression were significantly greater in patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal controls. The positive rates of ER? expression were significantly less in various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal thyroid tissues, especially in poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. The negative rates of serum progesterone level and positive rates of PR expression in thyroid tissue were significantly greater in patients with thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, or thyroid papillary cancer than in normal controls. The positive rates of serum FSH and LH levels and FSHR and LHR expression were significantly greater in the thyroid adenoma group than in other groups. Our findings suggest that thyroid neoplasms might be sex hormone-dependent. The positive expression of ER? and PR often indicates thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the ER? expression status is important for the diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. In addition, thyroid adenoma is often accompanied by an increase in serum FSH and LH levels, as well as FSHR and LHR expression. Thus, the combined detection of serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors allows for a differential diagnosis and evaluation of the degree of differentiation among various types of thyroid neoplasms. PMID:25305147

  12. Cystic Change of Thyroid Mass: A Useful Sign in Differentiating Benign from Malignant Thyroid Lesions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the usefulness of the cystic change of the thyroid mass in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic (US) findings of 65 benign (30 follicular adenomas and 35 nodular hyperplasias) and 206 malignant (202 papillary carcinomas and 4 follicular carcinomas) lesions that had been confirmed by surgery. The cystic change was graded as 0 (mass without cystic change), 1, 2, 3 and 4 (cystic change less than 25%, 25-50%, 51-75%, and more than 75% of the volume of the mass, respectively). The incidence and grades of the cystic change of the benign thyroid lesions were compared with those of the malignant lesions. We also evaluated the US features of the cystic change to evaluate any differences between benign and malignant lesions. Statistical significance was assessed by Chi-square test. Cystic change was present in 47/65 (72.3%) of benign thyroid lesions (21/30 [70%] of follicular adenomas and 26/35 [74.3%] of nodular hyperplasias) and 16/206 (7.8%) of malignant lesions (14/202 [6.9%] of papillary carcinomas and 2/4 [50%] of follicular carcinomas). The grades of cystic change were grade 1 in 29/47 (61.7%), 2 in 2/47 (4.3%), 3 in 2/47 (4.3%), and 4 in 14/47 (29.8%) for benign thyroid lesions, and grade 1 in 14/16 (87.5%) and 3 in 2/16 (12.5%) for malignant lesions. In regard to the US features of cystic change, a large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst w less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. In contrast, malignant lesions frequently presented as a mass with irregularly mixed, solid and cystic components, a solid mass with multiple cystic components, or a solid mass with one or two cystic components. Cystic change was more common (p < 0.0001) and more prominent in benign than in malignant lesions. A large cyst with polypoid projection less than 1 cm in size and a large cyst with a peripheral rind of solid component were exclusively found in the benign thyroid lesions. The cystic change was evaluated to be a useful sign in the diagnostic differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid lesions, although the size of the lesion must also be taken into account

  13. Benign and malignant thyroid nodules after neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 444 persons were examined for the presence of thyroid nodules on average of 43 years after having been treated with x-rays for cervical tuberculous adenitis. Of this total, 101 subjects had undergone surgery for thyroid nodules: 25 for carcinoma (6%) and 76 for benign nodules (17%). Carcinoma occurred with the same frequency in multinodular and uninodular glands. Because of the uneven age distribution in the current series, it could not be decided whether there was a higher susceptibility of the young thyroid to the induction of thyroid carcinoma or benign nodules. The dosage range for the whole series was 0.40 to 50.90 Gy (40-5090 rad). There was a positive correlation between the absorbed radiation dose and the probability of developing benign and malignant thyroid nodules, even after doses of 20 Gy or more. The risk of developing thyroid carcinoma was equal for men and women, while the female-to-male ratio for benign nodules was 2.9:1, indicating that risk factors associated with females are of less importance in irradiated than in nonirradiated populations. The median latency for carcinoma was 40 years, suggesting that the increased risk of thyroid carcinoma after irradiation remains for the rest of the patient's life

  14. Characterization of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas using sonographic features in malignant papillary thyroid cancer: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Yan, Hui-Xian; Luo, Yu-Kun; Wang, Fu-Lin; Yang, Guo-Qing; Guo, Qing-Hua; Jin, Nian; Zang, Li; Chen, Kang; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming; Pan, Chang-Yu; Lv, Zhao-Hui

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules is still a clinical challenge. This study aimed to determine the ultrasonographic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.The ultrasonographic and pathological data of 2453 thyroid nodules in a cohort of 1895 Chinese patients who underwent thyroidectomy from January 2010 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.Anteroposterior and transversal (AP/TR) diameters ?1, solid structure, infiltrative margins, hypoechoic appearance, and microcalcifications were more common in malignant nodules than in benign nodules (P?regression analysis. Based on multivariate analysis, these characteristics were also present in large nodules (diameter >10?mm). However, in small nodules (diameter ?10?mm), only AP/TR ?1 and infiltrative margins were independent risk factors of malignancy (P?nodules and may help to improve the differential diagnosis. Small and large nodules have distinct ultrasonographic features. PMID:26020388

  15. Radiation markers in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of the decontamination workers with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The character of the dose dependence of radiation markers (dicentric chromosomes) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of the decontamination workers both with malignant neoplasms and other diseases is studied. In spite of remote terms of the studies resulted in elimination of a significant part of radiation markers from peripheral blood, the 'dose-effect' dependence remains only in the group with neoplasms. In the group with diseases of the nervous system, blood circulation, digestive system, etc., this dependence is expressed weaker or unavailable at all. We offer to consider the availability of dicentric chromosomes to be a reason to include these persons into the group of especially high oncologic risk

  16. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  17. Partially Cystic Thyroid Nodules: Ultrasound Findings of Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To seek for the ultrasound (US) findings of partially cystic thyroid nodules that are associated with malignancy. We reviewed the US characteristics of 22 surgically confirmed partially cystic papillary carcinomas, and compared them with those of 80 benign partially cystic nodules. The review cases were selected in a random order from a total of 1029 partially cystic nodules that were diagnosed with an US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy over a period of 8 years (June 2003 to October 2010) at our institution. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, a taller-than-wide shape (100%, p<0.001) and spiculated or microlobulated margin (58.3%, p 0.003) were significantly associated with malignancy. In terms of internal solid portion of the nodule, eccentric configuration (68.0%, p<0.001), non-smooth margin (81.3%, p<0.001), hypoechogenecity (30.0%, p<0.042), and microcalcification (89.5%, p<0.001) were more frequently demonstrated in malignant nodules than benign ones. In partially cystic thyroid nodules, understanding the characteristics of US findings is important to make a precise diagnosis of malignant nodules.

  18. A rare case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting as primary renal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is one of the common neoplasms accounting for 2% of all diagnosed neoplasms. Papillary carcinoma, If diagnosed and treated with radio iodine after thyroidectomy well in time, offers excellent survival benefit. Role of Radio iodine Whole body scan is crucial in these cases in detecting focal lesions and metastases. Common sites of metastases include cervical LN, trachea, esophagus, lungs, bones and brain. Metastases to kidneys are very rare and reported in very few cases. Our case is a 72 yrs old mother of serving soldier, a known case of CAD, DM, and HTN admitted with insidious onset right flank abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed BP of 170/100mmHg, no pallor, edema or puffiness. Abdomen examination revealed mild tenderness in the right renal angle. There was no free fluid or organomegaly. Subsequent evaluation with USG was inclusive. MRI abdomen revealed a mass lesion involving lower pole and distorting intra renal structures. The lesion was seen extending in to right renal artery. A diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) was made. She underwent right radical nephrectomy. Biopsy of post operative specimen revealed surprising histo pathological features of metastatic Papillary carcinoma of thyroid. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and thyroid specimen confirmed follicular variant of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid in the setting of multiple hypoechoic nodules. She had a markedly elevated Serum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post opeum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post operative 131I Whole Body Scan revealed residual functional thyroid with skeletal metastases. She was given high dose radio iodine ablation with 218 mCi. She was reviewed twice subsequently in Feb 2009 and Aug 2009. She was given 221 mCi of 131I ablation given for solitary residual bone mets with raised Tg (345 ng/ml) while Aug 2009 WB Scan was normal along with normal serum Tg (2.1 ng/ml).This case describes an unusual case of elderly lady with FVPTC presenting as renal mass suspected to be a case of RCC with extension in to renal vein which would have carried worst prognosis as compared to thyroid carcinoma which was successfully made disease free over last two years. Treatment of kidney mass led to the discovery of primary thyroid neoplasm and its specific treatment. This also highlights importance of structural imaging such as USG,CT and MRI and subsequent histopathological confirmation

  19. Benign vs malignant soft tissue neoplasms: Limitations of magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Various features have been described in the literature to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. The aim of the present study was to study the accuracy of each of these features and that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in diagnosing malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients presenting with neoplastic (both benign and malignant lesions diagnosed clinically and on ultrasound were studied and their MRI features were compared with the findings on surgical exploration and histopathologic examination. Results: There were 32 (58% benign and 23 (42% malignant masses. Malignant masses were more common in patients older than 20 years (83%, and these had symptoms of less than 6 months duration (75%, as against benign lesions. The swelling was painful in 8 malignant masses and these were more common in the upper limbs (61%. Various features of malignant lesions were size more than 5 cm in 83%, change in signal intensity from homogenous on T1-weighted images to heterogenous on T2-weighted images in 74%, irregular margins in 74%, and heterogenous contrast enhancement in 91%. The accuracy of these features was 76%, 58%, 78%, and 60%, respectively. Most benign and malignant lesions were intramuscular in location. A significant number (38% of benign lesions were located in the intermuscular facial plane. Definitive diagnosis was made in 42% of the lesions. Conclusions: MRI is an excellent modality for evaluating soft tissue neoplasms; however, prediction of a specific diagnosis and differentiation of malignant and benign lesions is not always possible.

  20. Ectopic production of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin by malignant ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and specific radio-immunoassay for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin(?-HCG) was performed on serum samples from 18 patients with large pelvic masses. No ?-HCG level was detectable in 8 patients with either benign ovarian tumours or non-ovarian masses. Ten patients had a malignant ovarian neoplasm, and 6 of these (60%) had raised ?-HCG levels. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary was the commonest malignant tumour (6/10) and the ?-HCG was raised in 4 patients (66,6%) with this tumour. Serum ?-HCG values therefore appear to be useful in the management of ovarian neoplasms, both for the early diagnosis of occult tumour and for monitoring response to treatment

  1. Malignancy in solitary nodular lesions of thyroid : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the cases seen for thyroid disorders, 150 cases with solitary nodule were studied to find out the correlation between the histopathological features and the functional status of the nodules. 35-45 ?Cs of sup(131)I was given orally and thyroid uptake was measured at 2,4,24 and 48 hours after administration and thyroid scan was done at the end of 24 hours. On the basis of sup(131)I concentration found in the nodules, single nodules were classified as hyperfunctioning, functioning, hypofunctioning and nonfunctioning. The incidence of malignancy was high in nonfunctioning and hypofunctioning nodules, while no malingnancy was found in the functioning types of nodules. These results are compared with those of other such studies. (M.G.B.)

  2. A case of Riedel's thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Pi, Gyu Young; Lee, Yong Sang; Hong, Soon Won; Chang, Hang-seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis is an extremely rare disease that is difficult to diagnose correctly using preoperative diagnostic tools because it can mimic malignant neoplasm or the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis during preoperative physical, radiologic, and pathologic examination. We describe here a rare case of Riedel's thyroiditis in an elderly patient and its radiologic characteristics.

  3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of sublingual gland: a malignant neoplasm in an uncommon region

    OpenAIRE

    N, Anil Kumar; Nair, Preeti P.; Thomas, Shaji; Raman, Prabhu S; Bhambal, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Although mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MECs) are considered as the second most common malignant salivary gland neoplasm, only 0.5–1% of epithelial salivary gland tumours have been reported to arise from the sublingual salivary gland.1 The authors report a case of a low-grade MEC of the sublingual salivary gland in a 35-year-old woman. Wide excision of the tumour along with continuous marginal mandibulectomy was performed. There has been no recurrence till date.

  4. Patología maligna tiroidea. Hospital Sabogal, Callao / Malignant thyroid pathology. Callao, Sabogal Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Oré; Marco, Otárola.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas del cáncer de tiroides encontrados en la población del Callao. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Material y Métodos: Se revisó las historias clínicas de las intervenciones quirúrgicas de la glándula tiroides en el Hospital Nacional Alberto [...] Sabogal Sologuren (HNASS), en el periodo enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2002, cuyo resultado por anatomía patológica fue compatible con neoplasia maligna de dicha glándula. Resultados: Las 45 neoplasias malignas primarias de tiroides encontradas representaron 34,2% de la patología tiroidea operada en el periodo en estudio. El carcinoma papilar se presentó en 100% de los pacientes de sexo masculino y en 82% del sexo femenino; en la mujer, los carcinomas folicular, medular y linfoma representaron 10,3%, 5,1% y 2,6%, respectivamente. El grupo etáreo con mayor incidencia fue entre 50 y 69 años, con una edad promedio de 53 años. Dentro de los diferentes tipos de neoplasias malignas, el más frecuente fue el papilar con 38 casos (84,4%), seguido de los carcinomas folicular y medular con 8,9% y 4,4%, respectivamente. El síntoma más frecuente fue el aumento de volumen (61,5%), seguido de dolor (15,4%), disfagia (10,8%) y disfonía (9,2%); 29,6% se encontraba en estadio I y 59,1% en estadio II; sólo 11,4% estaba en estadio III. Conclusiones: El predominio de casos en mujeres del carcinoma papilar y la clínica asociada, fueron acordes con lo descrito en la literatura. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer at Callao’s population. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Material y Methods: Clinical histories and surgical reports that involved the thyroid gland were reviewed. The pathology result had to be compatible with primar [...] y thyroid malignant neoplasm. The study was performed at the Alberto Sabogal Sologuren National Hospital (HNASS) during the period January 2000 through December 2002. Results: Forty-five thyroid malignant neoplasms were identified representing 34,2% of all thyroid neoplasms operated during the period studied. In males papillary carcinoma was present in 100% of cases and in females in 82,1%, followed by both follicular and medullar carcinoma and lymphoma, in 10,2%, 5,1% and 2,6%, respectively. Major incidence was in the 50 to 69 years group, average 53 years. The most frequent malignant neoplasms were papillary carcinoma with 38 cases (84,4%), follicular and medullary carcinoma with 8,9% and 4,4%, respectively. Most frequent symptoms were growing tumor (61,5%), local pain (15,4%), dysphagia (10,8%) and dysphonia (9,2%); 29,6% of cases were on stage I, 59,1% on stage II, and only 11,4% on stage III. Conclusions: Papillary carcinoma occurred mainly in women and clinical features were as described in the literature.

  5. Radiobiological aspects of long-term epidemiological study of malignant lung neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 33 years' study of uranium miners with a cumulated uptake of radon daughters of 220 WLM (working level months), an incidence of malignant lung neoplasms was found exceeding almost 5 times the neoplasm rate expected for the general population. The additional annual risk of a neoplasm was 21x10-6 WLM-1 and the relative risk coefficient was 1.4% for 1 WLM. The risk level of lung neoplasms was affected by age at the time of irradiation, by the mode of dose cumulation, and to a varying extent a simultaneous inhibition (sterilization) effect of irradiation and a decrease in carcinogenic effect with the time after irradiation was seen. A lung neoplasm incidence significantly exceeding the expected one, first occurred in the 6th year after exposure to the risk had started, the maximum excess was seen in the 22nd year, and starting with year 33 the observed and expected incidences did not differ. The mean time interval between the start of exposure and death was 20.3±7.0 years. (A.K.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  6. A novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 differentiates between neoplastic lesions in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Fermér, Christian; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Mäenpää, Hanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Nilsson, Olle; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-07-01

    Follicular thyroid lesions are the bane of cytopathology. Differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma is impossible, and often these neoplasms are indistinguishable even from uninodular goitre. In other cancers as well, a theory of stem cells as the origin of cancer has been discussed in thyroid carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine a novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 in follicular lesions in an attempt to find a marker for differential diagnosis in thyroid cytopathology. HESC5:3 was raised against and is specific for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. The epitope of this novel antibody is to be defined. Immunohistochemical expression of HESC5:3 was examined in clinical material comprised of follicular neoplasms (83 adenomas, 43 carcinomas) and non-neoplastic lesions (41 goitrous, 22 hyperplastic, 23 normal tissue specimens). Staining differed significantly between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Nuclear staining was increased in non-neoplastic cells, whereas in neoplastic cells expression was mainly cytoplasmic. There was no difference between benign and malignant lesions, suggesting a role in early tumourigenesis. In conclusion, the HESC5:3 epitope may be of benefit as a neoplasia marker in distinguishing between uninodular goitre and neoplasia. Characterization of the epitope would increase the interest in this promising new stem cell associated marker. PMID:25960045

  7. "MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the immunoreactivity of HBME-l in 90 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We found strong positive staining in the majority of papillary carcinomas (28/31, in some of follicular carcinomas (4/6,and in a few follicular adenomas (2/17. Negative staining was found in oxyphilic cell adenoma (0/4, nodular goiter (0/13 and undifferentiated carcinoma. The results suggest that monoclonal antibody HBME-l is useful in differentiating papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from benign lesions, especially in more differentiated lesions. Strong and generalized immunoreactivity for HBME-l in a follicular lesion should raise the suspicion of malignancy, but negative staining specially in poorly differentiated lesion does not rule out malignancy.

  8. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endosET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT. (author)

  9. Preoperative diagnosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasm in gastrointestinal and breast cancers. Impact of FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports of multiple primary malignant neoplasm (MPMN) have increased due to the development of imaging technologies that have influenced the extension of the 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers. Integrated positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown its advantages for detecting, staging, evaluating the prognosis, and offering better insights for survivors, their families and physicians. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the impact of whole-body FDG-PET/CT in detecting MPMN during the initial staging work-up of gastrointestinal and breast malignancy, and to describe their characteristics. The cases were identified by reviewing the Dokkyo Medical University Hospital PET Center's database, searching for patients referred from the Department of Surgical Oncology and the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, who underwent preoperative staging with whole-body FDG PET/CT at our center between January 2007 and December 2009. A total of 778 patients matched these criteria. Of them, 40 PET/CT reports mentioned suspicious cases of MPMN. The medical records of these 40 cases were retrieved and examined. The follow-up data of these patients was reviewed until February 2010. Of 778, 32 patients were diagnosed with additional unexpected cancers, which 27 (3.5%) were incidental double cancers and 5 (0.64%) had triple primary lesions. Overall 37 MPMN, twelve corresponded to stage 0,l 37 MPMN, twelve corresponded to stage 0, nineteen to stages I-II, three to stages III-IV, and three remained uncertain. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of FDG PET/CT in detecting a controversial lesion were 76.5% and 70.3%, respectively. The colorectum was the most common site for synchronous MPMN (17 of 37 cancers 45.9%), followed by stomach (9; 24.3%), prostate (3; 8.1%), thyroid (3; 8.1%), breast (2; 5.4%), biliary duct (1; 2.7%), kidney (1; 2.7%), and lung (1; 2.7%). FDG PET/CT was useful for finding multiple primary malignant neoplasm with a relatively high sensitivity. Physicians should pay special attention to rule out the presence of unexpected additional primary lesions in initial staging work-up for colorectal cancer. (author)

  10. [Preparation of hemopoietic stem cells for transplantation to adult patients with malignant neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniavskaia, T Z; Melkova, K N; Abdusalamov, S N; Aliev, M D

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports a review and analysis of the literature on preparation of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) for allogeneic and autologic transplantation to adult patients with malignant neoplasms. Original data on the collection of HSC from different sources are presented along with prognostic factors for preparing sufficient amounts of HSC. The cells were obtained from a total of 122 subjects (298 procedures). It is shown that the choice of a HSC source and mobilization procedure on an individual basis ensures relatively safe HSC transplantation to all the patients for whom this operation is the treatment of choice. PMID:19830918

  11. Hematological follow-up studies on patients with thyroid neoplasms after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on 391 thyroid neoplasms diagnostic hematological follow-up studies were registered in 34 patients with an overall J-131-dose of more than 500 mCi including the following parameters: 1. Peripheral blood control. 2. Bone marrow aspiration. 3. Cell volume distribution size of leukocytes after preparative enrichment. If in doubt a bone marrow scintigraphy was added. The adjunctive diagnostic procedure was correlated with histological criteria of thyroid carcinoma and J-131 retention after therapeutic application of radioiodine. In particular, a case report is given regarding a patient of 66 years with follicular thyroid carcinoma receiving 990 mCi J-131 during a period of 11 years after having had total thyroidectomy twice. The development of acute leucemia followed by death happened 16 years later. The moment of bone marrow transformation was determined exactly. The value of blood parameters can be calculated as follows: 1. Peripheral blood controls are limited by lack of efficiency. 2. Biopsy of bone marrow can detect hypoplastic alteration being latent in circulating blood for some years, even of J-131 cumulation dose below 500 mCi. 3. The analysis of distribution size of leukocytes represents a functional aspect after radiation induced in injury of bone marrow. (author)

  12. Diagnostic value of isotope scanning in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannograms of the thyroid in 138 patients were analysed. Scanning of the thyroid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct, but it should be performed on definite indications. The scannogram pattern in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid is dependent on morphological features of a tumor, size and localization of a tumor node in the gland thickness. But scanning is found to be of no decisive value in establishing the differetial diagnosis between benign and malignant neoplasms of the thyroid. Isotope scanning of the thyroid proves to be a largly informative method of examination in patients previously subjected to thyroid surgery. Scanning technique seems to be of importance in recognizing

  13. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pediatric cancer patients: The advantage and fear of second malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is used for delivering more efficient homogenous dose to the target and lowering of dose to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a second malignant neoplasm may develop after prolonged latent period. The use of modern precise radiotherapy techniques in the pediatric age group has many controversial issues in spite of its proven dosimetric distribution advantages and the considerable decrease of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). This concern is due to many factors; mainly the exposure of a larger volume of normal tissues to low dose radiotherapy. Children have more proliferating tissues compared to the adults. However, the epidemiological data did not detect an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancy. This issue is still controversial as IMRT and other precise radiotherapy techniques were not widely used except recently. This may entail a thorough careful follow up for children treated with these techniques to detect any incidence increase

  15. Extrahepatic primary malignant neoplasms associated with hepatocellular carcinoma: high occurrence of B cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, M; Sbolli, G; Fornari, F; Cavanna, L; Rossi, S; Buscarini, E; Civardi, G; Vallisa, D; Berté, R; Buscarini, L

    1994-01-01

    In a consecutive series of 317 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 32 (10.1%) had 35 extrahepatic primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) (3 patients had triple cancers). Twenty-five PMNs occurred before the diagnosis of HCC, 7 were synchronous and 3 metachronous. These 35 PMNs were: 6 cancers of the colon, 3 of the stomach, 1 of the rectum, 4 of the breast, 2 of the lung, 1 of the larynx, 3 of the prostate, 1 of the penis, 1 of the urinary bladder, 1 of the uterus, 2 of the skin, and the remaining 10 were immunoproliferative cancers, all of B cell origin (7 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 2 multiple myeloma, and 1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia). Thus, in this series, B-lymphocyte-derived neoplasms were the most frequent PMNs associated with HCC. These 10 patients showed no difference for age, male:female ratio, HCC cytotype, presence of cirrhosis, alcohol abuse, markers related to hepatitis B and C virus, and serum level of alpha-fetoprotein when compared with the 22 patients with HCC and other PMNs and the 285 with HCC alone. B cell neoplasms constitute half of the synchronous or metachronous cancers, and must, therefore, be kept in mind in the management of HCC patients. PMID:8052489

  16. Thyroid malignancy markers on sonography are common in patients with benign thyroid disease and previous iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motavaf, Anne Krejbjerg; Brilli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of benign thyroid nodules on sonography and ultrasound elastography in a population exposed to iodine deficiency. METHODS: We conducted a prospective systematic evaluation of preoperative thyroid sonography and elastography in patients assigned for surgical excision of benign thyroid nodules. Two experienced sonographers performed all sonographic and elastographic examinations. Thyroid nodules were evaluated by 7 generally accepted sonographic malignancy risk markers and assigned an elasticity score on elastography. The final diagnosis of a benign thyroid nodule was based on histopathologic analysis of resected thyroid gland tissue. RESULTS: We evaluated 232 thyroid nodules in 105 patients (86 women and 19 men). In total, 57% of the examined nodules had 1 or 2 malignancy risk markers present, and 24% did not have any markers present. A solid nodule larger than 15 mm was the most common malignancy risk marker observed (63%), followed by low elasticity (33%), microcalcifications (26%), and hypoechogenicity (15%). In an analysis stratified according to the number of nodules (solitary versus multiple), low elasticity was described more frequently in solitary nodules (61.9% versus 30.4%; P= .004). A large nodular volume was a predictor (P < .05) of microcalcifications and intranodular vascularization, whereas an absent halo sign and a solid nodule were found less frequently in nodules with larger volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that routine preoperative malignancy risk evaluation of presumably benign thyroid nodules is of little value when performed on patients exposed to iodine deficiency.

  17. A Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neoplasm Lacking Lung Markers Harbors an EML4-ALK Rearrangement and Responds to Crizotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jon H.; Ali, Siraj M.; Davis, Jenni; Robstad, Karl; McNally, Richard; Gay, Laurie M; Erlich, Rachel L.; Palma, Norma A.; Stephens, Phil J.; Miller, Vincent A; Cutugno, Alfonso; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Suspected metastatic site lesions that are poorly differentiated present a diagnostic challenge when morphologic and immunohistochemical profiling cannot establish the primary tumor site. Here we present a patient diagnosed with both a malignant neoplasm in the lung and a right upper extremity (RUE) neoplasm of unclear histogenetic origin. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the latter specimen was inconclusive in determining the site of origin. Although the lung biopsy sample was insuf...

  18. Mortality on malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there have been several reports of increases of leukemia, especially childhood leukemia, in populations resident in the vicinity of nuclear installations. However, there is no information on cancer mortality of the people living near nuclear power stations in Japan. Therefore, we have studied the standardized mortality ratio of malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan. Data on the cancer mortality were obtained from the magnetic tapes of National Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health and Welfare, for years of 1973-1987. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) of all leukemia, lymphoma, non-HODGKIN's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and acute non-lymphatic leukemia was calculated for various age groups (0-14, 0-24 years and all ages) and different period (1973-1977, 1978-1982, 1983-1987 and 1973-1987) for each nuclear power plant site. The results showed that some of the studied population had higher rates of certain malignant neoplasms, and some had lower rates, either before or after the facilities came into operation. Our statistical analysis provided no evidence of any association between particular sites and increased cancer mortality rates. (author)

  19. Prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with previous history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood (in khorosan province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased prevalence of thyroid cancer was noted in patients with previous history of radiotherapy of the head and neck region in childhood. According to previous research, radiotherapy for Ti nia capitis was using up to 30 years ago in Khorasan Province. This study tries to evaluate prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and detect and treat these patients earlier to prevent more complications and increased cost. Methods and patients: Using mass media, we recalled all patients with history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood. A questionnaire was filled for each patient and thyroid examination, thyroid scan and thyroid sonography were performed. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was done if a thyroid nodule larger than 1 cm was palpable. Serum TSH was measured in all patients. Also thyroid surgery was recommended for all patients with thyroid nodules more than 1 cm. A control group was defined from a group of patients who referred for non thyroidal sonography to radiology department of Ghaem hospital. These patients also were evaluated by clinical examination and thyroid sonography. Results: We studied 180 patients with mean age of 47.7 years and 127 age and sex m etched controls. Thyroid nodules was palpated in 45.5% of patients and 7% of controls (P0.01). The mean largest diameter of nodules were 24.8 mm in patients and 10.8 mm in control group (P<0.001). 75% of patients were agreed with FNAB and 5% of them had suspicious cytologFNAB and 5% of them had suspicious cytology results. No suspicious or malignant results was noted in control group. Twenty seven patients (33.7%) were operated. Pathological results were benign in 89.9% and malignant in 1% of patients. His study showed that thyroid nodules and thyroid neo plasma were significantly more larger in the patients group. Thyroid neoplasm were more frequent in younger patients with latent thyroid (from radiotherapy) of less than 40 years, so aggressive evaluation is recommended in these group

  20. `Cold` thyroid nodules: What does it mean? Association of `hot thyroid nodules with {sup 99m} Tc-tetrosfosmin` in previous `cold technetium thyroid nodules` and thyroid malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Tadeu de Almeida; Pellini, Marcos P.; Almeida, Jose Carlos C.; Novaes, Luciene Targat; Pinto, Everton G.; Amarante Junior, Jose Luiz; Manhaes, Ricardo A. [MEDILABS Medicina Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Tetrofosmin, a new lipophilic technetium-phosphine agent, proposed initially for myocardial perfusion imaging in which the precise mechanism of uptake into myocardial cells is likely to be similar to that of sestamibi, demonstrates in experimental data an accumulation in the mitochondria, a phenomenon dependent on the amount of proteins and energetic substrate (J Nucl Med, 35:48 P-47 P, 1994). Studies of biodistribution of Technetium-99 m-Tetrofosmin show early thyroid uptake which rapidly clears from normal thyroid tissue (tracer washout 4 h after injection), but it may be retained longer in malignant tumor lesion. Some reports have been describing localization of metastatic lesions of mixed thyroid cancer ( J Nucl Med, 36:2248-2251, 1995), follicular thyroid carcinoma (Eur J Nucl Med 22:1218-1220, 1995) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (J Nucl Med 38:227-230, 1997), utilizing Tc 99 m-Tetrofosmin and/or Sestamibi. We decided to use Tetrofosmin in our patients, since we hypothesized that its biological features and intracellular uptake mechanisms could justify its clinical applications in the differential of neoplastic diseases before surgery. We describe 2 patients, in a series of 6 who had no significant tracer uptake (cold nodules) with Technetium, that became `hot nodules` with Tc 99-Tetrofosmin, in which histologic findings after fine needle biopsy and thyroidectomy confirmed Hurthle cell Adenoma with Papillary Carcinoma nd the other a Papillary Multicentric Carcinoma. The other four patients are waiting for surgery. In conclusion, besides detecting metastatic lesions enabling us to better evaluation of the extended malignant disease, thyroid scintigraphic studies with Tc 99 m-Tetrofosmin seems to contribute for understanding and predicting of thyroid malignancies pre-surgically

  1. 'Cold' thyroid nodules: What does it mean? Association of 'hot thyroid nodules with 99m Tc-tetrosfosmin' in previous 'cold technetium thyroid nodules' and thyroid malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. Tetrofosmin, a new lipophilic technetium-phosphine agent, proposed initially for myocardial perfusion imaging in which the precise mechanism of uptake into myocardial cells is likely to be similar to that of sestamibi, demonstrates in experimental data an accumulation in the mitochondria, a phenomenon dependent on the amount of proteins and energetic substrate (J Nucl Med, 35:48 P-47 P, 1994). Studies of biodistribution of Technetium-99 m-Tetrofosmin show early thyroid uptake which rapidly clears from normal thyroid tissue (tracer washout 4 h after injection), but it may be retained longer in malignant tumor lesion. Some reports have been describing localization of metastatic lesions of mixed thyroid cancer ( J Nucl Med, 36:2248-2251, 1995), follicular thyroid carcinoma (Eur J Nucl Med 22:1218-1220, 1995) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (J Nucl Med 38:227-230, 1997), utilizing Tc 99 m-Tetrofosmin and/or Sestamibi. We decided to use Tetrofosmin in our patients, since we hypothesized that its biological features and intracellular uptake mechanisms could justify its clinical applications in the differential of neoplastic diseases before surgery. We describe 2 patients, in a series of 6 who had no significant tracer uptake (cold nodules) with Technetium, that became 'hot nodules' with Tc 99-Tetrofosmin, in which histologic findings after fine needle biopsy and thyroidectomy confirmed Hurthle cell Adenoma with Papillary Carcinoma nd the other a Papillary MulticeCarcinoma nd the other a Papillary Multicentric Carcinoma. The other four patients are waiting for surgery. In conclusion, besides detecting metastatic lesions enabling us to better evaluation of the extended malignant disease, thyroid scintigraphic studies with Tc 99 m-Tetrofosmin seems to contribute for understanding and predicting of thyroid malignancies pre-surgically

  2. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  3. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  4. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

  5. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Kabayegit Ozlem; Soysal Dilek; Oruk Gonca; Ustaoglu Bahar; Kosan Umut; Solmaz Serife; Avci Arzu

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushin...

  6. Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

  7. Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraushaar, Greg; Wiebe, Sheldon [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

  8. Canine malignant mammary gland neoplasms with advanced clinical staging treated with carboplatin and cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Gleidice Eunice; De Campos, Cecília Bonolo; Bertagnolli, Angélica Cavalheiro; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Surgery remains the treatment of choice for female dogs with mammary gland tumors. Chemotherapy is not commonly used as an adjuvant therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been related to angiogenesis development in tumors, disease progression and worse prognosis. The aim of this prospective study was to compare overall survival periods of female dogs diagnosed with advanced mammary tumors submitted to different treatment protocols, including surgery, chemotherapy and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Twenty-nine female dogs were evaluated and treated with four different protocols. The overall survival of patients with low COX-2 scores was longer when compared to patients with high COX-2 scores. Different proposed adjuvant treatments associated with surgery led to a statistically significant longer overall survival when compared to surgical treatment alone. Canine patients presenting malignant mammary gland neoplasms with advanced clinical staging should be submitted to complementary therapeutic medication based on clinical staging and immunophenotypical characteristics of the disease. PMID:22523289

  9. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

  10. Decreased risk of radiation-associated second malignant neoplasms in actinomycin-D-treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred two long-term survivors of childhood cancers with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) were collected from 10 institutions. Forty-seven cases fulfilling study criteria were studied to determine the risk of developing a SMN in irradiated fields after exposure to various chemotherapeutic agents. The case control method was used. The risk of developing such tumors was decreased by a factor of 7 in patients receiving actinomycin-D (AMD). The protective effect of AMD was more pronounced in patients receiving repeated courses of the agent. No change in relative risk was found for children given antifolates, the vinca alkaloids, or alkylating agents. AMD protection is an unexpected finding because the agent is an oncogen in animals and an enhancer of radiation, the latter being a known carcinogen. Possible mechanisms, which remain speculative, are discussed. These results indicate the need for careful long-term observation of cancer survivors to gain understanding of the late effects of multimodal treatments

  11. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gómez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  12. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck; Zlosliwe nowotwory neurogenne glowy i szyi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author) 15 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Visualization of lung malignant neoplasms with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significance of 99mTc-MIBI in diagnosis of histologically proven malignant lung neoplasms is studied. 46 patients aged 35 till 65 are investigated - 29 with primary lung carcinoma, 5 with metastases and 12 as controls. All patients are preliminary studied by X-ray, computerized tomography, fibrobronchoscopy with biopsy and histological verification. 99mTC-MIBI is administered intravenously in dose of 555 MBq in a volume of 0.4-0.6 ml. The scintigraphic study is carried out on 60-th min with 'Nuclear Ohio Sigma 410' gamma camera. Positive findings are observed in 25 patients with primary carcinoma and in 4 patients with metastatic lungs. Negative findings are found in 4 patients with primary carcinoma and in 1 patient with metastatic lung. The controls have shown negative results. The applied chemotherapy and radiotherapy suppress the inclusion of 99mTc-MIBI in the tumor focus. The topography, size and distribution of the neoplasms are determined, as well as the efficiency of the treatment. 1 tabs., 3 figs. 6 refs. (orig.)

  14. A Poorly Differentiated Malignant Neoplasm Lacking Lung Markers Harbors an EML4-ALK Rearrangement and Responds to Crizotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jon H; Ali, Siraj M; Davis, Jenni; Robstad, Karl; McNally, Richard; Gay, Laurie M; Erlich, Rachel L; Palma, Norma A; Stephens, Phil J; Miller, Vincent A; Cutugno, Alfonso; Ross, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    Suspected metastatic site lesions that are poorly differentiated present a diagnostic challenge when morphologic and immunohistochemical profiling cannot establish the primary tumor site. Here we present a patient diagnosed with both a malignant neoplasm in the lung and a right upper extremity (RUE) neoplasm of unclear histogenetic origin. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the latter specimen was inconclusive in determining the site of origin. Although the lung biopsy sample was insufficient for molecular testing, hybrid capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling (FoundationOne) identified an EML4-ALK rearrangement in the RUE lesion. Crizotinib treatment resulted in a major response in both the RUE and the lung lesions. This report illustrates the utility of comprehensive genomic profiling employed at the initial presentation of an unknown primary malignant neoplasm, which resulted in the front-line use of targeted therapy and a significant and sustained antitumor response. PMID:25408655

  15. Analysis of elemental concentration censored distributions in breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total reflection X-ray fluorescence method was applied to study the trace element concentrations in human breast malignant and breast benign neoplasm tissues taken from the women who were patients of Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce (Poland). These investigations were mainly focused on the development of new possibilities of cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This systematic comparative study was based on relatively large (? 100) population studied, namely 26 samples of breast malignant and 68 samples of breast benign neoplasm tissues. The concentrations, being in the range from a few ppb to 0.1%, were determined for thirteen elements (from P to Pb). The results were carefully analysed to investigate the concentration distribution of trace elements in the studied samples. The measurements of concentration of trace elements by total reflection X-ray fluorescence were limited, however, by the detection limit of the method. It was observed that for more than 50% of elements determined, the concentrations were not measured in all samples. These incomplete measurements were treated within the statistical concept called left-random censoring and for the estimation of the mean value and median of censored concentration distributions, the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used. For comparison of concentrations in two populations, the log-rank test was applied, which allows to compare the censored total reflection X-ray fluorescence data. Found statistically significant e data. Found statistically significant differences are discussed in more details. It is noted that described data analysis procedures should be the standard tool to analyze the censored concentrations of trace elements analysed by X-ray fluorescence methods

  16. The diagnostic value of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging to benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the characteristic of 99Tcm-MIBI double-phase imaging, and compared with the pathologic result to discuss and evaluate the diagnostic and difference diagnostic value of early-imaging and delayed-imaging to benign and malignant lesion in thyroid. Methods: Eighty-nine pathological proven thyroid lesions patients were included in this study (38 cases of thyroid cancer and 51 cases of thyroid benign lesion). 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid were performed, and comparatively analyzed the T/NT ratio of early-imaging and delayed-imaging of thyroid cancer and thyroid benign lesion. Results: There was no significance in the T/NT ratio of 99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging between thyroid cancer group (T/NT=1.32±0.03) and thyroid benign lesion group (T/NT=1.26±0.22) (t=0.63, P>0.05). The T/NT ratio of delayed-imaging was high (T/NT=1.72±0.39) than that of benign lesion (T/NT=1.20±0.36), and there was statistically significance between them (t=3.45, P99Tcm-MIBI early-imaging but specify is low, and specify is high for diagnosing thyroid cancer using 99Tcm-MIBI delayed-imaging, which is better for differencing malignancy from benignity in thyroid. (authors)

  17. Malignancy Risk Assessment in Patients with Thyroid Nodules Using Classification and Regression Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Shokouh Taghipour Zahir; Fariba Binesh; Mehrdad Mirouliaei; Elias Khajeh; Sina Noshad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We sought to investigate the utility of classification and regression trees (CART) classifier to differentiate benign from malignant nodules in patients referred for thyroid surgery. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of 271 patients referred to the Sadoughi Hospital during 2006–2011 were collected. In a two-step approach, a CART classifier was employed to differentiate patients with a high versus low risk of thyroid malignancy. The first step served as the screening proced...

  18. Primary Malignant Teratoma with a Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Component in Thyroid Gland : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bae, Tae Seok; Kwon, Youngmee; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chung, Ki-wook; Kim, Sun Wook; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2007-01-01

    Teratomas comprise the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors in childhood. Most teratomas involving the thyroid are benign and occur in children. However, the adult cases reported are mostly malignant and commonly arise in the thyroid. We report a case of a 31-yr-old female with a huge neck mass. Pathologic examination revealed it to be malignant teratoma composed of primitive neuroepithelial tissue with primitive neural tubes and loose myxoid to fibrous immature mesenchymal stroma. The p...

  19. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  20. Comparison of Na+/I- symporter expression rate in malignant and benign thyroid diseases: immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have not showed consistent results for the level of expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid diseases, especially malignant tumor. We undertook this study to evaluate the distribution of NIS expression in malignant thyroid diseases and compare with that in benign thyoid disease. Total patients were 119 cases (Men 15, 48±13 yrs). Total number of samples were 205 pieces. In malignant thyroid disease, there were 153 samples: 90 in papillary carcinoma, 4 in follicular carcinoma, 2 in medullary carcinoma and 57 in metastatic lymph node. In benign thyroid disease, there were 52 samples: 36 in goiter/cyst, 11 in thyroiditis and 5 in follicular adenoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we probed 205 samples with monoclonal anti-NIS Ab. Grading of staining was scored as 0 (negative or absent), 1 (weakly positive), 2 (moderately positive) or 3 (strongly positive). Expression rate (ER) of NIS positivity in individual disease entity was expressed as percentage of total number divided by number in 2 plus 3 grade. ERs of malignant thyroid diseases were 63% in papillary carcinoma, 81% in metastatic lymph node, 71% in follicular carcinoma and 100% in medullary carcinoma. ERs of benign thyroid disease were 53% in goiter/cyst, 64% in thyroiditis and 40% in follicular adenoma. ER of benign thyroid deceases was higher than benign thyroid diseases (71% vs 54%). Grading of NIS expression in papillary carcinoma or goiter/cyst was heterogeneously distributediter/cyst was heterogeneously distributed in considerable cases. Normal tissue also showed heterogeneous distribution or NIS expression, which was not correlated with that of primary lesion. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, distribution of NIS expression was heterogeneous and increased, and not different compared with that of benign thyroid disease

  1. A Logistic Regression Model Predicting Malignancy in Follicular Thyroid Lesions Based on CD56 Expression and Patient's Age

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Abdelzaher; Azza Mohamed Rizk; Maram Allam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Follicular thyroid lesions represent a heterogeneous group with variable biological behavior. Discrimination between benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions by histologic examination poses a significant challenge to pathologists. Recently, CD56 has attracted attention as a potential diagnostic marker in follicular thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: A retrospective immunohistochemical and statistical analyses of CD56 expression in 68 cases of follicular thyroid les...

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    OpenAIRE

    Basu S 1,*; Nair N; Borges A

    2005-01-01

    Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule), who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopa...

  3. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Wai Kit; Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Reena, Rahayu Md Zin; Zubaidah, Zakaria; Clarence-Ko, Ching Huat; Rohaizak, Muhammad; Naqiyah, Ibrahim; Srijit, Das; Hisham, Abdullah Nor; Asmiati, Arbi; Rafie, Md Kaslan

    2010-01-01

    At the present time, the differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma can be made only postoperatively and is based on the presence of capsular or vascular invasion. The ability to differentiate preoperatively between the malignant and benign forms of follicular thyroid tumors assumes greater importance in any clinical setting. The PAX8-PPARG translocation has been reported to occur in the majority of FTC. In this study, a group of 60 follicular thyroid neoplasms [18 FTC, 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 24 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 5 Hurthle cell adenomas (HCA), and 12 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FV-PTC)] were analyzed to determine the prevalence of the PAX8-PPARG translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The PAX8-PPARG translocation was detected in 2/18 FTC (11.1%). In addition, 2/18 (11.1%) FTC and 1/5 (20%) HCA showed 3p25 aneusomy only. The frequency of the translocation detected in the study was lower compared to the earlier studies conducted in Western countries. This might be attributed to the ethnic background and geographic location. Detection of either the PAX8-PPARG translocation or the 3p25 aneusomy in FTC indicates that these are independent genetic events. It is hereby concluded that 3p25 aneusomy or PAX8-PPARG translocation may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors. PMID:19963130

  4. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  6. Risk of second malignant neoplasm following proton versus intensity-modulated photon radiotherapies for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Krishnan, Sunil; Scarboro, Sarah B.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2010-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most common cancer in the world, is a global health concern. Radiotherapy for HCC is uncommon, largely because of the likelihood of radiation-induced liver disease, an acute side effect that is often fatal. Proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer HCC patients a better option for treating the diseased liver tissue while largely sparing the surrounding tissues, especially the non-tumor liver. However, even advanced radiotherapies carry a risk of late effects, including second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unclear whether PBT or IMRT confers less risk of an SMN than the other. The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risk of developing an SMN for a patient with HCC between PBT and IMRT. For both treatments, radiation doses in organs and tissues from primary radiation were determined using a treatment planning system; doses in organs and tissues from stray radiation from PBT were determined using Monte Carlo simulations and from IMRT using thermo-luminescent dosimeter measurements. Risk models of SMN incidence were taken from the literature. The predicted absolute lifetime attributable risks of SMN incidence were 11.4% after PBT and 19.2% after IMRT. The results of this study suggest that using proton beams instead of photon beams for radiotherapy may reduce the risk of SMN incidence for some HCC patients.

  7. Spatial autocorrelation calculations of the nine malignant neoplasms in Taiwan in 2005–2009: a gender comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Pui-jen

    2011-01-01

    Spatial analytical techniques and models are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial anomalies (hotspots) in disease regions. These analytical approaches can be used to identify not only the location of such hotspots, but also their spatial patterns. We used spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran's I and Local Getis-Ord statistics, to describe and map spatial clusters and areas in which nine malignant neoplasms are situated in Taiwan. In addition, we used a logis...

  8. Assessment of enzymatic activity of salinary glands in comprehensive radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in the course of combined radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumour localization in the head and neck increase in the activity of alpha-amylase of saliva and decrease in enzymatic activity, depending on the absorbed isoeffective dose, take place. Suppression of enzymatic activity of saliva was more clearly pronounced in the patients subjected to neutron radiation, than those subjected to the standard conditions of gamma-therapy. Indices of saliva enzymatic activity in the process of combined radiotherapy were used as criterion of tolerance of salinary glands in the patients with malignant neoplasms in the head and neck. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  9. Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant fr parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

  10. Role of Duplex Power Doppler Ultrasound in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algin, Oktay [Ataturk Training and Research Hospital Bilkent, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Algin, Efnan [Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Gokalp, Gokhan; Ocakog, Gokhan; Erdog an, Cuneyt; Saraydaroglu, Ozlem; Ercan Tuncel, Prof [Uludag University Medical Faculty, Bursa (Turkmenistan)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate the usage of duplex power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. We prospectively examined 77 thyroid nodules in 60 patients undergoing ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each nodule was described according to size, inner structure, borders, parenchymal echogenicity, peripheral halo formation, and the presence of calcification (Bmode ultrasound findings). Vascularity as determined by PDUS imaging was defined as non-vascular, peripheral, central, or of mixed type. For each nodule, the pulsatility index (PI) and resistive index (RI) values were obtained. Results of FNAB and surgical pathological examination (if available) were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to establish cut-off, sensitivity, and specificity values associated with RI-PI values. A significant relationship was observed between malignancy and irregular margins, microcalcifications, and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound examination (p < 0.05). The pattern of vascularity as determined by PDUS analysis was not a statistically significant criterion to suggest benign or malignant disease in this study (p > 0.05). The central, peripheral, and mean RI-PI values were higher in malignant nodules when compared to the other cytologies (p < 0.05). Vascularity is not a useful parameter for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. However, RI and PI values are useful in distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules

  11. Thyroid treatment and its possible influence on occurrence of malignant tumors after diagnostic 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which thyroid surgery, thyroid hormone medication or other forms of thyroid therapy were applied after diagnostic administration of 131I has been determined in 871 patients of the 10,133 patients reported previously. The relevant information was obtained from questionnaires and from hospital records. Of the 871 patients at least 58 per cent had received no form of thyroid treatment and 33 per cent had had some form of treatment, while in 9 per cent no information could be obtained. The large difference between the number of malignant tumors observed in the 10,133 patients after exposure to 131I and the number expected from UNSCEAR's risk figures for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma (47-124 cases) cannot be ascribed to the various forms of thyroid treatment given after the 131I administration. (Auth.)

  12. Thallium-201-chloride thyroid scintigraphy to evaluate benign and/or malignant nodules: usefulness of the delayed scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate benign and/or malignant thyroid tumors with 201T1 thyroid scan. We studied 76 cases of histologically verified thyroid tumors, all seen as cold nodules on the 123I thyroid scan. 201T1 thyroid scan was performed 5-15 minutes (early scan) and 3-5 hours (delayed scan) after intravenous administration of 1.5-2.0 mCi of 201T1. In 35 (94.6%) of 37 malignant tumors (anaplastic carcinoma, six; papillary carcinoma, 23; follicullar carcinoma, five; epidermoid carcinoma, one;malignant lymphoma, 1), 201T1 accumulated in the cold nodule of the 123I thyroid scan on both early and delayed scans. On the other hand, the delayed 201T1 scans, we were able to differentiate most malignant thyroid tumors from those which were benign. False-negative and -positive cases are discussed

  13. Oral malignant melanomas and other head and neck neoplasms in Danish dogs - data from the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Annemarie T

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancers (HNC are relatively common and often very serious diseases in both dogs and humans. Neoplasms originating in the head and neck region are a heterogeneous group. HNC often has an unfavourable prognosis and the proximity of the tissue structures renders extirpation of tumours with sufficient margins almost incompatible with preservation of functionality. In humans oral malignant melanoma (OMM is extremely rare, but represents a particular challenge since it is highly aggressive as is the canine counterpart, which thus may be of interest as a spontaneous animal model. Methods Canine cases entered in the Danish Veterinary Cancer Registry (DVCR from May 15th 2005 through February 29th 2008 were included in this study. Fisher's exact test was used to compare proportions of HNC in dogs and humans as well as proportions of surgically treated cases of OMM and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. Also the proportions of benign and malignant neoplasms of different locations in dogs were compared using Fisher's exact test. Results A total of 1768 cases of neoplasias (679 malignant, 826 benign, 263 unknown were submitted. Of all neoplasias HNC accounted for 7.2% (n = 128. Of these, 64 (50% were malignant and 44 (34% benign. The most common types of malignant neoplasia were SCC (18; 28% of malignant, OMM (13; 20% of malignant, soft tissue sarcoma (11; 17% of malignant and adenocarcinoma (5; 11% of malignant. The most common types of benign neoplasms were adenoma (7; 16% of benign, polyps (6; 14% of benign and fibroma (5; 11% of benign. Conclusions In the current study, the proportion of neoplasia in the head and neck region in dogs in Denmark was similar to other canine studies and significantly more common than in humans with a large proportion of malignancies. Spontaneous HNC in dogs thus, may serve as a model for HNC in humans. Canine OMM is a spontaneous cancer in an outbred, immune-competent large mammal population and could be a clinical model for OMM in humans.

  14. Thyroid suppression and medical ablation for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with thyroid cancer benefit from treatment with exogenous thyroid hormone for two reasons: it provides adequate levels of thyroid hormone to peripheral tissues, and it reduces the level of thyrotropin, which may be an important growth factor in patients with differentiated malignant neoplasms. The use of radioactive iodine for thyroid cancer is highly controversial. Its most appropriate applications are in follicular cancers, in older patients, and in distant functioning metastases. Its value in papillary cancer is questionable, particularly in young patients. There is a great need for effective basic and clinical research on the natural course of differentiated thyroid cancer and the effects of specific therapies

  15. Synchronous Hurthle Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Carcinoma in a Patient with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Navya, Narayanan O.; Magdalene, Kanapilly F.; Satheesh, Gopinath P.

    2014-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the most common autoimmune thyroid disease, is due to destruction of the thyroid gland by autoantibodies. Various types of thyroid malignancies may arise in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas, lymphomas, medullary carcinomas and hurthle cell neoplasms may develop in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We present a rare case report of a 35-year-old female who presented with hypothyroidism of a two-year duration. A diagnosis of Hashimoto’s...

  16. Volume changes of thyroid nodules after thyroxine suppression therapy: the usefulness in predicting malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Eun Joo; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kim, Kyung Suk; Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Dae Ho; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin; Yoo, Myung Hee [Soonchunhyang Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of volume change after thyroxine suppression therapy in predicting the malignancy of thyroid nodules. We analyzed 28 cases of thyroid nodules diagnosed as benign by aspiration cytology or biopsy before thyroxine suppression therapy and which did not decrease more than 50 % in volume after therapy. Using Ultrasonography we measured the volume of nodules before and after thyroxine suppression therapy and then determined volume change by calculating nodule volume suppression rate (NVSR) and comparing this between benign and malignant nodules. All cases were surgically confirmed. NVSR(%) = nodule volume after treatment / nodule volume before treatment X100. Seventeen (60.7 %) of 28 thyroid nodules which showed less than 50% NVSR after thyroxine therapy were shown by surgical resection to be malignant, while 11(39.3%) were benign. The malignant cases were papillary carcinoma (n=9) and follicular carcinoma (n=8), while benign cases were either follicular adenoma (n=7) or adenomatous hyperplasia (n=4). The mean volume of malignant thyroid nodules was 5.2{+-}4.5cm{sup 3} before thyroxine suppression therapy and 5.9{+-}4.5cm{sup 3} after therapy, and that of benign nodules, 12.1{+-}10.3cm{sup 3} before therapy and 10.1{+-}9.9cm{sup 3} after. NVSR was 127.2{+-}46.2 % in malignant nodules and 79.4{+-}21.0 % in benign nodules, with no significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). Although further studies may be required, fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy showed that among bening thyroid nodules which did not decrease more than 50 % in volume after thyroid therapy, the incidence of malignancy revealed by surgical resection was more than 60 %. Surgical exporation of these nodules is therefore highly recommended.

  17. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm. PMID:25531848

  18. Isolated familial medullary thyroid carcinoma as part of multiple endocrine neoplasm (men-2a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary carcinoma of thyroid (MTC) is a distinct thyroid carcinoma that originates from the para follicular C cell of thyroid gland which produce calcitonin. MTC has a genetic association with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndromes. Sporatic or isolated MTC occur in 75 % of patients. (author)

  19. Dose to the site of second malignant neoplasms development after radiotherapy among patients treated in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In spite of the improvements in treatment techniques, radiotherapy always involves unwanted irradiation of healthy organs and tissues. Our aim was to quantify the dose to the site of the second malignant neoplasm (S.M.N.) development. The study focused on 155 patients with S.M.N. among a cohort of 4,581 individuals, at least 2-year survivors, treated between 1942 and 1986, for a solid cancer during childhood in 8 centres in France and Great Britain. The software package Dos-EG was used to estimate the radiation doses. Concepts introduced by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements about the volumes were used to specify relative doses. Thus, we were able to determine the relative position of S.M.N. development with respect to the target volume. About 25% of S.M.N. occurred in sites where the estimated radiation dose was lower than 0.9 Gy and 35 % in sites where doses were lower than 5 Gy. The median dose to the site of origin of S.M.N. was about 12.9 Gy (range: 0 -73 Gy). Among all cases, 19.13 % occurred within the treated volume enclosed in the 95 % isodose surface, 25.22 % within the irradiated volume between the 95% and 50 % isodose surfaces, 35.65 % in the penumbra region between the 50 % and 20 % isodose surfaces, and 20.00 % were beyond the penumbra region. With the introduction of sophisticated treatment techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, both treated volume and irradiated volume are rereated volume and irradiated volume are reduced but the volume receiving low doses is substantially enlarged. This study showed that a notable fraction of S.M.N. occurred in regions where the dose received is lower than 5 Gy. These results should be considered when assessing whether the benefit of the treatment is higher than the risk. (authors)

  20. Subsequent malignant neoplasms in pediatric cancer patients treated with and without hematopoietic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, J D; Darmawikarta, D; Gassas, A; Ali, M; Egler, M; Greenberg, M L; Doyle, J; Nathan, P C; Schechter, T

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric cancer patients are at increased risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). However, little is known about the contribution of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) to the development of SMNs. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of SMNs in a population cohort of childhood cancer survivors treated with and without HSCT. A cohort of 7986 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer in the province of Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2009 was identified in POGONIS (Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System), a population-based active cancer registry, and linked to a clinical HSCT database. Among this cohort, 796 patients had an HSCT as part of their primary treatment. Of the 375 allogeneic HSCT patients, 14 (3.7%) developed a SMN at a median follow-up of 12.3 years (range: 2.0-22.9 years). Of the 421 autologous HSCT patients, 8 (1.9%) developed a SMN at a median of 4.5 years (range: 1.3-14.3 years). Of the 7190 patients who did not receive an HSCT, 160 (2.2%) developed a SMN at a median follow-up of 6.8 years (range: 0.0-24.9 years). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMN was 3.1% among the allogeneic HSCT group, 2.5% among the autologous group and 2.3% in the non-HSCT group. The cumulative incidence curves for the allogeneic HSCT and non-transplant groups only diverged after ~15 years from primary diagnosis. Our findings further corroborate the observation that children who undergo allogeneic HSCT are at a significantly increased risk of developing SMN compared with pediatric cancer survivors treated without HSCT. PMID:25706885

  1. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  2. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Chang Woo; Kim, Chang Woo; Sin, Se Kwon; Jang, Kyeung Jae [Dae Dong Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yi Tae [Dong A Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63{approx}0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67{approx}1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03{approx}2.11), 2.71 (0.97{approx}4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5{approx}0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59{approx}1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  3. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  4. Prevalence of BRAF T1799A mutations in benign and malignant thyroid tumors and tumor-like thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An increased incidence of thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident evoked a strong need in an early and accurate cancer diagnosis. Spectrum of thyroid diseases is wide, ranging from tumor-like lesions such as thyroiditis and various types of goiter, benign adenomas to malignant follicular, papillary, medullary and anaplastic (undifferentiated) cancer. Differential morphological diagnosis of these diseases is sometimes complicated. Therefore, much of attention has been recently paid to additional auxiliary diagnostic means, in particular to molecular and genetic assays. One of the most informative markers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a BRAF point mutation that has been shown to occur with a relatively high rate in PTCs but not in follicular cancer and benign lesions. The purpose of the current study was an investigation of hotspot BRAF T1799A mutation prevalence in a series of tumor-like thyroid lesions and thyroid tumors. For the study we collected thyroid tissue specimens from 44 patients living in the central region of the Russian Federation (8 males and 36 females; age range 23 to 69 years, 46 years old, mean) who were surgically treated in the Clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Included in the study were 32 cases of malignant thyroid tumors (26 papillary, 4 follicular and 2 medullary carcinomas), 5 benign (follicular adenomas), and 7 tumor-like lesions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocyticsions (5 nodular goiters and 2 lymphocytic thyroiditis). Histological classification was made according to the criteria described by LiVolsi (1990) and Rosai and colleagues (1992). Remaining excess tissue specimens of thyroid benign and malignant lesions and surrounding normal thyroid not needed for histological examination were used for DNA extraction. Genomic DNA was analyzed for the BRAF mutations by mutant allele specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA from PTC tissue previously determined to harbor mutant BRAF was used as a positive control. BRAF T1799A mutation was detected in 7 of 26 PTCs included in the study but not in follicular or medullary carcinoma, benign tumors and thyroid tumor-like lesions. No mutations were found in adjacent normal thyroid tissue in all cases including those tested positive for BRAF T1799A. Histological analysis showed that among 26 PTCs studied, 18 had conventional papillary architecture and 8 cases were follicular variant of PTC. Mutations were detected in conventional type PTCs only (38.9%, 7/18), but not in follicular variant tumors. The occurrence of BRAF T1799A mutation did not correlate with tumor metastatic potential although such observation may be due in part to a relatively small number of appropriate cases available for the study. As a whole, our data demonstrate that BRAF T1799A mutation is a prevalent mutational event in papillary thyroid carcinoma and its presence strongly correlates with conventional PTC hypostat but not with follicular variant that is in line with results of other laboratories. The findings suggest that detection of BRAF mutation may be used for molecular diagnostic purposes both preoperatively (on fine needle aspiration biopsy material) and after surgical treatment for differential diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to distinguish it from other histological types of thyroid cancer

  5. Clinical evaluation of 67Ga scanning in the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While 67Ga uptake has been reported to be highly variable and nonspecific in the diagnosis of malignant tumors of the thyroid, it has also been observed to depend on the histological nature of the lesion. For this reason, the behavior of 67Ga in various types of thyroid cancer was investigated in a prospective study of 86 patients with thyroid masses compatible with anaplastic carcinoma or malignant lymphoma. The study demonstrated a distinct difference in uptake between well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the thyroid and the more undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma

  6. Incidence of malignant thyroid tumors in humans after exposure to diagnostic doses of 131I. II. Estimation of thyroid gland size, thyroid radiation dose, and predicted versus observed number of malignant thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size of the thyroid glands was analyzed for 10% of the patients in a selected group that had been exposed to diagnostic doses of 131I. The mean thyroid gland weight +- SD was 50 +- 33 g for patients 20 or more years of age and 10 +- 5 g for patients less than 20 years of age. With the present follow-up, diagnostic doses of 131I appeared not to be associated with an increased risk for later development of malignant thyroid tumors. Possible reasons for the difference between the observed number of such tumors and the number expected (47 to 124) on the basis of risk estimates of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation are discussed

  7. Canine cutaneous neoplasms: prevalence and influence of age, sex and site on the presence and potential malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination was performed on cutaneous biopsies from 900 dogs with skin lesions from Zimbabwe, collected from 1996 to 2000. Clinical data were collected from medical records. Sixty per cent (540/900 of the cases were tumours and 40% (360/900 were non-neoplastic inflammatory or degenerative diseases. Thirty different histological types of tumour were diagnosed. The prevalence of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphohistiocytic and melanocytic tumours was 39.4 %, 44.4 %, 7.4 % and 8.7 %, respectively. The 10 most common tumours, comprising 73.7% of all cutaneous neoplasms, were mast cell tumours, squamous cell carcinomas, perianal gland adenomas, lymphomas, benign melanomas, haemangiosarcomas, sebaceous gland adenomas, fibrosarcomas, lipomas and malignant melanomas. The prevalence of various neoplasms, age of affected dogs and sites of occurrence were similar to surveys in other countries, except that in Zimbabwe there was a greater prevalence of lymphomas and of tumours associated with increased exposure to ultraviolet light (squamous cell carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas and melanomas. For all classes of tumours the sex of the dog did not have any significant influence on the likelihood of developing a tumour. For a dog diagnosed with a tumour located on the trunk, the tumour was significantly more likely to be an epithelial tumour than a non-epithelial tumour. The occurrence of melanocytic tumours on the trunk was significantly lower than at other sites. Lymphohistiocytic tumours were 10 times more likely to occur at multiple locations as opposed to single locations.

  8. Tumores malignos en nuestro medio: Estudio de 10 años / Malignant neoplasms in our environment: A ten-year study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy, Vasallo Pastor; Adis L., Peña Cedeño; Alfredo, Rodríguez Pérez.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian 616 pacientes con tumores malignos del aparato genital femenino, las que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente en el hospital ginecoobstétrico docente de Guanabacoa en el decenio 1984-1994. Como resultado de este trabajo se observó que el 2,9 % del total de biopsias correspondía a neoplasi [...] as malignas, y fue el carcinoma del cuello uterino el tumor más frecuente (423 casos para el 68,6 % del total de neoplasias). Los tumores de la mama y el endometrio ocuparon el 2do. y 3er. lugares en frecuencia, cuyas variedades histológicas se corresponden con lo reportado en la literatura. Se evidencia la importancia de redoblar la vigilancia e incrementar la labor y eficacia en la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino y de la glándula mamaria. Abstract in english 616 patients with female genital malignant neoplasms, who had been operated on at the Teaching Gynecological and Obstetric Hospital in Guanabacoa from 1984-1994, were studied. As a result, it was observed that 2.9 % of biopsies corresponded to malignant neoplasms and the most frequent was the cervix [...] -uteri carcinoma (423 cases accounting for 68,6 % of total number). Breast and endometriun neoplasms are the second and third causes. Whose histological varieties are similar to those reported in literature. The importance of strenghtening surveillance and increasing the effectiveness in the early detection of cervix uterine cancer and of breast cancer are evidenced.

  9. Tumores malignos en nuestro medio: Estudio de 10 años Malignant neoplasms in our environment: A ten-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Vasallo Pastor

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian 616 pacientes con tumores malignos del aparato genital femenino, las que fueron intervenidas quirúrgicamente en el hospital ginecoobstétrico docente de Guanabacoa en el decenio 1984-1994. Como resultado de este trabajo se observó que el 2,9 % del total de biopsias correspondía a neoplasias malignas, y fue el carcinoma del cuello uterino el tumor más frecuente (423 casos para el 68,6 % del total de neoplasias. Los tumores de la mama y el endometrio ocuparon el 2do. y 3er. lugares en frecuencia, cuyas variedades histológicas se corresponden con lo reportado en la literatura. Se evidencia la importancia de redoblar la vigilancia e incrementar la labor y eficacia en la detección precoz del cáncer cervicouterino y de la glándula mamaria.616 patients with female genital malignant neoplasms, who had been operated on at the Teaching Gynecological and Obstetric Hospital in Guanabacoa from 1984-1994, were studied. As a result, it was observed that 2.9 % of biopsies corresponded to malignant neoplasms and the most frequent was the cervix-uteri carcinoma (423 cases accounting for 68,6 % of total number. Breast and endometriun neoplasms are the second and third causes. Whose histological varieties are similar to those reported in literature. The importance of strenghtening surveillance and increasing the effectiveness in the early detection of cervix uterine cancer and of breast cancer are evidenced.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level. (letter)

  11. Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Thyroid nodule management: clinical, ultrasound and cytopathological parameters for predicting malignancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico F. R., Maia; Denise Engelbrecht, Zantut-Wittmann.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although fine-needle aspiration cytology is considered to be the reference method for evaluating thyroid nodules, the results are inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of cases. Several studies have attempted to predict the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules based on age, nodularity, thyrotropin val [...] ues, thyroid autoimmune disease, hot/cold nodule status, and ultrasound parameters. However, no consensus has been found, and none of these parameters has significantly affected patient management. The management of indeterminate thyroid nodules and re-biopsies of nodules with initially benign cytological results remain important and controversial topics of discussion. The Bethesda cytological system and several studies on the use of molecular markers to predict malignancy from cytological samples of thyroid nodules need further clarification. More in-depth discussions among and continuous education of the specialists involved in treating thyroid disease are necessary to improve the management of these patients. This review aims to examine the clinical, laboratory, ultrasound, and scintigraphic parameters that can be used for thyroid nodule management.

  13. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ?30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  14. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ?30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  15. Thyroid and associated polyglandular neoplasms in patients who received head and neck irradiation during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred fifty-one patients with a history of childhood irradiation to the head, neck, and thorax had neck explorations (142 for cold thyroid nodules and 9 for hypercalcemia). Fifty-nine of the patients had thyroid carcinoma, and associated glandular tumors were found in 20 others. In addition, 6 female patients developed breast carcinoma; 4 of these women also had thyroid carcinoma. In this series, 48.6% of the patients irradiated for acne and 36.4% with tonsil and adenoid irradiation developed thyroid carcinoma, but only 10.5% with thymic irradiation did so. It is suggested that the workup on these patients include not only complete thyroid and parathyroid testing, but also a careful examination of all salivary glands, both major and minor. Women should have thorough breast examinations and should perhaps be followed as if they were in the potentially high-risk breast group. When thyroid surgery is performed, a total thyroidectomy is recommended

  16. Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical and Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasounooked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS)[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and needle biopsy under ultrasonography. This was followed by surgical removal of the thyroid, and each case the malignancy was confirmed. These findings would suggest that 6% of the ME/CFS patients seen, or 6,000 cases per 100,000, had a confirmed thyroid malignancy. Unfortunately, these figures may be conservative since we are in the process of obtaining needle biopsies on six further cases of these first 100 patients. In addition, we have not yet performed thyroid ultrasound on all 100 cases. We are in the process of further investigation of those patients who had not yet been investigated by thyroid ultrasound. Previously, it has been noted that the increased incidence of thyroid malignancy in the general population is only associated with increased radiation exposure. Patients presenting with symptoms of ME/CFS or Fibromyalgia may have significant higher thyroid malignancy incidence. NeuroSPECT was performed with the radiopharmaceutical NeuroliteTM and processed with the software Neurogam by Segami Corp.( Maryland USA.) (au)

  17. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A total of 141 pathological proven nodules in 141 HT patients (7 males and 134 females, mean age 50.1 years, range 23-75 years) received conventional ultrasound (US), elasticity imaging (EI) and ARFI elastography, including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), before surgery. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and SWV ratio were measured for each nodule on VTQ. The US, EI and ARFI elastography features were compared between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses and area under curve (AUC) were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 70 nodules were benign and 71 nodules were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients for EI (EI score) and ARFI (VTI grade and SWV) (all P value <0.05). The AUCs for EI, VTI, SWV and SWV ratio were 0.68 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.77], 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95), 0.77 (95%CI: 0.70-0.85) and 0.74 (95%CI: 0.66-0.82), respectively. The cut-off points were EI score ?3, VTI grade ?4, SWV ?2.58 m/s and SWV ratio ?1.03, respectively. In conclusion, ARFI elastography is useful for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in HT patients. The diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography is better than EI. PMID:25636511

  19. Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules

  20. Color doppler image of thyroid nodule : differentiation between benign and malignant lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Hong, Hyun Sook; Jeon, Young Tae; Kim, Seo Hee; Yoo, Myung Hee; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Kwon, Kui Hyang [Soonchunhyang College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To assess the utility of color Doppler sonography in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. Fifty patients with thyroid nodules(10 cases of follicular adenoma, 12 of adenomatous hyperplasia, 21 of papillary adenocarcinoma, and 7 of follicular adenocarcinoma) were analyzed. Colour signal analysis was performed by inspecting the signals in and around the nodules, and these were graded from 0 to III according to the degree of vascularity in internal and marginal blood flow. Peak systoic velocity (PSV) and resisitive index (RI) in internal vascularity were used to analyse the flow signal. Internal color signals of malignant lesions tended to be high grade, whereas those of benign lesions tended to be low grade, with statistical significance(P<0.05). In spectral wave analysis, correlation between PSV and malignancy of thyroid nodules was statistically significant(P<0.05). The value of RI did not correlate with the malignancy of nodules, but tended to show a meaningful difference. Although further studies may be required, color Doppler sonography using color signal and flow signals analysis is a useful imaging modality for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules.

  1. Synchronous papillary carcinoma thyroid with malignant struma ovarii: A management dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struma ovarii (SO) is a rare form of ovarian tumor, which is defined by the presence of thyroid tissue comprising more than 50% of the overall tumor volume. The vast majority of the variants of SO are benign; however, malignant tumors have been reported in a small percentage of cases. An aggressive multimodality approach using ovarian cancer staging laparotomy, total thyroidectomy along with radioactive iodine-131 ablation, and thyroxin suppression therapy has been shown to safely treat malignant SO both its initial presentation as well as in the event of any subsequent recurrence with excellent efficacy and possibly better oncological outcomes. The rarity of the disease and the lack of evidence surrounding its management and prognosis continue to remain a challenge to the treating clinician. We present a unique case of malignant SO with an incidental synchronous association of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the cervical thyroid gland, this is possibly the second case reported in the English language literature

  2. Retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with cytostatic drugs and Co60 because of genital malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of application of cytostatic drugs and telegammatherapy (Co60) was tested by means of cutaneous hyperactivity reactions in 89 women treated because of malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. The skin tests with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivate (PPD) were used. The group 1 constituted of 36 women treated with cytostatic drugs through a period of 7 months to 4 years. The appearance of retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. In cases of improvement of the clinical state the skin reactions were more intensive, when the disease progreded the reactions became weak or disappeared. When the clinical state remained unchanged - the same was true with the skin reactions. In the group 253 women were treated by means of irradiation (Co60) because of similar diagnosis of malignant genital neoplasm. In all cases a regression of the retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD was observed, together with a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the peripheric blood. Correlation of the individual skin reactions to DNCB and PPD demonstrated that the latter gave a smaller percent of positive reactions in comparison with the former agent, these reactions were also less sensitive. (author)

  3. A study on the clinical manifestations and the incidence of benign and malignant tumors in a solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chetan V

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are either benign or malignant. The thyroid nodule, which is usually a clinical manifestation of most of the thyroid disorders, is one among them which has been the subject of controversies with divergent opinions and views. Clinical presentation of thyroid nodules varies widely ranging from solitary nodules to benign and malignant tumors. Thyroid nodules accounts up to 8% of the adult population having palpable nodules. However studies on its incidence in the population residing near seacoast are limited. Hence, the present study is carried in an aim to evaluate the clinico-pathological correlation of solitary thyroid nodule and the incidence of malignancy in the population residing at sea coast. The study is conducted in the Narayana Medical College & Hospital (NMCH, which is situated within 10-15 km radius of the seacoast in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India. In this study, 73 subjects were selected who presented with thyroid swelling which was clinically confirmed as solitary thyroid nodule. Out of 73 cases, 12 cases (16.5% were found to have malignant lesions with remaining 61 cases (83.5% being benign lesions. The incidence of malignancy among solitary thyroid nodule subjects is up to 16.5% in the population residing near seacoast. Thus the present study warrants people to consult surgeons for early diagnosis and adequate treatment without being passive as most of these swellings are asymptomatic for long duration. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 429-434

  4. Benign vs malignant soft tissue neoplasms: Limitations of magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sen J; Agarwal S.; Singh S; Sen R; Goel S

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Various features have been described in the literature to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. The aim of the present study was to study the accuracy of each of these features and that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing malignant lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five consecutive patients presenting with neoplastic (both benign and malignant) lesions diagnosed clinically and on ultrasound were studied and their MRI features were compared with the findings o...

  5. Characteristic Dynamic Enhancement Pattern of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Malignant Thyroid Tumor: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Nam; Hwang, Hee Young; Shim, Young Sup; Byun, Sung Su; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Hospital, Gachon University College of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristic dynamic enhancement pattern of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for malignant thyroid tumor. Eight patients who were pathology proven to have a malignant thyroid tumor, preoperatively. There are 5 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, and 1 fine needle aspiration biopsy proven atypical cell. Based on preoperative MR imaging, we compared the dynamic MR enhancement pattern relating to the pathologic type. On contrast agent-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted image (T1WI), 5 papillary carcinoma and one medullary carcinoma showed delayed enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. In addition, one follicular carcinoma shows stronger enhancement than normal parenchyma, with one papillary carcinoma showing a persistent decrease in enhancement compared to normal parenchyma. Although this study is limited by a small patients population, the data suggests that delayed enhancement on enhanced dynamic T1WI is a possible characteristic MR finding of a malignant thyroid tumor. I think that the comparison of MR imaging between benign and malignant nodules is required for a correct characterization.

  6. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoid Malignancies: The Expanding Spectrum of Hematopoietic Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUN-ICHI KAWADA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects not only B cells but also T and NK cells, and is associated with various lymphoid malignancies. The spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies is expanding from Burkitt lymphoma to the newly defined systemic EBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma. However, some EBV-associated malignancies are not defined well and overlap other diseases. Furthermore, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of lymphoid malignancies is still not clear. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies for a better classification of each disease and for the establishment of effective treatment.

  7. The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy in the differentiation of malignant from benign thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Previously, various radionuclides such as Ga-67, TI-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi were used to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Recently, it has been reported that malignant thyroid nodules concentrate Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (Tetrofosmin). In our study we evaluated the value of tetrofosmin scan in differentiation of malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Methods: Thirty nine patients with solitary nonfunctioning nodules in Tc-99M-04 scan and with solid thyroid nodules in thyroid sonography were included in the study. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and thyroidectomy were done in all patients within 2 weeks. After injection of 370 MBq of tetrofosmin, 30 min dynamic images and delayed static images at 1., 2., and 3. hours were acquired. After evaluation of images regions of interest were taken over nodule and contralateral normal thyroid tissue at 5., 15., 25., 60., 120. and 180. min. Average number of counts from tumor and contralateral normal thyroid tissue were taken. The mean malignant nodule/normal (M/N) and benign nodule/normal (B/N) thyroid tissue ratios were calculated. Results: Postop pathology of 19 nodules were malignant and 20 nodules were benign. The benign nodules showed more rapid washout as compared to malignant nodules. As a result of this significantly higher M/N ratios on delayed images are obtained (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy can be used as an alternative agent to Tl-201 and Tc99m-Sestamibi in difagent to Tl-201 and Tc99m-Sestamibi in differentiation of benign from malignant thyroid nodules. (author)

  8. Comparison of Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter expression rate in malignant and benign thyroid diseases: immunohistochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Kyung Eun; Park, Heon Soo; Yoo, Young Hyun; Roh, Mee Sook [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Previous studies have not showed consistent results for the level of expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid diseases, especially malignant tumor. We undertook this study to evaluate the distribution of NIS expression in malignant thyroid diseases and compare with that in benign thyoid disease. Total patients were 119 cases (Men 15, 48{+-}13 yrs). Total number of samples were 205 pieces. In malignant thyroid disease, there were 153 samples: 90 in papillary carcinoma, 4 in follicular carcinoma, 2 in medullary carcinoma and 57 in metastatic lymph node. In benign thyroid disease, there were 52 samples: 36 in goiter/cyst, 11 in thyroiditis and 5 in follicular adenoma. Using immunohistochemical methods, we probed 205 samples with monoclonal anti-NIS Ab. Grading of staining was scored as 0 (negative or absent), 1 (weakly positive), 2 (moderately positive) or 3 (strongly positive). Expression rate (ER) of NIS positivity in individual disease entity was expressed as percentage of total number divided by number in 2 plus 3 grade. ERs of malignant thyroid diseases were 63% in papillary carcinoma, 81% in metastatic lymph node, 71% in follicular carcinoma and 100% in medullary carcinoma. ERs of benign thyroid disease were 53% in goiter/cyst, 64% in thyroiditis and 40% in follicular adenoma. ER of benign thyroid deceases was higher than benign thyroid diseases (71% vs 54%). Grading of NIS expression in papillary carcinoma or goiter/cyst was heterogeneously distributed in considerable cases. Normal tissue also showed heterogeneous distribution or NIS expression, which was not correlated with that of primary lesion. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, distribution of NIS expression was heterogeneous and increased, and not different compared with that of benign thyroid disease.

  9. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  10. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos / Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Monteros Alvi; Nélida M., Romero; Sara, Gonorazky; Vasco, Gálvez; Mercedes, Gálvez; Elvira, Virgili; Graciela G., de Soler.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF) que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables [...] clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados) y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo. Abstract in english Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA) may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing asso [...] ciation between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm. Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed. The studied variables were: sex, age, size of the nodule, ultrasound characteristics, cytological diagnosis, TSH level and results of the scintigraphy. Of 92 cases, 74 were neoplastic nodules (56 adenomas and 18 differentiated thyroid cancer) and 18 were non neoplastic nodules. Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131. The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years. The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

  11. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo.Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm. Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed. The studied variables were: sex, age, size of the nodule, ultrasound characteristics, cytological diagnosis, TSH level and results of the scintigraphy. Of 92 cases, 74 were neoplastic nodules (56 adenomas and 18 differentiated thyroid cancer and 18 were non neoplastic nodules. Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131. The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years. The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

  12. Determination of Malignant and Invasive Predictors in Branch Duct Type Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: A Suggested Scoring Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Dae Wook; Jang, Jin-young; Lim, Chang-sup; Lee, Seung Eun; Yoon, Yoo-seok; Ahn, Young Joon; Han, Ho-seong; Kim, Sun-whe; Kim, Sang Geol; Yun, Young Kook; Han, Seong-sik; Park, Sang-jae; Lim, Tae Jin; Kang, Koo Jung; Sim, Mun Sup

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of malignancy or invasiveness of branch duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (Br-IPMN) is difficult, and proper treatment strategy has not been well established. The authors investigated the characteristics of Br-IPMN and explored its malignancy or invasiveness predicting factors to suggest a scoring formula for predicting pathologic results. From 1994 to 2008, 237 patients who were diagnosed as Br-IPMN at 11 tertiary referral centers in Korea were retrospectively revi...

  13. Neck ultrasonography as preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism with an additional role of detecting thyroid malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performances of high-resolution ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands and to evaluate the ability of US for additional diagnostic roles in detecting thyroid malignancy in patients with pHPT. Materials and methods: Preoperative localization images of 115 parathyroid adenomas from high-resolution ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) were studied from 105 patients, who had undergone parathyroidectomy. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were calculated for the identification of adenomas in lesions and patients for both US and SS, respectively, and US and SS diagnostic performances were compared using generalized estimating equation. Results: Preoperative imaging by both modalities localized 105 (93.8%) of the 112 parathyroid lesions confirmed at surgery and histology. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were 93.1% and 92.2%, 90.4% and 89.5%, and 96.9% and 96.9% by US and SS, respectively, without any statistically significant differences (P = 0.796, 0.796, 0.879). US found incidental thyroid nodules in 47 patients (47/107, 43.9%), and 7 patients (7/107, 6.5%) were confirmed to have malignancy based on pathology results (all had papillary thyroid carcinoma). Conclusion: Neck ultrasonography and 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy are complementary methods of the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Neck ultrasounds add an additional thyroid gland evaluation, and can be useful in the detection of incidental thyroid gland lesions, especially malignant nodules

  14. A Logistic Regression Model Predicting Malignancy in Follicular Thyroid Lesions Based on CD56 Expression and Patient's Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Abdelzaher

    2014-08-01

    of follicular thyroid lesions. It also could be of value in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from other lesions of benign nature such as FA and HN. CD56 expression is significantly associated with malignant behavior in thyroid follicular lesions, which suggests a role for CD56 in tumorogenesis. More importantly, the developed model and equation based on CD56 expression and patients age might be of value in the prediction of malignancy in follicular thyroid lesions, but it needs to be validated on a large scale accompanied by follow-up. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 205-212

  15. Differential expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in thyroid tumors. Potential diagnostic implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.C.; El-Naggar, A. K.; Lotan, R

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoma of the thyroid gland, the most frequently diagnosed endocrine malignancy, is often associated with early regional metastases. With the exception of papillary carcinoma, distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms in the absence of metastatic disease is difficult. Recently, the vertebrate lectins galectin-1 and galectin-3 have been implicated in the regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, and malignant transformation of a variety of tissues. To determine whether th...

  16. 201Tl-chloride thyroid scintigraphy to evaluate benign and/or malignant nodules: usefulness of the delayed scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate benign and/or malignant thyroid tumors with 201Tl thyroid scan. Researchers studied 76 cases of histologically verified thyroid tumors, all seen as cold nodules on the 123I thyroid scan. 201Tl thyroid scan was performed 5-15 minutes (early scan) and 3-5 hours (delayed scan) after intravenous administration of 1.5-2.0 mCi of 201Tl. In 35 (94.6%) of 36 malignant tumors (anaplastic carcinoma, six; papillary carcinoma 23; follicular carcinoma, five; epidermoid carcinoma, one; malignant lymphoma, 1) 201Tl accumulated in the cold nodule of the 123I thyroid scan on both early and delayed scans. On the other hand, the delayed 201Tl scan was negative in 35 out of 39 (89.7%) benign tumors. Employing early and delayed 201Tl scans, researchers were able to differentiate most malignant thyroid tumors from those which were benign. False-negative and -positive cases are discussed

  17. Thyroid fine needle aspirate: a post-Bethesda update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Shikha; Walts, Ann E

    2012-05-01

    The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology formulated in 2007 has standardized reporting of thyroid cytology specimens and streamlined management algorithms. Although 3 of the categories (benign, malignant, and nondiagnostic) are standardized and improved, the remaining 3 (follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, and suspicious for malignancy) remain fraught with interobserver variability and uncertainty regarding management algorithms. Recent and ongoing morphologic and molecular studies that aim to resolve these issues are summarized. PMID:22498581

  18. Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of thyroid neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Karmen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to test the possibility of association between GSTT1 and M1 (glutathione S-transferase null allele variant, in which the entire gene is absent, and the risk of TCO (thyroid carcinoma with cell oxyphilia, the case-control study was carried out. Methods: Genotypes for GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined by multiplex PCR in the DNA from 108 healthy individuals and in DNA from samples of thyroid tumors from 130 patients of the same race and origin as the control group (Caucasian, Italian. The following types of NMTC were analyzed: oxyphilic adenoma (OA, oxyphilic carcinoma (OC papillary thyroid carcinoma with oxyphilic features (PTCof, follicular adenoma (FA, follicular carcinoma (FC, follicular variant of PTC (fvPTC and classical PTC. Associations between prevalence of particular genotypes and the occurrence of TCO (versus controls and other subtypes of NMTC were tested. Associations were quantified by calculating OR (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. StatGraphics Plus v. 5 software (Manugistics was used for statistical analysis. Results: In this study of the association between the GSTT1 and M1 null genotype and the increased risk of TCO, the frequency of GSTT1 null genotype of 19.2% in cases and 15.7% in controls was found with an adjusted odds ratio (OR of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-2.81, and the frequency of GSTM1 null genotype of 59% in cases with oxyphilic tumors and of 55.6% in controls (OR 1.24; 95% CI, 0.62-2.48. Conclusion: These results indicate that the GSTT1 and M1 null genotypes do not increase the risk of development of oxyphilic tumors, as well as other types of NMTC that have been included in this study.

  19. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to gynecological malignancies

  20. Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT Scan in Differentiation of Malignant Parotid Neoplasms: New Approaches for Better Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sharifkashany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: One of the most important preoperative concerns in patients with parotid neoplasms is the probability of malignancy. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of different findings of contrast-enhanced CT scan in differentiation of malignant parotid neoplasms. Also we have presented the results of new approaches in this regard. Materials and Methods: All patients with noninflammatory parotid masses were considered in this study in a one year period. All patients with one or more of these conditions were excluded from the study: age under 15 years old, patients who underwent previous biopsy or fine needle aspiration and the time interval between imaging and surgery was more than 10 days. Finally 33 patients were entered to the study. Of all cases, 18 (54.6% were male and the mean age was 43.3±17.6 years (15-78. All patients underwent a facial and neck contrast enhanced CT scanning in the supine position and axial sections (5 mm thickness and 5 mm interval were performed from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ upper border to the thoracic inlet. Ten seconds after intravenous bolus injection of 100cc Omnipaque 240 mg I/cc, imaging began. For all parotid masses, 8 imaging findings were evaluated which consisted of the tumor size [maximum value of parotid tumor short-axis diameter], Hunsfield unit (HU [considered in section performed 120 seconds after contrast medium injection; region of interest (ROI was considered as a 5 mm diameter circle in the central part of the region with the highest visual density of the mass],visual density, heterogenecity, tumor border, tumor location, tumor extension to the other neck spaces and cervical adenopathy. Surgery was performed for all patients and the histopathologic evaluation was done as gold standard. For dichotomous variables, the diagnostic indices [including sensitivity(Se., specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value(NPV, positive likelihood ratio (LR+ and negative likelihood ratio (LR-] were calculated. For continuous variables (including tumor size and HU the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve was assessed and the selected cut points were yielded. Results: Totally 13 patients showed malignant tumor in pathology (39.4%. Deep lobe involvement, extension to the other neck spaces and adenopathy were higher in malignant tumors [all P-Values<0.018]. Among dichotomous variables, the best Se. was for enhancement pattern (Se=0.85 while Sp=0.4 and the best Sp. was for extension and adenopathy [Sp=0.95 for both, Se=0.38 for extension and 0.46 for adenopathy]. Among seven variables of enhancement pattern, density, tumor location, tumoral extension, lymphadenopathy, Hu greater than 69 and tumoral size greater than 29 mm, if the patient showed equal or greater than 6 variables in favor of malignancy, the Sp was 1. The area under the curve (AUC of ROC curve was 0.75 [95% CI=0.57-0.92] for Hu and 0.76 [95% CI=0.6-0.92] for size [both P-Values<0.02]. We multiplied the tumor size and Hu and plotted the ROC curve for this new variable. The AUC of this new variable was 0.83 [P-Values=0.002,95% CI=0.68-0.96]. Considering the cut off point of 2050 for this variable yielded the Se of 0.85 and Sp of 0.75 for malignant tumors. Conclusion: Considering individual findings together could improve the diagnostic accuracy of CT.

  1. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  2. Clinical evaluation of 24 cases of primary thyroid malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed open biopsy in diagnosing primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and tumor management with compression symptoms and therapy. We retrospectively studied 24 subjects diagnosed with PTL from December 1997 to June 2010.Open biopsy was done in 23 of 24 subjects. Incisional biopsy was done in 14, 13 of whom yielded sufficient materials in the first biopsy. Excisional biopsy was done in the remaining 9, 2 of whom developed permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy after biopsy. The five with airway obstruction underwent incisional biopsy followed by immediate steroid administration of dexamethasone or methylprednisolone. All had histopathologically confirmed diagnosis and airway symptoms were resolved within a few days. Multidisciplinary therapy including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery was applied in 20 of 24 subjects. Single therapy was done in 4-chemotherapy in 2 and radiotherapy and surgery in 1 each. Overall results were satisfactory, with a 92% 10-year disease-free survival rate and an 86% 10-year overall survival rate based on the Kaplan-Meier method with 46-month median follow up. When diagnosing PTL, especially large tumors spreading into extrathyroid tissue, incisional biopsy is more advantageous in histopathological diagnosis than excisional biopsy due to the lower risk of surgical complications. In a case involving a small intrathyroidal nodule, excisional biopsy is safer and more diagnostically accurate. In an airway obstruction emergency, once a defn airway obstruction emergency, once a definitive diagnosis is made, steroid administration plus endotracheal intubation, if necessary, for airway management is optimal management. Subjects with stage IE mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas can be treated with radiotherapy or surgery alone. Those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or greater than stage IE MALT lymphoma, however, should be treated with multidisciplinary therapy because they have a potentially poor outcome. (author)

  3. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consihe Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  4. [Second neoplasms in malignant hematologic disorders. Experience from 1978 to 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristoffanini, A; Zapata, C; León, A; Salas, P

    1990-05-01

    Neoplasia may develop in patients with malignant hematologic disorders, during remission after radio and/or chemotherapy. A multifactorial origin related to therapy may be postulated. From 1978 to 1987, among 142 patients with malignant hematologic disorders (Hodgkin lymphoma 33, non-Hodgkin lymphoma 51, Multiple Myeloma 35 and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia 31) we observed 3 patients developing another neoplasia. An additional patient with acute non-lymphatic leukemia had been submitted to chemotherapy for gastric cancer. Four other patients with double neoplasia, one of them a hematologic one, had not been submitted to chemotherapy. The lack of national registries for neoplastic diseases precludes an estimation of the odd ratios involved in our findings. PMID:2293272

  5. Proliferative potential of canine oral epulides and malignant neoplasms assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Yanai, T; Iwasaki, T; Sakai, H; Ohta, J; Kati, S; Ishikawa, K; Lackner, A A; Masegi, T

    1999-01-01

    The proliferative potential of canine oral lesions, including epulides, squamous cell carcinomas, a malignant melanoma, and a fibrosarcoma, was examined using a monoclonal antibody to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Twenty-three dogs with oral masses were administered BrdU intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg 1 hour before surgery, and the BrdU labeling index (LI) of each lesion was determined immunohistochemically. The average BrdU LIs for the main proliferating elements in the fibromatous epulis (4 cases), ossifying epulis (2 cases), and acanthomatous epulis (10 cases) were 4.9, 3.0, and 8.8%, respectively. The squamous cell carcinomas (5 cases) had an average LI of 15.9%, and the LIs of the malignant melanoma and fibrosarcoma were 7.5 and 10.3%, respectively. All cases of acanthomatous epulides and squamous cell carcinoma treated with simple marginal surgical resection recurred within a short time. The higher LIs in the acanthomatous epulides, squamous cell carcinomas, and fibrosarcoma correlate well with their poor prognoses, reflected by rapid growth and frequent recurrence. Acanthomatous epulis is clearly distinguished from other epulides by its aggressive clinical behavior and high proliferative potential, which is equivalent to that of malignant tumors, despite a lack of cell atypia. The BrdU LI is a useful marker for evaluating the proliferative potential and prognosis of canine oral tumors. PMID:9921754

  6. The reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in terms of malignancy in patients with hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Murat; Onder, Akin; Girgin, Sadullah; Ulger, Burak Veli; Firat, Ugur; Uslukaya, Omer; Oguz, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of malignancy in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and to investigate the reliability of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The retrospective study included 44 patients who were operated on for nodular goiter between December 2010 and October 2011. The patients underwent thyroidectomy following a cytologic analysis plus FNAB. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on histopathology in all patients. FNAB results were defined as benign in 14 (31.8%), suspicion for malignancy in 17 (38.6%), malignant in 9 (20.5%), and inadequate in 4 (9.1%). Following the thyroidectomy, presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were detected in 10 patients (22.7%) and 1 (2.3%) patient, respectively. The FNAB results were interpreted in terms of malignancy, which revealed the sensitivity as 80%; specificity, 40%; false positives, 69.2%; false negatives, 14.3%; positive predictive value, 31.8%; negative predictive value, 85.7%; and diagnostic accuracy, 50%. The coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma is quite common. The FNAB results for such cases are hard to evaluate, and they are likely to increase the number of false positives. PMID:25692426

  7. The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzinger Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn and selenium (Se, and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children distributed as follows: control group (n = 687, benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults; malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults. Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C. Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease. The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED as well as from healthy active athletes. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 and 10:30 a.m. All patients lived in Innsbruck. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14.0. The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients. Results Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies. The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se. Low Se levels in the control group were found in 12%. Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 ± 23.1 ?g/l and 59.3 ± 20.1 ?g/l, respectively as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean Se level in the control group was 90.5 ± 20.8 ?g/l. Conclusion The H0 can be accepted for vitamin C and zinc levels whereas it has to be rejected for Se. Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls. Low levels of vitamin C were found in all subgroups of patients.

  8. Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

  9. Distribution of malignant neoplasms reported at different pathology centers and hospitals in Jaipur, Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma R.; Kumar R.; Jain S; Jhajhria S; Gupta N; Gupta S.; Rawtani S; Kohli K; Prajapati L; Gupta R.; Swamy N; Pathak D; Verma H; Ratnawat S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cancer data from Rajasthan are limited. Only two studies, one from Western Rajasthan, and the other from Eastern Rajasthan have been published by Sharma et al. in 1992 and 1996. Aims: To put the cancer profile from this region in proper perspective, we conducted the present study on the patterns of various malignancies in Jaipur region, i.e., Eastern Rajasthan. Setting and Design and Material and Methods: The study spans over one and half decade (1990-2004) and is based on a ...

  10. Modified Van Nes rotationplasty in the treatment of malignant neoplasms in the lower extremities of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajbich, J I

    1991-01-01

    A technique of modified Van Nes rotationplasty has been used since 1981 for limb salvage surgery in children and adolescents with malignant sarcoma of the lower extremity. The original procedure for lesions of the distal femur was further modified and adopted for selected lesions of the proximal femur and tibia. Sixteen skeletally immature children form the base of this report. The tumors were located in the distal femur in ten children, the proximal tibia in five and the proximal femur in one. There were no intraoperative complications and postoperative complications included one infection requiring debridement and three minor healing delays. There were no local recurrences, neurovascular compromises, late derotations, or psychologic decompensations. One patient died of metastatic disease and another died of a second malignancy (leukemia). The remaining patients are good, functional, below-knee prosthesis users who participate in a number of sporting and athletic activities. The procedure is safe, has a relatively low complication rate, allows for the functional demands of an active, growing child, and accommodates for the future growth of extremities. PMID:1984934

  11. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950-80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Life-Span Study E-85 sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66% of the cancer and 84% of the benign tumor cases were classified by histologic type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P less than .01) and in the microscopically reviewed subset (P less than .01). This dose response was only significant (P less than .01) in the latter half of the study period, 1965-80. The radiation effect was higher in the younger age group at the time of the bomb (ATB) for the specific attained age or was adjusted for attained age. In general, relative risk (greater than or equal to 100 rad vs. 0 rad) did not differ by attained age, except for the youngest age group, less than 20 years old ATB, where the relative risk tended to decrease with increased attained age, although cases were few in number and follow-up study was necessary. Estimated minimum latent period for radiation-induced ovarian cancer seemed to be 15-20 years. The proportion of autopsied cases with benign ovarian tumor increased with increasing exposure dose, both in the entire series of cases (P less than .05) and in the microscopically reviewed s.05) and in the microscopically reviewed subset. Statistical significance, however, was not achieved in the latter group. The distribution of histologic types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose

  12. Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Ultrasonography and Color Doppler in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Majidi; Abbas Hedayatiasl

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: As the usage of ultrasound in the evaluation of thyroid nodules is increasing, we decided to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US) and Doppler (CFD) findings in comparison with cytology (FNA) and eventually pathology results to establish the relative importance of US and CFD features as indicators of malignancy."nPatients and Methods: This prospective study started from June 2008 to October 2009. Two-hundred four patients with thyroid nodules were evaluat...

  13. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estima...

  14. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan: a comparison between the 1995-1998 and 2005-2008 periods

    OpenAIRE

    Pui-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Hwang Perng

    2011-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran’s I and Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistic (LISA), were used to describe and map spatial clusters of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan. A logistic regression fit model was also used to identify similar characteristics over time. Two time periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) were compared in an attempt to formulate common spatio-temporal risks. Spatial cluster patterns were identified using local spatial autocor...

  15. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A Therapeutic Dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hang-seok; Nam, Kee-hyun; Chung, Woung Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2005-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most malignant human neoplasms and has a grave prognosis. This study gives an update on our experience with this unusual neoplasm, with specific focus on the response to various treatment modalities. Forty-seven patients with histologically proven ATCs were enrolled (19 men, 28 women; mean age, 62.8 years). This number represents 1.5% among a total of 3,088 thyroid cancers treated between 1977 and 2002. The mean tumor diameter was 8.8 cm, and 2...

  16. Subsequent malignancies in patients treated with 131-iodine for thyroid cancer

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    Glanzmann, C. (Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. Medizinische Radiologie)

    1992-06-01

    I-131 was administered to 298 patients with thyroid cancer, and there has been a follow-up of at least two years. Follow-up periods were: 2.5 to 30 years (median 14.5) in living patients, 2.5 to 15 years (median 5.5) in patients dead of tumour {>=} 2 years after first treatment and 2.5 to 23 years (median nine) in patients dead without tumour. Person-years at risk were (total applied activity of I-131): 1119 (3 to 21 GBq), 1477 (22 to 65 GBq), 521 (61 to 170 Gbq). 33 subsequent malignancies in 31 patients were observed, compared to an expected number of 17. The relative risk of subsequent malignancies is therefore 1.94 with a 95% confidence intervall of 1.15 to 3.05. This increase in the incidence of subsequent malignancies after I-131 treatments is largely due to the significantly increased incidence of leukemia and bladder cancer. Estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in the patients with leukemia were 301 cGy to 792 cGy and the doses to the bladder in patients with bladder cancer were 2250 cGy to 10, 350 cGy. After a total activity of less than 37 GBq I-131, no cases of bladder cancer or leukemia were observed. The observed number of subsequent malignancies are compared with the expected number according to several dose-effect estimations. (orig.).

  17. Subsequent malignancies in patients treated with 131-iodine for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131 was administered to 298 patients with thyroid cancer, and there has been a follow-up of at least two years. Follow-up periods were: 2.5 to 30 years (median 14.5) in living patients, 2.5 to 15 years (median 5.5) in patients dead of tumour ? 2 years after first treatment and 2.5 to 23 years (median nine) in patients dead without tumour. Person-years at risk were (total applied activity of I-131): 1119 (3 to 21 GBq), 1477 (22 to 65 GBq), 521 (61 to 170 Gbq). 33 subsequent malignancies in 31 patients were observed, compared to an expected number of 17. The relative risk of subsequent malignancies is therefore 1.94 with a 95% confidence intervall of 1.15 to 3.05. This increase in the incidence of subsequent malignancies after I-131 treatments is largely due to the significantly increased incidence of leukemia and bladder cancer. Estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in the patients with leukemia were 301 cGy to 792 cGy and the doses to the bladder in patients with bladder cancer were 2250 cGy to 10, 350 cGy. After a total activity of less than 37 GBq I-131, no cases of bladder cancer or leukemia were observed. The observed number of subsequent malignancies are compared with the expected number according to several dose-effect estimations. (orig.)

  18. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedatimay be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  19. Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D. [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

  20. Malignant neoplasms morbidity tendencies between liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1986-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the constantly increasing malignant tumors, the great interest towards the cancers induced by radiation appears. The analyze of such cancers is possible because of the detailed statistic data. 5965 Chernobyl clean-up workers were examined. In the years of 1986 - 2004 it was registered 128 cancers. 27,4 % - the cancers of pulmonary system; 26,9 % - the cancers of gastrointestinal system; 10,8 % - the cancers of blood and lymph system; 10,2 % - the lip and mouth cancers; 6,1% - the skin cancers. Among the clean-up workers who were worked in Chernobyl in the period of 1986-1987 years more often - the cancers skin, of blood and lymph system, the lip and mouth were detected. More often the cancers were detected in the age groups of 45-64 years with predomination of pulmonary and gastrointestinal system cancers, o in the age groups of 25-44 - with skin cancers, the cancers of blood and lymph system and the lip and mouth cancers. Comparing with Lithuanian men population the cancer predomination of Chernobyl clean-up workers is higher

  1. Thyroid neoplasia in long-term Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-four (4.4%) of the 1680 Segment III beagles had one or more thyroid tumors as of December 31, 1979. Four sacrificed at 5 years of age and 13 sacrificed at 8 years of age had thyroid tumors. Ten malignant thyroid tumors have been removed surgically and 47 other dead dogs with thyroid neoplasms were found. Most tumors were of thyroid follicular cell origin and were near equally divided between benign and malignant varieties. Five dogs had tumors of the parafollicular cells (C-cells). To date, thyroid neoplasia does not appear to be associated with radiation exposure, but there does not appear to be an association with hypothyroidism. Forty-seven (68%) of the 69 dogs with thyroid follicular cell tumors were hypothyroid

  2. Epidemiología descriptiva de las neoplasias malignas en niños / Descriptive epidemiology of pediatric malignant neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo, Fajardo-Gutiérrez; Juan Manuel, Mejía-Aranguré; Leticia, Hernández-Cruz; Hilda Francisca, Mendoza-Sánchez; Juan, Garduño-Espinosa; María del Carmen, Martínez-García.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es presentar la epidemiología descriptiva del cáncer en los niños menores de 15 años a nivel mundial y nacional. Se realizó una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional de los artículos publicados sobre cáncer en los niños, seleccionando aquellos que trataran lo [...] s aspectos epidemiológicos de tiempo, lugar y persona y analizándose tanto la incidencia como la mortalidad por cáncer en niños. La incidencia mundial es de 100 a 150 casos x 10(6) niños/año. La incidencia específica varía de acuerdo al tipo cáncer, el país o región que se estudie. El patrón latinoamericano de neoplasias lo constituyen las leucemias, los linfomas y los tumores del sistema nervioso central (TSNC); en el norteamericano y europeo los TSNC ocupan el segundo lugar; y en el africano predominan los linfomas. La incidencia es mayor en los menores de 5 años en el medio urbano y existe un incremento de 1% anual de cánceres en los niños de Estados Unidos de América. La mortalidad por cáncer en niños ha disminuido de forma importante principalmente en los países desarrollados, como Estados Unidos e Inglaterra; en los subdesarrollados permanece estable o hay una leve disminución. La incidencia es mayor en países desarrollados; sin embargo, en los países subdesarrollados puede estar subestimada. Aún hay muchos datos que se desconocen sobre la epidemiología del cáncer en el niño, por lo que son necesarios más estudios. Abstract in english The object of this study is to present the descriptive epidemiology of cancer in children at the world and national levels. The international and national literature published on cancer in children was comprehensively reviewed, with emphasis on reports treating epidemiological aspects of time, place [...] and person. For practical reasons and with the aim of integrating the information, only the more relevant publications were included. Incidence and child mortality were analyzed. Overall incidence is between 100 and 150 (annual rates = cases x 10(6) children). Specific incidence varies according to the type of cancer, the region and the country. The Latin American pattern of neoplasms is constituted by leukemias, lymphomas, and central nervous system tumors (CNST); in the Northamerican/European pattern the CNST appear in second place and in the African pattern, lymphomas show predominance. Incidence is higher among the younger than 5 year olds, from urban environments, and there is a 1% annual increase of cancer in Northamerican children. Child mortality has diminished remarkably, mainly in developed countries, whereas in developing or underdeveloped countries, incidence remains stable or shows a slight fall. The incidence of cancer in children is greater in developed countries, but in underdeveloped countries it may be underestimated. These countries have not managed to reduce the incidence of child mortality caused by cancer, as have the United States or Great Britain. Further studies on the epidemiology of cancer in children are necessary, since many data remain unknown.

  3. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy

  5. Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy.

  6. Metachronous Colon Metastasis to the Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dvir Froylich; Eitan Shiloni; David Hazzan

    2013-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, and they are encountered in 2% to 9% of the patients with malignant neoplasm. The most frequent tumors to metastasize are breast, lung, melanoma, and kidney carcinomas. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3% of secondary malignances of this organ. Metastat...

  7. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabayegit, Ozlem Yersal; Soysal, Dilek; Oruk, Gonca; Ustaoglu, Bahar; Kosan, Umut; Solmaz, Serife; Avci, Arzu

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses. PMID:18620603

  8. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  9. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid tumors by X-ray fluorescent analysis-comparison of cases from Russia and Albany, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra thyroid iodine level in different types of thyroid neoplasms in Russia (126 cases) and USA (37 cases) were investigated by X-ray fluorescent analysis in vitro. A decrease in intra thyroid iodine concentration is associated with the stepwise loss of differentiation in thyroid tumors. In colloid goiter tissue from Russia, the intra thyroid iodine level is increased. The intra thyroid iodine level was markedly increased in micro follicular adenomas and colloid goiters from American patients which may reflect a higher iodine supply in the USA. X-ray fluorescent analysis together with careful clinical appraisal can be used for management of thyroid patients with suspicious nodules which should be treated by surgery

  10. Ultrasound of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound (US) is an imaging test to check the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands and is done to: check for nodules in the thyroid gland, find out whether the thyroid gland is enlarged, to keep track of the size of the thyroid gland during treatment, look for enlarged parathyroid glands caused by disease, guide the placement of the needle during a thyroid biopsy. The thyroid gland is formed by two lobes joined by an isthmus and, in a significant percentage of individuals, the 'pyramidal lobe', a vestige of the thyroglossal duct extending upward from the isthmus. A fibrous capsule surrounds the gland and connects with intrathyroidal fibrous septa forming 'lobules' that become grossly evident in pathologic conditions. Each lobule is supplied by a single artery and contains 20 to 40 'follicles' that average 200 nm in size and contain 'colloid'. Follicles are lined by a monolayer of low-cuboidal 'follicular' cells surrounded by a basement membrane. In fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) specimens, normal follicular cells are typically arranged in follicles, and monolayered sheets arranged in a honeycomb pattern with well-defined borders and nuclei which maintain polarity. Thyroid nodules are extremely common with an estimated prevalence on the basis of palpation that ranges from 3% to 7%. It has been estimated that there is a 5 to 10% lifetime risk of developing a palpable thyroid nodule, most of these nodules are benign, and cliniost of these nodules are benign, and clinicians should be as selective as possible in recommending surgical removal. Although thyroid nodules are a common incidental finding, US should not be performed as a screening test. Moreover, 20% to 48% of patients with one palpable thyroid nodule are found to have additional nodules on US investigation. Thyroid nodules are more common in elderly persons, in women, in those with iodine deficiency, and in those with a history of radiation exposure. Patients with benign thyroid nodules should undergo clinical and US follow-up. Symptomatic goiters, whether euthyroid or hyperthyroid, may be treated surgically or with radioiodine. Malignant or suspicious nodules should be treated surgically after preoperative evaluation with US and FNAB. An ultrasound can reveal which thyroid nodules are larger than 1-1.5 centimeters, requiring further evaluation for cancer. In addition to size, other nodule characteristics that can be noted on a thyroid ultrasound include the following: number of nodules, location of nodules, distinctness of borders, fluid versus solid contents, other nodule contents, such as calcium deposits, or the amount of blood flow (certain newer ultrasound machines can assess blood flow to the thyroid and its nodules). Thyroid lesions discovered on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for other reasons have an uncertain risk of malignancy and should undergo US evaluation before considering evaluation with FNA biopsy. Nodules are also detected infrequently by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography,but when found they are considered to have higher risk of malignancy. The annual incidence of thyroid malignancies in different parts of the world varies from 0.5 to 10 per 100,000 individuals. Despite its infrequency, it is important to remember that thyroid carcinoma is as prevalent as multiple myeloma, twice as common as Hodgkin's disease, and as frequent as cancers of the esophagus, larynx, mouth, and uterine cervix. Furthermore, thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor, responsible for 64% of deaths attributable to malignant endocrine neoplasms, more than all other endocrine cancers combined. Nevertheless, treatment of thyroid cancer is very successful

  11. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

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    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  12. Thyroid neoplasia following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of thyroid neoplasia following high-dose radiation treatment to the neck and mediastinum for malignant neoplasms such as Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and young adults has been raised recently. Five patients, 19 to 39 years old, were operated on for thyroid neoplasms that developed following cervical and mediastinal radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Three patients had papillary carcinomas and two had follicular adenomas. The latency period between radiation exposure and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm ranged from eight to 16 years. This limited series provided strong support for the recommendation that children and young adults who are to receive high-dose radiation therapy to the head, neck, and mediastinum should receive suppressive doses of thyroxine prior to radiation therapy in order to suppress thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) and then be maintained on a regimen of suppression permanently

  13. 131I treatment response in thyroid neoplasms and evaluation of radiation dose complications. A review of ten years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, but its management is still a controversial issue that included an interdisciplinary approach who compounds surgery, radioiodine (RAI) therapy and sometimes external radiation therapy. The aim of our work is to evaluate the role of the RAI treatment in well differenciated thyroid carcinoma and its implication in terms of survival and complications. Methods and Material: we collected data from medical records of 215 patients with confirmed TC, registered from 1990-2004 at the Nuclear Medicine Unit, Hospital Temuco, Chile, who received 50 to 150 mCi RAI therapy four to six weeks after lobectomy, partial or total thyroidectomy. Clinical and laboratory examinations were analyzed including blood count, thorax X Ray, whole body I-131 scans, and serum thyroglobulin. Results: the median age at the diagnosis was 51 years, there were 89% females. All patients were treated surgically and recived postoperative RAI treatment. Total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy and nodule excision was done in 69%, 31% and 37% of patients respectively. The histopathologic results included papillary (62%), follicular (24%) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (14%). Regional lymph nodes were positive in 36% and distant metastases were detected in 20 %, located in the lungs in all of those patients. Additional RAI doses between 100-200 mCi were administrated in 35% patients after to wait a period longer than 1 year. The ove wait a period longer than 1 year. The overall survival rate at 14 years was 93 %, and recurrent disease was detected in 15%. at 5 years and 20% at 14 years from the diagnosis. There were no major complications and minimal alterations in the blood count was observed. We conclude that total or near total thyroidectomy followed by RAI treatment appears to benefit for better survival and lower recurrence disease. Favorable prognostic management included radioiodine therapy at the primary treatment using high actvities (more than 100 mCi) after total or near total thyroidectomy. Additional pulmonary metastases did not influence prognosis, and secondary effects were mild and related to the symptoms of hypothyroidism. (author)

  14. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas detected by (18)f-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography : a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Kerstin Kathrine; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2012-01-01

    Background: The expanding use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with an incidentaloma in the thyroid gland. We aimed to review the proportion of incidental thyroid cancers found by (18)F-FDG PET or PET/computed tomography imaging. Methods: Studies evaluating thyroid carcinomas discovered incidentally in patients or healthy volunteers by (18)F-FDG PET were systematically searched in the PubMed database from 2000 to 2011. The main exclusion criteria were known thyroid disease, lack of assigned diagnoses, investigation of diffuse uptake only, or investigation of patients with head and neck cancer, or cancer in the upper part of the thorax. Results: Twenty-two studies met our criteria comprising a total of 125,754 subjects. Of these, 1994 (1.6%) had unexpected focal hypermetabolic activity, while 999 of 48,644 individuals (2.1%) had an unexpected diffuse hypermetabolic activity in the thyroid gland. A diagnosis was assigned in 1051 of the 1994 patients with a focal uptake, 366 of whom (34.8%) had thyroid malignancy. Likewise, a diagnosis was assigned in 168 of 999 patients with a diffuse uptake, 7 of whom (4.4%) had thyroid malignancy. In the eight studies reporting individual maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)), the mean SUV(max) was 4.8 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1) and 6.9 (SD 4.7) in benign and malignant lesions, respectively (p

  15. Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Husain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs. Materials and Methods: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19, on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections. They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC. The stains were done according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that immunoexpression was significantly higher in the malignant group for all four markers. The sensitivity for positive expression for all benign lesions versus malignant tumors was as follows: 10/44 (22.7% versus 25/27 (92.6% for galectin-3; 14/44 (31.8% versus 23/27 (85% for Ret; 12/44 (27.3% versus 24/27 (88.8% for HBME-1; and 13/44 (29.5% versus 23/27 (85% for CK19. The sensitivity and specificity was highest for galectin-3 (92.6% and 77.3%, respectively followed by HMBE-1 (88.9% and 72.7%, respectively. When combining the markers? expressions, the panel of galectin-3 + HBME-1 showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (90.7% and 75%, respectively, but this was, however, lower than galectin-3 alone (92.3% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The galectin-3 + HBME-1 was the best combination for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

  16. Analysis of the Malignancy Rate for Thyroid Nodules based on the Use of a Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Wan; Park, Ji Won; Jeong, Han Young; Kim, Hye Jung; Kim, Gab Chul; Kim, Yong Sun; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Hui Joong [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    This study was designed to analyze the malignancy rate for thyroid nodules determined after a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and ultrasonography (US) and to propose follow-up FNAB indications. A total of 287 patients (265 female, 22 male) who underwent repeated US-guided FNABs were included in the cohort study. The results of the FNABs were classified as inadequate, benign, indeterminate,suspicious for a malignancy and a malignancy. The US findings were assigned five grades according to the possibility of a malignancy present. The frequency of a malignant nodule was evaluated by the use of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional risk model. The malignancy rates of inadequate, benign, and indeterminate nodules were 12.8%, 8.2% and 37.5%, respectively, for the FNAB findings. The rates of grades 3, 4 and 5 were 38.6%, 50.0% and 53.8%, respectively,for the US findings. Inadequate and indeterminate nodules as determined by an FNAB and grades 3, 4 and 5 assigned after US showed a higher malignancy rate than other nodules and would be regarded as high risk lesions.The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 93.3%,38.4%, 22.0%, 96.9% and 47.0%, respectively, if the nodule was considered a high-risk lesion, based on the FNAB or US findings. Thyroid nodules should be evaluated based on an FNAB and US findings. If a thyroid nodule is classified as a high-risk lesion, a follow-up study is needed due to the high malignancy rate

  17. Analysis of the Malignancy Rate for Thyroid Nodules based on the Use of a Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to analyze the malignancy rate for thyroid nodules determined after a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and ultrasonography (US) and to propose follow-up FNAB indications. A total of 287 patients (265 female, 22 male) who underwent repeated US-guided FNABs were included in the cohort study. The results of the FNABs were classified as inadequate, benign, indeterminate,suspicious for a malignancy and a malignancy. The US findings were assigned five grades according to the possibility of a malignancy present. The frequency of a malignant nodule was evaluated by the use of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional risk model. The malignancy rates of inadequate, benign, and indeterminate nodules were 12.8%, 8.2% and 37.5%, respectively, for the FNAB findings. The rates of grades 3, 4 and 5 were 38.6%, 50.0% and 53.8%, respectively,for the US findings. Inadequate and indeterminate nodules as determined by an FNAB and grades 3, 4 and 5 assigned after US showed a higher malignancy rate than other nodules and would be regarded as high risk lesions.The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 93.3%,38.4%, 22.0%, 96.9% and 47.0%, respectively, if the nodule was considered a high-risk lesion, based on the FNAB or US findings. Thyroid nodules should be evaluated based on an FNAB and US findings. If a thyroid nodule is classified as a high-risk lesion, a follow-up study is needed due to the high mollow-up study is needed due to the high malignancy rate

  18. Changes in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cvejic

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain better insight into molecular changes which reflect disturbances in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during progression of thyroid malignancy from papillary microcarcinoma (PMC via clinically manifest papillary carcinoma (PTC to anaplastic carcinoma (ATC. The apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and proliferation related marker (PCNA were analysed immunohistochemically in 120 archival cases comprising PMC (n=34, PTC (n=52 and ATC (n=34. In addition, in situ apoptotic cell death was analysed by the TUNEL method. The average Bcl-2 staining score did not differ between PMC and PTC (p>0.05, but was significantly lower in ATC (p<0.05.The Bax score was higher in PTCs and ATCs than in PMCs (p<0.05. Due to these changes, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a marked decrease from PMC to ATC (p<0.05, while proliferation activity increased significantly from PTC to ATC (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, the rate of apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas, especially in ATC, i.e. the increase in proliferative activity was not counterbalanced with appropriate cell death. Differences were found in the expression of apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bax, their ratio (Bcl-2 /Bax and in the rate of apoptotic cell death and proliferative activity between PMC, PTC and ATC, indicating that disturbances in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, in favour of the latter, occur gradually during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours.

  19. Changes in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tatic

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain better insight into molecular changes which reflect disturbances in the balance between proliferation and apoptosis during progression of thyroid malignancy from papillary microcarcinoma (PMC via clinically manifest papillary carcinoma (PTC to anaplastic carcinoma (ATC. The apoptosis related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax and proliferation related marker (PCNA were analysed immunohistochemically in 120 archival cases comprising PMC (n=34, PTC (n=52 and ATC (n=34. In addition, in situ apoptotic cell death was analysed by the TUNEL method. The average Bcl-2 staining score did not differ between PMC and PTC (p>0.05, but was significantly lower in ATC (p<0.05.The Bax score was higher in PTCs and ATCs than in PMCs (p<0.05. Due to these changes, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio showed a marked decrease from PMC to ATC (p<0.05, while proliferation activity increased significantly from PTC to ATC (p<0.05. Despite high Bax expression, the rate of apoptotic cell death was low in the investigated carcinomas, especially in ATC, i.e. the increase in proliferative activity was not counterbalanced with appropriate cell death. Differences were found in the expression of apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bax, their ratio (Bcl-2 /Bax and in the rate of apoptotic cell death and proliferative activity between PMC, PTC and ATC, indicating that disturbances in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation, in favour of the latter, occur gradually during the progression of malignancy in thyroid tumours.

  20. Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.soyer@lrb.aphp.fr [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Unite 965 INSERM/Paris7, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Corno, Lucie; Boudiaf, Mourad [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Aout, Mounir [Clinical Research Unit, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Sirol, Marc; Place, Vinciane; Duchat, Florent; Guerrache, Youcef; Fargeaudou, Yann [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Vicaut, Eric [Clinical Research Unit, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Pocard, Marc [Unite 965 INSERM/Paris7, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Department of Digestive Diseases, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Hamzi, Lounis [Department of Abdominal Imaging, Hopital Lariboisiere-AP-HP and Universite Diderot-Paris 7, 2, rue Ambroise Pare, 75475, Paris Cedex 10 (France)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. Results: ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .21 x 10{sup -3}vs. 1.77 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .29 x 10{sup -3} for observer 1 and 1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .19 x 10{sup -3}vs. 1.79 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s {+-} .32 x 10{sup -3} for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). Conclusion: FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms.

  1. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for prediction of malignancy and invasiveness in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Lufei; Chen, Linghui; Wei, Jianfeng; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Qingshong; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Huang, Pengfei; Yang, Qifan; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    The clinical importance of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas has been increasing due to the large number of newly diagnosed cases. A meta-analysis was used to assess the accuracy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) for the identification of malignant and invasive IPMN. A literature search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge was conducted. Studies included in the analysis addressed the diagnostic accuracy of serum CEA and CA19...

  2. Identificación molecular de helicobacter pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina / Molecular identification of helicobacter pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmundo Dantés, Escobar Habeica; Yaxsier, de Armas Rodríguez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Virginia, Capó de Paz; Fidel, Cathcart Roca; Marco Antonio, Jiménez López.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Helicobacter pylori es considerado uno de los principales agentes causales de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica y neoplasias gástricas malignas en humanos. Objetivo: evaluar el uso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificación de H. pylori y sus genotipos en tejidos [...] gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Material y Métodos: se estudiaron secciones de 5 bloques de parafina procedentes de 5 pacientes mexicanos con neoplasias gástricas malignas. Se realizaron coloraciones de rutina y especiales de anatomía patológica, así como la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la detección del microorganismo y sus genotipos. Resultados: la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa identificó a este agente infeccioso en todos los bloques analizados en correspondencia con su detección a través de las técnicas histológicas. Esta metodología permitió demostrar una variabilidad genética del patógeno en las muestras analizadas según los genotipos vacA y cagA. Conclusiones: la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa podría ser un método eficaz en la identificación del H. pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Esta se perfila como una estrategia atractiva para realizar estudios de epidemiología molecular y permitirá establecer posibles asociaciones de genotipos/subtipos del microorganismo con variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y de manejo del paciente. Abstract in english Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the main causal agents of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignant neoplasms in humans. Objective: to evaluate polymerase chain reaction for identification of Helicobacter pylori and its genotypes in paraffin embedded gastric tissue [...] s with malignant neoplasms. Material and Methods: sections of five paraffin blocks from five patients with gastric malignant neoplasms were studied. They were analyzed through routine and special stains of pathological anatomy, as well as the polymerase chain reaction technic for microorganism and genotypes detection. Results: the infectious agent was identified in all of the analyzed blocks through the polymerase chain reaction technic in correspondence with its detection through histologic techniques. This methodology showed a genetic variability of the pathogen in the analyzed samples in respect to vacA and cagA genotypes. Conclusions: the polymerase chain reaction could be an efficacious method for the identification of H. pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasms. It is projected as an attractive strategy for performing studies of molecular epidemiology and the establishment of possible associations between genotypes/subtypes of the microorganism and clinic or epidemiologic variables, and patient handling.

  3. Delayed results of combined treatment of malignant neoplasms of nasal cavity and accessory basal sinuses with the use of remote neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of results of combined treatment of 24 patients with locally spread forms of malignant neoplasms in nasal cavity and accessory nasal sinuses, subjected to preoperational remote neutron therapy, was carried out. Mean neutron energy was 6.5 MeV, total focus dose - 38-40 Gy. It is shown that combined method of treatment features high efficiency, ensuring 5-year survival rate of 67.8% of the patients. However, the treatment is accompanied by grave complications, formation of face tissue-defects and radiation-induced cataract. The necessity of improving the methods of eye protection in the course of radiotherapy is emphasized. 1 ref

  4. Trends in the incidence and mortality rates of malignant neoplasms in regions with radio ecological problems (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study is carried out to examine incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at high radioecological risk (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999. The analysis is made according to sex and age groups. Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. The analysis of incidence and mortality dynamics doesn't show an increase in the incidence/mortality rate of the selected radiation-related oncological diseases compared with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

  5. Diagnostic value of early and delayed 201Tl thyroid scintigraphy in the evaluation of cold nodules for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed 201Tl thyroid scintigraphy using an early and delayed scanning technique in 34 patients exhibiting cold nodules on sup(99m)Tc scans. Of the 29 benign nodules, 27 were correctly diagnosed as being negative, i.e. 93% specificity. However, two of five malignant nodules failed to concentrate activity on both the early and delayed scans. The low sensitivity (60%) of this method for detecting carcinomas limits its clinical value in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected thyroid cancer. Our findings are in contrast to previous more optimistic reports. (orig.)

  6. Is Doppler ultrasound of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Weslley, Rosario; Alexandre Lemos da, Silva; Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro, Borges; Maria Regina, Calsolari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. A total of 1,502 solid thyroid nodules ? 10 mm were evaluated. Suspicious vascularity (predominantly or [...] exclusively central blood flow) was observed in only 5% of the nodules. This finding showed 96% specificity, but only 15% sensitivity. GSUS alone showed sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 68.2%, respectively, which did not improve with the addition of DUS (sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 66.4%). In non-suspicious nodules on GSUS, the type of vascularity on DUS did not modify the risk of malignancy, which was low. In suspicious nodules on GSUS, suspicious vascularity on DUS increased the risk of malignancy, but non-suspicious vascularity did not reduce this risk. DUS provided no additional value to GSUS in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):79-83

  7. Ex vivo imaging of human thyroid pathology using integrated optical coherence tomography and optical coherence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. 34 thyroid gland specimens are imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology ranging from normal thyroid to benign disease/neoplasms (multinodular colloid goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and follicular adenoma) and malignant thyroid tumors (papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma). Imaging is performed using an integrated OCT and OCM system, with thyroid tissues. With further development of needle-based imaging probes, OCT and OCM could be promising techniques to use for the screening of thyroid nodules and to improve the diagnostic specificity of fine needle aspiration evaluation.

  8. Contribution of scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology / Contribuição da cintilografia e ultrassonografia para a predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Weslley, Rosário; Daniela Santos, Salles; Breno, Bessa; Saulo, Purisch.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a contribuição da cintilografia com 131I e da ultrassonografia na predição de malignidade em nódulos tireoidianos com citologia indeterminada em pacientes eutireoidianos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 102 pacientes com nódulos tireoidianos submetidos à punção aspir [...] ativa com agulha fina (PAAF), apresentando citologia indeterminada (neoplasia folicular). RESULTADOS: Malignidade foi encontrada em 19/25 (76%) nódulos suspeitos na ultrassonografia versus 5/77 (6,5%) naqueles sem características suspeitas. Quando a cintilografia com 131I mostrou nódulo hipo- ou hipercaptante, a chance de malignidade foi 38,5% e 2,5%, respectivamente, e em 10% dos pacientes esse exame foi inconclusivo. CONCLUSÕES: Cirurgia está indicada quando um nódulo tireoidiano com citologia indeterminada exibe características ultrassonográficas suspeitas. Quando não as exibe, a cintilografia com 131I pode dispensar a tireoidectomia se revelar captação correspondente ao nódulo, o que ocorre em metade dos casos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of 131I scintigraphy and ultrasonography to the prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology in euthyroid patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 102 patients with thyroid nodules, submitted to FNAC and presenting an [...] indeterminate cytological diagnosis (follicular neoplasm). RESULTS: Malignancy was observed in 19/25 (76%) nodules with suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics versus 5/77 (6.5%) without suspicious findings. When 131I scintigraphy showed a cold or hot nodule, the chance of malignancy was 38.5% and 2.5%, respectively. This exam was inconclusive in 10% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery is indicated when a thyroid nodule with indeterminate cytology exhibits suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics. Otherwise, 131I scintigraphy can exclude thyroidectomy when reveals uptake in the nodule, which is observed in half the cases.

  9. Pode a gestação influenciar a evolução de nódulo tireoidiano maligno? Can pregnancy influence the outcome of a malignant thyroid nodule?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kerr

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um nódulo tireoidiano com padrões ultrassonográfico e citopatológico benignos que diminuiu mais de 50% em três anos e se modificou durante a gestação, constatando-se que era carcinoma papilífero. Conclui-se que a gestação pode aumentar o risco de malignização ou acelerar o crescimento de nódulo tireoidiano maligno preexistente, corroborando dados da literatura.The authors report the case of a patient with a thyroid nodule with benign sonographic and cytopathological features that had presented a decrease of more than 50% in three years and changed its pattern during her pregnancy, being diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. It was concluded that pregnancy can either increase the risk for malignant transformation or accelerate the growth of a malignant thyroid nodule, corroborating pre-existing literature data.

  10. Pode a gestação influenciar a evolução de nódulo tireoidiano maligno? / Can pregnancy influence the outcome of a malignant thyroid nodule?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucy, Kerr; Maria Edith Lutz, Vidigal; Deborah, Rozenkwit.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um nódulo tireoidiano com padrões ultrassonográfico e citopatológico benignos que diminuiu mais de 50% em três anos e se modificou durante a gestação, constatando-se que era carcinoma papilífero. Conclui-se que a gestação pode aumentar o risco de malignização ou acelerar o cresc [...] imento de nódulo tireoidiano maligno preexistente, corroborando dados da literatura. Abstract in english The authors report the case of a patient with a thyroid nodule with benign sonographic and cytopathological features that had presented a decrease of more than 50% in three years and changed its pattern during her pregnancy, being diagnosed as papillary carcinoma. It was concluded that pregnancy can [...] either increase the risk for malignant transformation or accelerate the growth of a malignant thyroid nodule, corroborating pre-existing literature data.

  11. "Evaluation of thyroid’s cold nodules with 99mTc-MIBI and serum thyroglobulin for diagnosis of malignant and benign nodules "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gharepapagh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As finding of an accurate noninvasive way for differential diagnosis between malignant and benign nodules is of great importance, recently 99mTc-MIBI is suggested for this purpose.In this study we evaluated the usefulness of this radiotracer, as well as, measuring of serum level of Tg as a differential diagnostic test of malignant and benign nodules. Methods: Twelve patients with ages of 25 to 65 years old, all of them had single cold nodule of thyroid in scan with 99mTco4- were evaluated with 99mTc-MIBI scan 15 min. and 2 hrs .after iv. injection of 10 mci radiotracer on routine views of ANT, RAO, and LAO.The images evaluated semiquantitatively and were considered positive if there was uptake superior to normal thyroid tissue on early and delayed images (score = 3. Then patients underwent measuring serum level of Tg with method of RIA .Finally, FNA was performed from all patients and the samples interpretated by cytopathologist. Results: In the MIBI scans 6 patients showed increased uptake(hot nodule,3 partially uptake(warm nodule and 3 absence of uptake(cold nodule.results of FNA in 3(50% cases of 6 patients with hot nodules were papillary carcinoma which all of them underwent surgery and the pathologic reports confirmed the presence of papillary carcinoma. Two cases (33.3% were follicular proliferation and one (16.7% adenoma. No malignancy were reported in the cases of warm and cold nodules (3 patients for each case, that is, 3 adenoma in the warm nodules, and 2 cyst and one adenoma in the cold nodules. In the affected patients to papillary carcinoma the levels of serum Tg were above the 70 ng/ml in all of three cases, lower than 60 ng/ml in the adenoma, lower than 50 ng/ml in the cases of follicular proliferation and finally lower than 20 ng/ml in the cases of thyroid cyst. Conclusion: All of the cold nodules in 99mTc-MIBI scan were benign as adenoma or cyst and the warm nodules also correlated with benign entities. In this study we concluded that, patients with cold nodule in the MIBI scan and lower Tg level, most likely have benign nodules such as cyst, but those with prominent hot nodule in MIBI scan and higher Tg level, have the higher chance of thyroid's cancer as well as benign lesions such as adenoma, and so, this radiotracer isn't specific for differential diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.

  12. Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micco, C; Savchenko, V; Giorgi, R; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

    2008-02-26

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and optimal cutoff values for diagnosing malignancy were determined. The TPO ROC curve was consistently higher than the HBME-1 ROC curve. The TPO curve was also higher than the DPP4 curve with regard to sensitivity, but dipped below the DPP4 curve with regard to specificity. Using a cutoff value of 10% positive cells for HBME-1, and staining score > or =1 for DPP4, sensitivity to specificity ratios were 98-83% for TPO, 90-60% for HBME-1, and 88-80% for DPP4. Two particularly interesting findings of this study were the low negative likelihood ratio of TPO (0.02) allowing highly reliable exclusion of malignancy and the 100% specificity of DPP4 staining scores=12. Due to poor performance on follicular lesions, HBME-1 showed no advantage over TPO or DPP4. PMID:18212751

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Value of Ultrasonography and Color Doppler in Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Majidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: As the usage of ultrasound in the evaluation of thyroid nodules is increasing, we decided to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound (US and Doppler (CFD findings in comparison with cytology (FNA and eventually pathology results to establish the relative importance of US and CFD features as indicators of malignancy."nPatients and Methods: This prospective study started from June 2008 to October 2009. Two-hundred four patients with thyroid nodules were evaluated by US, CFD and FNA in Sari Imam Khomeini Hospital. After data acquisition, SPSS-17 calculated the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV and positive predictive value (PPV for all 12 variables.We also determined cutoff for nodule size by drawing Roc curve and measuring the cutoff. With regression logistic analysis, P value and odds ratio (confidence interval were demonstrated for meaningful variables."nResults: Forty-four patients with inadequate cytology were excluded from the study. In the remaining 210 patients, we had 191 (91% benign, 12 (5.7% suspicious and7 (3.3% malignant nodules in cytology. All patients with malignant cytology and eight patients of the 12 patients with suspicious cytology underwent surgery. After surgery and pathological study, we had malignancy in 11 (5.34% out of 206 nodules. Other results were: nodule size>10mm most sensitive (90.9%, adenopathy most specific (97.9%, margin had the highest PPV (37.55% and nodule size>28mm (our suggested variable had the highest NPV (97.7%. Using the Roc curve, 28mm was our suggestive size for nodule with the highest sensitivity and specificity (p<0.01. After logistic regression analysis of variables, independent indicators of malignancy at US examination were: blurred nodular margin (P=0.0001; OR (CI=21(5-92 and enlarged size of thyroid lobe (P=0.01;OR(CI=6.5(1.5-27."nConclusion: This study demonstrated that no single parameter satisfactorily identifies malignancy. We concluded blurred margin and enlarged thyroid lobe with prominent nodule is the best differentiating factor between missing malignancy and benignity.

  15. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAss

  17. Prospective evaluation of multiparametric ultrasound and quantitative elastosonography in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the clinical value of quantitative elastosonography compared with multiparametric ultrasound in differentiating the nature of thyroid nodules. Methods and materials: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (32 males, 65 females, mean age, 54 years, range 20–81 years) with thyroid nodules previously detected at color-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS), were prospectively examined with elastosonography with dedicated quantitative software (Elasto-Q, Toshiba) before surgery. Ultrasound examination and elastosonography were evaluated by two investigators in consensus. US features, color-Doppler pattern, and strain ratio value were evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity of CDUS and sono-elastography were compared using X2 test and ROC curves. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of hypoechogenicity, irregular margins or suspicious halo features, CDUS blood flow pattern, and strain ratio in the diagnosis of malignant nodules were 56.8%, 62.2%, 54.1% and 97.3% and 71.7%, 93.3%, 28.3%, and 91.7%, respectively. Elastosonography was more sensitive and specific than all ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy of the thyroid nodules (p < 0.0001). According to elastosonographic features the lesions characterized by strain ratio ?2 were highly likely to be of malignant nature (p < 0.0001, O.R. 396, 95%, CI: 44–3530). Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that elastosonography with Q system is a valuable tool in the characterization of thyroid nodules and it seems to be far more accurate than CDUS. These findings as well as those of previous studies support its use in selecting patients who are candidates for surgery

  18. Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deveci M Salih

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN, follicular neoplasm (FON and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN. This study reports our experience with 339 cases diagnosed as FON and 120 as FDN. All cases were evaluated for histologic diagnosis, age, sex and size of the nodule. Histopathologic follow-up was available in all cases. The malignancy rate was 22% (74/359 and 72% (86/120 for cases diagnosed as FON and FDN, respectively. In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma. The risk of malignancy was higher in patients younger than 40 yr (53% vs. 30% than in patients 40 year or more years old and greater in males (41% vs. 33% than females. No statistically significant relationship was noted between the sizes of the nodules and benign vs. malignant diagnosis. According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%. In addition, clinical features, including gender and age can be part of the decision analysis in selecting patients for surgery.

  19. Neonatal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe neoplasms diagnosed in children ? 28 days of age along with their treatment, associated congenital anomalies, and the long-term consequences of the diagnoses and treatments. Methods and Materials: Utilizing autopsy records, a computerized tumor registry, and medical records, we identified patients and stillborns at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) diagnosed with neoplasms at ? 28 days of age between 1930 and 1998. Results: Twenty-three neonates with neoplasms were identified. There were 7 males (30%) and 16 females (70%). Follow-up of survivors ranged from 4 months to 27 years (mean 9 years). The 20 patients identified via the computerized registry system for 1980-1998 constitute 2% (20/925) of all neoplasms seen in patients ? 16 years of age over this same time period at DUMC. The histologic diagnoses were teratoma/germ cell tumor (n = 8, 35%), neuroblastoma (n = 5, 22%), retinoblastoma (n = 4, 17%), primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor (n = 3, 13%), and one case each of rhabdomyosarcoma, glossal glial choristoma, and hemangioma in the setting of Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. Of the eight teratoma/germ cell tumor patients, 6 were female (75%) and 2 male (25%). There was one malignant germ cell tumor, 2 immature teratomas, and 5 teratomas. Two of the seven patients with immature teratomas or teratoma were long-term survivors following surgery. The one patient with malignant germ cell tumor, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, died with surgery and chemotherapy, died. Associated anomalies were imperforate anus, congenital absence of a limb, left ventricular hypertrophy, fusion or absence of toes, coarctation of the aorta, and pulmonary valve dysplasia. Of the five children with neuroblastoma, 4 were female. INSS Stages were 1 (n = 1), 2A (n = 1), 3 (n = 1), and 4S (n = 2). Two were treated with surgery + chemotherapy + radiotherapy; two with surgery + chemotherapy; and one with surgery alone. Four children are long-term survivors. Associated congenital anomalies and medical problems were ventricular septal defect, seizure disorder, and Fanconi's anemia. A child with a dumbbell neuroblastoma, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, is paraplegic. Of the four children with retinoblastoma, two were female. Two had trilateral disease and two bilateral. Three of the four had a family history of retinoblastoma. The two children with trilateral retinoblastoma died after therapy with surgery, craniospinal and orbital irradiation, and chemotherapy. Two children with bilateral disease are long-term survivors: one treated with radiotherapy + chemotherapy and one with radiotherapy alone. They have marked orbital bone growth abnormalities. The three patients with CNS tumors were female. The histologies were glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, and malignant mixed oligodendroglioma. Two of the patients are long-term survivors after surgery + chemotherapy. Six children received eight courses of radiation therapy: 2 for Stage 4S neuroblastoma with respiratory compromise from an enlarging liver and 4 for retinoblastoma. The two infants with trilateral retinoblastoma received two courses of irradiation each: one of the treatment of intraocular tumor and a second, at an older age, for the pineal tumor. The most serious complication of anesthesia was a case of enterobacter cloacae sepsis in the central venous access line used for repetitively administering the anesthetic. Conclusion: The most common neonatal neoplasm histologic diagnoses are teratoma/germ cell tumor, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Neonatal neoplasms may be associated with congenital anomalies. Radiation therapy is administered infrequently in a population highly susceptible to late ill effects. When radiotherapy is required, anesthesia may be repetitively administered to aid in reproducible treatment

  20. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

  1. VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Niculescu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC pT1NxMxG1 (sclerous infiltrative 3 mm node on joint nodular goitre with metaplasia, hemorrhage, sclero hyalinisation and lymphomatous thyroiditis aspects. She was treated with L Thyroxin, chemotherapy (Cisplatinum, Dacarbazin and radioactive iodine therapy. After oncological evaluation she was addressed to the First Surgery Clinic for thyroidectomy totalisation and the treatment of an umbilical tumour occurred after the fourth cure (June-July 2005. The patient was evaluated by physical exam, ultrasonography and computed tomography (cervical and abdominal which revealed tumours in the cervical region and in the liver. Thyroidectomy totalisation with limphadenectomy and an abdominal laparoscopy and biopsy were performed. The pathologic exam diagnosed multiple metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM localized in the cervical region, in the liver, great omentum and cervical limphatic nodes. The postoperative follow-up revealed multiple bone mestastasis from the malignanat melanoma. The case particularities were: association of RD with 2 primitive malignant tumours (occult PTC and MM, both diagnosed histopathologically and the multiple bone metastasis developed in a short time.

  2. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature / Tumor fibroso solitário maligno da tiroide: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wellington, Alves Filho; Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti, Mahmoud; Daniel Marin, Ramos; Vergilius José Furtado de, Araujo-Filho; Patricia Picciarelli de, Lima; Claudio Roberto, Cernea; Lenine Garcia, Brandão.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O tumor fibroso solitário (SFT) é uma neoplasia rara de células fusiformes que mais frequentemente envolve a pleura, raramente ocorrendo em áreas extratorácicas. Já foram descritos 26 casos de SFT da tiroide. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 60 anos de idade com um histórico de 8 meses de aumento [...] do pescoço associado à disfagia. A paciente foi submetida a uma hemitiroidectomia direita e foi diagnosticado um SFT de tiroide. A imuno-histoquímica mostrou resultados positivos para o marcador CD34, e o grande número de mitoses e a presença de atipia celular sugerem que o tumor era maligno. Em nosso conhecimento, este é o segundo caso de STF da tiroide maligno já relatado. Dada a rara ocorrência desses tumores, a indicação de tratamento adjuvante e o prognóstico são incertos. Recomenda-se o acompanhamento de longo prazo depois da ressecção cirúrgica. Abstract in english Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enla [...] rgement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

  3. Evaluation of digital subtraction angiography in preoperative differentiation of benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 51 patients having benign and malignant nodular lesions of the thyroid. DSA studies were all performed before surgical intervention. Later, DSA imaging patterns were compared with histopathologic findings, retrospectively. The results of DSA technique showed that 3 out of 17 cases were nodules of papillary carcinoma which were blush at the lesion site, six cases were lucent, eight were unclear residuary cases. These DSA findings have indicated that diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were difficult because the DSA findings of papillary carcinoma have no special features. However, two follicular carcinoma and eleven follicular adenoma were all blush at the lesion site. Then, the selection of follicular carcinoma and adenoma from other thyroid nodules seemed possible, however the differentiation between follicular carcinoma and adenoma was impossible. Seventeen adenomatous goiters showed variegated DSA findings, characteristic findings showed lucent at the sites of the lesion which were degenerated enlarged cysts. Thus, it appears that DSA is not a suitable technique for the diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. The purpose of DSA imaging is to infer the compression, sift, obstruction of the common carotid artery and the internal jugular vein owing to a tumor by a less invasive procedure. It would appear that the utilization of DSA must be chosen for the thyroid nodule. (author) (author)

  4. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 for prediction of malignancy and invasiveness in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Zhang, Lufei; Chen, Linghui; Wei, Jianfeng; Sun, Qiang; Xie, Qingshong; Zhou, Xiaohu; Zhou, Dongkai; Huang, Pengfei; Yang, Qifan; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical importance of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas has been increasing due to the large number of newly diagnosed cases. A meta-analysis was used to assess the accuracy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) for the identification of malignant and invasive IPMN. A literature search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge was conducted. Studies included in the analysis addressed the diagnostic accuracy of serum CEA and CA19-9 and pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated using random-effects models. Predefined subgroup analysis was performed. Fifteen studies (published between 2001 and 2013) were analyzed, including a total of 1,629 patients. Pooled estimates of CEA in malignant and invasive IPNM prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 18 and 18%; pooled specificity, 93 and 95%; PLR, 2.83 and 3.54; NLR, 0.89 and 0.89; and DOR, 3.35 and 3.6, respectively. Pooled estimates of CA19-9 in malignant and invasive IPMN prediction were: Pooled sensitivity, 40 and 52%; pooled specificity, 89 and 88%; PLR, 2.93 and 3.78; NLR, 0.74 and 0.6; and DOR, 4.34 and 6.33, respectively. In conclusion, serum CEA has low sensitivity and high specificity for malignant and invasive IPMN. Serum CA19-9 is a useful non-invasive preoperative tool for differentiating between invasive and benign IPMN and should be taken into account in the decision to perform surgery. PMID:25469245

  5. An extremely rare case of testicular malign neoplasm; alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma with long term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ipekci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm usually occur in men aged between 15 and 35. These are solid organ tumours and also should be operated when there is a suspicious clinical findings. Testis tumours are levelled after histopathology evaluation. The medical, surgical and follow-up strategies of well know testis tumours, such as seminomas, non-seminom germ cell tumours, have been established. In case of testis tumours rare entities may occur as rhabdomyosarcoma.We here presented a rare case of   alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma in testis with long term follow-up.

  6. Management of thyroid Hurthle cell neoplasms: a single centre experience and literature review = Management delle neoplasie a cellule di Hurthle della tiroide: esperienza di un singolo centro e revisione della letteratura

    OpenAIRE

    Paliogiannis, Panagiotis; Attene, Federico; Scognamillo, Fabrizio; Marras, Vincenzo; Losa, Francesca; Trogu, Federica; Trignano, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Aim. We report our experience on the management of Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCNs) of the thyroid and a review of the literature in order to describe the most relevant clinical, diagnostic, biologic and therapeutic aspects. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 15 consecutive patients with HCN. The male/female ratio was 1:4 and the mean age was 53.8 years. Fourteen patients underwent total thyroidectomy and one patient lobectomy. Two patients were lost to...

  7. Antibodies to the cytoplasm, cell membrane and nuclear membrane of malignant neoplasms in pooled normal human polyspecific immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Dayan, Y; Barshack, I; Blank, M; Goldberg, I; Levy, Y; Kopolovic, J; Fishman, P; Shoenfeld, Y

    1999-12-01

    IVIg is a preparation of normal polyspecific IgG obtained from pooled plasma of a large number of healthy donors. IVIg treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia induced a reduction in the total number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Regression of Kaposi's sarcoma was also noted in an HIV patient treated with IVIg. The aim of this study was to determine whether F(ab')2 prepared from IVIg binds to cellular structures of different tumor tissues. Biotinylated F(ab')2 was prepared from 3 different preparations of IVIg and from affinity purified IgG from a patient with multiple myeloma. Direct immunohistochemistry using a streptavidin peroxidase staining method was performed on biopsy samples of 18 different tumor tissues. Positive staining of the cytoplasm, cell membrane and nuclear membrane of several types of malignant tumors by F(ab')2 from IVIg was immunohistochemically demonstrated. Nuclear staining of tumor cells by IVIg was rare. IVIg bound to different tumors of epithelial origin, especially colon carcinoma, breast carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin such as leiomyosarcoma have also demonstrated positive staining by IVIg. IVIg contains antibodies to the cytoplasm, nuclear membrane and cell membrane of different malignant tumors especially of epithelial origin. This binding might provide a basis for the assumption that IVIg treatment of cancer patients may induce antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity response against tumors, and implies that it can be potentially beneficial as adjuvant treatment of malignant diseases. PMID:10568813

  8. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, I

    1982-02-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. For example, radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix may be followed by the development of carcinomas of the endometrium, vagina, urinary bladder, colon , rectum, and anus, as well as mesotheliomas of the peritoneum and osteosarcomas of the pelvis. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility. The danger of developing second malignancies following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for lifelong follow-up of patients given these forms of treatment; particularly in those with a long life expectancy as are those treated for childhood neoplasms. PMID:7081142

  9. Vascular patterns in nodules of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms depicted under contrast-enhanced ultrasonography are helpful for evaluating malignant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CE-US) to differentiate between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Patients and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with a contrast agent was performed on 22 consecutive patients with IPMN suspected of being malignant. This revealed 10 carcinomas, 1 borderline lesion and 11 adenomas. All patients underwent surgery, and the histological diagnosis was confirmed by examination of resected specimens. CE-US was performed using a contrast agent. The detection rates of mural nodules were compared between CE-US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT), and the imaging of mural nodules depicted under CE-US was analyzed. Results: Seventeen of 22 resected specimens (77.3%) had mural nodules. There was no significant difference in the detection rate between CE-US (n = 15; 88.2%) and CE-CT (n = 12; 70.6%). In 12 (80.0%) of these patients, CE-US revealed small vessels in the mural nodule. The spotty or linear-shaped pattern was detected in 4 patients and the branch-shaped pattern in 8. The branch-shaped pattern lesion was associated with carcinoma. These mural nodules were 10 mm or more in height. In the perfusion image phase, cystic walls and mural nodules were also enhanced in all cases. Conclusion: The vessel shapes of the mural nodules depicted under CE-US were associated with size and pathological findings. These results and pathological findings. These results suggested that CE-US with a contrast agent is a powerful modality with which to evaluate the malignant potential of IPMN.

  10. Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Hirabayashi; Giuseppe Zamboni; Hiroyuki Ito; Masami Ogawa; Yoshiaki Kawaguchi; Tomohiro Yamashita; Toshio Nakagohri; Naoya Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanes...

  11. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  12. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, I.

    1982-02-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

  13. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncplex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  14. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases; Stellenwert des Serum-Thyreoglobulinspiegels bei der Diagnostik benigner und maligner Schilddruesenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, T.; Schroth, H.J. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Staedtisches Klinikum, Hanau (Germany); Dembowski, W.; Klinger, K. [Medizinische Klinik, St. Vinzenz Krankenhaus, Hanau (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroidvolume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie ist es, neue und bislang zum Teil kontrovers diskutierte Indikationen zur Bestimmung des Thyreoglobulins (Tg) bei unterschiedlichen Schilddruesenerkrankungen in der klinischen Routine zu ueberpruefen. Methoden: Die Studie umfasst folgende Kollektive: 250 gesunde Probanden, 50 Patienten mit euthyreoter Struma diffusa, 161 Patienten mit euthyreoter Knotenstruma (davon 108 operierte Faelle, wobei sich 17 Karzinome fanden), 60 hyperthyreote Patienten mit autonomer Knotenstruma, 150 Patienten mit Thyreoiditis Hashimoto und 30 hyperthyreote Patienten mit M. Basedow. Ergebnisse: Die Grenze des Referenzbereichs errechnete sich zu 30 ng Tg/ml. Die Analyse der diffusen Strumen zeigte eine lineare Abhaengigkeit des Tg-Spiegels von der Schilddruesengroesse, wobei der Erwartungswert in etwa dem Organvolumen in ml entsprach. Knotige Veraenderungen fuehrten zu einem ueberproportionalen Tg-Anstieg, der allerdings einer grossen Varianz unterlag und daher im Einzelfall nur schwer abzuschaetzen war. Von den 17 Patienten mit Schilddruesenkarzinom lag der Tg-Spiegel in 10 Faellen unterhalb des Erwartungswertes, 2 Patienten zeigten einen Tg-Wert von >1000 ng/ml. Bei Autonomien fand sich bezogen auf eine durch Substitution extrem supprimierte Vergleichsgruppe ein signifikant hoeherer mittlerer Tg-Spiegel. Aufgrund der hohen Varianz der Tg-Werte beider Kollektive war die Diagnose der Autonomie anhand der Tg-Bestimmung jedoch kaum moeglich. In der Gruppe mit Thyreoiditis Hashimoto zeigte sich im Vergleich zum Normalkollektiv ein erniedrigter Tg-Spiegel. Bei M. Basedow war die mittlere Tg-Konzentration signifikant hoeher als in der Vergleichsgruppe mit Struma diffusa, dennoch lagen 47% aller Werte noch im Referenzbereich. Schlussfolgerung: Hohe Tg-Werte fuehren bei Verdacht auf Malignitaet, Autonomie oder M. Basedow zu einer hoeheren Krankheitswahrscheinlichkeit. Da niedrige Tg-Spiegel die entsprechende Erkrankung

  15. Liquid-based cytologic findings of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in thyroid: a case report identified with fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Hun; Jung, Yoon Yang; Chung, Yul Ri; Ryu, Han Suk

    2014-11-01

    Preoperative cytologic diagnosis of solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) presents a challenge to cytopathologists because this tumor rarely occurs as a primary thyroid malignant neoplasm. In this report, we provide the first description of liquid-based cytomorphologic findings of SEP observed on fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid. A 56-year-old woman with a history of Hashimoto thyroiditis presented with a growing nodule in the thyroid. The liquid-based preparation obtained from FNAB showed numerous dispersed plasmacytoid cells with occasional loosely cohesive aggregates of tumor cells. Cells were round to oval in shape, with eccentrically located nuclei. Hyalinized perinuclear vacuoles were found in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Initial cytological findings, including those of immunochemistry using a cell block preparation, were consistent with plasmacytoma. Histopathological examination subsequent to thyroidectomy revealed a plasmacytoma in the thyroid. Plasma cell neoplasms were not concurrently detected in tissues other than the thyroid. On the basis of preoperative FNAB findings, a specific diagnosis of SEP in the thyroid can be difficult because this tumor is rare. Moreover, diagnosis is impeded because SEP in the thyroid resembles other, more common thyroid lesions, including both benign and malignant neoplasms. Careful cytomorphologic examination and supportive studies may be required to fully confirm a diagnosis of SEP. PMID:24623561

  16. Diagnostic value of microRNAs in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones on fine-needle aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhong, Qi; Chen, Xiaohong; Fang, Jugao; Huang, Zhigang

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) might serve as novel diagnostic indicators of thyroid cancer (TC). However, inconsistent results have also been reported. This meta-analysis was conducted to assess the diagnostic value of miRNAs in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones on fine-needle aspiration samples. A systematic literature search for relevant literature published up to April 5, 2014 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM) databases. Data from different studies were pooled to estimate the summary sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood ratios (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), using the random-effect model. Summary receiver operator characteristic curves (SROCs) were plotted and areas under the SROC curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. Between-study heterogeneity was tested using the Q tests and the I (2) statistics. Potential sources of heterogeneity were analyzed through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test was performed to evaluate publication bias. All analyses were performed using STATA 12.0 software. Eighteen studies from 7 articles, including 543 patients with malignant thyroid nodules (n?=?266) and benign ones (n?=?277), were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled SEN was 0.77 (95 % CI: 0.70-0.83), SPN was 0.75 (95 % CI: 0.68-0.81), PLR was 3.1 (95 % CI: 2.4-4.0), NLR was 0.30 (95 % CI: 0.23-0.39), DOR was 10 (95 % CI: 7-16), and AUC was 0.83 (95 %CI: 0.79-0.86). Subgroup analyses indicated that multiple miRNAs assays showed a higher diagnostic accuracy than single miRNA assays. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that miRNAs analysis can significantly improve diagnostic accuracy for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign indeterminate ones on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. With further confirmation, multiple miRNAs assays may play a critical role as a complement to fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). PMID:24943685

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave ats from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity of in radioiodine treatment. (author)

  18. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99mTc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anr, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area in agreement with currently accepted Japanese lymphatic anatomy. It is important to confirm lymphatic drainage to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. (author)

  19. ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in malignancies of the thyroid and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max; Thomassen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25455881

  20. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It usually is taken once a day before breakfast. Take thyroid at around the same time every ... control headache nausea vomiting diarrhea stomach cramps hyperactivity anxiety irritability or rapid changes in mood difficulty falling ...

  2. Surgical intervention in chronic (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Rutledge, R.G.

    1981-06-01

    Experience with 260 thyroidectomies at the North Carolina Memorial Hospital performed between 1875 and 1980 for a dominant thyroid mass was reviewed to determine the reliability of criteria for diagnosis and the indications for surgical treatment. Using the criteria of clinical findings, complemented by laboratory studies. Four patients had Hashimoto's thyroiditis coincidental to another disease for which thyroidectomy was performed. In seven patients Hashimoto's thyroiditis alone constituted the indications for operation. The indications for operation in these patients were: autonomous function with mild hyperthyroidism (2 patients); associated cold nodule (2 patients); thyromegaly unresponsive to suppressive therapy (2 patients); and rapidly enlarging mass simulating a neoplasm (1 patient). Only one of 71 patients with well differentiated carcinoma had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis had associated lymphoma. In most patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be identified using appropriate clinical and laboratory criteria without resorting to thyroidectomy to differentiate between thyroiditis and a neoplasm. Operations are indicated in patients with suspected or established chronic thyroiditis for: 1) the presence of a dominant mass with incomplete regression on suppressive therapy. 2) Progression of thyromegaly despite suppressive therapy. 3) Historic or physical findings suggest a malignancy. 4) Indeterminant findings on cutting needle biopsy.

  3. [The mortality from malignant neoplasms in the population of a large industrial city with petroleum-refining and petrochemical enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafutdinova, N Kh

    1997-01-01

    Air pollution with toxic chemical near oil-processing and petrochemical enterprises is significantly higher than in administrative district of the city. The studies proved that level and share of mortality with malignancies of trachea, bronchi and lungs is higher in industrial district, than that in the administrative one. The standardized parameters of mortality among females were increased in the industrial district, especially in 70s and 80s, i.e. in 10-20 years after launching the plants. The industrial district was characterized by higher mortality at young age. The mortality with the studied cancers at age of 20-29 and 30-39 prevailed in the industrial district. PMID:9377058

  4. Low-grade papillary schneiderian carcinoma, a unique and deceptively bland malignant neoplasm: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James S; Chernock, Rebecca D; Haynes, Wesley; El-Mofty, Samir K

    2015-05-01

    The sinonasal tract harbors several different types of papillomas, some of which can progress to carcinoma. The most frequent among these are inverted and oncocytic Schneiderian papillomas. The rates of progression are somewhat controversial but are approximately 5% to 10% and are almost invariably described in the literature as in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Other carcinoma types, such as mucoepidermoid and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, have also been described. Almost all of the described patterns of malignancy involve frank carcinoma with overtly dysplastic nuclear features, lack of cell maturation, and increased mitotic activity. Some squamous cell carcinomas, particularly nonkeratinizing, can grow in a papillary pattern, appearing to only line the surface epithelium, but they are cytologically overtly malignant throughout. In this case report, however, we describe a novel, human papillomavirus-negative, papillary carcinoma, which presented as a left nasal and maxillary sinus exophytic and inverted-appearing, papillomatous mass with very bland cytomorphology. The initial features were not typical for any defined Schneiderian papilloma but were also not clearly diagnostic of papillary carcinoma. The tumor recurred >10 times over 18 years despite extensive surgical resection including orbital exenteration. The tumor retained a bland appearance throughout the patient's entire clinical course, but did develop a pushing pattern of stromal invasion, increased mitotic activity, vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli, lymph node metastases, and eventually overwhelming local recurrence and nodal metastases, resulting in death. This tumor seems best characterized as a low-grade papillary Schneiderian carcinoma and appears to represent a novel type of sinonasal carcinoma. PMID:25634744

  5. Increment of platelet during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm patients injected subcutaneously with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of hematologic cells is one of the most severe morbidities in radiation therapy. Thrombocytopenia in particular has no effective treatment methods except blood transfusion. Thus, avoiding severe thrombocytopenia is considered to be one of the most important concerns. We treated 2 patients who had increment of platelets during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm following subcutaneous injection with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). One patient was an 84-year-old woman suffering from uterine cervical carcinoma and the other was a 73-year-old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In both patients, platelets decreased after radiation therapy. Following subsequent injection of Z-100 subcutaneously, an increase in platelets was observed. The mechanisms of Z-100 to increase platelets in these patients are obscure, although some interleukins (IL) such as IL-6 might be related to the increment of the platelets. Thus, further studies will be required to evaluate the mechanisms of the increment of platelet in patients injected with Z-100. (author)

  6. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates. Application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. (author)

  7. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Mahajan, Anita; Mirkovic, Dragan; Zhang, Rui; Giebeler, Annelise; Kornguth, David; Harvey, Mark; Woo, Shiao; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

  8. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. PMID:25037101

  9. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

  10. Estimate of the uncertainties in the relative risk of secondary malignant neoplasms following proton therapy and intensity-modulated photon therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenot, Jonas D [Department of Medical Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bloch, Charles [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Followill, David; Titt, Uwe; Newhauser, Wayne D, E-mail: jfontenot@marybird.co [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-12-07

    Theoretical calculations have shown that proton therapy can reduce the incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignant neoplasms (SMN) compared with photon therapy for patients with prostate cancer. However, the uncertainties associated with calculations of SMN risk had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to quantify the uncertainties in projected risks of secondary cancer following contemporary proton and photon radiotherapies for prostate cancer. We performed a rigorous propagation of errors and several sensitivity tests to estimate the uncertainty in the ratio of relative risk (RRR) due to the largest contributors to the uncertainty: the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the dose-response model for radiation carcinogenesis and interpatient variations in absorbed dose. The interval of values for the radiation weighting factor for neutrons and the dose-response model were derived from the literature, while interpatient variations in absorbed dose were taken from actual patient data. The influence of each parameter on a baseline RRR value was quantified. Our analysis revealed that the calculated RRR was insensitive to the largest contributors to the uncertainty. Uncertainties in the radiation weighting factor for neutrons, the shape of the dose-risk model and interpatient variations in therapeutic and stray doses introduced a total uncertainty of 33% to the baseline RRR calculation.

  11. Primary and secondary neoplasms of the spleen

    OpenAIRE

    Kaza, R.K.; Azar, S.; Al-Hawary, M.M.; Francis, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    With the exception of lymphoma involving the spleen, other primary and secondary neoplasms are rare and infrequently encountered. Primary malignant neoplasms involving the spleen are lymphoma and angiosarcoma. Primary benign neoplasms involving the spleen include hemangioma, lymphangioma, littoral cell angioma and splenic cyst and solid lesions such as hamartoma and inflammatory pseudotumor.

  12. Application of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for differentiating malignant from benign breast neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging for differentiating breast cancer from benign breast mass. Methods: Thirty-four patients with a total of 41 suspicious masses underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging within 10 d before surgery(except 1 case). The imaging protocol included prone PET/CT scanning (2 bed) at 40 min post-injection of 5.55 MBq/kg 18F-FDG and 3 h delayed scanning when necessary. After correction of measured attenuation, decay and scatter and iterative reconstruction, PET data were analyzed semi-quantitatively by calculating standardized uptake values (SUV) and target-to-non-target ratios (T/NT). Visual analysis was performed using transverse, sagittal and coronal slices as well as three-dimension reprojection images. Results: Twenty-seven malignant and 7 benign breast lesions of 34 patients detected by this modality were proven histologically after surgery. Visual analysis of 18F-FDG PET/CT gave a sensitivity of 92.59%, specificity of 6/7 and positive predictive value of 96.15%. Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool for differentiating breast cancer from benign breast masses. (authors)

  13. Tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas: ¿Una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno? / Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a neoplasm of low malignant potential?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Reaño; José, De Vinatea; José, Arenas; Fritz, Kometter; Luis, Villanueva; Edgar, Gonzáles; Mónica, Uribe; Jorge, Tang; Guillermo, Casas; Hernán, Robledo.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas es considerado una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno, por lo que la radicalidad del abordaje quirúrgico es aún controversial. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se describe y analiza en forma retrospectiva los datos clínicos, radiológicos, de laboratorio, [...] el reporte operatorio y el resultado patológico de 7 pacientes que fueron diagnosticados y operados por tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas en el período 2003 al 2010, en nuestra institución. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes fueron de sexo femenino y uno masculino. La mediana de edad fue 35 años (rango: 15-49). El síntoma más frecuente fue dolor abdominal (100%). Se presentó ictericia en un paciente (14.3%). La apariencia radiológica mixta sólido-quística fue la más frecuente. En 5 pacientes el tumor se localizó en la cabeza del páncreas (71.4%) y en 2 se ubicó en la cola (28.6%). La mediana del tamaño tumoral fue de 93 mm (rango: 20-150) Se realizó 4 procedimientos de Whipple (57.1%), 2 pancreatectomías distales con esplenectomía (28.6%), una por vía laparoscópica y una resección local. En 2 casos (28.6%) se encontró el borde de sección pancreático comprometido. Se presentó morbilidad en 4 pacientes. No hubo mortalidad postoperatoria, ni reoperaciones. Cuatro tumores mostraron comportamiento maligno (57.1%): infiltración de cápsula esplénica y metástasis hepática metacrónica (1), infiltración de arteria mesentérica superior (1), metástasis linfática (1) y metástasis hepática sincrónica, infiltración duodenal e invasión linfovascular (1). No se detectó mortalidad por la enfermedad durante el período de seguimiento que fue en promedio 26 meses (rango: 6-70 meses). CONCLUSIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar es una neoplasia con alto potencial maligno en nuestra experiencia, por lo que recomendamos una actitud quirúrgica agresiva, con resecciones radicales incluyendo linfadenectomía. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas is considered a neoplasm of low malignant potential. The radicality of surgical approach is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe and analyze retrospectively the clinical, radiological, laboratory, operative report and pathology res [...] ults of seven patients who were diagnosed and operated by solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas in the period 2003 to 2010, in our institution. RESULTS: Six patients were female and one male. The median age was 35 years (range: 15-49). The most common symptom was abdominal pain (100%). Jaundice in one patient (14.3%). The radiological appearance mixed solid-cystic was the most common. We performed four Whipple procedures (57.1%), 2 distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (28.6%), one by laparoscopy and the other by local resection. Morbidity presented in four patients. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Five tumors were located in the pancreatic head (71.4%) and two in the tail (28.6%). The median tumor size was 93 mm (range: 20-150). Two (28.6%) were R1 resections. Four tumors showed malignant behavior (57.1%): splenic capsule and infiltration of metachronous liver metastases (1), infiltration of superior mesenteric artery (1), lymphatic metastasis (1) and synchronous liver metastases, and lymphovascular invasion duodenal infiltration (1). There was no mortality from the disease during the average follow-up of 26 months (range 6-70 months). CONCLUSION: Solid pseudo papillary tumor is a neoplasm with high malignant potential in our experience. We recommend an aggressive surgical approach with radical resection including lymphadenectomy.

  14. Clinical value of virtual bronchoscopy in early diagnosis of central malignant lung neoplasm in high risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual bronchoscopy (CT-VB) is a recently developed 3D visualization technique that employs thin-section spiral computed tomographic data of the thorax for non-invasive evaluation of the tracheo-bronchial tree. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of multislice-CT virtual bronchoscopy in detecting early endobronchial manifestation of central lung cancer with that of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. For this purpose, a group of 50 high risk patients (cigarette pack-years, long standing history of COLD) underwent both FOB and CT-VB investigation. Multislice CT was performed using the following parameters: collimation, 1 mm; pitch factor, 0.937-1.375; reconstruction interval, 0.8 mm and postprocessing was based on volume rendering technique. Images of eight standard tracheo-bronchial sections were obtained from each patient both during FOB and CT-VB and were independently interpreted respectively by a pneumologist and a bronchiseptica. Airway evaluation was based on the analysis of changes in the mucosal architecture, the shape of the ostia and of the carinae and on the presence of secretion deposits as early signs of tumor onset. The sensitivity of virtual bronchoscopy in discriminating diseased from healthy patients was 94 % and its specificity 65 %. Its positive predictive value 56 % and its negative predictive value 96 %. According to the ROC analysis, except for the assessment of the secretion deposits, the other three criteria evaluated separatele other three criteria evaluated separately during virtual bronchoscopic assessment of the airways contributed equally in discriminating diseased from disease-free patients (areas under curve ranging between 0,797 and 0,845). The best AUC was associated with the evaluation of the sum of all three parameters together (0,858). Nevertheless, FOB and CT-VB results in the evaluation of the shape of the ostia resulted to agree moderately while just a fair agreement was observed with respect to the evaluation of the mucosal architecture and of the shape of the carinae (Kappa values ranging between 0,310 and 0,520). As to the evaluation of the secretion deposits, for example, the two diagnostic tests showed very poor agreement (negative Kappa value) concluding, this preliminary evaluation indicates that virtual bronchoscopy combined with the evaluation of MS-CT axial scans may be a promising and non-invasive diagnostic method for evaluation of patients at high risk of developing central lung neoplasm and can add important information about an intraluminal tumor and its relation to surrounding structures. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the potentials of this promising method as a tool to evaluate endoluminal growth in tumorous lung lesions. Even though it showed just fair agreement with flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy, the evaluation of changes in the form of the carinae, in the shape of the ostia and the accurate analysis of modifications in the mucosal architecture as early signs of tumor growth, showed to be three valid separate diagnostic criteria for airway assessment by means of virtual bronchoscopy. From a technical point of view, multislice-CT allowed the optimization of examination parameters such as acquisition time and primary collimation resulting not only in a reduction of respiratory and pulsation artefacts but also in a dramatic improvement of the z-axis and hence a much better resolution of the 3-dimensional reconstructions. As a consequence, MS-CT virtual bronchoscopy provides enhanced detail fidelity and represents a valid diagnostic tool for the evaluation of the whole tracheo-bronchial tree up to its third generation bronchi. (author)

  15. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  16. Unusual thyroid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland are quite rare in children. Winship, in his classic article, could find only 562 cases in the literature. The histopathological patterns resemble those of the adult tumors. Despite early cervical metastasis, the prognosis in general is favorable, with many long-term survivals. Prior exposure to radiation of the head and neck is a definite pre-disposing factor. Teratomas of the neck are a medical curiosity--less than 100 cases are described in the literature. The vast majority of these are found during the neonatal period, and are benign histologically. These are usually large, cystic, bulky masses which produce mechanical obstruction of the upper airway and digestive tract. Only one of these tumors, described by Pupovac in 1896, has been considered malignant. A six-year-old child was examined with a right thyroid mass of three months' duration. The thyroid scan showed a ''cold nodule''. At surgery, a well-encapsulated mass was found. The pathology showed a predominance of malignant spindle cells, with areas of papillary carcinoma; however, there were well-defined mucous glands present in the tumor. Clinically the child has remained well and asymptomatic. The slides have been extensively reviewed. To my knowledge no such tumor has been prepreviously described. The tumor is considered to be a malignant thyroid tumor growing out of teratomatous tissue

  17. RTN4IP1 Is Down-Regulated in Thyroid Cancer and Has Tumor-Suppressive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Reza; Kitano, Mio; Zhang, Lisa; Bommareddi, Swaroop

    2013-01-01

    Context: Previously we identified RTN4IP1 to be differentially expressed in thyroid cancer by sex and the gene is located on chromosome 6q21, a chromosomal region frequently deleted or with loss of heterozygosity in a variety of human malignancies including thyroid cancer. Objective: Because the expression and function of this gene is unknown, we sought to characterize its expression in normal, hyperplastic, and benign and malignant thyroid tissue samples and to evaluate its function in cancer cells. Design: RTN4IP1 expression was analyzed in normal and hyperplastic thyroid tissue and benign and malignant thyroid tissue samples. In 3 thyroid cancer cell lines (TPC1 from a papillary thyroid cancer, FTC133 from a follicular thyroid cancer, XTC1 from a Hürthle cell carcinoma), small interfering RNA knockdown of RTN4IP1 was used to determine its role in regulating the hallmarks of malignant cell phenotype (cellular proliferation, migration, apoptosis, invasion, tumor spheroid formation, anchorage independent growth). Results: We found RTN4IP1 mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated in follicular and papillary thyroid cancer as compared with normal, hyperplastic, and benign thyroid neoplasms (P XTC1). Conclusions: This is the first study to characterize the expression and function of RTN4IP1 in cancer. Our results demonstrate RTN4IP1 is down-regulated in thyroid cancer and is associated with larger papillary thyroid cancer and that it regulates malignant cell phenotype. These findings, taken together, suggest that RTN4IP1 has a tumor-suppressive function and may regulate thyroid cancer progression. PMID:23393170

  18. Thyroid transcription factor-1 is a specific marker of benign but not malignant feline lung tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, A; Olias, P; Böttcher, A; Klopfleisch, R

    2014-07-01

    Feline lung tumours are currently subclassified according to the criteria of the World Health Organisation, but this scheme contains overlap in the tumour phenotype. The aims of the present study were to re-evaluate the histological features of feline lung tumours and to correlate these with expression of the markers thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1 and Ki67. TTF-1 was found to be a highly specific marker for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung tissue and thyroid tissue, but was expressed only weakly in invasive lung tumours. A combined semiquantitative score for Ki67 and TTF-1 expression correlated well with differentiation and invasive behaviour of the tumours and may thus be of potential value for evaluation of feline lung tumours. PMID:24813152

  19. Evaluation of dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid disorders by means of iodine-124 and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 124I positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Phantom studies to assess the accuracy of PET were performed using an EEC phantom with spheres of different diameters filled with 3-30 MBq of 124I. Patient dosimetry was derived from PET data obtained 1-13 days after simultaneous oral administration of a therapeutic dose of 131I and a diagnostic dose of 124I. The obtained data were compared with findings from intratherapeutic probe measurements and clinical outcome. The phantom studies confirmed that 124I can be quantitated by PET (imprecision ?10%), and volumetry is feasible for nodules 123I or the simultaneous administration of 131I on the accuracy of the PET quantification and the probe measurements was ruled out by phantom measurements with solutions of 131I, 124I and123I in various ratios. In autonomous nodular goitres, radioiodine uptake measured by PET varied from 25.4% to 64.3% and was not significantly different from that obtained by a scintillation probe (24.1%-73.1%, correlation coefficient r=0.91). Comparison of uptake and effective half-life in normal tissue versus autonomous nodules revealed significant differences in uptake but not in effective half-life uptake but not in effective half-life [uptake 2.0-8.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in normal tissue vs 12.6-29.3 kBq/(ml x MBq) in nodules; half-life 97.8-156.7 h in normal tissue vs 73.3-192.3 h in nodules]. Calculated radiation doses ranged between 177 and 633 Gy for autonomous nodules and between 47 and 126 Gy for normal tissue. In thyroid cancer patients, doses between 350 and 1,420 Gy were achieved in thyroid remnants and between 70 and 170 Gy in tumour metastases. It is concluded that 124I and PET are suitable for evaluation of the dosimetry of radioiodine therapy in benign and malignant thyroid diseases. The applied technique might be particularly useful for quantitative dose-response studies in radioiodine treatment and further investigations of stunning phenomena. (orig.)

  20. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  1. Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Paladino Rosa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expressão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10, bócio adenomatoso (n = 8, adenoma folicular (n = 12, adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3, carcinoma papilífero (n = 29, carcinoma folicular (n = 8, carcinoma insular (n = 4, carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4 e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6, selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL, no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%, adenoma folicular (16,7%, carcinoma papilífero (96,6%, carcinoma folicular (12,5%, carcinoma insular (50%, carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100% e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%. Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita.BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistochemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10, adenomatoid goiter (n = 8, follicular adenoma (n = 12, Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 29, follicular carcinoma (n = 8, poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4, Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4, anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6, which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%, follicular adenoma (16.7%, papillary carcinoma (96.6%, follicular carcinoma (50%, Hürthle cell carcinoma (100% and anaplastic carcinoma (50%. Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

  2. Expressão de galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 nas neoplasias epiteliais da glândula tireóidea e correlação histopatológica / Expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19 in the epithelial neoplasm of the thyroid gland and histopathological correlation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilene Paladino, Rosa; Cristina T., Kanamura; Marcos Brasilino de, Carvalho.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer da glândula tireóidea é caracterizado pela sua variedade clínica e patológica. O difícil diagnóstico pré-operatório das lesões foliculares induz a mais procedimentos cirúrgicos de caráter diagnóstico do que propriamente terapêutico. A proposta deste estudo foi identificar a expr [...] essão imuno-histoquímica das neoplasias epiteliais tireóideas utilizando anticorpos monoclonais para galectina-3 e citoqueratina 19 e correlacioná-la com variáveis histopatológicas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A expressão da galectina-3 e da citoqueratina 19 foi estudada imuno-histoquimicamente em 84 casos com diagnóstico de tecido normal (n = 10), bócio adenomatoso (n = 8), adenoma folicular (n = 12), adenoma de célula de Hürthle (n = 3), carcinoma papilífero (n = 29), carcinoma folicular (n = 8), carcinoma insular (n = 4), carcinoma de células de Hürthle (n = 4) e carcinoma indiferenciado (n = 6), selecionados a partir de pacientes operados no Serviço de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço do Hospital Heliópolis (HOSPHEL), no período de 1984 a 1995. RESULTADOS: A expressão da galectina-3 foi observada em bócio adenomatoso (12,5%), adenoma folicular (16,7%), carcinoma papilífero (96,6%), carcinoma folicular (12,5%), carcinoma insular (50%), carcinoma de célula de Hürthle (100%) e carcinoma indiferenciado (50%). Nossos resultados confirmaram a expressão significativa da galectina-3 no grupo das neoplasias malignas, principalmente no carcinoma papilífero. O padrão de expressão da citoqueratina 19 foi diferente entre os tipos de lesão: enquanto nos bócios e adenomas mostrou-se fraco, nos carcinomas papilíferos foi forte e difuso. CONCLUSÃO: Associadas, a galectina-3 e a citoqueratina 19 auxiliam o diagnóstico histopatológico, principalmente nas lesões de interpretação duvidosa, além de evidenciarem atipias e, com isso, determinarem uma lesão suspeita. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The cancer of the thyroid gland is characterized by its clinical and pathological variety. The difficult preoperative diagnosis of the follicular lesions lead to more surgical procedures of diagnostic characteristic than therapeutic. The aim of this study was to identify the immunohistoc [...] hemical expression of the thyroid epithelial neoplams using monoclonal antibodies for galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, and correlate them with pathological variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, was immunohistochemically studied in 84 cases with diagnosis of normal tissue (n = 10), adenomatoid goiter (n = 8), follicular adenoma (n = 12), Hürthle cell adenoma (n = 3), papillary carcinoma (n = 29), follicular carcinoma (n = 8), poorly differentiated carcinoma (n = 4), Hürthle cell carcinoma (n = 4), anaplastic carcinoma (n = 6), which were selected from patients treated at the Head and Neck Surgery Department of Hospital Heliópolis, from 1984 to 1995. RESULTS: The expression of galectin-3 was observed in the cases of adenomatoid goiter (12.5%), follicular adenoma (16.7%), papillary carcinoma (96.6%), follicular carcinoma (50%), Hürthle cell carcinoma (100%) and anaplastic carcinoma (50%). Our results confirmed the significant expression of galectin-3 in the group of the malignant neoplasms, mainly in the papillary carcinoma. The expression pattern of cytokeratin 19 was different among the types of lesions; whereas in the goiters and adenomas it was weak, in the papillary carcinomas it was strong and diffuse. CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and cytokeratin 19, associated, help the histopathological diagnosis, mainly in the lesions of difficult interpretation; besides they highlight atypical conditions and, thus, determine a suspicious lesion.

  3. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

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    Reyhan Ersoy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metastasis has been noted in the postoperative course of five years. She is the youngest patient with SMECE in literature. In this report, we briefly present the clinical and biologic course of this patient’s neoplasm and also review the associated literature. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 39-41

  4. Oxyphilic carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Karmen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxyphilic tumors of the thyroid gland are rare tumors characterized by the presence of Hürthle cells - mitochondrion-rich, eosinophilic epithelial cells. Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC of the thyroid behave in a more aggressive fashion as compared to other well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Many recent studies have been focused on the further elucidation of pathogenesis and the role of mitochondrial hyperplasia in carcinogenesis of these neoplasms. The importance of combining morphological and genetic approaches in the study of HCC has been emphasized by the difficulties encountered in establishing adequate differential diagnostic criteria between benign and malignant forms, as well as by the resistance of HCC to radio and chemotherapy. It has been well documented that the Hürthle cells are characterized by profound aberrations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genome and by alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other key genes involved in energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis.

  5. Características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de pacientes operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea / Clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for suspected thyroid malignancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalberto, Infante Amorós; Zussel, Rodríguez Obret; Regla, Ramos Duarte.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el carcinoma tiroideo se caracteriza por su lenta evolución y elevado porcentaje de curación. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de los pacientes operados. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron para obtener el d [...] ato primario las historias clínicas de los pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión: operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea, mayores de 18 años de edad que contaron con datos completos demográficos, clínicos, sonográficos y anatomopatológicos, y que estuviesen inscritos en el hospital. Se confeccionaron tablas de distribución de frecuencias. Se aplicó la prueba de comparación de proporciones para describir la significación estadística de las variables estudiadas en relación con la malignidad tiroidea. Resultados: el 81,8 % de los pacientes afectados de malignidad tiroidea correspondió al género femenino. El 39,4 % de estos correspondieron al grupo de edad entre 41 y 50 años, el 75,8 % de este grupo de pacientes correspondió al examen sonográfico con un área del nódulo tiroideo mayor de 10 mm, el 53,3 % de estos pacientes presentó como morfología tiroidea el nódulo único, y el 75,8 % presentó como resultado de la citología con aguja fina un carcinoma de tiroides. El 91 % presentó como clasificación histológica carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: la mayor frecuencia de carcinoma fue la variante papilar. Se encontró de forma predominante en mujeres con edades entre los 41 y 50 años que tenían nódulos mayores de 1 cm. Abstract in english Introduction: thyroid carcinoma is characterized by slow progression and high recovery percentage. Objective: to describe the clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for thyroid malignancy. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study for which the [...] primary data were collected from the medical histories of patients who met the inclusion criteria. These criteria comprised surgery for suspected thyroid malignancy, age over 18 years, and complete demographic, clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological data and registration at the hospital. Frequency distribution tables were drawn up. The ratio comparison test was applied to describe the statistical significance of the studied variables with respect to the thyroid malignancy. Results: in the group of patients with thyroid malignancy, 81.8 % were females, 39.4 % aged 41 to 50 years. The ultrasonographic test showed that 75.8 % of them had a thyroid nodule area greater than 10 mm, 53.3 % presented solitary nodule morphology whereas the result of the fine needle aspiration cytology was thyroid carcinoma. The histological classification yielded papillary carcinoma in 91 % of patients. Conclusions: the papillary carcinoma was the most common, particularly in females aged 41 to 50 years who had over 1 cm nodules.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Heinzel, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Juelich (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of 99mTc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

  8. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

  9. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia) / Presencia de tumores mamarios malignos con metástasis a pulmón en perras en Medellín (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, Gómez J; María, Ramírez R; Juan, Maldonado E.

    2983-29-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Definir la presencia de metástasis pulmonar en perras con tumores mamarios. Materiales y métodos. En una muestra de 30 perras atendidas en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) con diagnóstico de tumores mamarios, al momento de la consulta, fueron regi [...] strados las variables clínicas y el grado de compromiso de las glándulas mamarias y de los nódulos linfáticos. Imágenes radiográficas latero-laterales y ventro-dorsales del tórax fueron tomadas para la identificación de hallazgos radiográficos compatibles con metástasis pulmonar. Biopsias mamarias afectadas fueron sometidas a estudio histopatológico y clasificación del tipo de tumor. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. La edad promedio (± error estándar) al diagnóstico clínico fue 10.87 ± 2.65 años de edad. La raza más frecuentemente afectada fue la French poodle (46.6%) seguida de perros cruzados (13.3%) y Schnauzer (10%). El carcinoma fue el tumor más hallado (81%) seguido del adenoma (8.1%) y otros tipos de tumor (10.8%). Las glándulas mamarias más afectadas fueron las inguinales derecha (70%) e izquierda (66.6%). Cinco de las 30 pacientes (16.6%), presentaron metástasis a pulmón. Entre estas, 4 de 5 (80%) tenían carcinoma complejo. Conclusiones. El carcinoma complejo fue la neoplasia más frecuente y es el tipo más relacionado con metástasis pulmonar. Abstract in english Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia) were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grad [...] e of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error) age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6%) cross-breed (13.3%) and Schnauzer (10%) were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%), followed by adenoma (8.1%), and other types (10.8%). The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively). Five out of 30 bitches (16.6%) had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80%) were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  10. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalind Brown; Francis, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the w...

  11. A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122) were reexamined in 1985 and 1986, and information on the subjects' and their mothers' milk and vegetable consumption during the fallout period was obtained by telephone interview (n = 3545). After exclusions to eliminate missing data and confounding factors, 2473 subjects were available for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated by combining consumption data with radionuclide deposition rates provided by the US Department of Energy and a survey of milk producers. Relative risk models adjusted for age, sex, and state were fitted using maximum likelihood to period prevalence data for thyroid carcinomas, neoplasms, and nodules. RESULTS--Doses ranged from 0 mGy to 4600 mGy, and averaged 170 mGy in Utah. There was a statistically significant excess of thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant; n = 19), with an increase in excess relative risk of 0.7% per milligray. A relative risk for thyroid neoplasms of 3.4 was observed among 169 subjects exposed to doses greater than 69 subjects exposed to doses greater than 400 mGy. Positive but nonsignificant dose-response slopes were found for carcinomas and nodules. CONCLUSIONS--Exposure to Nevada Test Site-generated radioiodines was associated with an excess of thyroid neoplasms. The conclusions are limited by the small number of exposed individuals and the low incidence of thyroid neoplasms

  12. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon H. Grogan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.

  13. Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV

    OpenAIRE

    Micco, C.; Savchenko, V.; Giorgi, R.; Sebag, F.; Henry, J-f

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receive...

  14. Evaluation of non-palpable thyroid nodules by ultra sound guided fine needle aspiration cytology

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    Kanwal Saba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see the usefulness of fine needle aspiration by “theBethesdasystem for reporting Thyroid Cytopathology” (TBS- RTC for non palpable thyroid nodules through ultrasound-guidance for the evaluation and treatment planning of nonpalpable thyroid lesions. This study was conducted on 200 patients with non palpable thyroid nodules which are very low lying or felt on swallowing; in Department of Pathology and Radiology since January 2011 to June 2012. The patients were scanned and USG- FNAC was performed and reporting was done by “TBSRTC”. Of the 200 specimens 17 samples were nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory (Class I, 145 samples were benign (Class II, 20 samples were showing Atypical of Undetermined Significance (AUS or Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance (FLUS; (Class III, 6 were showing follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (Class IV, 7 samples were suspicious for malignancy (Class V and 5 samples were positive for malignancy (Class VI. On comparison of ultrasound guided FNAC with histopathology the sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 93%, specificity was 86%, positive predictive value was 37%, negative predictive value was 99% and accuracy was 86%. USG-FNAC is a useful modality for the evaluation and treatment planning of nonpalpable thyroid lesions smaller than5 mmin the maximum diameter. TBSRTC is the best method of reporting but class III and IV are the main pitfall of this system for reporting Thyroid Cytopathology and show high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.

  15. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P thyroid resection. Papillary carcinomas predominated in excised FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia whereas most FLUS with architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  16. "Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Forghani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%, compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injection of 15mCi of Tc-99m-MIBI in 4 phases (Angiography-First 10 minutes-15min and 2-3 hours after injection. Thyroid MIBI uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4 with no uptake as score 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with MIBI uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age=35.5 years+/- 13.6 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. MIBI uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules(P=0.73. Sensitivity and specificity of high MIBI uptake (score 3-4 for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The values for sensitivity and specificity were 69.2% and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as difference in uptake scores of late and early phases was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P=0.07. The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P=0.65. Conclusion: Thyroid MIBI scan has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidates for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation. Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity.

  17. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Taccaliti, Augusto; Silvetti, Francesca; Palmonella, Gioia; Boscaro, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs), papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) is estimated to comprise 1–2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14–39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about one to two cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter) than in USA. ATC has a more complex geno...

  18. Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)he irradiated population. (auth)

  19. Thyroid bed fine needle aspiration in patients after thyroidectomy--a useful follow-up tool with proposed diagnostic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Natalie; Fox, Christopher; Fan, Fang

    2014-06-01

    After thyroidectomy for primary thyroid malignancies, patients are closely monitored for recurrence or metastasis. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has been used as the appropriate diagnostic modality for occult masses identified radiographically in the thyroid bed. In this study, we report our institutional experience with FNA of the thyroid bed and propose practical diagnostic categories. A retrospective chart review of all thyroid bed FNAs between April 2008 and January 2013 was performed, and a cohort of 39 patients was retrieved. The cytology diagnoses were divided into 5 categories including nondiagnostic, inflammatory/reactive, bland follicular cells, suspicious for neoplasm/malignancy, and malignant. The follow-up histologic and/or clinical findings were collected for each category. The 39 patients included 9 males and 30 females (ages 15-79 years). Prior thyroidectomies were due to papillary thyroid carcinoma (31 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases), medullary carcinoma (1 case), Hürthle cell carcinoma (1 case), malignancy unspecified (1 case), follicular adenoma (1 case), and multinodular goiter (1 case). Overall, 33% (13 cases) of thyroid bed FNAs were nondiagnostic, and 10% (4 cases) were categorized as "inflammatory/reactive." None of the patients in these 2 categories demonstrated evidence of clinical recurrence. One patient with a "bland follicular cells" thyroid bed FNA diagnosis had metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma on follow-up histology. Of 14 patients in the "suspicious" and "malignant" categories, 10 had malignant follow-up diagnosis on histology. In conclusion, thyroid bed FNA with standardized diagnostic categories is a useful modality for follow-up in patients who have undergone thyroidectomy. PMID:24768495

  20. [Echotomography and color-Doppler in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; Viceconti, N; Trinti, B

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland is used extensively in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma: it is easy and rapid to perform and widely available. Ultrasound enables easy identification of the image of disease foci within the gland, especially when high frequency probes (7.5-10 MHz) are used. Thyroid nodules are subdivided on the basis of their echostructure into hypoechoic solid, isoechoic solid, and hyperechoic solid, mixed, and liquid. In neoplastic pathologies, a hypoechoic echostructure is not pathognomonic of malignancy but must be regarded with suspicion, especially if it is an isolated nodule in a male patient and continues to grow during suppressive therapy. In fact, thyroid neoplasms evidence a hypoechoic echostructure in 60-70% of the cases, while a hyperechoic echostructure is present in only 2-4%. Only 15-25% of neoplasms appear as isoechoic nodules; a mixed echostructure is rarely (5-10% of the cases) seen. Color-Doppler patterns are classified into four types: I) nodules without internal or perinodular vascularization; II) nodules with vascularization confined to extranodular tissue; III) nodules with significant intra- and perinodular vascularization; IV) increased vascularization (or "thyroid inferno"). The vast majority of thyroid carcinoma (90%) presents type III vascularization. We therefore suggest the routine use of ultrasonography and color-Doppler studies in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:9050284

  1. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  2. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

  3. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Hae Kyeong; Kim, Yoon Sook; Lee, Shin Hyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Chong Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors.

  4. Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUVmax of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at pmax of the malignant IPMNhe SUVmax of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2.0, respectively. The result of this study indicates that FDG PET/CT can provide additional information for the differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the pancreas with mural nodules. (author)

  5. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayraj S. Patil; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  6. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  7. Thyroid Cancer Initially Presenting Compression Fracture without Common Thyroid Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, DONG HWAN; Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Sung Min; Im, Sung Jig; Kang, Jin Kyu; Cho, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrinological malignancy. After papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common histological subtype. Common presentations of FTC include a solitary thyroid nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy. The incidence of individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer showing initially distant metastatic disease ranges from 1 to 9%. Also, the incidence of solitary bone metastasis from thyroid is only 2 to 3%. We report a ca...

  8. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Postirradiation carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1920's many infants and children received x-ray therapy for such conditions as enlarged thymus, hypertrophy of the tonsils and adenoids, cervical adenitis, sinusitis, and so forth. Unfortunately, the thyroid gland frequently received direct or scattered irradiation during these treatments. As the irradiated population has grown older it has become apparent that these people have an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. Recent publicity on this problem in the newspaper, radio, and television has alarmed individuals or their parents who in turn have consulted their physicians for advice. All individuals with a history of head and neck irradiation should be considered as having an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. These patients should be examined every two years indefinitely. Fortunately, only a small percentage of irradiated individuals develop thyroid tumors. Most of the tumors found have been benign. Those which are malignant have been well differentiated, papillary, or follicular neoplasms which grow slowly, metastasize relatively late, and are curable by surgical removal before metastasis has occurred. If on palpation of the thyroid gland one or more firm, discrete nodules are palpated, these should be removed regardless of other findings. A scan may be useful in assessing the functional status of the nodule and may give some indication as to whether the nodule is malignant or benign. If the scan shows a cold area which corresponds with a pows a cold area which corresponds with a palpable mass, the patient should be considered for prompt surgical exploration. If the scan shows a hot nodule, it is usually not malignant, but should be closely observed for change

  10. Masa renal asintomática como primera manifestación de carcinoma folicular de tiroides / Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid manifested initially asymptom primary renal neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Regojo Balboa; D., Sánchez Zalabardo; J., Rioja Zuazu; J.M., Fernández Montero; J., López Ferrandis; J.J., Zudaire Bergera; D., Rosell Costa; J.E., Robles García; J.M., Berián Polo.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Las metástasis de carcinoma de tiroides en riñón son raras. Presentamos el 10º caso, que conocemos publicado, de metástasis tiroidea en riñón y el primero del tipo folicular y asintomático. Se trata de una paciente de 75 años asintomática, que presenta una masa en el riñón derecho, que se decide rea [...] lizar nefrectomía parcial derecha. El diagnóstico provisional habla de tumor de células claras renales pero el definitivo es de metástasis de carcinoma folicular de tiroides, descubrimos un estado avanzado de la enfermedad tanto localmente como a distancia. Las fuentes de metástasis en el riñón así como las técnicas diagnósticas son discutidas en el caso. Abstract in english Metastases in the kidney are rare, evenmore if primary source is thyroid. We report the tenth case of metastases in the kidney from thyroid, and it is the first to be follicular type and absolutely asymptom. Sonography and computerized tomography with suspicion of renal tumour are showed in a asymto [...] m female 75 years old. Left partial nephrectomy was perfomed, initially it has been pathologically diagnosed as renal clear cells tumour, however the definitive pathologic report showed follicular tumour of thyroid. Local and systemic stage was discovered with complementary techniques. Sources of metastases in kidney and diagnoses techniques are discussed.

  11. Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR) / Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Pineda B; Paula, Rojas G; Claudio, Liberman G; Leonor, Moyano S; Irmgadt, Goecke S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillar [...] y thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%), and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%). CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

  12. Detección de marcadores de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR Detection of malignancy markers in thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pineda B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular thyroid disease is a very common disorder with a low frequency of malignancy. The most accurate diagnostic test is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB of nodules with cytological analysis of the sample. However, this procedure has some limitations in the diagnosis of follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Aim: To detect mRNA from specific malignancy markers in thyroid nodules and to evaluate their potential correlation with cytological and pathological diagnosis. Patients and methods: In 20 patients with thyroid nodules FNAB was performed prior to surgery. The main part of the FNAB sample was used to perform classical cytology. In the remaining of the sample were detected MUC-1, CD26, galectin-3 and TSH receptor mRNAs by RT-PCR technique. Results: Eight patients had positive cytology for papillary cancer; which was confirmed by pathology. Nine had suspicious or non conclusive cytological findings and 3 were negative for neoplastic cells; all 12 were pathologically benign. We detected TSH receptor and galectin-3 mRNA in almost all benign and malignant nodules. MUC-1 was present in 5/8 papillary carcinoma (62.5%, and 1/12 benign nodules (8.3%. CD26 was detected in 7/8 papillary carcinomas but also in 8/12 benign nodules. Conclusions: RT-PCR can be performed in very small samples of thyroid tissue to detect several mRNA markers. MUC-1 can be a potentially useful marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules. It can be detected by RT-PCR as a complementary technique in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules

  13. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Variants

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Buehler, Darya; Khanafshar, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas are the most common thyroid cancers and constitute more than 70% of thyroid malignancies. The most common etiologic factor is radiation, but genetic susceptibility and other factors also contribute to the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The most common variants include conventional, follicular variant and tall cell variant. However, many other uncommon variants have been described including oncocytic, columnar cell, diffuse sclerosing and solid forms. ...

  14. Papillary thyroid cancer coexisting with thyroid tuberculosis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    MENG, LIWEI; Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Xu, Chaoyang

    2014-01-01

    The current study presents the case of a 56-year-old female, with thyroid nodules showing signs of malignancy under B-mode ultrasonography, who was admitted to Shaoxing People’s Hospital. A histopathological examination revealed the coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and thyroid tuberculosis (TB). A total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection (left side, levels III, IV and VI) were performed. This report presents a rare case showing the malignant growth of thyroid nodules a...

  15. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  16. Asbestos-related malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

  17. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujani M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  18. Struma ovarii with follicular thyroid-type carcinoma and neuroendocrine component: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaggi Federico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Struma ovarii (SO is a slow-growing ovarian neoplasm with thyroid tissue as its predominant component. It is an uncommon neoplasm, usually asymptomatic with an unknown risk of malignant transformation. Due to difficulties in assessing the rare biological nature and the discrepancies in the reported cases, a consensus on the appropriate treatment has not been definitively reached. A 50-year-old female was subjected to upper gut endoscopy which showed a 30-mm mass located in the gastric antrum, suggestive of mesenchimal tumor. Incidentally, a pelvic CT scan also documented a solid mass in the right adnexa, with morphological characteristics of ovarian neoplasm. The patient underwent gastrectomy, total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. Histology documented the presence of gastric cavernous angioma, and, in the right adnexa, foci of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine component. Here we report and discuss the clinical and morphological presentation of follicular thyroid-type carcinoma arising in SO. The neoplasm was discovered incidentally and had a favorable clinical outcome at 1-year follow-up.

  19. Avaliação de fatores clínicos, laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos preditores de malignidade em nódulos tiroidianos Evaluation of clinical, laboratorial and ultrasonographic predicting factors of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Silva Rio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar risco de malignidade de nódulos tiroidianos por meio de aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais, ultrassonográficos e citológicos. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: 741 nódulos de 407 pacientes. RESULTADOS: A citologia foi benigna (60,5%, indeterminada (23,3%, maligna (8,6% ou não diagnóstica (7,6%. A prevalência de câncer nas citologias indeterminadas foi 18,5% (16% nas lesões foliculares, 44% nas suspeitas. O diagnóstico de malignidade foi 17,2% (n = 70. A frequência de câncer em mulheres (15,2% foi menor do que em homens (27,9%. Houve uma relação inversa entre idade e risco de câncer. Não houve significância estatística na prevalência de câncer de acordo com número, tamanho dos nódulos ou níveis de TSH. Hipoecogenicidade e microcalcificações ao ultrassom foram fatores de risco. CONCLUSÃO: O risco de malignidade foi maior em homens, nódulos hipoecogênicos, com microcalcificações e inversamente relacionado à idade. O nível de TSH não foi um preditor independente de malignidade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules through clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and cytological aspects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 741 nodules of 407 patients. RESULTS: The cytology was benign (60,5%, indeterminate (23,3%, malignant (8,3% or nondiagnostic (7,6%. The prevalence of cancer in indeterminate citology was 18,5% (16% in follicular lesions, 44% in suspicious. The diagnosis of malignancy was 17,2% (n = 70. The frequency of cancer in women (15,2% was lower than in men (27,9%. There was an inverse relation between age and cancer risk. There was no statistical significance in the prevalence of cancer according to number, size of nodules or TSH levels. Hypoechogenicity and microcalcifications on ultrasound were risk factors. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was higher in men, hypoechoic nodules, with microcalcifications and was inversely related to age. The TSH level was not an independent factor predictive of malignancy.

  20. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae Kwun; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin

    2014-10-01

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy. PMID:25116459

  1. Diagnostic value of AgNOR staining in follicular cell neoplasms of the thyroid: comparison of evaluation methods and nucleolar features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüschoff, J; Prasser, C; Cortez, T; Höhne, H M; Hohenberger, W; Hofstädter, F

    1993-12-01

    The diagnostic value of argyrophil staining of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) was studied in 95 nonneoplastic and neoplastic follicular lesions of the thyroid. Different AgNOR parameters such as number, size, and distribution pattern were determined using digital image analysis. In addition, nuclear and nucleolar size as well as the percentage of nucleoli touching the nuclear membrane (nucleolar margination) were assessed. A stepwise increase in nuclear size and AgNOR counts from normal thyroid tissue to follicular adenoma as well as from differentiated follicular to anaplastic carcinoma was found (mean nuclear area [micron2]/mean AgNOR number per cell: 21.5/1.6 vs. 34.4/3.5 and 45.3/5.0 vs. 66.5/10.8, p < 0.01/p < 0.001). There was, however, no clear separation between these diagnostic groups. In contrast, an almost total discrimination between follicular adenoma and carcinoma was achieved by quantification of AgNORs per tumor cell nucleolus (AgNOR distribution score). In benign adenomas, 3.3% (range, 0-8.8%) of the cells showed nucleoli with at least five AgNOR dots within one focal plane, whereas in follicular carcinomas, the corresponding value was 34.1% (range, 12-75%). Two of four cases of so-called atypical adenomas showed values in the range of benign adenomas, and two were in the range of follicular carcinomas. In comparison with other nuclear and nucleolar parameters, the AgNOR distribution score proved the most valuable diagnostic criterion for the cytomorphological differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma of the thyroid. PMID:8238736

  2. [Role of surgery in treatment of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitani, Iwao

    2011-02-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounts for over 90% of all thyroid cancers. As radio-sensitivity is generally low and no effective anticancer drug exists, surgery still plays a central role in treatment of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Radioactive- iodine ablation and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression are sometimes employed as postoperative adjuvant therapies; however, they are not particularly effective for highly malignant tumors. In order to establish an appropriate treatment strategy, it is important to consider the risk of recurrence and cancer death for the individual patient, according to the adequate risk-group definition. Non-surgical observation can be applied to patients with the lowest-risk cancers: namely, asymptomatic papillary microcarcinoma. For patients with high-risk cancers, indication and extent of surgery should be determined after evaluating whether local control of the disease has a significant advantage for each patient's survival and quality of life. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is uncommon, but is one of the most lethal neoplasms in humans. Although anaplastic thyroid carcinoma generally has a dismal prognosis, some patients survive for a fairly long time after multidisciplinary treatment, including surgery, external radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:21368478

  3. Hypercalcemia and parathyroid hormone-related peptide expression in a dog with thyroid carcinoma and histiocytic sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Jennifer L; Nobrega-Lee, Michelle; Fry, Michael M; Applegate, Rory

    2015-06-01

    A 9.5-year-old, male castrated Walker Hound was presented for evaluation of progressive weakness, anorexia, and weight loss. Imaging revealed multiple abdominal and thoracic masses and ascites; fine-needle aspirates of mesenteric and splenic masses confirmed malignancy, most likely histiocytic sarcoma. Laboratory analyses revealed increased ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rP) concentrations, and concurrent low-normal parathyroid hormone concentration, consistent with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. Necropsy was performed after euthanasia. The dog had disseminated histiocytic sarcoma, including sarcomatosis, as well as bilateral thyroid carcinoma. PTH-rP immunostaining was positive in the thyroid carcinoma but negative in the histiocytic neoplasm. These results suggest that thyroid carcinoma-associated hypercalcemia can be caused by tumor secretion of PTH-rP. PMID:25707928

  4. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid does not make enough thyroid hormone. Thyroid scan. A thyroid scan uses the same radioiodine dose that was given ... your thyroid does not make enough thyroid hormone. Thyroid scan. A thyroid scan uses the same radioiodine dose ...

  5. Epidemiology of carcinoid neoplasms in Vaud, Switzerland, 1974–97

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, F.; Te, V-c; Randimbison, L.; Rindi, G.; La Vecchia, C.

    2000-01-01

    In Vaud, Switzerland, the incidence of carcinoids based on 218 malignant and 215 benign cases rose from 19.6/106in 1974–85 to 28.2/106in 1986–97, more so among males and malignant neoplasms. Lung was the commonest site for malignant and large intestine for benign carcinoids. Sixty-eight (16%) carcinoids had another neoplasm. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign

  6. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  7. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  8. Thyroid stem cells: lessons from normal development and thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Dolly; Friedman, Susan; Lin, Reigh-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Ongoing advances in stem cell research have opened new avenues for therapy for many human disorders. Until recently, however, thyroid stem cells have been relatively understudied. Here, we review what is known about thyroid stem cells and explore their utility as models of normal and malignant biological development. We also discuss the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells and explore the clinical implications of cancer stem cells in the thyroid gland. Since thyroid cancer is the most...

  9. Risk of neoplasms in acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Rucha?a, Marek; Szczepanek-parulska, Ewelina; Fularz, Maciej; Wolin?ski, Kosma

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), and as a result, of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Untreated, the condition reduces the patients’ life expectancy and leads to a series of complications, among which an increased risk of carcinogenesis is considered most important. This paper is an analysis of the publications on the issue of the formation of neoplasms, both malignant and benign, in acromegalic patients. Although the influence o...

  10. Riedel's thyroiditis masquerading as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindall Mudit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare thyroid disease characterized by dense fibrous tissues that replace the thyroid gland and invade the adjacent structures that can mimic thyroid malignancy. We discuss the presentation, investigation and management of this very rare condition. Case presentation We present a case of a 59-year-old African-Caribbean man who presented with a rapidly growing hard neck mass, a hoarse voice, dysphagia and breathing difficulty that clinically suggested thyroid malignancy. Biopsy, however, revealed dense fibrous tissues suggestive of Riedel's thyroiditis. This was successfully treated with very high dose steroids, with no relapse in the symptoms. Conclusion It is important for clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis when managing patients with thyroid disease, because Riedel's thyroiditis can mimic malignancy. In addition, our case demonstrates that this condition should be treated with very high dose steroids to prevent relapse.

  11. MR imaging of ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging of 105 patients with surgically proved ovarian neoplasms was performed on a 0.6-T superconducting magnet using two-dimensional spin-echo technique. Findings were correlated with CT and US scans. In both benign (n = 27) and malignant (n = 78) cases, the primary site was identified, but only some benign cysts, dermoid cysts, and endometriomas had characteristic appearances. The sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging in staging ovarian carcinomas will be compared to those of CT. MR imaging and CT were nonspecific in distinguishing benign from malignant disease and equivalent in defining the intrapelvic extent; however, CT was better for detection of abdominal implants, adenopathy, and ascites

  12. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Karaday?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ?1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  13. Thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Marek

    2014-03-01

    According to the literature, thyroid nodules (TNs) are quite rare in the first two decades of life and are predominantly non-cancerous, although cancerous TNs are more common in the first two decades of life than in adults. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to distinguish benign from malignant lesions preoperatively because the latter require a total thyroidectomy with or without neck lymph node dissection. A careful work-up and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are mandatory to improve the preoperative diagnosis. High-resolution thyroid ultrasound and real-time elastosonography are adjuvant presurgical tools in selecting patients for surgery, particularly those with indeterminate or non-diagnostic cytology. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in a patient with a thyroid nodule is a new laboratory predictor of thyroid cancer risk. The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from the follicular cell, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from calcitonin-producing cells. Patients with MTC are screened for germ-line RET mutations to detect carriers and identify family members for prophylactic or therapeutic thyroidectomy. PMID:24629865

  14. The thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid imaging no longer has a predominant role in nuclear medicine, although it still is commonly performed. The introduction of in vitro assays for assessment of glandular function has decreased the need for administration of radionuclides to patients. The introduction of 123I has been a major step forward. The need now is for a tumor-specific agent that can help to determine the benignancy or malignancy of thyroid nodules. Perhaps immunologic techniques, which are not being intensively investigated, will provide an answer to this perplexing problem. Three-dimensional imaging, especially for larger organs, is beginning to be widely utilized. For the thyroid, techniques such as seven pinhole tomography or coded aperature methods can offer some improvement in detection of abnormalities but add little in the way of improved specificity. Resolution will improve with the development of new types of cameras. With the realization of the carcinogenic properties of radiation, especially related to the thyroid, perhaps the problem of radiation-associated thyroid cancer will lessen with time. Nonetheless, the frequency of diseases of the thyroid will require that thyroid imaging continue to be an important activity in nuclear medicine

  15. [Thyroid nodules - how to proceed?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, W; Müller, T; Braun, B

    2012-09-01

    Ultrasonic examination of the thyroid is essential in any diagnostic process on the thyroid. It helps to meet the challenge of identifying the few malignant among the thousands of benign nodules. Besides tumour infiltration in surrounding tissue and lymph node metastases - which may prove thyroid cancer - there are well-established criteria suggesting malignancy. A safe distinction between benign and malignant nodules however is not possible by ultrasound alone, nor can hormone producing adenoma be discriminated from inactive nodules. Scintigraphy is helpful in identifying autonomous adenoma but is of no use in assessing the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules. Ultrasound guided thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe method to prove malignancy. In selected cases, ultrasound guided therapies like percutaneous ethanol instillation (PEI) is an effective treatment of autonomous thyroid ademona. PMID:22945817

  16. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  17. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs

  18. Risk of Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Acromegaly – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Kosma; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Ruchala, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND) and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. Materials and Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cinahl, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada and Clinical Key databases were searched to identify studies containing. Random–effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and risk ratios of TND in acromegaly. Studies which not included control groups were systematically reviewed. Results TND was more frequent in acromegaly than in control groups (OR?=?6.9, RR?=?2.1). The pooled prevalence of TND was 59.2%. Also thyroid cancer (TC) proved to be more common in acromegalic patients (OR?=?7.5, RR?=?7.2), prevalence was 4.3%. The pooled rate of malignancy (calculated per patient) was equal to 8.7%. Conclusions This study confirms that both TND and TC occur significantly more often in acromegalic patients than in general population. These results indicate that periodic thyroid ultrasound examination and careful evaluation of eventual lesions should be an important part of follow-up of patients with acromegaly. PMID:24551163

  19. [Pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeg, Y; Sayeg, M; Baum, R P; Kulkarni, H R; Presselt, N; Mäder, I; Kunze, A; Sänger, J; Hörsch, D; Bonnet, R

    2014-07-01

    The pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms originate from the enterochromaffin cells which are diffusely distributed in the body. The incidence of these tumors has increased significantly in recent decades due to the available diagnostics. They make up about 1-2% of all lung tumors and 20-30% of all neuroendocrine neoplasms. The current WHO classification from 2004 divides them into typical carcinoids (TC), atypical carcinoids (AC), large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) and small cell carcinomas (SCLC). The major neuroendocrine biomarkers are chromogranin A, synaptophysin and CD56. TC have a low mitotic rate of carcinoids from the highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC. Clinically, the patient presents usually with cough, hemoptysis or bronchial obstruction. The occurrence of a carcinoid or Cushing's syndrome and a tumor-associated acromegaly are rare. Surgical resection with radical lymph node dissection is the treatment of choice for achieving long-term survival. Endoscopic resection of the endobronchial tumor growth is a good alternative for inoperable endobronchially localized tumors. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising treatment option for patients with metastatic or unresectable pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. New targeted therapies using angiogenesis inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being tested for their effectiveness in many previous studies. Typical carcinoid tumors metastasize less frequently than AC, the 5-year survival rate of patients with TC being over 90%. Patients with AC have a 5-year survival rate between 35% and 87%. The highly malignant LCNEC and SCLC, on the other hand, have a 5-year survival rate between 15% and 57%, and lung should be treated in specialized centers. PMID:25006841

  20. Histopathologic reproducibility of thyroid disease in an epidemiologic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the long-term effects of childhood scalp irradiation demonstrated a significantly increased risk of thyroid tumors in the irradiated population. Because of the complexity of thyroid cancer diagnosis, a histopathologic slide review of 59 of the 68 patients (irradiated and nonirradiated) with thyroid disease was undertaken. The review revealed 90% agreement (kappa = +0.85, P less than 0.01) between the original and review diagnosis. Four of 27 cases previously diagnosed as malignant were reclassified as benign, yielding a cancer misdiagnosis rate of 14.8%. All four of the misdiagnosed cancers were of follicular or mixed papillary-follicular type. As a result of the histologic review, the ratio of malignant to benign tumors decreased from 2.55 to 1.75. Since disagreement in diagnosis was similar in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups, the relative risk of radiation-associated neoplasms did not change substantially. The histopathologic review shows that although there were some problems in diagnostic reproducibility, they were not statistically significant and did not alter our previous conclusions regarding radiation exposure. However, a 15% reduction in the number of malignancies might affect epidemiologic studies with an external comparison as well as geographic or temporal comparisons

  1. Retrospective Comparison of Histopathologic Results of Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem H et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the utility of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB in the evaluation of thyroid lesions at our faculty by comparing the results of FNAB and pathology report results of the patients who underwent surgery.Methods: The study population consisted of 347 ultrasonography guided thyroid nodule biopsies. The cytological results were classified as benign, suspicious for malignancy, malignant and inadequate material.Results: Cytological results were reported as 347 (84.1% benign nodules, 35 (3.8% malignant suspicious nodules, 21 (2.3% malignant nodules and 92 (9.9% inadequate materials. 35 patients (20.6% were male aged between 20-74 years old (45.0±6.2 and 135 patients (79.4% were female aged between 15-85 (36.6±7.1 years old. Examined the results of resection, FNA of the success of a benign diagnosis (sensitivity, 75.9%, 31.3% in the success of follicular neoplasm., success in the diagnosis of malignancy was 14.3%.Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a functional and reliable diagnosing method. The use of US guidance is helpful to obtain adequate sample from nodules. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has become the gold standard to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  2. VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, D.; Liliana Fortu; Madalina Jacota

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD) since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness) and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam reveale...

  3. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  4. miR-206 inhibits metastasis-relevant traits by degrading MRTF-A in anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Long; Lv, Wei; Sun, Suo-Zhu; Wu, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Jian-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid cancer develops from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells. A higher proportion of anaplastic thyroid cancer has an adverse prognosis. New drugs are being used in clinical treatment. However, for advanced thyroid malignant neoplasm such as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, the major impediment to successful control of the disease is the absence of effective therapies. Elucidating molecular mechanism of the disease will help us to further understand the pathogenesis and progression of the disease and offer new targets for effective therapies. In this study, we found that MRTF-A expression was upregulated in metastatic anaplastic thyroid cancer tissues, compared with primary cancer tissues and it promoted metastasis-relevant traits in vitro. miR-206 was negatively associated with metastasis in anaplastic cancer and it degraded MRTF-A by targeting its 3'-UTR in ARO anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. In addition, miR-206 overexpression inhibited invasion and migration and silencing miR-206-promoted migration and invasion in the cells. Important, restoration of MRTF-A could abrogate miR-206-mediated migration and invasion regulation. Thus, we concluded that miR-206 inhibited invasion and metastasis by degrading MRTF-A in anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:25955685

  5. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Kwun Ha; Dong Wook Kim; Ha Kyoung Park; Soo Jin Jung

    2014-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and ...

  6. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Stine Munkholm-Larsen; Christopher Q Cao; Tristan D. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attr...

  7. Medullary thyroid carcinoma in female BALB/c mice. A report of 3 cases with ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and transplantation data.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwieten, M.J., van; Frith, C. H.; Nooteboom, A. L.; Wolfe, H J; Delellis, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a neoplasm derived from thyroidal C cells. This tumor occurs spontaneously in several animal species and is relatively common in certain strains of rats. Descriptive reports of such neoplasms in mice, however, have not been published. From several studies using female BALB/c mice, 3 animals were identified that had thyroid neoplasms histologically compatible with MTC. All three primary neoplasms and a first generation transplant from one of them contained ...

  8. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  9. Radiographic evaluation of nonfunctioning adrenal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaglia, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    Incidental adrenal neoplasms are usually nonfunctioning benign adenomas. Once hormonal production has been assessed, the nonsecreting lesions must be evaluated for the possibility of malignancy. This evaluation relies primarily on the radiographic characteristics. This article focuses on the current state of radiologic technology available to accurately assess nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas. As this technology advances, a lesion's malignant potential can more accurately be determined, thereby allowing physicians to make more informed treatment recommendations. PMID:24857580

  10. Focus on the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Gallucci, Fernando; Langellotto, Assunta; Ritis, Rosaria; Uomo, Generoso

    2012-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are rare pancreatic tumours, accounting for less of 1-2% of all neoplasms of the gland. Main characteristics of IPMNs are their favourable prognosis as these pre-malignant or frankly malignant lesions are usually slow-growing tumours and radical surgery is frequently possible. According with the localization of the lesions, three different entities are identified: the main-duct IPMN (type I), the branch-duct IPMN (type II) and the mixed type (t...

  11. Atypical Fibroxanthoma: An Unusual Skin Neoplasm in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Nag, Dipanwita; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjay; Sinha, Swapan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV) damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-y...

  12. Thyroid nodule: first manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Gonçalves; Sara, Vale; Ema, Nobre; Ana Paula, Barbosa; Ema, Piloto; Ana, Wessling; Mário, Mascarenhas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells in the thyroid gland is most likely due to a secondary involvement by a systemic disease. The reported incidence of CLL involving the thyroid is extremely low, representing about 3–4% of all thyroid lymphoproliferative neoplasm. We report a r [...] are case of CLL presenting initially in the thyroid gland. Systemic disease was detected as a result of thyroid investigation. An 85 years old woman, with multinodular goiter without adenophaties, was referred to our department, carrying a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) report of a private institution referring “lymphoid monomorphic proliferation” and suggesting a “Core-needle biopsy” for further investigation. She was euthyroid (TSH–0.5 uU/mL (0.4-4.0), thyroid antibodies negative, including TRab). The patient denied systemic symptoms and at physical examination there were no adenophaties or organomegalies. FNAB analysis was repeated. Although the patient denied constitutional symptoms and there were no relevant findings in physical examination, technetium 99m thyroid gamagraphy (GG) and blood count were additionally asked. FNAB analysis concluded lymphocytic tiroiditis, but thyroid GG revelled global hypocaptation and blood count showed 173.4 x 109 leukocyte/L with 94% lymphocyte. An ecoguided FNAB with flow cytometry identified thyroid infiltration by monotonous population of blasts with phenotype consistent with CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells. CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells was also detected in peripheral blood analysis, suggesting systemic disease with secondary thyroid involvement. The patient started chemotherapy with rituximab and chlorambucil with good response. Pos-treatment GG revelled “Increased levels of uptake in the middle third of the right lower lobe, with low uptake of the remaining parenchyma”. In conclusion, good communication with the pathologist can improve diagnostic accuracy and dictate appropriate therapy. The use of techniques such as flow cytometry, immunoglobulin gene rearrangements, and immunohistochemistry has improved diagnostic accuracy and obviated more invasive procedures, such as core needle or open surgery biopsy. Apart from chemotherapy, immunochemotherapy with anti-CD20 and anti-CD52 monoclonal antibodies can be used in the treatment of CLL.

  13. Endobronchial chondroma: a rare benign bronchial neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Efi Kyrmanidou; Efstratios Tzamtzis; Stamatis Arikas; Kosmas Tsakiridis; Antonios Papagiannis; Thomas Zaramboukas

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY. Endobronchial chondroma is a rare benign endobronchial tumour that may lead to obstruction, infection and destruction of lung tissue. Radical resection is curative, except when the chondroma is associated with other malignant neoplasms (Carney’s triad). We describe a case of endobronchial chondroma in a young man which was successfully managed by segmentectomy. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):168-175.

  14. Advances in molecular classification of renal neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-goen, Q.; Dale, J.; Yang, W. L.; Phan, J.; Moffitt, R.; Petros, J. A.; Datta, M. W.; Amin, M. B.; Wang, M. D.; Young, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    Kidney neoplasms are classified by light microscopy using the World Health Organization (WHO) system. The WHO system defines histopathologic tumor subtypes with distinct clinical behavior and underlying genetic mutations. In adults, the common malignant subtypes are variants of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Histopathologic classification is critical for clinical management of RCC, but is becoming more complex with recognition of novel tumor subtypes, developm...

  15. Influência da transfusão sanguínea no desenvolvimento de infecção em pacientes com neoplasias malignas do sistema digestório / Influence of blood transfusion on development of infection in patients with malignant neoplasms of the digestive system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ronaldo, Alberti; Leonardo de Souza, Vasconcellos; Andy, Petroianu.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A anemia afeta mais de 90% dos pacientes com câncer e mais de 60% são submetidos a transfusões sangüíneas durante ou após o tratamento. OBJETIVO: Determinar a influência da transfusão sangüínea homógena como possível fator relacionado à infecção em paciente com neoplasia maligna do sistema [...] digestório. MÉTODO: Avaliaram-se aleatoriamente prontuários de 400 pacientes com neoplasia maligna do sistema digestório, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 (n = 200) - pacientes transfundidos e grupo 2 (n = 200) - não-transfundidos. Comparou-se a incidência de infecções entre os dois grupos e suas possíveis interações com idade, sexo, tipo de neoplasia e a terapêutica instituída. RESULTADOS: Não houve relação significativa entre infecção e hemotransfusão sangüínea, idade, sexo, tratamento adotado e natureza do câncer. Não houve diferença na incidência de infecção nos pacientes não-transfundidos (28) em comparação com os hemotransfundidos (31). CONCLUSÃO: A hemotransfusão homógena não foi fator determinante para o surgimento de infecções em pacientes com neoplasias malignas do sistema digestório. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Anemia affects up to 90% of cancer patients, with more than 60% requiring blood transfusion during or after treatment. AIM: To determine the influence of the allogeneic blood transfusion as a possible related factor to infection in patients with malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestina [...] l system. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Charts of 400 oncological patients were randomly selected and divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 200) - patients submitted to allogeneic blood transfusion and group 2 (n = 200) - non transfused patients. Both groups were evaluated and compared according to the presence and type of infection and a possible association with age, sex, types of tumors and therapeutics approach. RESULTS: The relation between infection and blood transfusion, as well as age, sex, management and type of presented tumors were not significant. There was no difference in the incidence of infection between the non transfused patients (28) and those submitted to allogeneic blood transfusion (31). CONCLUSIONS: In the present investigation allogeneic blood transfusion was apparently not related to development of infection in patients with malignant gastrointestinal tumors.

  16. Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bezzola, Pauli

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year old spayed, female Labrador retriever, with an 8-month history of weight loss, increased heart rate, and hyperactivity, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and a thyroid neoplasm. Thyrotoxic heart disease is documented in this case.

  17. "Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "

    OpenAIRE

    Forghani, N.; Mehrabi, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Mousavi, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injec...

  18. Second Malignancy in Pediatric Patients: Imaging Findings and Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignancies."nPrimary neoplasms which are often associated with second malignancies include lymphoma, retinoblas-toma, medulloblastoma and leukemia. The most common second malignancies are central nervous system (CNS tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parathyroid gland carcinoma and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are included as pathogenic factors in second malignancies. We know all survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with US, magnetic resonance imaging and other procedures with no ionizing radiation. A new progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or more infrequently, a second malignancy. Differential diagnosis may be very difficult and the outcome is often fatal. "nTreatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk of second malignancies without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. "nClinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy."nIn a report of new England journal of medicine in 2007, 357:227-2284 by Dr. Brenner and Hall, 2% of all carcinomas in U.S.A are due to more use of CT exam and children are three to four times more sensitive to ionization radiation. "nSo all the radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the complications and should recommend follow up exams in children who have had previous treatments for such carcinomas.

  19. Synchronous pancreatic solid pseudopapillary neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Hirabayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare and low-grade malignant pancreatic neoplasm composed of poorly cohesive monomorphic neoplastic cells forming solid and pseudopapillary structures with frequent hemorrhagic-cystic degeneration. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is a pancreatic exocrine tumor composed of intraductal papillary growth of mucin containing neoplastic cells in the main pancreatic duct or its major branches. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old, Japanese man was found to have multiple cystic lesions and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct in the neck of the pancreas. Histological examination revealed a main-duct and branch-duct type IPMN, of the gastric-type, involving the neck of the pancreas, associated with a 0.5 cm SPN in the caudal side of the IPMN. We diagnosed this case as synchronous SPN and IPMN. As far as we know, only one other case of synchronous SPN and IPMN has been reported. Both the present case and the previously reported case showed abnormal nuclear expression of ?-catenin in SPN, whereas IPMN showed no abnormal nuclear expression. These results suggest that ?-catenin abnormality is not a common pathogenetic factor of synchronous SPN and IPMN.

  20. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, Diane S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  1. Valor preditivo do exame clínico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina sérica no nódulo tiroideano único atóxico: estudo prospectivo de 110 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente Prediction of malignancy in the solitary thyroid nodule by physical exaination, thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasound, Fine-needle biopsy and serum thyroglobulin: a prospective study of 110 operated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia D. Alves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nódulos de tiróide são comuns na prática médica. Para estabelecer o valor preditivo dos diversos testes diagnósticos, estudamos prospectivamente os dados de exame clínico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina sérica pré-operatória de 110 pacientes com nódulos operados e os comparamos com o diagnóstico anátomo-patológico da cirurgia. Nos 110 pacientes encontramos à histologia 124 lesões distintas, sendo 106 (85% benignas e 18 (15% malignas. Entre as benignas havia 90 bócios colóides (73%, 8 adenomas foliculares (6%, 4 cistos tiroglossos (3% e outras 4 lesões; entre as malignas havia 16 (13% carcinomas primários da tiróide (9 papilíferos, 3 foliculares, 3 indiferenciados e 1 medular e 2 secundários. Entre os testes diagnósticos a citologia aspirativa apresentou os melhores resultados (sensibilidade: 94%, especificidade: 97%, em comparação com a cintilografia (sensibilidade: 89%, especificidade: 21%, ultra-sonografia (sensibilidades entre 60 e 100% e especificidades entre 25 e 69% e tiroglobulina pré-operatória (sensibilidade: 7% para qualquer valor discriminatório e elevada especificidade. Alguns dados clínicos também apresentaram elevada especificidade, mas baixa sensibilidade, como rouquidão, disfagia, aparecimento de nova lesão, adenomegalia cervical e antecedentes de radiação. Neste estudo prospectivo concluímos que a citologia aspirativa é o melhor método disponível para o diagnóstico dos nódulos de tiróide.Thyroid nodules are common in medical practice. To establish the predictive values of diagnostic tests we studied prospectively the results obtained from physical examination, aspiration cytology, scintigraphy, ultra-sonography and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin in 110 patients operated and compared them with the results obtained from surgical pathology specimens. We found 124 lesions in the 110 patients: 106 (85% benign and 18 (15% malignant. The benign were 90 simple goiters (73%, 8 follicular adenomas (6%, 4 thyroglossal cysts (3% and 4 other rare lesions; the malignant were 16 (13% primary thyroid carcinomas (9 papillary, 3 follicular, 3 undifferentiated and 1 medullary and 2 secondary thyroid carcinomas. Aspiration cytology presented the best results (sensitivity: 94%, specificity: 97%, compared with scintigraphy (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 21%, ultra-sonography (sensitivities from 60 to 100%, specificities from 25 to 69% and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin (very low sensitivity and high specificity. Few clinical signs and symptoms also presented high specifity, but low sensitivity, as hoarseness, dysphagia, new lesion, cervical adenomegaly and previous local irradiation. We conclude that aspiration cytology is the best available method to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  2. Valor preditivo do exame clínico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina sérica no nódulo tiroideano único atóxico: estudo prospectivo de 110 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente / Prediction of malignancy in the solitary thyroid nodule by physical exaination, thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasound, Fine-needle biopsy and serum thyroglobulin: a prospective study of 110 operated patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lúcia D., Alves; Rui M.B., Maciel; Fabio V., Valeri; Magnus R. Dias da, Silva; José D., Contrera; Jurandyr M., Andrade; Maria A., Llorach-Velludo; Nassim, Iazigi.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nódulos de tiróide são comuns na prática médica. Para estabelecer o valor preditivo dos diversos testes diagnósticos, estudamos prospectivamente os dados de exame clínico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina sérica pré-operatória de 110 pacientes com nódulos operado [...] s e os comparamos com o diagnóstico anátomo-patológico da cirurgia. Nos 110 pacientes encontramos à histologia 124 lesões distintas, sendo 106 (85%) benignas e 18 (15%) malignas. Entre as benignas havia 90 bócios colóides (73%), 8 adenomas foliculares (6%), 4 cistos tiroglossos (3%) e outras 4 lesões; entre as malignas havia 16 (13%) carcinomas primários da tiróide (9 papilíferos, 3 foliculares, 3 indiferenciados e 1 medular) e 2 secundários. Entre os testes diagnósticos a citologia aspirativa apresentou os melhores resultados (sensibilidade: 94%, especificidade: 97%), em comparação com a cintilografia (sensibilidade: 89%, especificidade: 21%), ultra-sonografia (sensibilidades entre 60 e 100% e especificidades entre 25 e 69%) e tiroglobulina pré-operatória (sensibilidade: 7% para qualquer valor discriminatório e elevada especificidade). Alguns dados clínicos também apresentaram elevada especificidade, mas baixa sensibilidade, como rouquidão, disfagia, aparecimento de nova lesão, adenomegalia cervical e antecedentes de radiação. Neste estudo prospectivo concluímos que a citologia aspirativa é o melhor método disponível para o diagnóstico dos nódulos de tiróide. Abstract in english Thyroid nodules are common in medical practice. To establish the predictive values of diagnostic tests we studied prospectively the results obtained from physical examination, aspiration cytology, scintigraphy, ultra-sonography and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin in 110 patients operated and compa [...] red them with the results obtained from surgical pathology specimens. We found 124 lesions in the 110 patients: 106 (85%) benign and 18 (15%) malignant. The benign were 90 simple goiters (73%), 8 follicular adenomas (6%), 4 thyroglossal cysts (3%) and 4 other rare lesions; the malignant were 16 (13%) primary thyroid carcinomas (9 papillary, 3 follicular, 3 undifferentiated and 1 medullary) and 2 secondary thyroid carcinomas. Aspiration cytology presented the best results (sensitivity: 94%, specificity: 97%), compared with scintigraphy (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 21%), ultra-sonography (sensitivities from 60 to 100%, specificities from 25 to 69%) and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin (very low sensitivity and high specificity). Few clinical signs and symptoms also presented high specifity, but low sensitivity, as hoarseness, dysphagia, new lesion, cervical adenomegaly and previous local irradiation. We conclude that aspiration cytology is the best available method to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Garza-Guajardo; Nora Mendez-Olvera; Pablo Flores-Gutierrez; Silvia Hernandez-Martinez; Michelle Candanosa-Mc; Jesús Ancer-Rodriguez; Oralia Barboza-Quintana

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medul...

  4. Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    RishengMa; SimonBonnefond

    2014-01-01

    Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and exa...

  5. The Australian experience with the Bethesda classification system for thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, L M; Norlen, O; Aniss, A; Watson, N; Delbridge, L W; Sidhu, S B; Sywak, M S; Gill, A J

    2014-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the initial investigation of choice for thyroid nodules. The Bethesda system, which classifies thyroid FNABs into different categories each linked to a risk of malignancy, has been widely adopted. However, the risk of malignancy implied by each Bethesda category is likely to vary due to population characteristics and inconsistency in the application of diagnostic criteria.We present our experience of the Bethesda system in 2076 thyroid nodules from 1410 patients. Categories were as follows: 266 (12.8%) were category 1 (B1) non-diagnostic, 1551 (74.7%) category 2 (B2) benign, 97 (4.7%) category 3 (B3) atypia of uncertain significance, 98 (4.7%) category 4 (B4) suspicious for follicular neoplasm, 16 (0.8%) category 5 (B5) suspicious for malignancy and 48 (2.3%) category 6 (B6) malignant.Surgery was performed on 425 nodules from 315 patients. Malignancy rates in the target nodules were B1 4.2%, B2 0.26%, B3 9.3%, B4 15.3%, B5 79% and B6 100%. Twelve patients with B3 nodules underwent repeat FNAB, with eight reclassified as B2, one as B3, one as B1 and two as B4. An incidental microcarcinoma separate to the target nodule was identified in 11.1%.As applied in our institution, and despite very sparing use of B3 and B5 categories, our audit has demonstrated risks of malignancy broadly in keeping with that predicted. Of note, the risk of malignancy in the clinically indeterminate categories of B1, B3 and B4 were all at the lower ranges of those predicted in the Bethesda atlas and mostly lower than those reported by other studies. PMID:25393248

  6. Diagnostic usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed preoperative CT scan in 130 patients with various thyroid neoplasms using the whole body scanner, Somatom 2, Siemens. Both of the CT images and the correlation of the CT values between plain and contrast enhanced CT were compared with the gross and microscopic appearances of the each surgical specimen. The slice thickness of the scan was 4 mm. Sixty percent urografin was employed for the contrast enhancement study. The mean CT value was obtained from the region of interest (ROI) of the CT image. Both calcified parts and cystic lesions were excluded from the ROI. The majority of malignant tumors and adenomatous goiters revealed not only irregular contour but also heterogeneous structure. On the other hand, homogeneous structure with regular margin was generally seen in colloid adenoma and tubular adenoma, including some cases of follicular carcinoma. In the plain CT values, those of the malignant tumors were significantly lower than in the benign ones except tubular adenoma and cyst (p < 0.001). In the values of enhanced CT, however, there existed no significant differences between them except tubular adenoma. Therefore, in the effects of contrast enhancement of them, malignant tumors were much more significant than benign ones except tubular adenoma. The present studies indicate that the combination of the structural appearances of CT images and the value of plain and enhanced CT could make it possible to get even a histological diagnosis of thyroid tumors. (author)

  7. Lack of BRAF mutations in hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Baloch Zubair W; Puttaswamy Kanchan; Brose Marcia; LiVolsi Virginia A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The hyalinizing trabecular neoplasm (HTN) of the thyroid is an unusual and controversial lesion. Some consider it a peculiar type of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) because of its nuclear features and presence of psammoma bodies. Others consider it an adenoma. Molecular studies have found RET/PTC translocations in some examples, supporting HTN as a PTC; however mutations in BRAF (another marker for PTC) have not been found. We report two cases of classic HTN and a case of trabecula...

  8. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point n astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  9. Rare Malignant Neoplasm of the Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, LindaSusan; Carlin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This case report highlights a rare, virulent, aggressive, poorly differentiated, epithelioid fibrosarcoma with numerous rhabdoid cells on the tibial aspect of an 84-year-old woman. Biopsy of the lesions were reviewed at College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University Department of Dermatopathology (New York, New York) and in consultation with the Soft Tissue Pathology Division of the Surgical Pathology Department at Columbia University as well as the Department of Pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital Division of Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology. The management of this patient was difficult especially considering her mental status. She had an excellent response to radiation therapy. It is important to be innovative in treatment and to use judgment when assessing unusual entities. PMID:21203356

  10. Intrapulmonary cystic teratoma mimicking malignant pulmonary neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Abhishek Chandrakant; Kandra, Ajay; Narra, Swapna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Benign cystic teratoma of lung is an extremely rare tumour, which was first described in literature by Mohr in 1839. Intrapulmonary teratoma is thought to be a derivative of the third endo-dermal pharyngeal pouch, which is an anlage of the thymus. The authors present a rare case of mature cystic teratoma in a young male involving the right upper lobe of the lung. Diagnosis is often missed and patients are treated for various infectious conditions. Treatment is complete resection for both beni...

  11. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid include a thyroid scan and a radioactive iodine uptake test. People often ... at www.thyroid.org/faq-low-iodine-diet . Thyroid scan. A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear ...

  12. Mixed Medullary – Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid: An Uncommon Variant of Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Manjula; Verma, Deepti; Thomas, Shaji; Chauhan, Richa

    2014-01-01

    Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, a variant of medullary carcinoma is a rare thyroid malignancy accounting for less than 1% of the thyroid malignancies. We are presenting a case of 57-year-old lady with complaints of gradually increasing thyroid swelling for 1½ months. Fine-needle aspiration was suggestive of medullary carcinoma. Serum calcitonin levels were elevated. The patient underwent total thyoidectomy with regional cervical lymph node excision. Histopathologically, t...

  13. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with carcinoid-like features.

    OpenAIRE

    Harach, H. R.; Bergholm, U

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To show that medullary carcinomas of the thyroid are morphologically indistinguishable from gut carcinoids: the value of histochemistry in their identification and differential diagnosis from metastatic carcinoid tumours to the thyroid and some follicular cell neoplasms. METHODS: 15 thyroid medullary carcinomas with features of gut carcinoids were histochemically studied for the presence of argyrophil and argentaffin granules, and calcitonin, thyroglobulin, and serotonin immunoreaction....

  14. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyrications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  15. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  16. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  17. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules, evaluation of subjective estimates using a bayesian analysis / Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos, evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Alfonso; Álvaro, Sanabria; Mario, Castillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si éste corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones [...] subjetivas. Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las características clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de influencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de un proceso maligno en comparación con los datos objetivos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de un proceso maligno en un nódulo tiroideo, con base en la relación causal conocida de los factores clínicos y los demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los cirujanos. Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de un proceso maligno (94 %) se asignó al caso clínico de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de crecimiento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de tiroides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm, de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de un proceso maligno, la probabilidad de éste asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59 % y para los de alto riesgo de 75,54 %. Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creencias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos. Abstract in english Introduction: Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The mainpurpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs. Objective: To assess the subjective p [...] robabilities of malignancy that are assigned to the clinicalcharacteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clinical suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data. Material and methods: A bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consultation. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed. Results: The highest probability of malignancy (94%) was assigned to the pooled case of a malewho was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%. Conclusion: Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteristics of the nodules.

  18. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Evaluation of subjective estimates using a Bayesian analysis Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos. Evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sanabria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The main purpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs.
    Objective. To assess the subjective probabilities of malignancy that are as-signed to the clinical characteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clini-cal suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data.
    Material and methods. A Bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consulta-tion. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed.
    Results. The highest probability of malignancy (94% was assigned to the pooled case of a male who was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%.
    Conclusion. Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteris-tics of the nodules.
    Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si este corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones subjetivas.
    Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las característi-cas clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de in-fluencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de malignidad en comparación con los datos objetivos.
    Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de malignidad en un nódulo tiroideo basado en la relación causal conocida de factores clínicos y demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los ci-rujanos.
    Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de malignidad (94% se asignó al caso clíni-co de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de creci-miento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de ti-roides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de malignidad, la probabilidad de malignidad asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59%, para los de alto riesgo fue de 75,54%.
    Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creen-cias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos.

  19. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  20. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL. A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  1. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutationular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  2. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No siences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland

  3. Appearance of Hürthle cell carcinoma soon after surgical extirpation of Hürthle cell adenoma and follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Gjorceva, Daniela Pop

    2015-01-01

    Background Hürthle cell neoplasms could be benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) or malignant (Hürthle cell carcinoma). Hürthle cell carcinoma is a rare tumour, representing 5% of all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The cytological evaluation of Hürthle cell neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is complicated because of the presence of Hürthle cells in both Hürthle cell adenoma and Hürthle cell carcinoma. Thus, the preoperative distinction between these two entities is very difficult and possible only with pathohistological findings of the removed tumour. Case report A 57-year old female patient was admitted at our Department, for investigation of nodular thyroid gland. She was euthyroid and FNAB of the nodules in both thyroid lobes were consistent of Hürthle cell adenoma with cellular atypias. After thyroidectomy the histopathology revealed Hürthle cell adenoma with high cellular content and discrete cellular atypias in the left lobe and follicular thyroid adenoma without cellular atypias in the right lobe. One year after substitution therapy, a palpable tumour on the left side of the remnant tissue was found, significantly growing with time, presented as hot nodule on 99mTc-sestamibi scan and conclusive with Hürthle cell adenoma with marked cellularity on FNAB. Tumorectomy was performed and well-differentiated Hürthle cell carcinoma detected. The patient received ablative dose of 100 mCi 131I. No signs of metastatic disease are present up to date. Conclusions The differences between Hürthle cell adenomas and Hürthle cell carcinomas could be clearly made only by histopathological evaluation. Patients with cytological diagnosis of Hürthle cell neoplasms should proceed to total thyroidectomy, especially if tumour size is > 1cm, FNAB findings comprise cellular atypias and/or multiple bilateral nodules are detected in the thyroid gland. PMID:25810698

  4. Serum calcitonin negative Medullary thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Welsing Ellen; Bonhag Gerd; Bechara Falk G; Sand Daniel; Gelos Marcos; Sand Michael; Mann Benno

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C cells which produce Calcitonin, a hormone which has an impact on calcium metabolism and represents the biochemical activity of MTC. In rare cases pre-operative serum calcitonin can be negative. Case presentation We report on a 73-year-old female patient with a rare case of a serum calcitonin negative medullary thyroid carcinoma who suffered fulminant post...

  5. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  6. Appropriate and accurate diagnosis of thyroid nodules: a review of thyroid fine-needle aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Hambleton, Catherine; Kandil, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are clinically palpable in 4-7% of adults in the United States. With ultrasound examination, thyroid nodules are identified in up to 70% of adults. In asymptomatic individuals, the potential for malignancy underlies the clinical importance of investigating thyroid nodules. Increased diagnostic accuracy has improved non-operative management of benign thyroid lesions. Appropriate management of thyroid microcarcinoma and large nodules remains a topic of debate. False-negative FNA...

  7. Thyroid cancer cell lines: Critical models to study thyroid cancer biology and new therapeutic targets

    OpenAIRE

    RebeccaESchweppe

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is rising. Currently, there are no effective treatments for patients with advanced forms of thyroid cancer. Anaplastic thyroid represents the most severe form of the disease with 95% mortality at 6 months. It is therefore critical to better understand the mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer development and progression in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies. Cell lines derived from thyroid tumors ...

  8. Concordancia de la citología por punción con aguja fina para la detección de cáncer de tiroides en pediatría / Diagnostic yield of fine-needle aspiration cytology for the detection of thyroid cancer in pediatric patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca, Grob; Diego, Carrillo; Alejandro, Martínez-Aguayo; Pablo, Zoroquain; Antonieta, Solar; Irini, Nicolaides; Hernán, González.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Despite the low frequency of thyroid nodules (TN) in children, one of every four is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high accuracy detecting thyroid cancer. Aim: To evaluate the performance of FNAC in TN in Chilean children to detect thyroid cancer. Patients and Me [...] thods: The pathological reports of 77 thyroidectomies and 103 FNAC carried out in patients aged less than 18 years, between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. In 36 patients aged 15 ± 2 years (77% women), both the reports of the thyroidectomy and FNAC were available. The cytological specimens were reclassified based on Bethesda 2010. The histology was classified as benign (nodular hyperplasia and follicular adenoma, n = 18), or malignant (papillary, follicular and medullar carcinoma, n = 18). The concordance of the cytology with the final biopsy report was calculated. Results: FNAC classified 13 specimens as definitively benign and 13 as definitively malignant. Among these, these concordances with the pathological study of the biopsy was 100%. Of six cytology tests considered "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" by FNAC, four were benign (67%), and two malignant (33%). Of four cytology tests considered "suggestive of carcinoma" by FNAC, one was benign (25%), and three malignant (75%). Conclusions: Among the studied children, there was a good concordance between FNAC and surgical biopsies. Therefore a FNAC should be carried out when malignancy is suspected in pediatric patients with a TN.

  9. Behind the scenes of thyroid tumors : Underlying genetic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jia Jing

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most frequently observed malignancy involving endocrine tissues. This group of diseases is also the major cause of death related to neoplasia of the endocrine system. Tumors in the thyroid gland are common in the general population and the majority represents benign follicular adenoma (FTA). Thyroid follicular cell derived tumors encompass FTA, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and poorly-differentiated thyroid carci...

  10. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with rhabdoid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gong; Laskin, William B; Chou, Pauline M; Lin, Xiaoqi

    2015-05-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm, characterized by complete or partial composition by undifferentiated cells. We report a case of ATC with rhabdoid features in a 68-year-old male, who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid mass showed discohesive, pleomorphic round to polygonal rhabdoid cells with one to multiple eccentric, large, rounded nuclei with a prominent nucleolus, moderate to abundant, globoid cytoplasm which oftentimes harbor a pale para-nuclear inclusion. The cytoplasm of some cells contained variously sized, eosinophilic granules. Rare cells contained neutrophils in their cytoplasm. Mitoses including atypical mitotic figures and necrosis were readily seen. Histologic examination of needle core biopsy (NCB) revealed individual dispersed and sheets of pleomorphic neoplastic cells with similar cytomorphologic features as described above. The tumor extensively infiltrated a myxocollagenous stroma containing lymphocytes and neutrophils, and demonstrated foci of necrosis. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for keratins AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and CK19; PAX-8, and p63, but negative for S-100, HMB-45, calcitonin, TTF-1, thyroglobulin, CD56, HBME-1, glypican-3, PAX-5, myogenin, CD31, and INI-1. The differential diagnosis of this malignant rhabdoid tumor is discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:416-420. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25614185

  11. Anaplastic Transformation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies that arise from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. We describe a case for huge goiter diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma, which underwent thyroidectomy. The final histology showed anaplastic transformation. The clinical and possible etiological aspects are discussed.

  12. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomei Sara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers. Results The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers. Conclusion The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. Horner syndrome as a manifestation of thyroid carcinoma: a rare association / Síndrome de Horner como manifestação clínica de carcinoma da tireoide: uma associação rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo, Pereira; Tiago, Silva; Henrique, Luiz; Isabel, Manita; Luísa, Raimundo; Jorge, Portugal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 82 anos apresentando-se com nódulo tireoidiano de crescimento progressivo e ptose palpebral esquerda. O exame oftalmológico revelou ainda miose ipsilateral e achados diagnósticos de síndrome de Horner. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa tireoidiana de 7,5 cm infiltrando os grande [...] s vasos do pescoço. Apesar dos dados clínicos e imagiológicos sugestivos de um carcinoma pouco diferenciado da tireoide, a citologia aspirativa foi diagnóstica de carcinoma papilar. Em função do estádio avançado da neoplasia e das comorbilidades significativas, foi proposta para terapêutica paliativa. A síndrome de Horner é uma manifestação clínica infrequente em tumores tireoidianos, estando as condições benignas maioritariamente implicadas. As neoplasias malignas da tireoide representam uma causa rara de síndrome de Horner. Contudo, um diagnóstico adequado e expedito é fundamental para o tratamento atempado nos raros casos de malignidade da tireoide. Abstract in english An 82-year-old patient presented a progressively growing hard thyroid nodule, and left ptosis. Additionally, ophthalmologic evaluation revealed ipsilateral miosis, diagnostic findings of Horner syndrome. Computerized tomography revealed a 7.5-cm thyroid mass infiltrating the main neck vessels. Altho [...] ugh clinical and imaging data were suggestive of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, fine-needle aspiration led to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Paliative care was proposed to the patient due to the advanced stage of the neoplasm and to significant comorbidities. Horner syndrome is an infrequent manifestation of thyroid disorders and benign etiologies are more often implied. Malignant thyroid neoplasms represent a rare cause of Horner syndrome. However, an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is paramount for timely treatment of rare thyroid malignancies.

  14. Endobronchial chondroma: a rare benign bronchial neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Kyrmanidou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Endobronchial chondroma is a rare benign endobronchial tumour that may lead to obstruction, infection and destruction of lung tissue. Radical resection is curative, except when the chondroma is associated with other malignant neoplasms (Carney’s triad. We describe a case of endobronchial chondroma in a young man which was successfully managed by segmentectomy. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:168-175.

  15. Primary pulmonary neoplasms in children: A report of five cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Subhalakshmi; Chatterjee, Uttara; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Bhowmick, Kuntal; Banerjee, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Primary pulmonary neoplasms are uncommon in children and represent a wide spectrum of pathology from benign to malignant. They are quite different in their histopathologic distribution from that of adults. This study was done to analyze the histopathologic spectrum of primary lung tumors in children. All the resected specimens of lung in children over a period of 5 years were studied and only the cases of primary pulmonary neoplasms were further analyzed. There were two cases of inflammatory ...

  16. Correlation between CT perfusion and vascular endothelial growth factor in neoplasm of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the CT perfusion and microvessel density (MVD), expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplasm of head and neck. Methods: Eighty-eight lesions of head and neck were scanned by spiral CT. The largest axial surface of the mass was searched on unenhanced imaging, and at this level the dynamic contrast enhanced scan series was acquired. Time-density curves (TDC) were created from circular or oval regions of the interest drawn over the mass, target artery by Toshiba Xpress/SX spiral CT with perfusion functional software. The parameters were measured including: peak height (PH), peak time (PT), mean transit time (MTT), contrast enhancement ratio (RPH), and perfusion flow (PF). Histopathological slides of 35 masses were carefully prepared for the anti-CD34 and VEGF immunohistochemical staining and tumor microvessel density and calculation of VEGF expression scores. The parameters of CT perfusion were correlatively study with MVD and VEGF. Results: (1) The TDC of CT perfusion imaging could be classified into 3 types. The TDC of 53/77 (68.9%) malignant tumors presented the type with rapid ascending and rapid descending after injecting contrast. The TDC of 6/9 malignant lymphomas showed low platform curve o (2)The PF median of thyroid carcinoma was 82. 2(41.0,183.4)ml·min-1·100 g-1. There was significantly difference in the parameters of CT perfusion among thyroid carcinoma and squamousion among thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell cancer (Median 23.8 (7.0, 108.4) ml·min-1·100 g-1) and lymphomas (Median 24.5 (13.2, 78.6) ml·min-1·100 g-1). (3) MVD in benign tumors was (44.7±3.4), and in malignant tumors, it is (49.6±14.8). There was no significantly difference in MVD between benign and malignant tumors. High VEGF expression was found in 15 malignant tumors and 1 benign tumors, low VEGF expression was found in 9 malignant tumors and 10 benign tumors. (4)There were no significantly difference in VEGF expression and MVD. There was good correlation between MVD (M 40.0) and PH (M 26.9), RPH (M 14.5), PF (M 46.8) (r=0.35, 45.49, 0.41). There was correlation between VEGF (M 4.0) and MTT (M 16.7) (r=-0.41). Conclusion: The TDC and CT perfusion could be helpful to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. CT perfusion in neoplasm of head and neck is correlated with MVD and VEGF, and may reflect MVD and expression of VEGF. (authors)

  17. Epigenetic modifications in human thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    FAAM, BITA; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghadiri, Ata; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. Over 95% of thyroid carcinoma is derived from follicular cells that have a spectrum of differentiation to the most invasive malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer remains to be clarified, although activating the RET, RAS and BRAF oncogenes have been well characterized. Increasing evidence from previous studies demonstrates tha...

  18. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  19. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  20. Follicular and Papillary Carcinoma: A Thyroid Collision Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Plauche, Virginia; Dewenter, Tracy; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report a collision tumor of papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Case report and review of the literature was studied. A 62 year old female presented with a thyroid mass diagnosed the year prior. Physical exam revealed a 6 × 4 cm predominantly left sided thyroid mass that was confirmed on imaging as well. Thyroid function tests were within normal limits. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration suggested a follicular neoplasm. Consequently, the...

  1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid with concomitant papillary carcinoma: comparison of findings on fine-needle aspiration biopsy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Vikas; Parks, Graham E; Baliga, Mithra; Hartle, Edgar O; Geisinger, Kim R; Shenoy, Veena

    2014-12-01

    We report two cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland coexisting with, and possibly arising in, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In the first case, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on a paratracheal mass representing extrathyroidal invasion of a right thyroid lobe tumor. The aspirate showed papillary fronds and cells in honeycombed arrangements with fine chromatin, enlarged nuclei, nuclear grooves, and intranuclear inclusions in a background of mucus and blood; a diagnosis of PTC was rendered initially. However, examination of histologic sections of the mass showed nests of malignant squamous cells with interspersed mucous cells and extracellular mucin, concordant with MEC, as well as PTC. A retrospective review of the FNA specimen identified MEC. In the second case, ultrasound-guided FNA was performed on a right thyroid lobe nodule. The aspirate contained two populations of epithelial cells: larger cells showing foci of both squamous and glandular differentiation that were interpreted as MEC and smaller follicular cells with nuclear changes characteristic of PTC; both were addressed in the diagnostic report. Primary MEC of the thyroid is a rare neoplasm typically exhibiting indolent clinical behavior, although our first case demonstrated extensive local invasion. It is thought to arise from squamous metaplasia associated with PTC, Hashimoto thyroiditis, or other inflammatory or neoplastic processes. In thyroid FNAs, the presence of neoplastic mucous cells and extracellular mucin plus malignant squamous cells is diagnostic of MEC. As MEC is thought to arise in PTC, the finding of the latter in these aspiration specimens is not unexpected. PMID:25307114

  2. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake

  3. Characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in Graves' disease, chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis and nodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunovi? Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of thyroid cancer represents a spectrum of behavior ranging from well - differentiated lesions with an excellent prognosis to anaplastic carcinoma, wich is almost fatal. For this reason, it is important that clinicians have methods at their disposal to asses the characteristics of patient's thyroid malignancy. In this work we discuss the behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer in associated diseases of thyroid as : Graves’ disease, chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis - Hashimoto and nodular goiter. This is retrospectively reviewing of 50 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Department of surgery, Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica from 1998 until 2003. We evaluated occurrence, as well as the role of this diseases in patients with thyroid cancer.We found a more favorable course of thyroid cancer in the presence of chronic lymphocitic thyroiditis and nodular goiter, a contrary Graves’ disease. In associated diseases of thyroid, a significantly greater proportion of patients with thyroid cancer, have modular goiter.

  4. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  5. Pediatric choroid plexus neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Choroid plexus tumors (CPT) are rare childhood neoplasms. The relatively small number of reported cases and the controversies surrounding the clinical and pathological classification of these tumors have made it difficult to define a standard of care for these patients. Our intention is to contribute to the body of knowledge of these tumors and further define the role of adjuvant therapy. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of 14 children with choroid plexus neoplasms referred to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between October 1985 and December 1987. Ten patients had choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) based on pathologic criteria and evidence of brain invasion at surgery or leptomeningeal disease (M+); 4 patients had choroid plexus papilloma (CPP). Patients with CPP were initially treated with surgery alone whereas patients with CPC were generally treated with postoperative therapy that included chemotherapy (CT) and/or craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with a focal boost to the primary site. For most patients CT consisted of combinations of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine, and a platinum agent. The median CSI dose was 35.2 Gy (range 24-46.2 Gy). The median primary site dose was 55.2 Gy (range 49.6-64 Gy). Results: Seven of the 10 CPC cases presented with leptomeningeal dissemination; two of these patients have succumbed to disease. Of the 3 patients with M0 status, all are alive with no evidence of disease (NED). The medial tim evidence of disease (NED). The medial time to relapse from the time of surgery was 5.3 mo (range 3-25 mo). Seven CPC patients were treated with gross total resection (GTR). Three of these patients (2 M0, 1 M+) received CT without CSI and are currently NED (27, 69, and 60 mo respectively). One M+ patient progressed on CT and has stable disease after CSI (6 mo), one (M0) received CT and CSI and is NED (120 mo), one (M+) is currently on CT with objective response (3 mo) and one (M+) died of progressive disease (24.5 mo) despite CT and CSI. Three patients with CPC had subtotal resection (STR). One of these patients (M+) received CT and CSI and is NED (23 mo), one (M0) had an elective second resection GTR alone and is currently NED (153 mo), and one (M+) developed progressive disease (13.5 mo) while on CT and died despite CSI. Among the 4 CPP patients, GTR was performed in two; both were NED at 54 and 81 mo. Two patients with CPP (one with focal atypia) were treated with STR initially; both transformed to CPC at 7 and 27 mo, respectively. Both were currently NED following salvage with (1) GTR and CSI alone (98 mo) or (2) STR, CT, and CSI (62 mo). Six of the 12 survivors in this series had significant neuropsychological sequelae. Conclusion: The prognosis of CPP is good for patients treated with GTR. Malignant transformation occurred in 2 CPP patients with less than GTR. Patients with localized CPC who undergo GTR have had a favorable outcome with the addition of chemotherapy or irradiation. CSI may not be routinely indicated in M0 children following GTR. There is evidence that salvage with radiation therapy may be successful following progression on chemotherapy. For patients treated with STR, the use of CT and CSI appears to be necessary

  6. Thyroid Metastasis from Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Namad; Jiang Wang,; Ralph Shipley; Nagla Abdel Karim

    2013-01-01

    Background. Thyroid metastases are rare. Clinically, they represent less than 4% of thyroid malignancy in clinical studies. Aim. To assess various presentations and therapy for patients with lung cancer metastatic in the thyroid. Materials and Methods. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung to the thyroid. We reviewed similar reports through PubmMed search from 1997 until 2013. Case Presentation. A 48-year-old lady was seen in the clinic for an adenocarcinoma of left upper ...

  7. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha,

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of an endocrine organ. Approximately 300 new cases are diagnosed in the Netherlands yearly. Thyroid epithelial tumors can be derived from follicular cells, represent differentiated thyroid carcinoma...

  8. Correlation between iodine concentration and pathology of thyroid nodules and residual thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a new computed tomography (CT) software, we measured the volume and iodine concentration of each thyroid nodule and its residual thyroid in 87 patients with 110 thyroid nodules before partial or total thyroidectomy. 123I thyroid uptake was measured in 46/87 patients. The relation between these iodine data and histological findings from the nodule and residual thyroid was analyzed. Variability of iodine concentrations in a thyroid nodule was higher in malignant nodules than in benign nodules. Follicular adenomas were lower in mean of iodine concentrations than other types of nodules. All nodules with an iodine concentration of 3 were follicular adenomas. However, there was no significant difference in 123I thyroid uptake per volume among all pathological types of nodules. Pathologically, chronic thyroiditis was evident in 8 of 16 residual thyroids with a papillary carcinoma. In 5 residual thyroids with a follicular carcinoma, there was no evidence of chronic thyroiditis. Conversely, none of the 16 residual thyroids with a papillary carcinoma showed evidence of hypoplasia but 2 of the 5 residual thyroids with a follicular carcinoma showed evidence of hypoplasia. Of 72 residual thyroids with a benign nodule, 21 demonstrated chronic thyroiditis and 9 revealed hypoplasia. The residual thyroids with hypoplasia and severe chronic thyroiditis were lower in mean of iodine concentrations than those with a histologically normaons than those with a histologically normal thyroid although there was no significant difference in 123I thyroid uptake per volume among all pathological types of residual thyroids. However, all of 3 residual thyroids with 123I thyroid uptake per volume of 3 demonstrated hypoplasia. The pathological type of thyroid carcinoma and the co-existence of chronic thyroiditis in the residual thyroid are major prognostic factors. (K.H.)

  9. A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

  10. Predominantly Fibrous Malignant Mesothelioma in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Klopfleisch; da Costa, Afonso B.; Alexander Th. A. Weiss

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are rare tumours in domestic cats. They occur within the abdominal or thoracic cavity and are regularly associated with pleural or peritoneal effusions. The histopathological diagnosis can be quite challenging, as these neoplasms may resemble other epithelial or mesenchymal neoplasms. However, differentiation can be achieved by immunohistochemistry in most cases. Here we describe the rare case of a malignant mesothelioma of the fibrous subtype in the thoracic cavity of...

  11. Mixed medullary - papillary carcinoma thyroid: an uncommon variant of thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manjula; Verma, Deepti; Thomas, Shaji; Chauhan, Richa

    2014-07-01

    Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, a variant of medullary carcinoma is a rare thyroid malignancy accounting for less than 1% of the thyroid malignancies. We are presenting a case of 57-year-old lady with complaints of gradually increasing thyroid swelling for 1½ months. Fine-needle aspiration was suggestive of medullary carcinoma. Serum calcitonin levels were elevated. The patient underwent total thyoidectomy with regional cervical lymph node excision. Histopathologically, the diagnosis of mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid was made. It is important to know about this entity due to its prognostic implications and to prevent any diagnostic dilemmas. PMID:25328343

  12. Criterios ecográficos diagnósticos de neoplasia maligna en el nódulo tiroideo: correlación con la punción por aspiración con aguja fina y la anatomía patológica Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ignacio Chala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ecografía de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnóstica para neoplasia maligna del nódulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qué nódulos requieren biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el diagnóstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecográficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo a tres años para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecográficos y la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatología. Se evaluó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlación. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 años; el tamaño promedio del nódulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectomía; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografía. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnóstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecográficos relacionados con cáncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adición de aumento del flujo intranodular, resultó alta. Conclusiones. La combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna.Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignancy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

  13. Thyroid neoplasia following irradiation for medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid neoplasms occurred in two patients 14 and 18 years after treatment with radiation for medulloblastoma. One patient had a papillary cancer and the other patient had multiple adenomas and a Hurthle cell adenoma. In addition, the latter case had foci of hyperplasia plus a microfollicular transformation which has not been described in association with prior thyroid irradiation. The radiation doses delivered to the thyroid through posterior cervical spinal ports (2000 to 3000 roentgens) fall within the upper range of radiation dosage associated with induction of neoplastic changes within the thyroid

  14. Tuberculous celiac axis lymphadenopathy mimicking cystic pancreatic neoplasm - a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vipin; Shivakumar, K; Rajaram, B; Sinha, Namitha; Garg, Isha

    2014-12-01

    Cystic pancreatic neoplasms are tumors with malignant potential treated surgically. Isolated tuberculosis of celiac lymph nodes is rare, treatment of this entity being non-surgical. Radiological appearances of cystic pancreatic neoplasm and tuberculous peripancreatic lymph nodal mass is similar and difficult to differentiate. Here we present a case of mass lesion in the region of pancreatic head mimicking cystic pancreatic neoplasm which was actually abdominal tuberculous lymphadenopathy proven by biopsy. PMID:25767339

  15. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10-6 rem-1. This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10-6 yr-1. This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the -fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  16. Imaging thyroid disease: updates, imaging approach, and management pearls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Sosa, Julie A; Nguyen, Xuan V; Galvin, P Leo; Oldan, Jorge D

    2015-01-01

    There are many disorders that can occur in the thyroid gland, ranging from benign to malignant entities. This article focuses on 5 common problems of the thyroid that require special consideration with regard to optimizing imaging strategies in a multidisciplinary and collaborative platform. These problems are the incidental thyroid nodule, preoperative evaluation of goiter, hyperthyroidism, invasive thyroid cancer, and recurrent thyroid cancer. For each problem essential facts, interesting updates, imaging approach, and management pearls are reviewed. PMID:25476178

  17. Canine mammary epithelial neoplasms: biologic implications of morphologic characteristics assessed in 232 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, S R; Kurzman, I D; Zachrau, R E; Hurvitz, A I; Black, M M

    1983-03-01

    We studied 232 dogs that underwent mastectomy for mammary epithelial neoplasms. The mastectomy specimens were evaluated according to structural parameters found to be prognostically significant in human mammary neoplasms, such as grade of atypia in non-invasive proliferations of duct epithelium, extent of malignant disease, and nuclear differentiation in malignant neoplasms. In this study, the biologic behavior of mammary lesions was assessed according to the frequency of development of de novo or recurrent invasive carcinoma within two years. Our data indicate that we can recognize structural variables which permit classification of mammary neoplasms into categories with distinct patterns of biologic behavior. In addition to normotypic proliferative lesions and invasive malignant neoplasms, we were able to identify precancerous atypic and non-invasive malignant neoplasms that are considered precursor lesions in women. Also, as in women, nuclear differentiation was found to be a prognostically significant variable. Lymphoid cellular reactions, considered to be structural correlates of host-tumor immune responses in women, were noted in 35% of dogs with precancerous or malignant neoplasms. Application of the described parameters should facilitate comparative studies of canine and human mammary carcinogenesis and use of the dog as a model for the development of new therapeutic modalities and immunoprophylaxis of human mammary cancer. PMID:6836870

  18. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant “hot” nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cas...

  19. Criterios ecográficos diagnósticos de neoplasia maligna en el nódulo tiroideo: correlación con la punción por aspiración con aguja fina y la anatomía patológica / Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés Ignacio, Chala; Rafael, Pava; Humberto Ignacio, Franco; Andrés, Álvarez; Armando, Franco.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ecografía de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnóstica para neoplasia maligna del nódulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qué nódulos requieren biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF) para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el dia [...] gnóstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecográficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo a tres años para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecográficos y la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatología. Se evaluó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlación. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 años; el tamaño promedio del nódulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectomía; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografía. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnóstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecográficos relacionados con cáncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adición de aumento del flujo intranodular, resultó alta. Conclusiones. La combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna. Abstract in english Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignan [...] cy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

  20. HYALINISING TRABECULAR TUMOR- THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Hyalinising trabecular tumors of thyroid is an in teresting but uncommon neoplasm of thyroid. This is presented bec ause of its peculiar morphologic features, including encapsulation, trabecular pattern and marke d hyalinization. OBJECTIVES: To know the morphologic feature and its histological behavio r. METHOD: Hemithyroidectomy specimen was received with fixative. The specimen was grossed , bits were taken from appropriate areas & processed in Histokinette, embedded in paraffin and t he serial sections were stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin. RESULTS: Histologically, showed encapsulated cellular growth , composed of follicular cells arranged in trabecular and foll icular pattern. They are separated by fibrous bands and areas of abundant hyalinization seen. The nuclei of the cells were vesicular with indistinct nucleoli, having pale vacuolated cytoplasm . CONCLUSION: Hyalinizing trabecular tumor is an uncommon neoplasm with its peculiar morph ologic features. It is sometimes mistaken for other neoplasm like- Papillary carcinom a, insular carcinoma & paraganglioma.. Hence histologic evaluation of cytomorphologic featu res is important for definitive diagnosis

  1. MR imaging of pancreatic and peripancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MR imaging appearances of pancreatic and peripancreatic neoplasms were studied. Thirty-five primary tumors of the pancreas, including 18 ductal adenocarcinomas, 16 islet cell tumors, and one papillary epithelial carcinoma, were studied, as were five cases of malignant peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. MR imaging studies were performed using T1 and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Inversion-recovery technique was also utilized in approximately one third of cases. The different MR imaging patterns of the primary pancreatic neoplasms are described and compared with findings in patients with peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. In addition, the use of MR imaging in staging pancreatic tumors, in detecting local and distant metastases, and in detecting vascular involvement is discussed. Comparison is made with correlative CT examinations

  2. [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibnou Soufyane, N; Chadli, A; El Ghomari, H; Essodegui, F; Marouan, F; El Farouqi, A; Ababou, M R; Kafih, M

    2002-06-01

    Malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland is a rare disease generally occurring women in the 6(th) or 7(th) decade of life. The principal clinical sign is giant goiter rapidly leading to sings of compression, raising the question of differential diagnosis with anaplastic cancer. The radiological findings in our patient were suggestive of malignancy due to the locoregional invasion. Immunohistochemistry study of the surgical specimen was required to reach the definitive diagnosis of thyroid gland primary lymphoma. Diagnosis of malignant primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland made at the stage of extensive locoregional extension compromises prognosis. Our patient died after one session of chemotherapy. PMID:12193880

  3. Thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriatio or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive idiom therapy may be helpful in patients with normal postoperative calcitonin levels in preventing recurrence. At this time, the concomitant use of I-131 whole body scintigraphy, serum thyroglobulin. and neck ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and efficacious methods of long-term follow-up. Ultrasound and or are being added to the armament atrium as it becomes clear that patient with a negative whole body iodine image and measurable serum T g may have recurrent disease that is amenable to surgical removal and/or further radiotherapy

  4. Centrosomal and mitotic abnormalities in cell lines derived from papillary thyroid cancer harboring specific gene alterations

    OpenAIRE

    Maric Irena; Viaggi Silvia; Caria Paola; Frau Daniela V; Degan Paolo; Vanni Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid carcinoma offers a good model to investigate the possible correlation between specific gene mutations and chromosome instability. Papillary thyroid neoplasms are characterized by different mutually exclusive genetic alterations, some of which are associated with aneuploidy and aggressive phenotype. Results We investigated the centrosome status and mitotic abnormalities in three thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines, each maintaining the specific, biol...

  5. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be an autoimmune disease very similar to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. In fact, these two disorders cannot be distinguished from one another on pathology specimens. As in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis is associated with the development of ...

  6. Imaging considerations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pedrosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and the continuous improvement in the image quality of these techniques, the diagnosis of incidental pancreatic cysts has increased dramatically in the last decades. While the vast majority of these cysts are not clinically relevant, a small percentage of them will evolve into an invasive malignant tumor making their management challenging. Mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN are the most common pancreatic cystic lesions with malignant potential. Imaging findings on CT and MRI correlate tightly with the presence of malignant degeneration in these neoplasms. IPMN can be classified based on their distribution as main duct, branch duct or mixed type lesions. MRI is superior to CT in demonstrating the communication of a branch duct IPMN with the main pancreatic duct (MPD. Most branch duct lesions are benign whereas tumors involving the MPD are frequently associated with malignancy. The presence of solid nodules, thick enhancing walls and/or septae, a wide (> 1 cm connection of a side-branch lesion with the MPD and the size of the tumor > 3 cm are indicative of malignancy in a branch and mixed type IPMN. A main pancreatic duct > 6 mm, a mural nodule > 3 mm and an abnormal attenuating area in the adjacent pancreatic parenchyma on CT correlates with malignant disease in main duct and mixed type IPMN. An accurate characterization of these neoplasms by imaging is thus crucial for selecting the best management options. In this article, we review the imaging findings of IPMN including imaging predictors of malignancy and surgical resectability. We also discuss follow-up strategies for patients with surgically resected IPMN and patients with incidental pancreatic cysts.

  7. Robotic surgery for thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jandee; Chung, Woong Youn

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery is an innovation in thyroid surgery that may compensate for the drawbacks of conventional endoscopic surgery. A surgical robot provides strong advantages, including three-dimensional imaging, motion scaling, tremor elimination, and additional degrees of freedom. We review here recent adaptations, experience and applications of robotics in thyroid surgery. Robotic thyroid surgeries include thyroid lobectomy, total thyroidectomy, central compartment neck dissection, and radical neck dissection for benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Most of the current literature consists of case series of robotic thyroidectomies. Recent retrospective and prospective analyses have evaluated the safety and oncologic efficacy of robotic surgery for thyroid cancer. Although robotic thyroid surgery is often associated with longer operation times than conventional open surgery, robotic techniques have shown similar or superior levels of surgical completeness and safety compared with conventional open or endoscopic surgery. Compared to open thyroidectomy, robotic thyroidectomy has been associated with several quality-of-life benefits, including excellent cosmetic results, reduced neck pain and sensory changes, and decreased voice and swallowing discomfort after surgery. For surgeons, robotic surgery has improved ergonomics and has a shorter learning curve than open or endoscopic surgery. The advantages of robotic thyroid surgery over conventional surgery suggest that robotic thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection may become the preferred surgical option for thyroid diseases. Robotic thyroid surgery will likely continue to develop as more endocrine and head-and-neck surgeons are trained and more patients seek this newly developed surgical option. PMID:24783046

  8. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. PMID:25591468

  9. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  10. Association between systemically administered radioisotopes and subsequent malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a long history recording the association of x radiation and the subsequent development of malignant tumors. For systemically administered isotopes this came into prominence when Martland discovered the association between cancer, particularly of the bone, and ingestion of radioactive isotopes by radium dial painters. This association was amplified by the development of cancer in patients given thorotrast as a contrast medium for diagnostic radiologic examination. Acute leukemia was reported 30 years ago in patients with polycythemia vera treated with 32P. Acute leukemia also occurs in patients with polycythemia vera treated only with phlebotomy or drugs. A controlled study is now underway to provide a more definite answer to question what is the incidence of acute leukemia in patients with polycythemia vera treated by phlebotomy alone, chlorambucil, or 32P. 131I for the treatment of hyperthyroidism probably does not induce cancer, but in the doses used for thyroid cancer there was an increased incidence of neoplasms (12/200 in one study). This was higher than the expected incidence of neoplasms. The doses of radioactive isotopes used currently for diagnostic purposes have not induced cancer, but it is difficult and probably impossible to verify this with absolute certainty

  11. Thyroid scanning with 201Tl-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid scanning with 201Tl-chloride was performed on 32 cases of thyroid pathology, comparing with that with sup(99m)Tc, 3 cases of follicular adenocarcinoma, 10 cases of papillary adenocarcinoma, 2 cases of mixed type of follicular and papillary adenocarcinoma, a case of poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma, a case of Huerthle cell carcinoma, 8 cases of follicular adenoma, 5 cases of chronic thyroiditis, a case of subacute thyroiditis and a case of Basedow's disease. The most important evidence of thyroid scanning with 201Tl-chloride is the hot nodule in primary malignant tumor and also metastasis in the mediastinal area. (auth.)

  12. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules in detecting malignancy in childhood: comparison with conventional clinical, laboratory, and imaging approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanctis, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    In childhood the traditional diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules consists of clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluations. A safe and accurate procedure is needed to promptly identify patients who require surgery. In regard to the usefulness of fine needle aspiration biopsy, the data in the literature concerning children and adolescents are scanty. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of clinical, laboratory, and imaging data collected retrospectivel...

  13. Cribriform-Morular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar AKKAYA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This subtype is commonly reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, cases not associated with polyposis have also been reported. The differential diagnosis of this entity from other aggressive thyroid neoplasms is important. A 29-year old man presented with a solitary mass in the left thyroid lobe underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis, colonoscopy revealed a normal colon without polyposis. Herein, we report a case not associated with polyposis and discuss with the literature.

  14. Mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of diagnostic imaging procedures, macroscopic and microscopic findings and clinical follow up of data of 20 mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas were retrospectively reviewed to determine the grade of malignancy and its surgical implications. Ultrasonography or computed tomography or both, corresponded well with macroscopy. The 10 malignant and two premalignant lesions had intracystic mural nodules or extracystic solid components, while the eight benign specimens had neither nodules nor solid portions. Structural complexity seen on ultrasonography or computed tomography, which reflected the irregularity in size and shape of the cysts, internal septa, walls, and solid components, was severe in the 10 malignant and two borderline tumours and mild or moderate in the eight benign lesions. Angiography showed that five of the nine malignant tumours where hypervascular, while the two premalignant and four benign lesions were all avascular. We propose that a careful preoperative estimate of the malignant potential of such cysts should be made based on the size of the tumour, the presence of mural nodules and solid areas, and the structural complexity on ultrasonography or computed tomography, as well as the amount of vascularity seen on angiography. (L.E.)

  15. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Linfoma Burkitt primario tiroideo. Coexistencia con tiroiditis de Hashimoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar Jaen (Spain); Vicente, J.; Lazaro, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Utility of Intraoperative Frozen Sections during Thyroid Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Russel Kahmke; Lee, Walter T.; Liana Puscas; Richard L. Scher; Michael J. Shealy; Burch, Warner M.; Ramon M. Esclamado

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the usefulness of intraoperative frozen section in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules where fine needle aspirate biopsies have evidence of follicular neoplasm. Study Design. Retrospective case series. Methods. All patients have a fine needle aspirate biopsy, an intraoperative frozen section, and final pathology performed on a thyroid nodule after initiation of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in 2009 at a single tertiary referral cente...

  17. Metastatic mesothelioma to the thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Sarika N.; Swami, Archana; Khan, Ashraf; Toke, Madhavi; Whalen, Giles; Fischer, Andrew; Torres, Mira Sofia

    2014-01-01

    A 69 year-old male patient with a history of malignant mesothelioma treated with chemotherapy and surgical resection with removal of the right lung and right pleural pneumonectomy was clinically in remission for 1 ½ years. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan revealed limited uptake in the right pleural space, thought to represent post-surgical changes, and uptake in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid ultrasound revealed a solid left lobe nodule with peripheral vascularity and absent microc...

  18. Targeting BRAF in thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, A V; Porchia, L; Ringel, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Activating mutations in the gene encoding BRAF are the most commonly identified oncogenic abnormalities in papillary thyroid cancer. In vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that overexpression of activated BRAF induces malignant transformation and aggressive tumour behaviour. BRAF and other RAF kinases are frequently activated by other thyroid oncogenes and are important mediators of their biological effects including dedifferentiation and proliferation. Because current therapeutic opti...

  19. Estrogens and stem cells in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Mariangela; Catalano, Veronica; Scavo, Emanuela; Bonanno, Marco; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell (SC) compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in SC compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors' status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors. PMID:25120531

  20. Estrogens and Stem Cells in Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Mariangela; Catalano, Veronica; Scavo, Emanuela; Bonanno, Marco; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Todaro, Matilde; Stassi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell (SC) compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in SC compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors’ status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors. PMID:25120531

  1. Clinical application of EBCT in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To probe the clinical utilization of electron beam CT (EBCT) in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms. Methods: Between July 1995 and Feb 1999. EBCT was performed in 12024 patients in our hospital. 40 (0.33%) patients were diagnosed as cardiac neoplasms. Retrospective analysis of 22 patients confirmed by operation, autopsy or follow-up was done. In this group, there were 13 males and 9 females, age ranged from 5 months to 72 years old (averaged 41.9 years). 17 patients had both contrast single slice mode (contrast SSM) and movie mode, 3 patients only SSM, 1 patient movie mode and 1 patient plain SSM. Results: Accurate localization and quantitative diagnoses were made in all the 22 patients and correct histopathological diagnosis was made in 10 patients with myxoma. EBCT provided characteristic clues to proper histopathological determination in 6 of the 7 patients with non-myxomatous benign neoplasms. In the 5 patients with malignant masses, 4 patients acquired distinct histopathological classifications, and involvement of the adjacent anatomic structures was revealed. Conclusion: Because of excellent temporal, spatial and density resolution, EBCT has not only high accuracy in the diagnosis of myxoma, but also possesses advantage superior to echocardiography in the definition of non-myxomatous benign and malignant neoplasms, which are difficult to diagnose histopathologically using echocardiography. EBCT is also valuable for assessment of involvement of neighboe for assessment of involvement of neighbouring organs. In the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasm without specific features, this method is limited and difficult

  2. Epigenetic modifications in human thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faam, Bita; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Ghadiri, Ata; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy of the endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has steadily increased over the last decade. Over 95% of thyroid carcinoma is derived from follicular cells that have a spectrum of differentiation to the most invasive malignancy. The molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer remains to be clarified, although activating the RET, RAS and BRAF oncogenes have been well characterized. Increasing evidence from previous studies demonstrates that acquired epigenetic abnormalities participating with genetic alteration results in altered patterns of gene expression/function. Aberrant DNA methylation has been established in the CpG regions and microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile recognized in cancer development. In the present review, a literature review was performed using MEDLINE and PubMed with the terms 'epigenetic patterns in thyroid cancer [or papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC)]', 'DNA methylation in thyroid cancer (or PTC, FTC, MTC, ATC)', 'miRNA expression in thyroid cancer (or PTC, FTC, MTC, ATC)', 'epigenetic patterns in cancer' and the current understanding of epigenetic patterns in thyroid cancer was discussed. PMID:25469237

  3. Indications for Fine Needle Aspiration in Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jin Young

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem with the widespread use of ultrasonography. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the mainstay for diagnosing a thyroid malignancy. There have been several guidelines on when to perform FNA in thyroid nodules. This review is based on several published recommendations and helps physicians easily understand the factors favoring FNA.

  4. Thyroid Cancer: Burden of Illness and Management of Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca L. Brown; de Souza, Jonas A.; Cohen, Ezra EW

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, has increased dramatically in the last fifty years. This article will review the standard approach to thyroid cancer treatment as well as novel therapies under investigation. We will also address potential cost considerations in the management of thyroid cancer.

  5. Papillary carcinoma arising in struma ovarii versus ovarian metastasis from primary thyroid carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, I.; Cunha, Tm; Figueiredo, Jp; Fe?lix, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a postmenopausal woman diagnosed with an ovarian mass containing thyroid follicles and foci of papillary thyroid carcinoma during pathological examination. This patient referred having had a metachronous thyroid malignancy 10 years before. The differential diagnosis between a thyroid malignancy arising from a struma ovarii and a metastatic ovarian tumor originating from thyroid-cancer is challenging. Struma ovarii should be considered when thyroid components are the predo...

  6. Treating Colorectal Polypoid Neoplasms during a Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Pin Lin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for colorectalpolypoid neoplastic lesions.Methods: From September 1999 to May 2003, 11,447 consecutive colonoscopic examinationswere performed in 9864 patients, totaling 5355 endoscopic polypectomiesfor colorectal polypoid neoplasms. According to the macroscopiccharacteristics, the neoplasms were classified into protruded (n = 3953 andsessile (n = 1402 ones. A snare polypectomy was conducted on 3987 lesionsand hot biopsy forceps removal on 1368 lesions.Results: Histological diagnoses included 4456 neoplastic lesions (4282 adenomas and174 adenocarcinomas and 899 non-neoplastic lesions (889 hyperplastic and10 inflamed polyps. For the adenocarcinoma group, 24 instances involvedsubmucosal invasion or an unclear resection margin, and these patientsreceived a further operation, while 11 surgical specimens disclosed no residualtumors. Three (0.05% perforations and 96 (1.8% instances of bleedingwere found following endoscopic polypectomy. No procedure-related mortalitywas found, and no recurrent malignancy was found after 14~56 monthsof follow-up.Conclusions: To lower the incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancer, endoscopicpolypectomy for colorectal polypoid neoplasms is an effective and safe procedure.

  7. Thyroid cancer and T lymphoblastic leukemia in crohn disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ja Min; Baek, Sun Kyung; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Si-Young; Maeng, Chi Hoon; Park, Tae Sung; Kim, Hyo-Jong; Choi, Yun Young; Um, Yu Jin

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the tumor necrosis-? (TNF-?) blockade has changed the treatment of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease; however, this treatment also has disadvantages. The use of immunosuppressants in combination with infliximab has been associated with greater risk of developing malignant neoplasms. Herein, we report the case of a 33-year-old ethnic Korean man with Crohn disease (CD) who developed papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and, subsequently, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after approximately 16.0 years of immunosuppressant therapy and 5.5 years of infliximab therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case described in the literature of 2 different malignant neoplasms, 1 of hematologic origin and the other involving the solid organs, in a patient with CD. Through a systematic literature review, we found 28 cases of acute leukemia in adult patients with CD, of whom 22 had myeloid leukemia and 6 had lymphoid leukemia. Half of the patients with ALL underwent TNF-?-blocker therapy in combination with thiopurines. PMID:25918193

  8. ANTI-THYROID PEROXIDASE ANTIBODY LEVEL IN THYROID NODULES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bera Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-TPO antibody level was evaluated in 86 patients, along with 25 healthy controls to detect its change in various forms of thyroid nodules particularly in thyroid malignancy when compared with healthy controls. The study revealed that Anti-TPO antibody level was increased in Benign & toxic form of Multi nodular goiter and papillary carcinoma but there is no elevation of Anti- TPO antibody level in follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma.

  9. Thyroid Carcinoma: Molecular Pathways and Therapeutic Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikiforov, Yuri E.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system. The most frequent type of thyroid malignancy is papillary carcinoma. These tumors frequently have genetic alterations leading to the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Most common mutations in papillary carcinomas are point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes and RET/PTC rearrangement. These genetic alterations are found in >70% of papillary carcinomas and they rarely overlap i...

  10. Cytological evaluation of thyroid solitary nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalezi? Nevena K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine-needle aspiration is a low-cost diagnostic tool with principal value in determining which patients with thyroid nodules should undergo surgery. Team work and close cooperation among endocrinologists, surgeons, and pathologists are essential for success. Cytologic criteria for diagnosis of the most frequent conditions (benign cystic lesions, Hashimoto thyroiditis and malignancies found in thyroid aspirates have been provided. The unsolved problem of the so-called "follicular" or oxyphilic lesion or neoplasia will be investigated by immunocytochemistry.

  11. Thyroid tumors associated with radiation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, C.

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of medically and environmentally exposed populations have been central to establishing ionizing radiation as a cause of malignant and benign thyroid tumors. Issues currently under investigation concern low dose effects, age sensitivity, the relative effectiveness of X-rays and iodine-131 in inducing thyroid cancer, and other risk factors. Excess thyroid tumors continue to appear in irradiated populations under study more than three decades after exposure.

  12. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma : nuclear medicine studies

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooijen, Ronald B. T.

    2009-01-01

    The therapy of choice in patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), subdivided into papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, is (near-)total thyroidectomy. This is routinely followed by the administration of radioiodine (RaI)-131 (131I) to destroy any remaining benign or malignant thyroid tissue, so-called ablation. This thesis has addressed some important clinical questions, related to the application of conventional (131I) and experimental therapies with radionuclide...

  13. Sclerosing Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of The Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhan Ersoy; ?lhan Yetkin; Ömer Uluo?lu; ?pek I??k; Metin Arslan

    2008-01-01

    An extremely rare case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma (SMECE) of the thyroid in a 22-year-old woman is reported. The patient initially presented with a thyroid nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule showed features of a malignant tumor that was different from the usual types of thyroid carcinoma. Total thyroidectomy and right cervical lymph node dissection were performed, and pathology confirmed SMECE. The patient remains asymptomatic and no further recurrence or metast...

  14. PET of genitourinary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the clinical feasibility of imaging primary and metastatic genitourinary neoplasms with FDG positron emission tomography (PET). Then patients with genitourinary neoplasms were studied. Six had renal cancer, two had bladder cancer, one had testicular cancer, and one had prostate cancer. Patients received intravenous injections of 370 MBq (10 mCi) of FDG, and dynamic images were obtained over at least 1 hour. Images at 50--60 minutes were read and correlated with pathologic or radiographic results. Nine of ten tumors were well delineated as focal areas of increased FDG uptake. In the tenth case, a renal cancer was comparable in uptake to the normal kidney and was delineated only as a distortion of the normal renal outline

  15. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  16. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  17. Advances in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    OpenAIRE

    Tristan D. Yan; Raffit Hassan; Laura Welch; Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. A great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attrac...

  18. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Faiziah WAN ABDUL RAHMAN; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Mohamad, Irfan; Anusha BALASUBRAMANIAN; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  19. Salivary glands neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Heshiki, Rosana Emiko; Navarro, Paulo Lima; Ogawa, Allex Itar; Takemoto, Lucio Eidy

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary glands neoplasms represent a rare and diverse group of tumors with different characteristics. To avoid complications and unnecessary procedures, the treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis. Objective: Review the literature emphasizing the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment. Method: An electronic research was performed on MEDLINE, OVID, PubMed and SciELO databases articles in a period between 1997 and 2007. Conclusion: The proper diagnosis of salivary glands n...

  20. Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Mullally, Ann; Lane, Steven W.; Brumme, Kristina; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) animal models accurately re-capitulate human disease in mice and have been an important tool for the study of MPN biology and therapy. Transplantation of BCR-ABL transduced bone marrow cells into irradiated syngeneic mice established the field of MPN animal modeling and the retroviral bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assay has been used extensively since. Genetically engineered MPN animal models have enabled detailed characterization of the effects of specif...

  1. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks ...

  2. Mucin-producing Malignant Tumor of Lower Eyelid Presenting in a 14-year-old Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Andrea; Alghothani, Lana; Lambert, David; Jatana, Kris R.; Peters, Sara; Foster, Jill; Hill, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malignancies of the ocular adnexa are rare, aggressive tumors with significant potential for local recurrence and metastases. Although basal cell carcinoma remains the most common malignancy of the eyelid, encompassing more than 90 percent of all periocular cancers, several other malignant neoplasms have been reported. Malignant ocular adnexal neoplasms are most commonly of sweat gland origin and include hidradenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine adenocarcinoma, and apocrine adenocarcinoma of the g...

  3. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Rahat; Ohnmar, Saw

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  4. Technetium-99m scintimammography in the diagnosis of malignant breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaukovi? Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin scintigraphy is a new imaging method for the diagnosis of various malignancies, such as lung, thyroid, and most frequently breast neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin breast scintigraphy in the detection of malignant breast disease. Methods. 99mTc -Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM was performed in 28 patients with 30 breast lesions suspicious for malignancy. Standard mammography (MM was also done. After surgery, the results of SMM and MM were compared to definitive histopathological findings as the "gold standard". After intravenous injection of radiotracer, SMM was performed in prone and supine views of the thorax, using large field-of-view Gamma camera. Results. The results of SMM were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, and evaluated as positive or negative. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, positive (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were obtained in relation to histopathology. After comparing the results of SMM and MM, SMM was proved more sensitive (95% for SMM vs. 80% for MM, while the specificity of both methods was similar. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that the contribution of SMM as a nuclear medicine procedure has its place in the diagnostic protocol for patients suspected of malignant breast cancer.

  5. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T3, suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be maligdules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  6. Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchot, Scott N; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Herbert Chen

    2008-01-01

    Scott N Pinchot, Rebecca S Sippel, Herbert Chen11Endocrine Surgery Research Laboratories, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: While accounting for only 1% of solid organ malignancies (9% in women), thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although most patients have a favorable prognosis, over 1,500 people will die from thyroid carcinoma each year. The spectrum of disease types range from papillary thyroid cancer, whi...

  7. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni-?/?multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  8. Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid—Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Olga L.; Las Casas, Luis E.; Leon, Marino E.

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic disease to thyroid gland is a rare event. Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been reported to metastasize the thyroid gland, metastatic RCC to a thyroid neoplasm is very unusual. We report a case of a 68-year-old man with history of RCC who presented with a 2.5-cm thyroid nodule. Histologic examination demonstrates a renal cell carcinoma metastatic to a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The clinicopathologic features of metastatic disease into a thyroid gland neoplasm are sh...

  9. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid - an unusual case of hyalinizing trabecular adenoma - like variant (encapsulated)

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusmita Jena; Vidya Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a neoplasm occurring in sporadic and familial patterns. A rare variant of medullary thyroid carcinoma shows microscopic features similar to hyalinizing trabecular adenoma of thyroid. Detection of this variant requires a high index of suspicion and immunohistochemical confirmation by calcitonin positivity. We present a 36 years old female patient with a thyroid nodule, which, on microscopy, displayed an encapsulated tumor with elongated cells arranged in trabecul...

  10. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  11. Computed tomography of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the main principles of CT techniques of thypoid. CT characterictics is given of the following diseases: thyreotides of Hashimoto and Ridel, adenomas, carcinomas. It is concluded that thyroid CT should take its place in the whole complex of imaging diagnostic methods as a powerful tool for early diagnosis of malignant diseases and for planning and control of treatment procedures. 58 refs

  12. Application of CD56, P63 and CK19 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alowami Salem

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC is the commonest thyroid cancer. In the recent decades an obvious increase in the incidence of PTC has occurred. The pathological diagnosis of PTC is usually an easy diagnosis in the majority of cases. However since the introduction of follicular variant of PTC and the wide threshold range in interpretation of the clearly set pathological criteria for diagnosis of PTC, between pathologists including experts, the diagnosis in some cases became quite difficu