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Sample records for malignant thyroid neoplasms

  1. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  2. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

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    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  3. The surgical management of benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms in Marshall Islanders exposed to hydrogen bomb fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobyns, B M; Hyrmer, B A

    1992-01-01

    On March 1, 1954, a serious fallout accident occurred during the United States atomic testing program at Bikini in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. Following the detonation of a large thermonuclear device (known as Bravo) an unexpected shift in winds resulted in deposition of radioactive debris on several inhabited atolls in the Marshall Islands. During the early post-detonation period military, sea, and air surveys traced the hottest portion of the parabolic cloud as it drifted in an ever widening pattern of diminishing concentration eastward and southeast of Bikini. The center of the cloud passed North of the Rongelap Atoll, which was the nearest inhabited atoll. This report concerns the development of thyroid lesions, the special circumstances encountered during thyroid surgery, and the results of the surgical management of benign and malignant lesions that were subsequently encountered in this population. PMID:1290253

  4. Efficacy of Cytokeratin 19 expression on fine needle aspiration cell blocks in pre-operative diagnosis of malignant thyroid neoplasms

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    Vimal Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Accurate diagnosis of malignant lesions of thyroid remains a challenge, especially when classical features are lacking on cytological examination. Aims: To evaluate the expression of Cytokeratin 19 (CK 19 on cell blocks made from thyroid swellings diagnosed as papillary carcinoma or follicular adenoma/carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC smears. Materials and Methods: Aspirates from fifty patients diagnosed as papillary or follicular lesions on FNAC were enrolled in the study. Cell blocks were simultaneously made along with aspiration using standard cell block techniques. These cell blocks were subjected to Cytokeratin 19 immunoassay using immunoperoxidase ABC (avidin biotin complex. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test for statistical significance and Goldman test for sensitivity and specificity. Results: Evaluation of the expression of Cytokeratin 19 on cell blocks revealed that almost all papillary thyroid carcinomas stained strongly positive while all follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas were found to be negative for CK 19 immunostaining. The difference in frequency of Cytokeratin 19 positive papillary carcinoma and follicular adenomas was statistically significant. The predictive value of a positive CK 19 test was found to be 100% while that of a negative test was 93.9%. Conclusions: Cytokeratin 19 immunostaining in conjunction with fine needle aspiration cell blocks can be a valuable marker in pre-operative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma along with its variants (sclerosing and follicular. This can help the clinician in formulation of treatment as papillary thyroid carcinoma is treated by radical measures as against the more conservative approach for benign follicular lesions.

  5. Treatment of thyroid malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinically significant thyroid malignancies are relatively uncommon, although their prevalence in autopsy series ranges up to 11%. New data confirm an increased incidence of carcinoma in solitary thyroid nodules in younger patients and a greater likelihood for younger patients to present with metastatic disease. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is controversial, although many series indicate excellent results with total thyroidectomy. Although iodine-131 ablation has been standard in most centers after total thyroidectomy when residual thyroid tissues are present, new data indicate that selective use of this therapy may be appropriate. Prophylactic neck dissection dose not improve survival or lessen recurrence in differentiated thyroid cancers and may increase morbidity. It should, therefore, be reserved for the patient with clinically enlarged cervical nodes.141 references

  6. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

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    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  7. Thermography in thyroid neoplasm diagnostics

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    Kuz' michev, A.S. (Leningradskij Pediatricheskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    Thermographic procedures were used in the examination of 70 patients suspected of bearing thyroid tumors in whom /sup 131/I scanning had revealed hypofunction of nodes (''cold'' nodes) as well as 38 patients who had been operated for thyroid tumors at different periods. Thermographic diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor was confirmed histologically in 49 cases. Pseudonegative results were established in 5 cases. Pseudopositive results were recorded in 6 out of 21 cases of benign legions of the thyroid. Recurrences were identified thermographically in 16 patients operated for thyroid tumors. No pseudonegative results were obtained.

  8. Thermography in thyroid neoplasm diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermographic procedures were used in the examination of 70 patients suspected of bearing thyroid tumors in whom 131I scanning had revealed hypofunction of nodes (''cold'' nodes) as well as 38 patients who had been operated for thyroid tumors at different periods. Thermographic diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor was confirmed histologically in 49 cases. Pseudonegative results were established in 5 cases. Pseudopositive results were recorded in 6 out of 21 cases of benign legions of the thyroid. Recurrences were identified thermographically in 16 patients operated for thyroid tumors. No pseudonegative results were obtained

  9. Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood

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    Chung, C.J.; Fordham, L.A. [Department of Radiology, UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bui, V. [School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hill, J. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Bulas, D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 34 refs.

  10. Malignant intraperitoneal neoplasms of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The purpose of this paper is to review and categorize the CT appearances of primary and secondary intraperitoneal neoplasms in children. Materials and methods. We retrospectively reviewed the CT images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms. They were reviewed for bowel wall thickening, mesenteric nodules, ascites, calcification, peritoneal nodules, omental caking, and contrast enhancement. Results. Computed tomography images of 14 cases of intraperitoneal neoplasms were evaluated: rhabdomyosarcoma (5), lymphoma (3), neuroblastoma (2), germ cell tumor (1), mesothelioma (1), Wilms tumor (1), and hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Nodular enhancement was seen in all cases, ascites in most, significant bowel wall thickening only with lymphoma, and calcification only with germ cell tumors. Omental caking was present both with rhabdomyosarcoma and lymphoma. Conclusions. While rare in pediatrics, intraperitoneal neoplasms occur in children, and CT is useful in identifying these peritoneal neoplasms. (orig.)

  11. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcao por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireide

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    Marcos Emanuel de Alcntara Segura; Albino Verosa de Magalhes

    2005-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical s...

  12. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  13. Osteosarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare primary and secondary osteosarcomas using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Methods: Osteosarcoma cases were identified in the SEER Cancer Incidence Public-Use Database, 1973-96 (1511 primary and 133 secondary osteosarcomas). Secondary osteosarcomas were further classified as occurring within or outside the previously irradiated field. Comparisons among groups were performed by nominal logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meir and proportional hazards regression. Results: Secondary osteosarcomas were more likely to have a non-extremity primary site and an older age at diagnosis (>40 years) (<0.0001 for both). Secondary osteosarcoma cases continued to be more likely to have a non-extremity site when excluding those occurring within the radiation field. Five-year overall survival was 50% lower for secondary osteosarcomas for both extremity and non-extremity sites. Primary malignancies associated with secondary osteosarcomas included 14 lymphomas/leukemias, six sarcomas, 54 carcinomas, and seven other cancers. Secondary osteosarcomas occurring within a field of radiation were more likely to occur at a younger age, have a malignancy with a primary morphology other than carcinoma, a non-limb site, and a longer duration between their primary malignant neoplasms and the development of osteosarcoma. No difference in the overall survival was noted between secondary osteosarcomas occurring within an irradiated field and those that did not. Conclusions: Secondary osteosarcomas are associated with carcinomas especially in the elderly. Although a 50% decreased 5-year survival was observed for secondary osteosarcomas in this study, this might not reflect the current outcomes with more aggressive therapy

  14. Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours is usually secondary to surgical treatment. Operation should be as radical as possible but also be connected with as little risk as possible and take account of the possibility of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy here means radioiodine therapy as well as external radiotherapy. Radioiodine therapy is employed for local treatment of the thyroid with the objective of radical tumour destruction, either to destroy tumour foci or residues in apparently normal thyroid tissue or for complete elimination of the thyroid as metastases can be detected and treated reliably only after elimination of the thyroid. Radioiodine therapy is also used for the treatment of accumulating metastases; especially in small-focus lung metastases, it has a remittent or even a curative effect. Practical aspects of 131I-therapy are discussed, including radiation protection regulations and side-effects. Generally, external megavolt therapy with an intended curative effect on the primary tumour and the regional excretory ways is used in all types of tumour with the exception of differential thyreocyte carcinomas of stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 or in case of metastases distant from the primary tumour (M1). Palliative radiotherapy should be applied as early as possible in order to prevent pathological fractures, to give relief of pain, and to reduce local symptoms. Aspects of information and guidance of the patient and after-care are discussed. Results of the treatment and the prognosis of the patient are determined by the following factors: Histology, tumour stage, sex, age. The best prognosis is given for women under 40 with differentiated carcinoma and stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 (five-years survival rate 80%). Early detection, advances in surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy, and adherence to the above guidelines have improved the prognosis significantly. (orig./MG)

  15. Aftercare of malignant thyroid growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'standard programme of aftercare for patients with malignant thyroid growths' practised in our department comprises the following measures: - Searching for residual tissues and recurrences in the neck/throat region and for metastases by means of physical examination, scintigraphy, x-ray diagnosis and laboratory tests (including determination of tumour markers); - monitoring and treatment of side effects by thyroidectomy (recurrent paresis, parathyroprival tetany); - prevention, detection and treatment of side effects of high-dosed radio-iodine therapy (on salivary glands and bone marrow) or those of cytostatic treatment (on heart muscle and bone marrow); - monitoring substitutive and suppressive treatment with thyroxines; - psychological guidance and genetic counselling. Corresponding to therapeutic approach, the overall aftercare programme is aimed primarily at papillary and follicular carcinoma and C-cell carcinoma. However, aftercare is hardly effective with anaplastic carcinoma owing to its persistently bad prognosis and its 50% survival time of some three months. (orig./MG)

  16. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

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    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

  17. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  18. Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer [to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer], medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references

  19. Second malignant neoplasms after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980 and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% 2.9%, 31.1% 6.2%, and 18.3% 3.8%, respectively). Five-year survival estimates for AML were 11.2% 2.9% for 125 patients diagnosed before 2000 and 34.1% 6.3% for 61 patients diagnosed after 2000 (P < .001); 5-year survival estimates for MDS were 17.1% 6.4% (n = 36) and 48.2% 10.6% (n = 33; P = .005). Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation failed to improve outcome of secondary myeloid malignancies after adjusting for waiting time to transplantation. Five-year survival rates were above 90% for patients with meningioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and parotid gland tumor, and 68.5% 6.4% for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Eighty-nine percent of patients with brain tumors had received cranial irradiation. Solid tumors were associated with cyclophosphamide exposure, and myeloid malignancy was associated with topoisomerase II inhibitors and starting doses of methotrexate of at least 25 mg/m(2) per week and mercaptopurine of at least 75 mg/m(2) per day. Myeloid malignancies with monosomy 7/5q- were associated with high hyperdiploid ALL karyotypes, whereas 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML or MDS was associated with ALL harboring translocations of t(9;22), t(4;11), t(1;19), and t(12;21) (P = .03). CONCLUSION: SMNs, except for brain tumors, AML, and MDS, have outcomes similar to their primary counterparts.

  20. The Profile of Heparanase Expression Distinguishes Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma from Benign Neoplasms

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    Matos, Leandro Luongo; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thrse Rachell; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Oliveira, Olivia Capela Grimaldi; Matos, Maria Graciela Luongo; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Martins, Joo Roberto Maciel; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The search for a specific marker that could help to distinguish between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign lesions remains elusive in clinical practice. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucoronidase implicated in the process of tumor invasion, and the heparanase-2 (HPSE2) modulates HPSE activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heparanases in the development and differential diagnosis of follicular pattern thyroid lesions. Methods HPSE and HPSE2 expression by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry evaluation, western blot analysis and HPSE enzymatic activity were evaluated. Results The expression of heparanases by qRT-PCR showed an increase of HPSE2 in thyroid carcinoma (P = 0.001). HPSE activity was found to be higher in the malignant neoplasms than in the benign tumors (P<0.0001). On Western blot analysis, HPSE2 isoforms were detected only in malignant tumors. The immunohistochemical assay allowed us to establish a distinct pattern for malignant and benign tumors. Carcinomas showed a typical combination of positive labeling for neoplastic cells and negative immunostaining in colloid, when compared to benign tumors (P<0.0001). The proposed diagnostic test presents sensitivity and negative predictive value of around 100%, showing itself to be an accurate test for distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusions This study shows, for the first time, a distinct profile of HPSE expression in thyroid carcinoma suggesting its role in carcinogenesis. PMID:26488476

  1. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  2. Malignant pulmonary neoplasms causing airspace consolidation : CT findings

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    To determine the CT findings of consolidative malignant neoplasms of the lung. Seventeen patients in whom pulmonary consolidation was seen on chest radiography were involved in this study. In all cases malignancy was subsequently proven;the neoplasms involved were bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (n=9), malignant lymphoma (n=4), mucoepidermoid tumor (n=1), metastasis from colon cancer (n=2), and metastasis from pancreatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (n=1). CT images were retrospectively analyzed in terms of enhancement pattern of the consolidation, morphologic appearance of an air-bronchogram, CT angiogram sign, pseudocavitation, and lymphadenopathy. Visually assessed enhancement pattern of the consolidation showed lower attenuation than adjacent muscles in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (8/9) and metastasis (1/3);isoattenuation in malignant lymphoma (3/4), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (1/1), and metastasis (1/3); and higher attenuation in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (1/9), malignant lymphoma (1/4), and metastasis (1/3). Among the 15 of 17 patients for whom an airbronchogram was available, a stretching and squeezing pattern was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). CT angiogram sign was identified in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (5/9), malignant lymphoma (2/4), and metastasis (3/3). Pseudocavitation was observed in two patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, while lymphadenopathy was seen in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (4/9), malignant lymphoma (3/4), and metastasis (1/3). Conglomerate and extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are commonly associated with malignant lymphoma. Malignant neoplasms which apper as consolidative lung lesions appear not only as bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, which is well known, but also in other forms. Although these lesions cannot be differentiated on the basis of air-bronchography and CT angiography, poor enhancement of consolidative lesion and pseudocavitation are characteristic findings of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, and conglomerate or extrathoracic lymphadenopathy are also characteristic of malignant lymphoma

  3. Benign vs. Malignant Skin Adnexal Neoplasms: How Useful are Silhouettes?

    OpenAIRE

    Rajalakshmi Tirumalae; M O Roopa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Skin adnexal tumors are daunting diagnostic problems. Cytologic atypia does not always imply malignancy and "typia" does not underscore a benign course. Bernard Ackerman first described criteria on silhouettes that enable distinction between the two. Aims: To evaluate the histologic features on silhouettes of benign and malignant skin adnexal tumors. To identify overlaps and confounding features. Materials and Methods: A blinded retrospective review of all skin adnexal neoplasms b...

  4. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hadjidakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkins disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

  5. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

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    Okada Masafumi; Wagatsuma Yukiko; Kinoshita Setsuko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003). Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to g...

  6. Thyroid Malignancies in Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Michaelson, Evan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Silver, Barbara; Tishler, Roy B.; Marcus, Karen J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Stevenson, Mary Ann [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ng, Andrea K., E-mail: ang@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and the Children' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the incidence of thyroid cancer after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and determine disease characteristics, risk factors, and treatment outcomes. Methods and Materials: Thyroid cancer cases were retrospectively identified from a multi-institutional database of 1981 HL patients treated between 1969 and 2008. Thyroid cancer risk factors were evaluated by a Poisson regression model. Results: With a median follow-up duration of 14.3years (range, 0-41.2years), 28 patients (1.4%) developed a thyroid malignancy. The overall incidence rate (expressed as the number of cases per 10,000 person-years) and 10-year cumulative incidence of thyroid cancer were 9.6 and 0.26%, respectively. There were no observed cases of thyroid malignancy in patients who received neck irradiation for HL after age 35years. Age <20years at HL diagnosis andfemale sex were significantly associated with thyroid cancer. The incidence rates of females aged <20 at HL diagnosis in the first 10years, ?10years, ?15years, and ?20years after treatment were 5, 31, 61, and 75 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. At a median follow-up of 3.5years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, 26 patients (93%) were alive without disease, 1 (4%) was alive with metastatic disease, and 1 (4%) died of metastatic disease, at 6 and 3.6years after the thyroid cancer diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions: Although HL survivors have an increased risk for thyroid cancer, the overall incidence is low. Routine thyroid cancer screening may benefit females treated at a young age and ?10years from HL treatment owing to their higher risk, which increases over time.

  7. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-12

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of ovarian malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four patients with ovarian malignant tumor were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The findings were reviewed and compared with surgical findings concerning tumor invasion to the bladder, the uterus, and the rectum. The accuracy of MRI evaluation of the presence of ascites was also reviewed. The MRI analysis classifications were as follows: 1) fat, colon or small intestine between the tumor and the organs, 2-a) absence of fat layer and compression of organs by the cystic area of the tumor, 2-b) absence of fat layer and compression of organs by the solid part of the tumor, 3) the organs were deformed by the tumor or the interface of the organ and the tumor was obliterated. Groups 1) and 2-a) were considered to be free of invasion while 2-b) and 3) were considered to indicate invasion. Using these criteria, the accuracy of evaluation of invasion was 71% for the uterus, 73% for the bladder and 74% for the rectum. Accurate detection of ascites was made in only 68%. The MRI sagittal plane can directly show the relationship between the uterus, the bladder and the tumor, so that diagnosis of tumor invasion by MR imaging is easier than by CT. However, MRI could not differentiate between ascites and invasion nor demonstrate ascites as accurately as CT. (author)

  9. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Secondary neoplasms following treatment of malignant germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study investigates the frequency and outcome of secondary malignancies in patients treated for testicular cancer between 1970 and 1990. Chemotherapy containing standard-dose etoposide did not increase the risk of occurrence of secondary neoplasms. A significantly elevated relative risk of 7.53 (range , 3.4 to 14.3) was only found for patients treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG)

  11. Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Benarroch-Gampel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries. Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers. There is no clear etiology for the development of secondary malignancies in patients with IPMN. Although population-based studies have shown different results from single institution studies regarding the exact incidence of additional primary cancers in IPMN patients, both have reached the same conclusion: there is a higher incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies in patients with IPMNs than in the general population. This finding has significant clinical implications for both the initial evaluation and the subsequent long-term follow-up of patients with IPMNs. If a patient has not had recent colonoscopy, this should be performed during the evaluation of a newly diagnosed IPMN. Upper endoscopy should be performed in patients from Asian countries or for those who present with symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal disease. Routine screening studies (breast and prostate should be carried out as currently recommended for patient’s age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

  12. Second Malignant Neoplasms after Radio-Chemotherapy of Hodgkins Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to identify the second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL)in long-term survivors (LTS) of Hodgkins disease (HD) patients who were regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI). 42 LTS were studied. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files were revised for date of diagnoses, original site(s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on blood pressure, pulse, chest and cardiac examination, visceromegaly and the presence of lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations included CBC, ESR and bone marrow aspirate and/or biopsy. Radiodiagnostic studies were done whenever indicated. One LTS had acute myeloid leukemia [AML] as a second malignant neoplasm. Finally, the study documented the risk of secondary malignancy [AML] was one of the long-term sequelae of radio-chemotherapy in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD and Screening for early detection of late effects were discussed. New strategies with reduction or elimination of radiation dose are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children.

  13. Actinomycosis of the parotid masquerading as malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland is of rare occurrence and can mimic a malignant neoplasm both clinically as well as radiologically. We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. Clinical presentation of cervico-facial actinomycosis is characterized by the presence of a suppurative or indurative mass with discharging sinuses. The lesion demonstrates characteristic features on fine needle aspiration cytology and histology, however at times the findings are equivocal

  14. Four primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60-year-old Caucasian male, with a previous history of a 10-year occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and a long history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, developed synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Four years later, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were diagnosed. In this case report, we suggest that increased exposure to multiple carcinogenic factors may result in an increased incidence of both synchronous and metachronous primary malignant neoplasms

  15. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Baruchel, Andre; Devidas, Meenakshi; Escherich, Gabriele; Gibson, Brenda; Heydrich, Christiane; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Michel, Grard; Pieters, Rob; Piette, Caroline; Pui, Ching-Hon; Raimondi, Susana; Silverman, Lewis; Stanulla, Martin; Stark, Batia; Winick, Naomi; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980...... and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% 2.9%, 31.1% 6.2%, and 18.3% 3.8%, respectively). Five...

  16. Actinomycosis of the parotid masquerading as malignant neoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland is of rare occurrence and can mimic a malignant neoplasm both clinically as well as radiologically. Case presentation We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. Conclusions Clinical presentation of cervico-facial actinomycosis is characterized by the presence of a suppurative or indurative mass with discharging sinuses. The lesion demonstrates characteristic features on fine needle aspiration cytology and histology, however at times the findings are equivocal.

  17. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

  18. Multiple primary malignant neoplasm and radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasm and radiation induced cancer were discussed based on the experiences of Tokyo Women's Medical College in which radiotherapy has been mainly used for cancer. These cases have been increasing in number and it seems t o be that the problems of them shall be gradualy developed in future, because survival time of cancer patients become longer due to improvement of cancer treatment. But if the mechanisms of cancer etiology on which radiation and other many things influence, whoud not be clear, radiotherapy have been still principal post in cancer treatment. Systemical multidisciplinary treatment of cancer must be considered and we are looking forward to establishing it. (author)

  19. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  20. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primrio da glndula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; Joo Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 11 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  1. Galectin-3: A promising marker of thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cveji? Dubravka S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Galectin-3 is an endogenous beta-galactoside binding lectin implicated in neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. High levels of this lectin have recently been found in malignant thyroid tumors, but not in normal or benign thyroid tissue, suggesting galectin-3 as a promising presurgical marker of thyroid malignancy. Methods: We analyzed immunohistochemically galectin-3 expression in thyroid tissue using a monoclonal antibody. The total of 108 tissue specimens included 55 cases of thyroid carcinoma (30 papillary, 15 follicular, and 10 anaplastic type, 15 samples of follicular adenoma, 15 samples of normal thyroid tissue, and 23 thyroid tissue specimens from human fetuses (16 to 37 weeks of intrauterine life. Results: The results showed galectin-3 expression in 20/30 papillary carcinomas, 11/15 follicular carcinomas, 10/10 anaplastic carcinomas, and 4/15 follicular adenomas. Thyroid follicular cells in normal adult and fetal tissue were negative. Conclusions: These results further confirm that galectin-3 expression is a feature of malignant thyroid cells, and that immunohistochemical detection of galectin-3 could be useful in thyroid carcinoma diagnostics. The absence of galectin-3 in thyroid cells during fetal development suggests that galectin-3 is expressed de novo during malignant transformation of thyroid epithelium, thus it should not be considered an oncofetal antigen.

  2. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Alves Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enlargement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

  3. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  4. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-05-15

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  5. Secondary Malignant Neoplasms Following Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bomken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving survival rates in children with malignancy have been achieved at the cost of a high frequency of late adverse effects of treatment, especially in intensively treated patients such as those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, many of whom suffer the high burden of chronic toxicity. Secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs are one of the most devastating late effects, cause much morbidity and are the most frequent cause of late (yet still premature treatment-related mortality. They occur in up to 7% of HSCT recipients by 20 years post-HSCT, and with no evidence yet of a plateau in incidence with longer follow-up. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and risk factors of the three main categories of post-HSCT SMNs. A wide range of solid SMNs has been described, usually occurring 10 years or more post-HSCT, related most often to previous or conditioning radiotherapy. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplasia occurs earlier, typically three to seven years post-HSCT, mainly in recipients of autologous transplant and is related to previous alkylating agent or topoisomerase II inhibitor chemotherapy. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders occur early (usually within two years post-HSCT, usually presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  6. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of 67Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. 67Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential

  7. Corticosteroid correction of leukopenia in radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy, depression of hematopoiesis, particularly leukopoiesis, is a common attendant phenomenon presenting a complex therapeutic problem that is not readily solved. On account of this and in connection with some reports in te literature, the Roentgenology and Radiology Chair at the Sofia Medical Faculty has undertaken a study of corticosteroid leukostimulating effects in 25 female patients with extinct ovarian function. These patients with carcinomas were distributed as follows. By site of carcinoma: 11, uterus; 8, breast; 5, ovarium; 1, larynx. By clinical stage: 3, first stage; 13, second stage; 8, third stage; 1, forth stage. By degree of leukopenia: 4, light (3000-4000); 20, intermediate (2000-3000); 1, severe (1000-2000). Five of the patients were given corticosteroids alone; the remaining 20, corticosteroids plus conventional leukostimulators (leukogen, leuko-4, folic acid, vitamin B6). The following results were obtained: averaged over the group, leukopenia correction time was of 5.96 days per patient; rise in leukocyte counts relative to initial levels, by 79%. For comparison, observations were made on a control group of 25 patients with the same pathologic entities, who were given no corticosteroids but only the above mentioned conventional leukostimulators. Findings in this group were as follows: average correction time, 9.16 days; rise in leukocyte counts, by 22%. These results give us reason to assume that corticosteroids may be a good means for obtaining a more rapid and effective correction of leukopenias in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. (author)

  8. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003. Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to global solar radiation level. People residing in regions with lower solar radiation and lower temperatures may be at higher risk of development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and climatic factors, such as the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in Japan. Results The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034 and -2.81 (p Conclusion This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.

  9. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Hahn, Peter F. [Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Shirkhoda, Ali [Dept. of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine (United States); Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  10. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma

  11. Unusual Malignant Solid Neoplasms of the Kidney: Cross-Sectional Imaging Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaosmano?lu, Ali Devrim; Shirkhoda, Ali; Ozmen, Mustafa; Hahn, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma. PMID:26175585

  12. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis—Rendering a Diagnosis Based on Recognition of an Unusual Primary Thyroid Neoplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Berean, Kenneth W; Owen, David A.; Eric M. Yoshida; Schaeffer, David F.

    2011-01-01

    It has been well established in the literature that the cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) has been observed with higher frequency in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients. In the usual setting, patients with FAP are identified based on their germline mutations and the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm is made after the FAP diagnosis. We herein report a case in which the recognition of a CMVPTC led to the initial diagnosis of FAP. The histological and clini...

  13. Spatio-temporal models for incidence of malignant neoplasms in the area subjected to radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from oncology studies performed in the Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia on the number of new patients with cancer (including leukemia) from 1980 through 1990 in 12 regions adjacent to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are summarized in this paper. Spatio-temporal models for determining the incidence of malignant diseases in the population were developed. The analysis of possible correlations between dose equivalents and incidence of cancer in populations living in the contaminated areas were performed. The incidence of malignant neoplasms, including hemoblastoses, was found to be trending upward during both the pre- and post-accident periods, and the increases were not related to radiation dose. There have been no statistically significant increases in incidences of any tumors (with the possible exception of thyroid tumors), attributable to radiation doses, even in the most contaminated open-quotes controlled areaclose quotes (CA). Three cases of thyroid cancer in 1990 in children living in areas where considerable amounts of radioactive iodine were deposited suggests that the absorbed doses from the intake of radioiodine may have resulted in an increased incidence of thyroid cancers. However, this and other conclusions of the study are necessarily limited by the fact that this is an ecological study with no data on individual cancer cases, and the limited follow-up period of the results of the study signify the need for thorough epidemiological studies based on the study of individuals. 3 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  14. [Echo-guided needle biopsy of the thyroid. An assessment of 52 thyroid neoplasms found in 1042 consecutive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzoi, F; Santini, E; Solivetti, F M; Bacaro, D; Nardi, F

    1991-12-01

    The authors report on a series of 1,043 fine-needle biopsies of the thyroid performed under US guidance; the patients had been selected for thyroid pathologic conditions. Fifty-two neoplasms were observed (46 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 2 follicular carcinomas, and 3 metastases), which had been detected by cytology and confirmed by histology or autopsy. The authors focus on 46 cases of papillary carcinoma: their US features were studied which, through a correlation of variables, allow a quick and "safe" recognition of the type of carcinoma (papillary carcinomas account for nearly 60% of thyroid neoplasms). Tumor echogenicity and outline, and the presence/absence of calcifications were evaluated: in most cases, papillary carcinomas presented as focal lesions (alone or associated with other goiter lesions), with irregular and blurred outline, no hypo/anechoic halo and, in about 1/3 of the cases, with calcifications and colliquative areas. In 17% of papillary neoplasms, metastases to loco-regional nodes were observable at US; in 3 cases the carcinoma did involve a loco-regional node but there were no US signs suggestive of it. The incidence of neoplasms on the total of fine-needle biopsies is 4.9%, while in a previous series of 3,038 fine-needle biopsies, without US guidance, on clinically detectable lesions, the figure was about 2%. PMID:1788432

  15. Histologically benign but clinically malignant neoplasms in the thorax: CTpathological overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this article is to review the computed tomography (CT) and histopathological features of uncommon primary neoplasms of the thorax that can manifest clinically malignant features (multiplicity of pulmonary nodules, an invasive nature, and metastases or recurrence after surgery) with little evidence of histological malignancy.

  16. Reconsideration of the use of 99Tcm-MIBI thyroid imaging for detection of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To reconsider the use of 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) thyroid imaging for detection of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules. Methods: One hundred and one of 106 thyroid nodules patients underwent routine 99TcmO4- scan first, then after injection of 370 MBq 99Tcm-MIBI dual-phase (15 min and 2 h) thyroid imaging was performed in all 106 patients within 1 week. After operation the result of thyroid imaging was compared with pathologic findings. Results: Among 5/13 cases of thyroid malignancy and 23/93 of benign nodules, 99Tcm-MIBI imaging showed positive result. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 99Tcm-MIBI scintigraphy were 38.5%, 75.3%, 17.9% and 89.7%, respectively. No statistics difference was found between benign and malignant thyroid nodules χ2=0.49, P > 0.05). Conclusions: 99Tcm-MIBI thyroid imaging is not specific for thyroid malignancy. Thereby its clinical value is limited. (authors)

  17. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Scintigraphic and clinical evaluation of nontoxic thyroid neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    256 patients were referred to the endocrinic clinic because of enlarged thyroid gland. All of them except one were subjected to thyroid scintigraphy (TS). The scintiscans were cold in 123 patients. The cold scintiscans were distributed evenly on the various referral diagnoses with half the patients of each group having cold TS. A total of 216 of the referred patients underwent surgery, among them the 123 with cold TS. Five patients were found to have thyroid cancer (TC), none of whom had been referred with this diagnosis. For the entire material the incidence of TC was 2,3% (95% confidence limits: 0.8-5.7%). Calculated on the basis of those patients who had cold TS, the incidence was 2,4% (95% confidence limits: 0.8-7.1%). It is concluded that the diagnosis of TC is difficult to extablish preoperatively, and that TS is of no greater diagnostic value in this connection

  19. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon Ratnatunga; Eranga Himalee Siriweera

    2010-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

  20. Predictive Factors of Malignancy in Residual Thyroid Tissue after Partial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gokay, Ferhat; Berker, Dilek; Arduc, Ayse; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Isik, Serhat; Dagdelen, Iffet; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Guler, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAlthough partial thyroidectomy has lower operative risk, it potentially caries the risk of leaving residual malignancy. The aim of this study was to establish malignancy rate in residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who underwent partial thyroid surgery and subsequently had completion thyroidectomy. We also investigated a number of clinical and biochemical factors that may anticipate the presence of malignancy in the thyroid remnant. Data of 58...

  1. Osteosarcoma as Malignant Mural Nodule in Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms of Intestinal Type: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Marie; Dina, Roberto; Fisher, Cyril; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2015-07-01

    Mural nodules, which may be benign or malignant, are well recognized in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, especially of borderline type. Malignant mural nodules most commonly comprise anaplastic carcinoma but sarcomas of various types have been reported. We report 2 cases of osteosarcoma occurring in young women (aged 18 and 34) as malignant mural nodules in a Grade 1 ovarian mucinous carcinoma of intestinal type and a borderline mucinous tumor of intestinal type. Primary osteosarcomas of the ovary have been described either arising within a teratoma or as a pure neoplasm but, to the best of our knowledge, osteosarcoma occurring as a mural nodule in an ovarian mucinous neoplasm has not been reported. In both our cases, the tumor was Stage 1 at presentation and the patients were treated with surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. Both patients are free of disease with follow-up of 12 and 18 mo. PMID:25760909

  2. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris. [X radiation

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    Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls.

  3. Radionuclide therapy in the treatment of thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleevi? Milica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the principles of performance of radionuclide therapy, its adverse effect, together with mentioned complications obligation to use it only according to directions and the success of the therapy, which is seen through the length of a patient's survival rate. All types of thyroid malignancies are primary cured surgically, by the total or near-total thyreoidectomy, together with lymph node dissection of the neck and with a long-term suppressive- therapy or only substitutive L-thyroxin therapy. Radionuclide therapy is used only for the types of thyroid malignancies where a radionuclide was detected, beta emitter which is distinguished by its selective entering into the primary tumor and metastatic tissue. This therapy is used for patients with differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (DTC and patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. By the means of 131-I we additionally cure patients with DTC, by MIBG-131-I we treat patients with MTC, but we also try to cure this malignancy by the specific monoclonal antibodies, marked by 131-I or 90-Y, which is still a part of clinical trial studies. It is very likely that the radioimmune therapy will be the means of cure for malignant thyroid lymphoma (MLT, since this therapy is successful in healing the lymphomas in other locations.

  4. Clinical-morphological characteristic of bening thyroid neoplasms in children and adolescents of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained testify to an increase in the number of children and adolescents operated on for thyroid benign neoplasms after the Chernobyl accident.According to pathohistological diagnosis nodular and multinodular goiters were the most frequent.A tendency towards a decrease in the percentage of follicular adenomas and cystadenomas was observed in spite of an increase in the absolute number of cases.All these changes in structure of benign surgical thyroid pathology allow us to presuppose radiation effects and demand more careful epidemiological and radiological analysis

  5. Malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Noriko; Ozawa, Yasunori

    2005-07-01

    Reported herein is a rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 71-year-old woman with a past history of chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaints were rapidly growing neck mass, weight loss and hoarseness. Presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood, and an increase in anti-microsome antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were found on preoperative laboratory tests. A diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD4 predominance. Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed. No adjuvant therapy was performed because of the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 25 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. The present case suggests that Hashimoto's thyroiditis might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of thyroid lymphoma not only of B-cell lineage but also of T-cell lineage. PMID:15982218

  6. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus expert opinion and retrospective analysis with inherent bias. With a growing trend not to ablate low-risk patients, so that a PTS cannot be performed, some thyroid carcinoma patients may never have radioiodine imaging. In routine clinical practice, however, imaging plays a critical role in patient management both before and after treatment. Moreover, as evidenced by the robust flow of publications concerning WBS and PTS, planar imaging of thyroid carcinoma remains a topic of great interest in this modern age of rapidly advancing cross sectional and hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography/CT, and positron emission tomography/CT. PMID:22117813

  7. Thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodules in hematological malignancies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrizia, Mondello; Alessandro, Sindoni; Vincenzo, Pitini; Claudio, Scisca; Giuseppe, Altavilla; Salvatore, Benvenga.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Hematological malignancies encompass a large spectrum of disease entities whose treatment by chemo/radiotherapy could lead to thyroid complications. To the best of our knowledge, no study has simultaneously addressed thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodularity. Therefore, we decided to c [...] onduct one.Materials and methods We evaluated 82 Caucasian patients (36 women and 46 men), who were treated at our Oncology division for hematological malignancies (multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and polycythemia vera) and compared them with a control group of 104 patients. Patients who had received or were receiving external head/neck radiotherapy were excluded. All oncological patients and control individuals underwent thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function and autoimmunity tests.Results A lower prevalence of enlarged thyroid and nodules were found in patients with respect to controls. The rate of thyroid nodules was the highest in multiple myeloma and polycythemia vera, and the lowest in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had the smallest thyroid nodules while men with multiple myeloma the biggest ones. No patient had hypothyroidism, while 5.6% of patients had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, within the control group the rates of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, overt and subclinical, were 3.8%, 20.2%, 0% and 0% respectively. Moreover, the overall rate of thyroid autoantibody positiveness in patients was significantly lower than controls.Conclusion In our experience, we found a significantly lower prevalence of thyroid abnormalities in hematologic patients who underwent chemotherapy, but not radiotherapy, with respect to controls. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):236-44

  8. The thyroid malignancies at the Esslingen Radiation Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns itself with the results of the therapy of thyroid malignancies in the years 1968-1979. The frequency of differentiated/undifferentiated tumors was 90.9/9.1%, follicular/papillary carcinomas 71.4/19.5%. Three times as many women suffer from thyroid cancer as men. Differentiated carcinomas appear preferably in middle age (50 a), undifferentiated around 60 to 70 years. Papillary carcinomas metastasise in 26.7% of the cases in the neck region and 6.7% in the lungs, follicular in 34.5%, the most frequent, in the lungs. The therapy method used was I 131 and/or telecobalt. The 3-year survival rate with undifferentiated tumors was 27%, the 5-year survival rate of papillary carcinoma was 40%, of follicular carcinoma 33%. Clearly papillary carcinomas have the best prognosis of all thyroid malignancies, especially when they appear in younger patients. (orig./TRV)

  9. [The impact of public health system on mortality of malignant neoplasms in Voronezh oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, P E; Kuralesina, E N

    2013-01-01

    The total mortality and population mortality of main classes of diseases and single causes of death are to be considered in operative and strategic planning of development of national economy and industry In the Russian Federation, the decrease of mortality of neoplasms including malignant ones up to 190 per 100 000 of population in 2020 will be one of indicators of effectiveness of implementation of the State program of development of public health in the Russian Federation. The study was organized to determine the possibility to impact the level and dynamics of mortality of malignant neoplasms by means of variation of managed factors on the basis of indicators of activity of public health system. The main indicators of population health and activity of health institutions of Voronezh oblast were analyzed. The methods of mathematical statistics, management theory, system analysis and mathematical modeling were applied. To study the impact of managed factors on mortality of malignant neoplasms on the territory of Voronezh oblast the analysis of correlation interdependency was applied concerning 162 factors characterizing condition and activity of public health system according oblast districts and level of mortality of malignant neoplasms among adult population. The combinations of factors were calculated using the model to determine the level of prospective mortality to come in certain time after implementation of activities changing the given levels of factors. The data concerning qualitative interrelationship of indicators of condition and functioning of network of health institutions with indicators of level and dynamics of mortality of malignant neoplasms can be applied to model and forecast and to evaluate the current and forthcoming situation according indicators of mentioned mortality on the territory of Voronezh oblast in development of comprehensive plan of activities targeted to decreasing of this indicator. PMID:24432574

  10. Prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with previous history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood (in khorosan province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased prevalence of thyroid cancer was noted in patients with previous history of radiotherapy of the head and neck region in childhood. According to previous research, radiotherapy for Ti nia capitis was using up to 30 years ago in Khorasan Province. This study tries to evaluate prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and detect and treat these patients earlier to prevent more complications and increased cost. Methods and patients: Using mass media, we recalled all patients with history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood. A questionnaire was filled for each patient and thyroid examination, thyroid scan and thyroid sonography were performed. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was done if a thyroid nodule larger than 1 cm was palpable. Serum TSH was measured in all patients. Also thyroid surgery was recommended for all patients with thyroid nodules more than 1 cm. A control group was defined from a group of patients who referred for non thyroidal sonography to radiology department of Ghaem hospital. These patients also were evaluated by clinical examination and thyroid sonography. Results: We studied 180 patients with mean age of 47.7 years and 127 age and sex m etched controls. Thyroid nodules was palpated in 45.5% of patients and 7% of controls (P0.01). The mean largest diameter of nodules were 24.8 mm in patients and 10.8 mm in control group (P<0.001). 75% of patients were agreed with FNAB and 5% of them had suspicious cytology results. No suspicious or malignant results was noted in control group. Twenty seven patients (33.7%) were operated. Pathological results were benign in 89.9% and malignant in 1% of patients. His study showed that thyroid nodules and thyroid neo plasma were significantly more larger in the patients group. Thyroid neoplasm were more frequent in younger patients with latent thyroid (from radiotherapy) of less than 40 years, so aggressive evaluation is recommended in these group

  11. The utility of PAX5 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristin C; Higgins, John P T; Montgomery, Kelli; Kaygusuz, Gulsah; van de Rijn, Matt; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2007-08-01

    PAX5 is a B-cell transcription factor whose expression at the protein level is reliably detected by immunohistochemistry in routine biopsies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PAX5 immunohistochemistry has diagnostic benefit as a B-cell marker in the work-up of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. Twenty-five cases previously diagnosed as undifferentiated malignant neoplasms were selected. In addition, 59 hematolymphoid and 884 non-hematolymphoid malignancies were studied such that the specificity of PAX5 immunohistochemistry could be addressed. Two of the 25 (8%) undifferentiated neoplasms showed diffuse staining for PAX5, which indicated a B-cell derivation for these neoplasms that was not appreciated at the time of initial diagnosis. PAX5 staining was detected in the vast majority of hematolymphoid tumors of B-cell derivation but only in 5 of 884 (less than 1%) non-hematolymphoid tumors. Our results further show that PAX5 may be the only detectable marker of B lineage in lymphomas that lack or show equivocal CD45RB and CD20 expression. We conclude that the addition of PAX5 to a panel of immunohistologic markers used in the interrogation of undifferentiated neoplasms is of diagnostic benefit. Its expression can also facilitate the diagnosis of classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with atypical morphologic and immunohistologic features. Lastly, we have shown that the lack of its expression at the protein level in many epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms renders PAX5 expression an extremely specific marker of the B lineage. PMID:17529924

  12. A rare case of metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting as primary renal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Thyroid cancer is one of the common neoplasms accounting for 2% of all diagnosed neoplasms. Papillary carcinoma, If diagnosed and treated with radio iodine after thyroidectomy well in time, offers excellent survival benefit. Role of Radio iodine Whole body scan is crucial in these cases in detecting focal lesions and metastases. Common sites of metastases include cervical LN, trachea, esophagus, lungs, bones and brain. Metastases to kidneys are very rare and reported in very few cases. Our case is a 72 yrs old mother of serving soldier, a known case of CAD, DM, and HTN admitted with insidious onset right flank abdominal pain. Clinical examination revealed BP of 170/100mmHg, no pallor, edema or puffiness. Abdomen examination revealed mild tenderness in the right renal angle. There was no free fluid or organomegaly. Subsequent evaluation with USG was inclusive. MRI abdomen revealed a mass lesion involving lower pole and distorting intra renal structures. The lesion was seen extending in to right renal artery. A diagnosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) was made. She underwent right radical nephrectomy. Biopsy of post operative specimen revealed surprising histo pathological features of metastatic Papillary carcinoma of thyroid. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and thyroid specimen confirmed follicular variant of Papillary Carcinoma Thyroid in the setting of multiple hypoechoic nodules. She had a markedly elevated Serum Thyroglobulin of 2118.0 ng/ml. Post operative 131I Whole Body Scan revealed residual functional thyroid with skeletal metastases. She was given high dose radio iodine ablation with 218 mCi. She was reviewed twice subsequently in Feb 2009 and Aug 2009. She was given 221 mCi of 131I ablation given for solitary residual bone mets with raised Tg (345 ng/ml) while Aug 2009 WB Scan was normal along with normal serum Tg (2.1 ng/ml).This case describes an unusual case of elderly lady with FVPTC presenting as renal mass suspected to be a case of RCC with extension in to renal vein which would have carried worst prognosis as compared to thyroid carcinoma which was successfully made disease free over last two years. Treatment of kidney mass led to the discovery of primary thyroid neoplasm and its specific treatment. This also highlights importance of structural imaging such as USG,CT and MRI and subsequent histopathological confirmation

  13. Radiation markers in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of the decontamination workers with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The character of the dose dependence of radiation markers (dicentric chromosomes) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of the decontamination workers both with malignant neoplasms and other diseases is studied. In spite of remote terms of the studies resulted in elimination of a significant part of radiation markers from peripheral blood, the 'dose-effect' dependence remains only in the group with neoplasms. In the group with diseases of the nervous system, blood circulation, digestive system, etc., this dependence is expressed weaker or unavailable at all. We offer to consider the availability of dicentric chromosomes to be a reason to include these persons into the group of especially high oncologic risk

  14. Second malignancies following the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To see the incidence of second cancers in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after being treated with radioiodine. Medical records of 814 (417 males, 397 females) patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka were reviewed. The purpose was to investigate the incidence of second cancer in these patients after radioiodine therapy. The age range of the patient population treated with radioiodine was 9 to 69 years. Doses of radioiodine given were in the range of 30 to 100mCi for ablation and 150 to 250mCi for treatment of metastasis. The median follow-up period was 93.7± 15 months. Eleven (1.35 %) of the 814 patients developed a second malignancy. Two patients (0.25%) developed chronic myelogenous leukemia within a latency period of 5 years and after receiving a cumulative dose of 600- 670mCi. The over all incidence of second malignancy in the form of solid tumors was 1.10%. Of the nine patients with solid tumors, there were two patients with renal cell carcinoma, three patients with parotid gland tumor, one patient with pancreatic cancer, one with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, one with carcinoid tumor and one with small cell carcinoma of the lungs. The mean latency period for development of these tumors was 6.92 ± 3.934 years and the mean cumulative dose received by all these patients was 537.25±120.55 mCi. Follow-up of a fairly large cohort of patients treated with radioiodine showed a low incidence of second neoplasm. No relation was observed between the cumulative dose received and the development of a second malignancy. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease, which may be associated with other malignancies. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of radioiodine therapy should be considered. (author)

  15. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriuchi, N.; Korkmaz, M.; Kim, E.E.; Delpassand, E.S.; Wong, F.; Podoloff, D.A. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wallace, S. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1998-03-01

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of {sup 111}In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. {sup 111}In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  16. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  17. An epidemiologic study of thyroid malignancies - impact of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the design and the first results of a case-control epidemiological study of thyroid malignancies. The cases are patients with the most common radiation-related histological type - differentiated papillar or follicular carcinomas, diagnosed after 1991. Sex and age corresponding controls are patients from different hospitals having no thyroid or oncological diseases. The estimations of individual doses from medical and occupational irradiation as well from the Chernobyl accident are based on data from inquiries and information available in the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia. Provided is a comparison of the radiation factors with non-radiation agents as goitrogens and chemicals. (author)

  18. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  19. Ectopic production of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin by malignant ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and specific radio-immunoassay for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin(?-HCG) was performed on serum samples from 18 patients with large pelvic masses. No ?-HCG level was detectable in 8 patients with either benign ovarian tumours or non-ovarian masses. Ten patients had a malignant ovarian neoplasm, and 6 of these (60%) had raised ?-HCG levels. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary was the commonest malignant tumour (6/10) and the ?-HCG was raised in 4 patients (66,6%) with this tumour. Serum ?-HCG values therefore appear to be useful in the management of ovarian neoplasms, both for the early diagnosis of occult tumour and for monitoring response to treatment

  20. Radiobiological aspects of long-term epidemiological study of malignant lung neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 33 years' study of uranium miners with a cumulated uptake of radon daughters of 220 WLM (working level months), an incidence of malignant lung neoplasms was found exceeding almost 5 times the neoplasm rate expected for the general population. The additional annual risk of a neoplasm was 21x10-6 WLM-1 and the relative risk coefficient was 1.4% for 1 WLM. The risk level of lung neoplasms was affected by age at the time of irradiation, by the mode of dose cumulation, and to a varying extent a simultaneous inhibition (sterilization) effect of irradiation and a decrease in carcinogenic effect with the time after irradiation was seen. A lung neoplasm incidence significantly exceeding the expected one, first occurred in the 6th year after exposure to the risk had started, the maximum excess was seen in the 22nd year, and starting with year 33 the observed and expected incidences did not differ. The mean time interval between the start of exposure and death was 20.37.0 years. (A.K.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  1. Patologa maligna tiroidea. Hospital Sabogal, Callao / Malignant thyroid pathology. Callao, Sabogal Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Or; Marco, Otrola.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las caractersticas clnicas del cncer de tiroides encontrados en la poblacin del Callao. Diseo: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Material y Mtodos: Se revis las historias clnicas de las intervenciones quirrgicas de la glndula tiroides en el Hospital Nacional Alberto [...] Sabogal Sologuren (HNASS), en el periodo enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2002, cuyo resultado por anatoma patolgica fue compatible con neoplasia maligna de dicha glndula. Resultados: Las 45 neoplasias malignas primarias de tiroides encontradas representaron 34,2% de la patologa tiroidea operada en el periodo en estudio. El carcinoma papilar se present en 100% de los pacientes de sexo masculino y en 82% del sexo femenino; en la mujer, los carcinomas folicular, medular y linfoma representaron 10,3%, 5,1% y 2,6%, respectivamente. El grupo etreo con mayor incidencia fue entre 50 y 69 aos, con una edad promedio de 53 aos. Dentro de los diferentes tipos de neoplasias malignas, el ms frecuente fue el papilar con 38 casos (84,4%), seguido de los carcinomas folicular y medular con 8,9% y 4,4%, respectivamente. El sntoma ms frecuente fue el aumento de volumen (61,5%), seguido de dolor (15,4%), disfagia (10,8%) y disfona (9,2%); 29,6% se encontraba en estadio I y 59,1% en estadio II; slo 11,4% estaba en estadio III. Conclusiones: El predominio de casos en mujeres del carcinoma papilar y la clnica asociada, fueron acordes con lo descrito en la literatura. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer at Callaos population. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Material y Methods: Clinical histories and surgical reports that involved the thyroid gland were reviewed. The pathology result had to be compatible with primar [...] y thyroid malignant neoplasm. The study was performed at the Alberto Sabogal Sologuren National Hospital (HNASS) during the period January 2000 through December 2002. Results: Forty-five thyroid malignant neoplasms were identified representing 34,2% of all thyroid neoplasms operated during the period studied. In males papillary carcinoma was present in 100% of cases and in females in 82,1%, followed by both follicular and medullar carcinoma and lymphoma, in 10,2%, 5,1% and 2,6%, respectively. Major incidence was in the 50 to 69 years group, average 53 years. The most frequent malignant neoplasms were papillary carcinoma with 38 cases (84,4%), follicular and medullary carcinoma with 8,9% and 4,4%, respectively. Most frequent symptoms were growing tumor (61,5%), local pain (15,4%), dysphagia (10,8%) and dysphonia (9,2%); 29,6% of cases were on stage I, 59,1% on stage II, and only 11,4% on stage III. Conclusions: Papillary carcinoma occurred mainly in women and clinical features were as described in the literature.

  2. Glioneuronal Neoplasms with Malignant Histological Features: A Study of 36 Cases

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    Tar?k T?HAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malignant glioneuronal tumors show considerable morphological diversity. Their biological behavior and clinicopathological characteristics are incompletely understood. With the exception of anaplastic ganglioglioma, they are not assigned to a specific entity in the current WHO classification. It is also not clear whether histological features of these neoplasms influence prognosis.Material and Method: We identified 36 glioneuronal tumors with malignant histological features among the departmental archives and neuropathology consultation files of the authors. We reviewed the pathological and radiological features of these tumors to construct a preliminary histological categorization.Results: Based on their pathological features, we divided the study group into three histologically distinct categories: 1 glioneuronal tumors with a malignant glial component (anaplastic gangliogliomas; 2 glioneuronal tumors with a malignant neuronal/neuroblastic component; 3 glioneuronal tumors with both malignant neuronal and glial components. All tumors occurred in a younger age group compared to glioblastomas and appeared radiologically well-defined, cystic and solid with variable contrast enhancement. There was a high rate of local recurrence (29 of 36 patients and 12 patients died during follow-up period. Median progression-free survival was less than 12 months, and did not differ among categories. Cerebrospinal tumor spread was seen in only one patient. Concurrent WHO grade I ganglioglioma and the presence of a malignant neuronal component did not appear to influence prognosisConclusion: MGNTs were considered in three simple categories based on their malignant component(s. Tumors in all categories exhibited a high rate of local recurrence and aggressive behavior akin to malignant gliomas as opposed to classical PNET. Nevertheless, MGNT demonstrated clinicopathological features that distinguish them from typical glioblastoma. The exact nosology of MGNTs is unresolved and our study underscores the need for a more comprehensive classification of these neoplasms within the WHO scheme.

  3. Clinicopathological aspects of malignant salivary gland neoplasms - a study of 150 cases at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinico pathological aspects of malignant salivary gland tumors, diagnosed at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Study Design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Jan 2005-Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: The study included all the cases diagnosed as malignant salivary gland tumors in the last five years. Records of all the tumors of head and neck region that presented during this period were analyzed and out of these clinico pathological features of malignant salivary gland tumors were studied. The data analysis included the age, gender, site of tumor and histopathological pattern. Results: A total of 18685 malignant tumors presented in the last five years. Out of these, malignant tumors of head and neck were 2165. Total malignant salivary gland tumors were found out to be 150 with an overall frequency of 0.8% and frequency in head and neck malignancies was found out to be 6.9%. The age ranged from 6-80 years (mean 48.02 + 1.23). Of these 150 cases, 58.7% were males and 41.3 were females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The most common tumor seen was muco epidermoid carcinoma (49.3%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (31.3%). A total of 48.7% of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands. Parotid gland was the second most commonly involved site (40.7%). Conclusion: Malignant salivary gland neoplasms are a common malignancy of head and neck region and their frequency is slightly more in our population. Almost half of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands and muco epidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy. (author)

  4. A de novo unclassified malignant spindle cell neoplasm of liver allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Jessica A; Saxena, Romil; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-02-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are rarely reported in liver allografts; most are benign and associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. We present a case of a malignant spindle cell neoplasm arising in a liver allograft. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplant for cirrhosis secondary to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. After 2 years, he presented with vague abdominal complaints. Imaging studies revealed a 10-cm right hepatic lobe mass. The patient underwent right-sided hepatectomy. The tumor displayed areas of broad, relatively hypocellular fascicles, whorls, and perivascular clustering; spindle cells with mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism; and relatively abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mitotic activity ranged from 2 to 4 mitotic figures per 20 high-power fields. Immunostaining displayed positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, CD99, BCL2, cytokeratin, and human herpesvirus 8. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization findings were negative for a translocation involving the SS18 gene (18q11). We believe the tumor represents the first reported case of a novel unclassified spindle cell malignant neoplasm in a liver allograft. PMID:24476524

  5. Hematological follow-up studies on patients with thyroid neoplasms after 131I therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on 391 thyroid neoplasms diagnostic hematological follow-up studies were registered in 34 patients with an overall J-131-dose of more than 500 mCi including the following parameters: 1. Peripheral blood control. 2. Bone marrow aspiration. 3. Cell volume distribution size of leukocytes after preparative enrichment. If in doubt a bone marrow scintigraphy was added. The adjunctive diagnostic procedure was correlated with histological criteria of thyroid carcinoma and J-131 retention after therapeutic application of radioiodine. In particular, a case report is given regarding a patient of 66 years with follicular thyroid carcinoma receiving 990 mCi J-131 during a period of 11 years after having had total thyroidectomy twice. The development of acute leucemia followed by death happened 16 years later. The moment of bone marrow transformation was determined exactly. The value of blood parameters can be calculated as follows: 1. Peripheral blood controls are limited by lack of efficiency. 2. Biopsy of bone marrow can detect hypoplastic alteration being latent in circulating blood for some years, even of J-131 cumulation dose below 500 mCi. 3. The analysis of distribution size of leukocytes represents a functional aspect after radiation induced in injury of bone marrow. (author)

  6. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT. (author)

  7. Preoperative diagnosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasm in gastrointestinal and breast cancers. Impact of FDG-PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports of multiple primary malignant neoplasm (MPMN) have increased due to the development of imaging technologies that have influenced the extension of the 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers. Integrated positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown its advantages for detecting, staging, evaluating the prognosis, and offering better insights for survivors, their families and physicians. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the impact of whole-body FDG-PET/CT in detecting MPMN during the initial staging work-up of gastrointestinal and breast malignancy, and to describe their characteristics. The cases were identified by reviewing the Dokkyo Medical University Hospital PET Center's database, searching for patients referred from the Department of Surgical Oncology and the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, who underwent preoperative staging with whole-body FDG PET/CT at our center between January 2007 and December 2009. A total of 778 patients matched these criteria. Of them, 40 PET/CT reports mentioned suspicious cases of MPMN. The medical records of these 40 cases were retrieved and examined. The follow-up data of these patients was reviewed until February 2010. Of 778, 32 patients were diagnosed with additional unexpected cancers, which 27 (3.5%) were incidental double cancers and 5 (0.64%) had triple primary lesions. Overall 37 MPMN, twelve corresponded to stage 0, nineteen to stages I-II, three to stages III-IV, and three remained uncertain. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of FDG PET/CT in detecting a controversial lesion were 76.5% and 70.3%, respectively. The colorectum was the most common site for synchronous MPMN (17 of 37 cancers 45.9%), followed by stomach (9; 24.3%), prostate (3; 8.1%), thyroid (3; 8.1%), breast (2; 5.4%), biliary duct (1; 2.7%), kidney (1; 2.7%), and lung (1; 2.7%). FDG PET/CT was useful for finding multiple primary malignant neoplasm with a relatively high sensitivity. Physicians should pay special attention to rule out the presence of unexpected additional primary lesions in initial staging work-up for colorectal cancer. (author)

  8. Role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the risk of second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Vathaire, F de; François, P.; Hill, C.; Schweisguth, O.; Rodary, C.; Sarrazin, D; Oberlin, O; Beurtheret, C.; Dutreix, A.; Flamant, R

    1989-01-01

    Of a cohort of 634 children treated from 1942 to 1969 at the Gustave Roussy Institute for a first cancer and alive 5 years after treatment, 32 later developed second malignant neoplasms (SMN). A case-control study was performed to determine the relationship between the dose of radiotherapy received on a given anatomical site for the treatment of a first cancer, and the risk of SMN development at the same anatomical site. Another aim of the study was to analyse the effects of the association o...

  9. Hyperfractionation in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. Polish studies in relation to the world experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical assumptions for hyperfractionation and accelerated hyperfractionation in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms are presented. Polish clinical studies in this field are presented basing on the responses to questionnaires which were sent to oncological centres. Most of the studies included patients with advanced head and neck cancer and also patients with brain tumours and cervical cancer. Different hyperfractionation schedules were used reflecting various approaches proposed in famous world centres. Polish phase studies included so far small groups of patients. It seems justified to undertake multicentre randomized trial according to common protocol. (author)

  10. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  11. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (?6.16 mmol/L) 4.496 asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ? 4 mm) 1.679 septum thickening (?2 mm) ? 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as ?2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is reliable in the diagnosis of malignant PCN.

  12. Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries.

    OpenAIRE

    J H Olsen; Garwicz, S; Hertz, H; Jonmundsson, G; Langmark, F.; Lanning, M; Lie, S O; Moe, P J; Mller, T; Sankila, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relative risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm in people with a diagnosis of cancer in childhood and adolescence. DESIGN--Register based follow up study. SETTING--Populations of Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--30,880 people under the age of 20 with a first malignant neoplasm diagnosed during the period 1943-87. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative and attributable risks of second malignant neoplasms by type of first cancer, age at first diagnosis, calendar period, sex...

  13. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pediatric cancer patients: The advantage and fear of second malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is used for delivering more efficient homogenous dose to the target and lowering of dose to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a second malignant neoplasm may develop after prolonged latent period. The use of modern precise radiotherapy techniques in the pediatric age group has many controversial issues in spite of its proven dosimetric distribution advantages and the considerable decrease of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). This concern is due to many factors; mainly the exposure of a larger volume of normal tissues to low dose radiotherapy. Children have more proliferating tissues compared to the adults. However, the epidemiological data did not detect an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancy. This issue is still controversial as IMRT and other precise radiotherapy techniques were not widely used except recently. This may entail a thorough careful follow up for children treated with these techniques to detect any incidence increase

  14. Diagnostic value of isotope scanning in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannograms of the thyroid in 138 patients were analysed. Scanning of the thyroid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct, but it should be performed on definite indications. The scannogram pattern in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid is dependent on morphological features of a tumor, size and localization of a tumor node in the gland thickness. But scanning is found to be of no decisive value in establishing the differetial diagnosis between benign and malignant neoplasms of the thyroid. Isotope scanning of the thyroid proves to be a largly informative method of examination in patients previously subjected to thyroid surgery. Scanning technique seems to be of importance in recognizing

  15. Second lymphoid malignant neoplasms occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who have been treated for Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk for second malignant neoplasms, particularly acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoid malignant neoplasms (NHLMs). We diagnosed five cases of NHLM in 242 patients initially treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1973 and 1980, giving a minimum incidence for this occurrence of 2.1%. The initial therapy for Hodgkin's disease, irradiation in three patients and chemotherapy in two patients, resulted in a complete remission in each case. The NHLM appeared 12, 13, 26, 30, and 54 months after the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The cell type of NHLM and immunologic phenotype were as follows: large cell, immunoblastic T; large cell, immunoblastic null; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved B; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved (not studied); and lymphoblastic T. A review of 24 other cases of NHLMs, occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, reported in the literature, confirm the morphologic and immunologic heterogeneity. The poor response to therapy in our patients and those previously described demonstrate the seriousness of this phenomenon

  16. Mortality on malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there have been several reports of increases of leukemia, especially childhood leukemia, in populations resident in the vicinity of nuclear installations. However, there is no information on cancer mortality of the people living near nuclear power stations in Japan. Therefore, we have studied the standardized mortality ratio of malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan. Data on the cancer mortality were obtained from the magnetic tapes of National Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health and Welfare, for years of 1973-1987. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) of all leukemia, lymphoma, non-HODGKIN's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and acute non-lymphatic leukemia was calculated for various age groups (0-14, 0-24 years and all ages) and different period (1973-1977, 1978-1982, 1983-1987 and 1973-1987) for each nuclear power plant site. The results showed that some of the studied population had higher rates of certain malignant neoplasms, and some had lower rates, either before or after the facilities came into operation. Our statistical analysis provided no evidence of any association between particular sites and increased cancer mortality rates. (author)

  17. THYROID FUNCTION IN MALIGNANT PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HASHEMI POUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignancy is seen in pediatrics, frequently. Radiotherapy as a common procedure in malignancy management may has many side effects and complications, especially about endocrine system. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of post radiotherapy hypothyroidism In malignant pediatric patients. Methods. In a cross sectional study one hundred and eighty children between 1 to 20 years old that survived of malignancy were selected. They have been treated in Sayyed-Alshohada hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1993 Sep. until 1998 Sep. by radiotherapy. Baseline characteristics (e.g. sex, age, dose, location and number of radiotherapy fraction, type of malignancy were derived from medical records. Subjects were invited by letters to evaluate their thyroid functions in 1999. Serum T4 and FT4 concentrations assayed by RIA and TSH by IRMA methods. Results. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.3 percent (1.2 percent secondary hypothyroidism and 12.1 percent primary hypothyroidism. There was no statistical difference in age and sex distribution between patients with or without hypothyroidism. History of cervical region radiotherapy was taken in 45.8 percent of hypothyroid patients. There was no significant difference in dose and number of radiotherapy fraction between hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. Discussion. Radiotherapy may have a role in developing hypothyroidism in patients who received radiotherapy. This role has no relation to age and sex, dose and number of radiation fraction in development of hypothyroidism. Region of radiotherapy is important. It is suggested that this study continues and data will be collected during several years in future. Of course, many of hypothyroid patients will become euthyroid spontaneously.

  18. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primrio da glndula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Joo Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glndula tireoide so extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primrio de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na regio cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificao. A pea cirrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 11 7,5 cm. microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por clulas poligonais de tamanho intermdio, com um padro condroide em algumas reas e formao de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpresso negativa para AE1/AE3, protena glial fibrilar cida (GFAP), antgeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrio da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnstico de osteossarcoma primrio da glndula tireoide foi, ento, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 11 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  19. Laser spectroscopy as a method for diagnosing cancer and assessing the efficacy of treatment of malignant neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akleyev, Alexander; Romanskaya, Yulia; Kisselyov, Mikhail; Vazhenin, Andrei

    2005-08-01

    The issues of early diagnosis and effective treatment of malignant neoplasms are of vital importance for the Urals region which in 1950-1960 became the site of several radiation incidents with the resultant overexposures of dozens of thousands of residents who have manifested increased risks of leukemia and solid cancer incidence. The present study has demonstrated the efficacy of the method of laser-correlation spectrometry (LCS) of blood plasma and serum for early diagnosis of malignant neoplasms and prediction of relapses of tumor following radical treatment. The LCS method is characterized by a sufficiently high diagnostic sensitivity in relation to malignant tumors. It has been established that LC spectra obtained for patients with malignant neoplasms differ significantly from those for patients with non-cancer pathology of the same sites. The LCS methodology has manifested a sufficiently high prognostic sensitivity (76.6%) in relation to complete regression after radical treatment and progression (78.0%) of the tumor process. A positive prognostic criterion of the course of a malignant neoplasm after radical treatment in patients without relapse and metastases is a statistically significant (p

  20. Autoantibody profiling of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and design of a prototype diagnostic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Lanshchakov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the gold standard in diagnostics of thyroid tumors is a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. However, FNAC cannot discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in 15 to 30% of observations. In order to develop an additional tool for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors we evaluated the diagnostic performance of 3-antigen serum autoantibody signature in groups of benign ( n = 22 and malignant ( n = 26 thyroid tumors using a dot-blot ELISA-based analysis The sensitivity and specificity of resultant array were estimated to be 5560% and 95100%, respectively ( p < 0.001 according to one-sided Fisher Exact Test. Thus, we created a prototype antigen array for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors which can be regarded as a platform for design of more complicated panel, highly sensitive in thyroid cancer detection, which can significantly improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  1. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

  2. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Gmez J.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grade of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average ( standard error age at clinical diagnosis was 10.872.65 year old. French poodle (46.6% cross-breed (13.3% and Schnauzer (10% were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%, followed by adenoma (8.1%, and other types (10.8%. The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively. Five out of 30 bitches (16.6% had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80% were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  3. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

  4. Canine malignant mammary gland neoplasms with advanced clinical staging treated with carboplatin and cyclooxygenase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalle, Gleidice Eunice; De Campos, Ceclia Bonolo; Bertagnolli, Anglica Cavalheiro; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Surgery remains the treatment of choice for female dogs with mammary gland tumors. Chemotherapy is not commonly used as an adjuvant therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has been related to angiogenesis development in tumors, disease progression and worse prognosis. The aim of this prospective study was to compare overall survival periods of female dogs diagnosed with advanced mammary tumors submitted to different treatment protocols, including surgery, chemotherapy and cyclooxygenase inhibitors. Twenty-nine female dogs were evaluated and treated with four different protocols. The overall survival of patients with low COX-2 scores was longer when compared to patients with high COX-2 scores. Different proposed adjuvant treatments associated with surgery led to a statistically significant longer overall survival when compared to surgical treatment alone. Canine patients presenting malignant mammary gland neoplasms with advanced clinical staging should be submitted to complementary therapeutic medication based on clinical staging and immunophenotypical characteristics of the disease. PMID:22523289

  5. Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraushaar, Greg; Wiebe, Sheldon [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

  6. Imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel: new trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Fishman, Elliot K; Hoeffel, Christine; Dray, Xavier; Manfredi, Riccardo; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the recent advances in radiological imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel and provides an outline of new trends and perspectives that can be anticipated. The introduction of multidetector row technology, which allows the acquisition of submillimeter and isotropic voxels, has dramatically improved the capabilities of computed tomography in the investigation of the mesenteric small bowel. This technology combined with optimal filling of small bowel loops through the use of appropriate enteral contrast agents has markedly changed small bowel imaging. Computed tomography-enteroclysis, which is based on direct infusion of enteral contrast agent into the mesenteric small bowel through a naso-jejunal tube, provides optimal luminal distension. By contrast, computed tomography-enterography is based on oral administration of enteral contrast agent. These two techniques are now well-established ones for the detection and the characterization of small bowel neoplasms. During the same time, combining the advantages of unsurpassed soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging has gained wide acceptance for the evaluation of patients with suspected small bowel neoplasms. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging sequences used in combination with specific enteral contrast agents generate superb images of the mesenteric small bowel so that magnetic resonance-enteroclysis and magnetic resonance-enterography are now considered as effective diagnostic tools for both the detection and the characterization of neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel. Recent improvements in image post-processing capabilities help obtain realistic three-dimensional representations of tumors and virtual enteroscopic views of the small bowel that are useful for the surgeon and the gastroenteroenteologist to plan surgical or endoscopic interventions. Along with a better knowledge of the potential and limitations of wireless capsule endoscopy and new endoscopic techniques, these recent developments in radiological imaging reasonably suggest that substantial changes in the investigation of small bowel tumors may be anticipated in a near future, thus potentially create a new paradigm shift after standard small bowel follow-through study has been universally abandoned. PMID:21035353

  7. Association of lymphoid malignancies and Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms: Clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarova, Lucia; Newberry, Kate J; Pierce, Sherry A; Estrov, Zeev; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-08-01

    The co-occurrence of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative neoplasms (MPN/LPN) has been reported, mostly in case reports. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and clinical course of the coexistent diseases. Among 9866 patients who presented to our institution from 1960 to 2014, 34 (0.3%) were diagnosed with MPN/LPN. LPN was diagnosed first in 16 patients, second in 15, and at the same time in 3. The time to secondary malignancy was longer when LPN was diagnosed first (119 vs 98 months). Myelofibrosis (41%), polycythemia vera (24%), and essential thrombocythemia (18%) were the most common MPNs, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (50%) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (32%) were the most common LPNs. Seventy-three percent of patients treated for MPN and 72% of those treated for LPN achieved a complete response. After a median follow-up from MPN diagnosis of 84 months, 16 patients are alive and 18 died (4 related to MPN and 2 LPN). Coexistent MPN/LPN is a rare event that does not appear to predict worse outcomes. Treatment choice is generally oriented towards controlling the prevalent disease; the other malignancy may influence treatment strategies in selected cases. PMID:26012362

  8. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  9. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Woo; Kim, Gou Young; Shim, Kye Shik [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  10. Malignant thyroid teratoma: report of an aggressive tumor in a 64-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, R; Zafon, C; Ruiz-Marcellan, C; Obiols, G; Fort, J M; Baena, J A; Villanueva, B; Garcia, A; Sobrinho-Simes, M

    2013-09-01

    Malignant teratoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor, frequent in children than in adults. Histologically, thyroid teratomas usually show a predominance of a neuroectodermal component. Mature cartilage and bone may be present. We present the case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 64-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor displayed a predominant neuroectodermal component. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent a radical thyroidectomy with central neck dissection as primary treatment and radioiodine treatment afterwards. The patient had local and distant recurrence. A second surgery was performed with poor results and the patient died 3 months afterwards. PMID:23702575

  11. Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma of the Lung as Second Malignant Neoplasm Following Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradee, Allison R; Lehman, Alice; Reed, Robyn C; Watson, Andrea; Acton, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Primary pulmonary tumors are extremely rare in the pediatric population; however, sporadic cases of invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) have been described in survivors of pediatric cancers. Pediatric patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have a particularly increased risk of developing a SMN when compared to the general population, though pulmonary adenocarcinoma has not been previously described in a RMS patient. A 12-year-old female previously treated for stage IV pelvic RMS was found to have a left pulmonary nodule on surveillance computed tomography. The nodule was detected 4.25 years after the completion of treatment, which included resection, chemotherapy, and radiation to the abdomen and pelvis. Wedge resection of the pulmonary lesion was performed with negative margins. Histopathological examination revealed minimally invasive adenocarcinoma. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma may rarely present as a SMN in pediatric cancer survivors. The pathogenesis of this association is not yet entirely clear, but may include chemotherapy-induced mutagenesis and/or genetic predisposition. As pulmonary adenocarcinoma may present as a lung lesion radiographically indistinguishable from metastatic RMS, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any pediatric RMS survivor presenting with a new pulmonary nodule, especially in cases with late recurrence. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174135

  12. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia [2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)]. Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author)

  13. Study on different imaging time of late 201Tl thyroid imaging to differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to clarify better time to initiate the late 201Tl thyroid imaging to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones. Thyroid images were obtained at 5 min, 1 and 3 hr after i.v. injection of 74 MBq of 201Tl chloride. The early (5 min) and late (1 or 3 hr) 201Tl images were compared in pathologically proven 38 malignant and 48 benign nodules of 83 patients. The lesion activity (LA) on the early image was visually graded as no uptake (-), slight uptake less than the surrounding thyroid tissue uptake (SITU) (), uptake equal to the STTU (+), and uptake more than the STTU (++). The change of LA relative to the STTU from the early image to the late image was visually graded as decreasing (D), unchanged (U) or increasing (I) pattern when the LA was () to (++). The benign or malignant possibility at 1 hr and 3 hr in each lesion pattern was as follows: When the LA was (-) or D, the benign possibility was 95% (35/37) and 85% (39/46). When the LA was I, the malignant possibility was 96% (27/28) and 91% (21/23). When the LA is U, the diagnosis was equivocal: malignancy; 43% (9/21) at 1 hr and 59% (10/17) at 3 hr. The positive LA had a tendency to decrease with time irrespective of tumor character. The 1 hr image was statistically better than the 3 hr image as a late image. Comparative diagnosis of 5 min and 1 hr images with the criteria of I and U lesions being malignant and others being benign seems to be the best not to overlook malignant nodules: negative predictive value of 95% and sensitivity 95%. (author)

  14. Second malignant neoplasms after a first cancer in childhood: temporal pattern of risk according to type of treatment

    OpenAIRE

    de Vathaire, F; Hawkins, M; Campbell, S.; Oberlin, O.; Raquin, M-A; Schlienger, J-Y; Shamsaldin, A; Diallo, I.; Bell, J; E. Grimaud; Hardiman, C.; Lagrange, J-L; Daly-Schveitzer, N; Panis, X; Zucker, J-M

    1999-01-01

    The variation in the risk of solid second malignant neoplasms (SMN) with time since first cancer during childhood has been previously reported. However, no study has been performed that controls for the distribution of radiation dose and the aggressiveness of past chemotherapy, which could be responsible for the observed temporal variation of the risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the treatment on the long-term pattern of the incidence of solid SMN after a fir...

  15. Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH)24

    OpenAIRE

    Injac Rade; ?or?evi? Aleksandar N.; trukelj Borut

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH)24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH)24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 gr...

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus masquerading as solitary thyroid nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary neoplasm of the thyroid mimicking a primary thyroid lesion is a rare finding, especially in an individual without a past history of malignancy. A case of squamous cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid (presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule, who had an unsuspected primary in the esophagus is described. Usually, multiple areas of the gland are involved in the secondary involvement of the thyroid. The clinical presentation of an apparently asymptomatic mass with neck lymphadenopathy, normal thyroid functions, and a cold nodule on 99mTcO4- thyroid scan can often lead to a misdiagnosis as primary thyroid neoplasm. The present case underscores the fact that due importance to the subtle signs and symptoms and a high degree of suspicion, whenever the histology is unusual for a thyroid primary, is needed and the workup should include ruling out other primary malignancies.

  17. Assessment of enzymatic activity of salinary glands in comprehensive radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that in the course of combined radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumour localization in the head and neck increase in the activity of alpha-amylase of saliva and decrease in enzymatic activity, depending on the absorbed isoeffective dose, take place. Suppression of enzymatic activity of saliva was more clearly pronounced in the patients subjected to neutron radiation, than those subjected to the standard conditions of gamma-therapy. Indices of saliva enzymatic activity in the process of combined radiotherapy were used as criterion of tolerance of salinary glands in the patients with malignant neoplasms in the head and neck. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. A Controlled Vocabulary to Represent Sonographic Features of the Thyroid and its application in a Bayesian Network to Predict Thyroid Nodule Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yueyi I; Kamaya, Aya; Desser, Terry S.; Rubin, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    It is challenging to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules on high resolution ultrasound. Many ultrasound features have been studied individually as predictors for thyroid malignancy, none with a high degree of accuracy, and there is no consistent vocabulary used to describe the features. Our hypothesis is that a standard vocabulary will advance accuracy. We performed a systemic literature review and identified all the sonographic features that have been well studied in thyroid ca...

  19. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A total of 141 pathological proven nodules in 141 HT patients (7 males and 134 females, mean age 50.1 years, range 23-75 years) received conventional ultrasound (US), elasticity imaging (EI) and ARFI elastography, including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), before surgery. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and SWV ratio were measured for each nodule on VTQ. The US, EI and ARFI elastography features were compared between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses and area under curve (AUC) were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 70 nodules were benign and 71 nodules were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients for EI (EI score) and ARFI (VTI grade and SWV) (all P value ARFI elastography is useful for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in HT patients. The diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography is better than EI. PMID:25636511

  20. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  1. Diagnostic criteria of well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential; a histomorphological and immunohistochemical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Well differentiated thyroid tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDTUMP) represents a true gray zone of follicular patterned thyroid lesions, that needs to be characterized in order to outright the diagnosis of carcinoma and avoid unnecessary aggressive treatment. Aim: To emphasize on the histomorphological criteria for more accurate diagnosis of WDT-UMP. Also to compare the immunohistochemical expression of CK19 of WDT-UMP versus adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Materials and methods: The study included 60 thyroid specimens; 18 WDT-UMPs, 24 PTC (18 classic variant and 6 follicular variants) and 18 benign thyroid lesions (8 adenoma, 6 Hashimotos thyroiditis and 4 hyperplastic nodules). H and E stained sections were assessed according to the published major and minor criteria of malignancy in the thyroid. CK 19 immunostaining was examined and evaluated according to the proportion and intensity scores. Results: We could detect the absence of nuclear inclusions, presence of characteristic nuclear groove, nuclear clearing, ovoid nuclei, nuclear crowdness, nuclear enlargement and pleomorphism as important reliable features for diagnosis of WDT-UMP with ? value (<0.0001 for each). WDT-UMP showed moderate to strong CK 19 immunostaining with proportion scores 3 and 4; an intermediate expression profile; higher than adenoma and less than papillary carcinoma ( ? < 0.0001). Conclusion: The constellations of both major and minor criteria of malignancy are important clues for WDT-UMP diagnosis which could be ascertained by CK 19 immunostaining.

  2. Adoptive immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killers in patients with malignant neoplasms of the female reproductive system (a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gritsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights current approaches to adoptive immunotherapy in patients with malignant neoplasms of the female reproductive system.In spite of the obvious advances made by scientists of the world in treating malignant neoplasms, the existing treatment options remain insufficientlyeffective. To search for novel highly effective and safe treatments is an urgent problem of oncology. Adoptive immunotherapy is oneof the priorities in this regard.

  3. Dose to the site of second malignant neoplasms development after radiotherapy among patients treated in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, I.; Alziar, I.; Shamsaldin, A.; Guerin, S.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 94 - Villejuif (France). Inst. Gustave Roussy; Grimaud, E.; Chavaudra, J.; Lefkopoulos, D. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Medical Physics Dept., 94 - Villejuif (France). Inst. Gustave Roussy; Quiniou, E. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Unit 350, Curie In stitute, 75 - Paris (France); Dondon, M.G. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), IC 10213 and Biostatistics Unit, Curie In stitute, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In spite of the improvements in treatment techniques, radiotherapy always involves unwanted irradiation of healthy organs and tissues. Our aim was to quantify the dose to the site of the second malignant neoplasm (S.M.N.) development. The study focused on 155 patients with S.M.N. among a cohort of 4,581 individuals, at least 2-year survivors, treated between 1942 and 1986, for a solid cancer during childhood in 8 centres in France and Great Britain. The software package Dos-EG was used to estimate the radiation doses. Concepts introduced by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements about the volumes were used to specify relative doses. Thus, we were able to determine the relative position of S.M.N. development with respect to the target volume. About 25% of S.M.N. occurred in sites where the estimated radiation dose was lower than 0.9 Gy and 35 % in sites where doses were lower than 5 Gy. The median dose to the site of origin of S.M.N. was about 12.9 Gy (range: 0 -73 Gy). Among all cases, 19.13 % occurred within the treated volume enclosed in the 95 % isodose surface, 25.22 % within the irradiated volume between the 95% and 50 % isodose surfaces, 35.65 % in the penumbra region between the 50 % and 20 % isodose surfaces, and 20.00 % were beyond the penumbra region. With the introduction of sophisticated treatment techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, both treated volume and irradiated volume are reduced but the volume receiving low doses is substantially enlarged. This study showed that a notable fraction of S.M.N. occurred in regions where the dose received is lower than 5 Gy. These results should be considered when assessing whether the benefit of the treatment is higher than the risk. (authors)

  4. Thyroid and associated polyglandular neoplasms in patients who received head and neck irradiation during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred fifty-one patients with a history of childhood irradiation to the head, neck, and thorax had neck explorations (142 for cold thyroid nodules and 9 for hypercalcemia). Fifty-nine of the patients had thyroid carcinoma, and associated glandular tumors were found in 20 others. In addition, 6 female patients developed breast carcinoma; 4 of these women also had thyroid carcinoma. In this series, 48.6% of the patients irradiated for acne and 36.4% with tonsil and adenoid irradiation developed thyroid carcinoma, but only 10.5% with thymic irradiation did so. It is suggested that the workup on these patients include not only complete thyroid and parathyroid testing, but also a careful examination of all salivary glands, both major and minor. Women should have thorough breast examinations and should perhaps be followed as if they were in the potentially high-risk breast group. When thyroid surgery is performed, a total thyroidectomy is recommended

  5. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couronn, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Vronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hlne; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michala; Tilly, Herv; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23872306

  6. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  7. Significance of ultrasound features in predicting malignant solid thyroid nodules: Need for fine-needle aspiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide sonographic and colour flow criteria helpful for differentiation between benign and malignant solid thyroid nodules. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi Pakistan from 01.05.07 to 31.12.08. Sonographic scans of 78 thyroid nodules in 66 patients were performed and characteristics of thyroid nodules that were studied included microcalcifications, an irregular or microlobulated margins, marked hypoechogenicity, a shape that was taller than it was wide and color flow pattern in Color Doppler ultrasound. The presence and absence of characteristics of nodules were classified as having positive or negative findings. If even one of these sonographic features was present, the nodule was classified as positive (malignant). If a nodule had none of the features described, it was classified as negative (benign). The final diagnosis of a lesion as benign (n = 53) or malignant (n = 25) was confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy, and patients who were proved to have benign lesions were followed-up for 6 months and malignant lesions which were proved on histopathology after FNA were subjected to surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were then calculated on the basis of our proposed classification method. Results: Among 78 solid thyroid nodules 35 lesions were classified as positive considering the sonographic characteristics and 23 of them were proved to be malignant on histopathology. Out of 43 lesions which were classified as negative, 2 were proved to be malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy based on our sonographic classification method were 93.8%, 66%, 56.1%, 95.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Ultrasound is valuable for identifying many malignant or potentially malignant thyroid nodules. No single ultrasound criterion is reliable in differentiating all benign from malignant thyroid nodules, but many US features aid in predicting the benign or malignant nature of a given nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy should be performed on thyroid nodules classified as positive, regardless of palpability. (author)

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuanfang; Li, Chao; Lin, Duo; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Yu, Yun; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level.

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level. (letter)

  10. THYROID FUNCTION IN MALIGNANT PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    M HASHEMI POUR; F GOLPAIEGANI; SH BABA ZADEH; A.R MAAFI; GH.A JAVANMARD

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Malignancy is seen in pediatrics, frequently. Radiotherapy as a common procedure in malignancy management may has many side effects and complications, especially about endocrine system. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of post radiotherapy hypothyroidism In malignant pediatric patients. Methods. In a cross sectional study one hundred and eighty children between 1 to 20 years old that survived of malignancy were selected. They have been treated in Sayyed-Alshohada ho...

  11. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ?30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  12. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ≥30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  13. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in patients with esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two of 178 patients with esophageal cancer treated with radiation therapy had multiple primary neoplasms (MPN). The outcomes of patients with MPN and those without did not differ significantly. Radiation therapy for second neoplasms was limited in some patients because they had received radiation for an earlier cancer. In a patient who underwent surgical resection for hypopharyngeal cancer, intraluminal radiation therapy for a esophageal cancer could not be performed owing to the narrow interposition of the jejunum. On the other hand, a patient treated with radiation for a first neoplasm died of pulmonary complications after surgical resection of a subsequent lung cancer. Because the outcome of treatment of early-stage second cancers was good, careful examination for additional cancers should be performed after treatment of a first neoplasm. (author)

  14. Percutaneous port-catheter system implantation via left subclavian artery in the treatment of advanced malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of percutaneous port-catheter system (PCS) implantation via left subclavian artery in the treatment of advanced malignant neoplasms. Methods: The technique was used to treat 200 patients with advanced malignant neoplasms, 178 cases of primary liver carcinoma, 10 cases of metastatic liver cancer, 5 cases of pelvic neoplasm, 4 cases of gallbladder carcinoma, 3 cases of lung cancer. The authors performed implantation of PCS under guidance of DSA and fluoroscopy according to the arterial blood supply of tumors. Body of PCS was subcutaneously implanted below puncture point. The implanted catheter tip was positioned in the target artery. Intra-arterial chemotherapy or chemo-embolization with emulsion of anti-cancerous agents and lipiodol were regularly carried out via PCS. Results: 200 patients were traced for 3 months to 3 years, 202 PCS were implanted in 200 patients. Because of left and right hepatic artery supplied tumor simultaneously in 2 patients with liver cancer, another PCS was implanted for the right femoral artery (double PCS). The successful rate was 99%. Complications occurred in 7 cases (3.5%), including indwelling catheter tip dislocation (2 cases, 1%), disconnection between port and catheter after the procedure (1 cases, 0.5%), pneumothorax (2 cases, 1%), skin fester (1 cases, 0.5%), massive blood effusion in subcutaneous tissue (1 cases, 0.5%), target vessel closed off (2 cases, 1%). There was no serious complication. Conclusion: Percutaneous PCS implantation via left subclavian artery is safe, feasible and less traumatic. It provides a safe intra-arterial chemotherapy or chemo-embolization with emulsion of anti-cancerous agents and lipiodol for patient with malignant tumor

  15. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Prez-Andjar, Anglica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patients body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

  16. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Phillip J., E-mail: pt06@aub.edu.lb [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Khater, Nabil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, University of St. Joseph, P.O. Box 166830, Alfred Naccache Blvd, Beirut (Lebanon); Zhang, Rui [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Geara, Fady B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Mahajan, Anita [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225 (United States); Jalbout, Wassim [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Pérez-Andújar, Angélica [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1202, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Youssef, Bassem [Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Newhauser, Wayne D. [Medical Physics Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  17. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J. Taddei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN. In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI. We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patients body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  18. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patients body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care

  19. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    OpenAIRE

    Couronn, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Vronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hlne

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients wi...

  20. Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical and Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS)[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and needle biopsy under ultrasonography. This was followed by surgical removal of the thyroid, and each case the malignancy was confirmed. These findings would suggest that 6% of the ME/CFS patients seen, or 6,000 cases per 100,000, had a confirmed thyroid malignancy. Unfortunately, these figures may be conservative since we are in the process of obtaining needle biopsies on six further cases of these first 100 patients. In addition, we have not yet performed thyroid ultrasound on all 100 cases. We are in the process of further investigation of those patients who had not yet been investigated by thyroid ultrasound. Previously, it has been noted that the increased incidence of thyroid malignancy in the general population is only associated with increased radiation exposure. Patients presenting with symptoms of ME/CFS or Fibromyalgia may have significant higher thyroid malignancy incidence. NeuroSPECT was performed with the radiopharmaceutical NeuroliteTM and processed with the software Neurogam by Segami Corp.( Maryland USA.) (au)

  1. Retrospective epidemiologic study on some malignant neoplasms of the blood-forming system in children (0-14 years)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented from a case/control epidemiologic study of the radiation effect on malignant neoplasms of blood-forming system in children aged 0-14 years. The cases comprised children with acute myeloleucosis, chronic myeloleucosis and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma, who had become ill after 1991. The controls were clinically healthy children matched for sex and age. The assessment of radiation factor was based on data provided by parents in a guided inquiry and on information available at the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG). Consideration was given to individual doses received prior to and following medical exposure as well as from the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  2. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant experimental and clinical data to associate radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer increases with increasing doses of thyroidal radiation from 6.5 rads to 1,500 rads, but higher doses tend to destroy the gland and are associated with hypothyroidism rather than cancer. The peak occurrence of thyroid tumors is between five and 30 years after exposure, but a person may develop thyroid tumors as long as 50 years after irradiation. Multiple thyroidal lesions or disorders, including adenomas, thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism as well as malignant neoplasms, can occur after radiation exposure. It is imperative, therefore, to study carefully all patients with a history of radiation exposure to the gland and to observe them carefully for life. Suggestions are made for the management of thyroid disease in these patients

  3. Retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with cytostatic drugs and Co60 because of genital malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of application of cytostatic drugs and telegammatherapy (Co60) was tested by means of cutaneous hyperactivity reactions in 89 women treated because of malignant neoplasms of the genital organs. The skin tests with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and purified protein derivate (PPD) were used. The group 1 constituted of 36 women treated with cytostatic drugs through a period of 7 months to 4 years. The appearance of retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD correlated with the clinical state of the subjects. In cases of improvement of the clinical state the skin reactions were more intensive, when the disease progreded the reactions became weak or disappeared. When the clinical state remained unchanged - the same was true with the skin reactions. In the group 253 women were treated by means of irradiation (Co60) because of similar diagnosis of malignant genital neoplasm. In all cases a regression of the retarded cutaneous hypersensitivity to DNCB and PPD was observed, together with a decrease of the number of white blood cells in the peripheric blood. Correlation of the individual skin reactions to DNCB and PPD demonstrated that the latter gave a smaller percent of positive reactions in comparison with the former agent, these reactions were also less sensitive. (author)

  4. Synchronous papillary carcinoma thyroid with malignant struma ovarii: A management dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struma ovarii (SO) is a rare form of ovarian tumor, which is defined by the presence of thyroid tissue comprising more than 50% of the overall tumor volume. The vast majority of the variants of SO are benign; however, malignant tumors have been reported in a small percentage of cases. An aggressive multimodality approach using ovarian cancer staging laparotomy, total thyroidectomy along with radioactive iodine-131 ablation, and thyroxin suppression therapy has been shown to safely treat malignant SO both its initial presentation as well as in the event of any subsequent recurrence with excellent efficacy and possibly better oncological outcomes. The rarity of the disease and the lack of evidence surrounding its management and prognosis continue to remain a challenge to the treating clinician. We present a unique case of malignant SO with an incidental synchronous association of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the cervical thyroid gland, this is possibly the second case reported in the English language literature

  5. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en ndulos tiroideos Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los ndulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplsicos y neoplsicos. No existen mtodos de diagnstico ni rasgos citolgicos por puncin con aguja fina (PAF que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociacin existente entre variables clnicas y mtodos de diagnstico prequirrgicos en ndulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citologa, tratados con tiroidectoma. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamao del ndulo, caractersticas ecogrficas, diagnstico citolgico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplsicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados y 18 ndulos no neoplsicos, hiperplsicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnstico citolgico de proliferacin folicular de alto grado, en ndulos iso o hipoecognicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citologa de proliferacin folicular de alto grado en ndulos hipoecognicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 aos. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptacin estaran a favor de ndulo de origen benigno.La correlacin de los mtodos de diagnstico y variables clnicas en ndulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitiran delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirrgico selectivo.Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm. Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed. The studied variables were: sex, age, size of the nodule, ultrasound characteristics, cytological diagnosis, TSH level and results of the scintigraphy. Of 92 cases, 74 were neoplastic nodules (56 adenomas and 18 differentiated thyroid cancer and 18 were non neoplastic nodules. Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131. The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years. The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

  6. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoid Malignancies: The Expanding Spectrum of Hematopoietic Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUN-ICHI KAWADA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects not only B cells but also T and NK cells, and is associated with various lymphoid malignancies. The spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies is expanding from Burkitt lymphoma to the newly defined systemic EBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma. However, some EBV-associated malignancies are not defined well and overlap other diseases. Furthermore, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of lymphoid malignancies is still not clear. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies for a better classification of each disease and for the establishment of effective treatment.

  8. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  9. [Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytokeratin in thyroid neoplasms and its clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, H

    1988-03-01

    Formalin fixed paraffin sections of previously resected surgical specimens and ethanol fixed stamped samples of newly obtained specimens from patients with thyroid neoplastic lesions were investigated for the presence of cytokeratin by the help of avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method using anticytokeratin monoclonal antibody PKK-1. The result showed that PKK-1 reacted only to a large cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and not to a small cell type. Therefore this method appears not to be useful for differentiation between small cell carcinoma and lymphoma. The differentiation between papillary carcinoma and follicularly growing tumor was possible by this method because the former reacted to PKK-1 at a high rate, whereas most of the latter were negative to it. Freshly prepared stamped samples showed a better reaction to the monoclonal antibody, and thus this technique appears to be applicable to an aspiration biopsy cytology. PMID:2455858

  10. An 8-year evaluation of nasal and paranasal sinuses malignant neoplasms in Tehran University of Medical Sciences hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Naraghi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal and paranasal sinuses malignant neoplasms are usually diagnosed in advanced stages because of non-specific and benign symptoms. In this study we evaluated the symptoms, pathology and treatment of paranasal sinuses malignancies in patients admitted to Tehran University of Medical Sciences affiliated hospitals. Material and Methods: In this descriptive study, medical files of patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus malignancies and admitted to Imam Khomeini and Amir Aalam hospitals between 2000-2007 were evaluated. Results: Of 75 patients, 47 were male and 28 were female. The mean age was 5514.1 years. The most common sinus involvement was seen in Maxillary sinuses (86.7% and 18 patients had concurrent involvement of other sinuses. The most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (40% and the most common clinical symptom was nasal obstruction (%28. Distant metastasis was found in 46 patients and 42 patients presented with eye involvement Eleven patients underwent endoscopic resection. Conclusion: The presence of eye involvement and distant metastasis in a large number of the patients showed that diagnosis of paranasal cancers is delayed because of their nonspecific symptoms. Therefore further education of clinical manifestations of paranasal sinus cancers is emphasized.

  11. Neck ultrasonography as preoperative localization of primary hyperparathyroidism with an additional role of detecting thyroid malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Eun-Kyung [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jin Young, E-mail: docjin@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performances of high-resolution ultrasonography and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy for the preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands and to evaluate the ability of US for additional diagnostic roles in detecting thyroid malignancy in patients with pHPT. Materials and methods: Preoperative localization images of 115 parathyroid adenomas from high-resolution ultrasonography (US) and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy (SS) were studied from 105 patients, who had undergone parathyroidectomy. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were calculated for the identification of adenomas in lesions and patients for both US and SS, respectively, and US and SS diagnostic performances were compared using generalized estimating equation. Results: Preoperative imaging by both modalities localized 105 (93.8%) of the 112 parathyroid lesions confirmed at surgery and histology. Sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value were 93.1% and 92.2%, 90.4% and 89.5%, and 96.9% and 96.9% by US and SS, respectively, without any statistically significant differences (P = 0.796, 0.796, 0.879). US found incidental thyroid nodules in 47 patients (47/107, 43.9%), and 7 patients (7/107, 6.5%) were confirmed to have malignancy based on pathology results (all had papillary thyroid carcinoma). Conclusion: Neck ultrasonography and {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy are complementary methods of the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Neck ultrasounds add an additional thyroid gland evaluation, and can be useful in the detection of incidental thyroid gland lesions, especially malignant nodules.

  12. Risk analyses of mortality due to malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture based on ABS93D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk of mortality due to malignant neoplasm was analyzed among atomic bomb survivors with ABS93D (Atomic Bomb Survivors 1993 Dose). The period subjected to analysis was that from Jan. 1, 1968 to Dec. 31, 1992. The number of the subjects was 47,204 in total who were registered as atomic bomb survivors in authors' facility data base essentially living in Hiroshima prefecture and giving the estimated dose of ABS93D or having been exposed at farther distance than 3 km from the explosion site without experience of existing in the city. They were divided in 2 groups of exposed (?5 mGy of bone marrow dose) and non-exposed (<5 mGy) ones. The organ dose was the sum of doses of neutron and gamma ray based on ABS93D. The neoplasms analyzed were leukemia and cancers of esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, lung, mammary gland and uterus. Risk ratio of the exposed group relative to non-exposed group per 1 Gy, the ratio according to the dose and the time change of the ratio were calculated and some of cancers gave statistically significant high risk in exposed group. (K.H.)

  13. Early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of the patients with thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleevi? Milica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of the paper was to give a reviw of an early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of patients with thyroid malignancy (TM. The paper presented the algorithm of early diagnosis: clinical, scintigraphic and ultrasonographic examination together with fine needle biopsy, cythologic analysis of the smear and biopsy ex tempore of the clear and suspected thyroid node to malignancy. Therapy of all TM forms was mainly surgical; postsurgical treatment was dependent on the type of malignancy: radioiodine 131-I, radiologic treatment, chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy, (the latest one being in the phase of a clinical research. Follow-up was in accordance with the protocole and it was necessary because it contributes to the survival rate. In the presentation of survival rate for differentiated and medullar carcinomas we gave our results and literature data, while for the other malignancies only data from literature were presented. Conclusion: only an early diagnosis of the nodular goiter together with an up-to-date treatment can cure TM patients in a high percentage and prevent development of a terminal stage of the desease which is extremely severe in all forms of this malignancy.

  14. Risk factors for malignancy in patients with solitary thyroid nodules and their impact on the management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun D Tai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presently it is difficult to differentiate malignancy for thyroid nodules by palpation, ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC at the outpatient department, especially for solitary thyroid nodule (STN. So a great emphasis should be placed on the STN. AIms: The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive clinicopathological risk factors for malignancy in patients with STN and further to provide an appropriate clinical management. Materials and Methods: The records were reviewed from 265 patients with STN who had undergone thyroidectomy in our hospital. All cases were classified as two independent groups in terms of the final pathological results to assess the independent risk factors using a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results: A multinomial logistic analysis revealed that the male gender, microcalcification and cervical lymphadenopathy were independent risk factors related to malignancy in patients with STN. The incidence of malignancy in patients with 0,1,2,3 risks was 10.71%, 26.6%, 61.43%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Male gender, microcalcification and lymphadenopathy were independent risk factors for predicting the malignancy in patients with STN. Patients with more than two of those risk factors should be subjected to further examination or thyroidectomy. The findings may provide a simple and reasonable management for the STN.

  15. Quantitative estimation and clinical significance of accumulation and washout of thallium-201 chloride in follicular thyroid neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and washout ratios of thallium-201 chloride (201TlCl) were studied to confirm their clinical applicability in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid. Sixty-six patients with follicular tumor of the thyroid underwent preoperative thallium scintigram after an intravenous injection of 2 mCi (74 MBq) of 201TlCl. The early accumulation and washout ratios of 201TlCl were obtained by an online data-processing system. All tumors were surgically resected and histopathologically diagnosed as either follicular adenoma (49 patients) or follicular carcinoma (17 patients). Scintigraphic values in terms of the early accumulation and washout ratios were compared between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Both the early accumulation and washout ratios were significantly higher in follicular carcinoma than in follicular adenoma. It was concluded that dynamic studies on accumulation and washout rates of 201TlCl might be clinically reliable to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. (author)

  16. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  17. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohamed T; Hegazy, Mohamed A; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

  18. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other MalignanciesAssessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to gynecological malignancies.

  19. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  20. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong doseresponse relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.716.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.635.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  1. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrieres, J.-B., E-mail: jbveyrieres@hotmail.fr [Dpartement dimagerie mdicale, Hpital dInstruction des Armes St Anne, Bd Saint Anne, BP 20545 Toulon cedex (France); Albarel, F., E-mail: frederique.albarel@ap-hm.fr [Dpartement mdical dendocrinologie et des pathologies mtaboliques, Hpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Lombard, J. Vaillant, E-mail: Josiane.vaillant@ap-hm.fr [Dpartement dimagerie mdicale, Hpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Berbis, J., E-mail: Julie.berbis@ap-hm.fr [Dpartement de sant publique, Universit de Mdecine, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sebag, F., E-mail: frederic.sebag@ap-hm.fr [Dpartement de chirurgie des pathologies endocriniennes et mtaboliques, Hpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); and others

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  2. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  3. Automated benign & malignant thyroid lesion characterization and classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vinitha Sree; Molinari, Filippo; Garberoglio, Roberto; Witkowska, Agnieszka; Suri, Jasjit S

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) based technique for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. The images were obtained from 20 patients. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture based features were extracted from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors were used to train and test three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr) using ten-fold cross validation technique. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features in the K-NN classifier resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Thus, the preliminary results of the proposed technique show that it could be adapted as an adjunct tool that can give valuable second opinions to the doctors regarding the nature of the thyroid nodule. The technique is cost-effective, non-invasive, fast, completely automated and gives more objective and reproducible results compared to manual analysis of the ultrasound images. We however intend to establish the clinical applicability of this technique by evaluating it with more data in the future. PMID:23365926

  4. Undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (including lymphomas and metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies): Radio- and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsatisfactory results obtained with percutaneous irradiation of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas led to the search for improved methods of local radiotherapy. Among these are hyperfractionated irradiation, also in combination with chemotherapy, and combined pre- and postoperatively applied hyperfractionated radio- and chemotherapy. The incidence of local recurrences is markedly reduced under this therapy. Only few empirical reports on cytostatic therapy of undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas exist. Remissions can be expected in one third of the cases and, with combined adriblastin/cis-platinum therapy, complete remissions are occasionally also achieved. There are good chances of the survival time being prolonged in responders. Cytostatics are not indicated for patients in a poor general condition. Malignant lymphomas of the thyroid are rare. Therapy is stage-related and consists in radiotherapy and/or cytostatic treatment. Metastases of extrathyroidal malignancies are surgically removed only if no further metastases are detectable in the rest of the body. Otherwise, any therapy applied depend on the metastasis-related symptoms. (orig./ECB)

  5. The reliability of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in terms of malignancy in patients with hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Murat; Onder, Akin; Girgin, Sadullah; Ulger, Burak Veli; Firat, Ugur; Uslukaya, Omer; Oguz, Abdullah

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of malignancy in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and to investigate the reliability of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The retrospective study included 44 patients who were operated on for nodular goiter between December 2010 and October 2011. The patients underwent thyroidectomy following a cytologic analysis plus FNAB. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on histopathology in all patients. FNAB results were defined as benign in 14 (31.8%), suspicion for malignancy in 17 (38.6%), malignant in 9 (20.5%), and inadequate in 4 (9.1%). Following the thyroidectomy, presence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were detected in 10 patients (22.7%) and 1 (2.3%) patient, respectively. The FNAB results were interpreted in terms of malignancy, which revealed the sensitivity as 80%; specificity, 40%; false positives, 69.2%; false negatives, 14.3%; positive predictive value, 31.8%; negative predictive value, 85.7%; and diagnostic accuracy, 50%. The coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma is quite common. The FNAB results for such cases are hard to evaluate, and they are likely to increase the number of false positives. PMID:25692426

  6. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950-80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Life-Span Study E-85 sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66% of the cancer and 84% of the benign tumor cases were classified by histologic type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P less than .01) and in the microscopically reviewed subset (P less than .01). This dose response was only significant (P less than .01) in the latter half of the study period, 1965-80. The radiation effect was higher in the younger age group at the time of the bomb (ATB) for the specific attained age or was adjusted for attained age. In general, relative risk (greater than or equal to 100 rad vs. 0 rad) did not differ by attained age, except for the youngest age group, less than 20 years old ATB, where the relative risk tended to decrease with increased attained age, although cases were few in number and follow-up study was necessary. Estimated minimum latent period for radiation-induced ovarian cancer seemed to be 15-20 years. The proportion of autopsied cases with benign ovarian tumor increased with increasing exposure dose, both in the entire series of cases (P less than .05) and in the microscopically reviewed subset. Statistical significance, however, was not achieved in the latter group. The distribution of histologic types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose

  7. Application of Texture Analysis Method for Classification of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasian Ardakani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate computer aided diagnosis (CAD system with texture analysis (TA to improve radiologists' accuracy in identification of thyroid nodules as malignant or benign. Methods: A total of 70 cases (26 benign and 44 malignant were analyzed in this study. We extracted up to 270 statistical texture features as a descriptor for each selected region of interests (ROIs in three normalization schemes (default, 3 and 1%-99%. Then features by the lowest probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC, and Fisher coefficient (Fisher eliminated to 10 best and most effective features. These features were analyzed under standard and nonstandard states. For TA of the thyroid nodules, Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA were applied. First Nearest-Neighbour (1-NN classifier was performed for the features resulting from PCA and LDA. NDA features were classified by artificial neural network (A-NN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used for examining the performance of TA methods. Results: The best results were driven in 1-99% normalization with features extracted by POE+ACC algorithm and analyzed by NDA with the area under the ROC curve (Az of 0.9722 which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusion: Our results indicate that TA is a reliable method, can provide useful information help radiologist in detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  8. Clinical study of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the curative effect and side effects of 89Sr therapy with radiosensitization by nicotinamide and carbogen in multiple bone metastasis of malignant neoplasms. Methods: Ninety-seven patients were divided into 4 groups respectively: group A, 89Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen (24 patients); group B, 89Sr + nicotinamide(22 patients); group C, 89Sr + carbogen (25 patients); group D, 89Sr, (26 patients). 89SrCl was intravenously injected at a dose of 1.48-2.22 MBq/kg. Nicotinamide was taken orally 1 hour before 89SrCl injection, 6 g/day, tid, d1-d5. Aspiration of carbogen(95%O2 + 5%CO2 ) gases, 6 L/min, 10 minutes, qd, d1-d5. Results: The effective rate of pain control and QOL improvement in A group were higher than in groups B, C and D (91.7% VS 77.3%, 76.0% and 69.2%, P=0.048). The lesions assessed by SPECT imaging in every group was not significantly different at three months after treatment. I to II degree toxic effect on bone marrow appeared in every group and there were no significantly inter-group differences. Conclusions: Combinative therapy using 89Sr + nicotinamide + carbogen is more effective to treat multiple metastatic bone pain and for improvement of QOL. The side effects are not increased. (authors)

  9. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan: a comparison between the 1995-1998 and 2005-2008 periods

    OpenAIRE

    Pui-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Hwang Perng

    2011-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Morans I and Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistic (LISA), were used to describe and map spatial clusters of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan. A logistic regression fit model was also used to identify similar characteristics over time. Two time periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) were compared in an attempt to formulate common spatio-temporal risks. Spatial cluster patterns were identified using local spatial autocorre...

  10. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estima...

  11. Real-time quantitative analysis of E-cadherin expression in ret/PTC-1-activated thyroid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Sheils, O; Finn, S; Martin, C; O'Leary, J; Sweeney, E C

    2001-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common variety of thyroid cancer, is found in a variety of morphologic variants, usually grows slowly, and is clinically indolent, although rare, aggressive forms, with local invasion or distant metastases, occur. Our group has previously demonstrated an association between Hashimoto thyroiditis and ret/PTC-1 activation, and have hypothesised that c-ret activation might be implicated in immune reaction to thyroid epithelium. The objective of this study was to examine expression of the cellular adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, in various thyroid tumor types and Hashimoto thyroiditis in the context of ret/PTC-1 positivity by using laser capture microdissection and TaqMan reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Variable down-regulation of E-cadherin among carcinomas was demonstrated, with anaplastic carcinomas showing little or no expression. Follicular thyroid carcinomas consistently had significantly decreased E-cadherin expression compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas. The ret/PTC-1-positive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTCret+) and Hashimoto thyroiditis cases had consistently lower E-cadherin expression levels than the corresponding ret/PTC-1-negative papillary carcinomas (PTCret-), suggesting not only an association between ret activation and the loss of cellular adhesion but also, more significantly, an association between papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:12574841

  12. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegeds, Lszl

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subsequent malignancies in patients treated with 131-iodine for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131 was administered to 298 patients with thyroid cancer, and there has been a follow-up of at least two years. Follow-up periods were: 2.5 to 30 years (median 14.5) in living patients, 2.5 to 15 years (median 5.5) in patients dead of tumour ≥ 2 years after first treatment and 2.5 to 23 years (median nine) in patients dead without tumour. Person-years at risk were (total applied activity of I-131): 1119 (3 to 21 GBq), 1477 (22 to 65 GBq), 521 (61 to 170 Gbq). 33 subsequent malignancies in 31 patients were observed, compared to an expected number of 17. The relative risk of subsequent malignancies is therefore 1.94 with a 95% confidence intervall of 1.15 to 3.05. This increase in the incidence of subsequent malignancies after I-131 treatments is largely due to the significantly increased incidence of leukemia and bladder cancer. Estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in the patients with leukemia were 301 cGy to 792 cGy and the doses to the bladder in patients with bladder cancer were 2250 cGy to 10, 350 cGy. After a total activity of less than 37 GBq I-131, no cases of bladder cancer or leukemia were observed. The observed number of subsequent malignancies are compared with the expected number according to several dose-effect estimations. (orig.)

  14. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinical and pathologic study of twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasbach, D A; Mondschein, M S; Harris, N L; Kaufman, D S; Wang, C A

    1985-12-01

    Among 20 patients with malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland, the mean age at diagnosis was 63 years and the male to female ratio was 1:6. All patients had a firm, rapidly enlarging neck mass. In 90% of the patients the mass had been present for less than 1 year; in 40%, for less than 1 month. Approximately half of the patients tested had hypothyroidism; three fourths had elevated antithyroid antibodies. There was one nodular lymphoma. The remaining 17 cases available for review were diffuse. Thyroid lobectomy was performed in seven patients, limited excision in eight, and needle biopsy alone in five. External irradiation was administered in 11 cases (55%). Chemotherapy was used alone in one patient (5%) and in combination with radiotherapy in eight (40%). Six patients (30%) were alive without evidence of recurrent disease at follow-up ranging from 1 to 12 years. Eleven patients had died of lymphoma, all but one dying within 1 year. One patient died of other causes and two were lost to follow-up study. There was no appreciable effect of patient age or sex, lymphoma histology, or extent of surgical resection on survival. Treatment of choice for primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland appears to be external irradiation or chemotherapy, alone or in combination. The role of surgery is limited to making a tissue diagnosis of lymphoma, unless the tumor is completely intrathyroidal. PMID:3906977

  15. Glioblastoma multiforme and papillary thyroid carcinoma - A rare combination of multiple primary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroopa Pulivarthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are describing a 19-year-old white woman who presented with two synchronous primary cancers, namely glioblastoma multiforme and papillary thyroid cancer. The patient was admitted with dizziness, headache, and vomiting. CT head revealed acute intraparenchymal hematoma in the right cingulate gyrus and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Carotid and cerebral angiogram were unremarkable. MRI of the brain demonstrated a non-enhancing and non-hemorrhagic component of the lesion along the lateral margin of the hemorrhage just medial to the atrium of the right lateral ventricle that was suspicious for a tumor or metastasis. Brain biopsy confirmed it as glioblastoma mutiforme. CT chest was done to rule out primary cancer that revealed a 11 mm hypodense lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed it as papillary thyroid carcinoma. We should evaluate for multiple primary malignancies in young patients who are found to have primary index cancer.

  16. Total sacrectomy and Galveston L-rod reconstruction for malignant neoplasms. Technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokaslan, Z L; Romsdahl, M M; Kroll, S S; Walsh, G L; Gillis, T A; Wildrick, D M; Leavens, M E

    1997-11-01

    Although radical resection is the best treatment for malignant sacral tumors, total sacrectomy for such tumors has been performed in only a few instances. Total sacral resection requires reconstruction of the pelvic ring plus establishment of a bilateral union between the lumbar spine and iliac bone. This technique is illustrated in two patients harboring large, painful, sacral giant-cell tumors that were unresponsive to prior treatment. These patients were treated with complete en bloc resection of the sacrum and complex iliolumbar reconstruction/stabilization and fusion. Surgery was performed in two stages, the first consisting of a midline celiotomy, dissection of visceral/neural structures, and ligation of internal iliac vessels, followed by an anterior L5-S1 discectomy. The second stage consisted of mobilization of an inferiorly based myocutaneous rectus abdominis pedicle flap for wound closure, followed by an L-5 laminectomy, bilateral L-5 foraminotomy, ligation of the thecal sac, division of sacral nerve roots, and transection of the ilia lateral to the tumor and sacroiliac joints. Placement of the instrumentation required segmental fixation of the lumbar spine from L-3 down by means of pedicle screws and the establishment of a bilateral liaison between the lumbar spine and the ilia by using the Galveston L-rod technique. The pelvic ring was then reestablished by means of a threaded rod connecting left and right ilia. Both autologous (posterior iliac crest) and allograft bone were used for fusion, and a tibial allograft strut was placed between the remaining ilia. The patients were immobilized for 8 weeks postoperatively and underwent progressive rehabilitation. At the 1-year follow-up review, one patient could walk unassisted, and the other ambulated independently using a cane. Both patients controlled bowel function satisfactorily with laxatives and diet and could maintain continence but required self-catheterization for bladder emptying. The authors conclude that in selected patients, total sacrectomy represents an acceptable surgical procedure that can offer not only effective local pain control, but also a potential cure, while preserving satisfactory ambulatory capacity and neurological function. PMID:9347991

  17. Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy.

  18. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid tumors by X-ray fluorescent analysis-comparison of cases from Russia and Albany, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra thyroid iodine level in different types of thyroid neoplasms in Russia (126 cases) and USA (37 cases) were investigated by X-ray fluorescent analysis in vitro. A decrease in intra thyroid iodine concentration is associated with the stepwise loss of differentiation in thyroid tumors. In colloid goiter tissue from Russia, the intra thyroid iodine level is increased. The intra thyroid iodine level was markedly increased in micro follicular adenomas and colloid goiters from American patients which may reflect a higher iodine supply in the USA. X-ray fluorescent analysis together with careful clinical appraisal can be used for management of thyroid patients with suspicious nodules which should be treated by surgery

  19. Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Husain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs. Materials and Methods: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19, on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections. They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC. The stains were done according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that immunoexpression was significantly higher in the malignant group for all four markers. The sensitivity for positive expression for all benign lesions versus malignant tumors was as follows: 10/44 (22.7% versus 25/27 (92.6% for galectin-3; 14/44 (31.8% versus 23/27 (85% for Ret; 12/44 (27.3% versus 24/27 (88.8% for HBME-1; and 13/44 (29.5% versus 23/27 (85% for CK19. The sensitivity and specificity was highest for galectin-3 (92.6% and 77.3%, respectively followed by HMBE-1 (88.9% and 72.7%, respectively. When combining the markers? expressions, the panel of galectin-3 + HBME-1 showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (90.7% and 75%, respectively, but this was, however, lower than galectin-3 alone (92.3% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The galectin-3 + HBME-1 was the best combination for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

  20. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  1. Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injac Rade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 groups received i.p. applications of 1-methyl-l-nitrosourea (MNU; 50 mg/kg body weight on the 50th and 113th day of age. Animals were randomly divided into five groups as follows: (1 Untreated control group - rats received saline only; (2 Cancer control group - rats received MNU and saline; (3 Dox group - rats received MNU and Dox 8 mg/kg; (4 Full/Dox group -rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg 30 min before Dox 8 mg/kg; (5 Full group - rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg. Tumor incidence was 4.94 +- 0.576 per rat. The animals were sacrificed 2 days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and ?-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p < 0.05, after an i.p. administration of doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower oc-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS level in the heart (p < 0.05. Ultra structural analysis of heart tissues from rats treated with doxorubicin and indicated that the hearts of the rats were protected from doxorubicin-induced subcellular damage. Doxorubicin/fullerenol rats did not appear to show significant cardiac damage although occasional focal loss of cristae in the mitochondria was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals.

  2. Identificacin molecular de helicobacter pylori en tejidos gstricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina / Molecular identification of helicobacter pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmundo Dants, Escobar Habeica; Yaxsier, de Armas Rodrguez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Virginia, Cap de Paz; Fidel, Cathcart Roca; Marco Antonio, Jimnez Lpez.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: Helicobacter pylori es considerado uno de los principales agentes causales de gastritis crnica, lcera pptica y neoplasias gstricas malignas en humanos. Objetivo: evaluar el uso de la reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificacin de H. pylori y sus genotipos en tejidos [...] gstricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Material y Mtodos: se estudiaron secciones de 5 bloques de parafina procedentes de 5 pacientes mexicanos con neoplasias gstricas malignas. Se realizaron coloraciones de rutina y especiales de anatoma patolgica, as como la tcnica de la reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa para la deteccin del microorganismo y sus genotipos. Resultados: la tcnica de la reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa identific a este agente infeccioso en todos los bloques analizados en correspondencia con su deteccin a travs de las tcnicas histolgicas. Esta metodologa permiti demostrar una variabilidad gentica del patgeno en las muestras analizadas segn los genotipos vacA y cagA. Conclusiones: la reaccin en cadena de la polimerasa podra ser un mtodo eficaz en la identificacin del H. pylori en tejidos gstricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Esta se perfila como una estrategia atractiva para realizar estudios de epidemiologa molecular y permitir establecer posibles asociaciones de genotipos/subtipos del microorganismo con variables clnicas, epidemiolgicas y de manejo del paciente. Abstract in english Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the main causal agents of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignant neoplasms in humans. Objective: to evaluate polymerase chain reaction for identification of Helicobacter pylori and its genotypes in paraffin embedded gastric tissue [...] s with malignant neoplasms. Material and Methods: sections of five paraffin blocks from five patients with gastric malignant neoplasms were studied. They were analyzed through routine and special stains of pathological anatomy, as well as the polymerase chain reaction technic for microorganism and genotypes detection. Results: the infectious agent was identified in all of the analyzed blocks through the polymerase chain reaction technic in correspondence with its detection through histologic techniques. This methodology showed a genetic variability of the pathogen in the analyzed samples in respect to vacA and cagA genotypes. Conclusions: the polymerase chain reaction could be an efficacious method for the identification of H. pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasms. It is projected as an attractive strategy for performing studies of molecular epidemiology and the establishment of possible associations between genotypes/subtypes of the microorganism and clinic or epidemiologic variables, and patient handling.

  3. Delayed results of combined treatment of malignant neoplasms of nasal cavity and accessory basal sinuses with the use of remote neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of results of combined treatment of 24 patients with locally spread forms of malignant neoplasms in nasal cavity and accessory nasal sinuses, subjected to preoperational remote neutron therapy, was carried out. Mean neutron energy was 6.5 MeV, total focus dose - 38-40 Gy. It is shown that combined method of treatment features high efficiency, ensuring 5-year survival rate of 67.8% of the patients. However, the treatment is accompanied by grave complications, formation of face tissue-defects and radiation-induced cataract. The necessity of improving the methods of eye protection in the course of radiotherapy is emphasized. 1 ref

  4. Trends in the incidence and mortality rates of malignant neoplasms in regions with radio ecological problems (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study is carried out to examine incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at high radioecological risk (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999. The analysis is made according to sex and age groups. Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. The analysis of incidence and mortality dynamics doesn't show an increase in the incidence/mortality rate of the selected radiation-related oncological diseases compared with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

  5. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  6. Diagnostic value of early and delayed 201Tl thyroid scintigraphy in the evaluation of cold nodules for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed 201Tl thyroid scintigraphy using an early and delayed scanning technique in 34 patients exhibiting cold nodules on sup(99m)Tc scans. Of the 29 benign nodules, 27 were correctly diagnosed as being negative, i.e. 93% specificity. However, two of five malignant nodules failed to concentrate activity on both the early and delayed scans. The low sensitivity (60%) of this method for detecting carcinomas limits its clinical value in the routine diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected thyroid cancer. Our findings are in contrast to previous more optimistic reports. (orig.)

  7. Is Doppler ultrasound of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Weslley, Rosario; Alexandre Lemos da, Silva; Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro, Borges; Maria Regina, Calsolari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. A total of 1,502 solid thyroid nodules ? 10 mm were evaluated. Suspicious vascularity (predominantly or [...] exclusively central blood flow) was observed in only 5% of the nodules. This finding showed 96% specificity, but only 15% sensitivity. GSUS alone showed sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 68.2%, respectively, which did not improve with the addition of DUS (sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 66.4%). In non-suspicious nodules on GSUS, the type of vascularity on DUS did not modify the risk of malignancy, which was low. In suspicious nodules on GSUS, suspicious vascularity on DUS increased the risk of malignancy, but non-suspicious vascularity did not reduce this risk. DUS provided no additional value to GSUS in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):79-83

  8. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Real-Time Elastography and Shear Wave Elastography in Differentiation Malignant From Benign Thyroid Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wuguo; Hao, Shuai; Gao, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Shu; Gu, Lingji; Luo, Donglin

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid nodules are relatively more prevalent in iodine-deficiency area, and the incidence increased sharply in the past decade in these areas. Workup of malignant from benign nodules in clinic was the main problem for managing thyroid nodules.An overall search for the articles about the diagnostic performance of real-time elastography (RTE) and shear wave elastography (SWE) before April 2015 in the databases of PubMed, Embase, and Google scholar. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve were obtained from individual studies with a random-effects model. Subgroup and meta-regression analysis were also performed.Fifty-six studies involved in 2621 malignant nodules and 7380 benign nodules were contained in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of RTE was 83.0% and 81.2%, which is higher than SWE (sensitivity: 78.7%, specificity: 80.5%). The areas under the SROC curve of RTE and SWE were 0.885 and 0.842 respectively. RTE had higher diagnostic value for Caucasians than Asians. Stran ratio (SR) assessment had higher diagnostic performance than elasticity score (ES) system. Similarly, it had higher diagnostic value when malignant nodules were more than 50.In summary, the results revealed that RTE had higher diagnostic performance than SWE in differentiating malignant from benign nodules. However, future international multicenter studies in the region of thyroid risk need to further assess the diagnostic performance of RTE. PMID:26717367

  9. Evidence for Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Alterations of the Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in Hypofunctioning Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouttet-Masson, Sverine; Selmi-Ruby, Samia; Bernier-Valentin, Franoise; Porra, Valrie; Berger-Dutrieux, Nicole; Decaussin, Myriam; Peix, Jean-Louis; Perrin, Agns; Bournaud, Claire; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Borson-Chazot, Franoise; Franc, Brigitte; Rousset, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of iodide by epithelial thyroid cells requires the expression of a specific transporter, the Na+/I? symporter, NIS. Benign and malignant thyroid tumors of epithelial origin show a decrease up to a loss of iodide uptake activity. Previous studies of the human NIS (hNIS) gene expression in these tumors, based on the amplification of transcripts and/or immunohistochemical detection of the protein, have yielded divergent data; hNIS expression was found either increased or decreased. To get a new and integrated view of the alterations of hNIS expression in hypofunctioning thyroid tumors, we performed investigations of hNIS transcript and hNIS protein levels on the same tumors and paired normal tissue samples. HNIS, identified as a 75- to 80-kd species, was present in all normal tissue samples from euthyroid patients, but was undetectable, even at high membrane protein input, in all benign and malignant hypofunctioning thyroid tumors. By contrast, ?50% of tumors contained hNIS transcripts. This dissociation between transcript and protein levels was not found for the transcript and protein encoded by the PDS gene assayed in the same tumors. The hNIS transcript-positive tumors contained small amounts of low-molecular mass hNIS-immunoreactive species identified as nonglycosylated hNIS. Tumors containing the nonmature form of hNIS exhibited a predominant intracellular immunolabeling. In conclusion, our data show that benign and malignant hypofunctioning thyroid tumors either no longer express hNIS protein or express only a very low amount of nonglycosylated hNIS and indicate that the impairment of hNIS gene expression might result from alterations at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:15215159

  10. Von Reckling-hausen disease associated to thyroid carcinoma and malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. A case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiple neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease associated to malignant schwannoma in about 3% of the cases and very rarely to others cancers. The study provides information on the case of a 32 year-old woman who suffers from this disease and presented two synchronous cancers: a papillary carcinoma of thyroid and a malignant schwannoma of the chest wall. The thyroid tumour was managed with hemithyroidectomy, hormonotherapy and radiotherapy, and the lesion of the thoracic wall was treated with local radical resection application of Marlex mesh and rotation of a musculocutaneous flap of the dorsal muscle. A review of the literature on the clinical aspects of this association and the surgical techniques employed to cover the defect of the chest wall is presented. (authors)

  11. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60%. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33% is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90% for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  13. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hoon; Choi Yoon; Yu Hae-Na; Yoon Seung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when...

  14. Intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET) and carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE): CD5-positive neoplasms mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakudo, Kennichi; Bai, Yanhua; Ozaki, Takashi; Homma, Kei-ichi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira

    2013-05-01

    Carcinoma of possible thymic epithelial origin may occur within the thyroid gland, which was first reported by Miyauchi et al. as intrathyroid epithelial thymoma (ITET). ITET is a rare tumor comprising about 0.08% of all primary thyroid malignancies. It is a low-grade thyroid carcinoma with squamous cell differentiation whose overall survival rate was found to be 71%. Lymph node metastasis at surgery was found in 40% and hematogenous metastases developed in bones, liver and lungs. This tumor grows within the thyroid gland and invades into the thyroid parenchyma as well as into the extrathyroid structures. It is a well-circumscribed solid tumor with a sharp tumor border, but is not capsulated. After fixation, the cut surface of the tumor is gray-white in color and is a solid tumor with lobulation. Tumor calcification was not detected in our 15 cases. The tumor cells show solid sheets of growth with occasional keratinization without follicular or papillary structures. Lymphocytic infiltration in the stroma is one of the most characteristic features of this tumor. The tumor cells are polygonal epithelial cells with distinct nucleoli and ill-defined cell border. Positive immunoreactivity for CD5 is a key feature to differentiate it from undifferentiated carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma, medullary (C cell) carcinoma and high-grade squamous cell carcinoma (so-called primary squamous cell carcinoma) of the thyroid. Negative immunoreactivity for calcitonin, TTF1 and thyroglobulin, and positive immunoreactivity for p63 and KIT are also helpful for differential diagnosis. Nuclear atypia is mild and mitoses are less frequent, with an intermediate proliferation index (MIB-1 labeling index is usually less than 20%), which are also helpful to differentiate it from high-grade primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid. The tumors in our 15 cases demonstrate 3 histological subtypes: keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma type, non-keratinizing basaloid cell carcinoma (lymphoepithelioma-like) type and neuroendocrine carcinoma type, which correspond to subtypes of the mediastinal thymic carcinomas. PMID:23233417

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity of in radioiodine treatment. (author)

  16. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAs

  18. Neonatal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe neoplasms diagnosed in children ? 28 days of age along with their treatment, associated congenital anomalies, and the long-term consequences of the diagnoses and treatments. Methods and Materials: Utilizing autopsy records, a computerized tumor registry, and medical records, we identified patients and stillborns at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC) diagnosed with neoplasms at ? 28 days of age between 1930 and 1998. Results: Twenty-three neonates with neoplasms were identified. There were 7 males (30%) and 16 females (70%). Follow-up of survivors ranged from 4 months to 27 years (mean 9 years). The 20 patients identified via the computerized registry system for 1980-1998 constitute 2% (20/925) of all neoplasms seen in patients ? 16 years of age over this same time period at DUMC. The histologic diagnoses were teratoma/germ cell tumor (n = 8, 35%), neuroblastoma (n = 5, 22%), retinoblastoma (n = 4, 17%), primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor (n = 3, 13%), and one case each of rhabdomyosarcoma, glossal glial choristoma, and hemangioma in the setting of Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome. Of the eight teratoma/germ cell tumor patients, 6 were female (75%) and 2 male (25%). There was one malignant germ cell tumor, 2 immature teratomas, and 5 teratomas. Two of the seven patients with immature teratomas or teratoma were long-term survivors following surgery. The one patient with malignant germ cell tumor, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, died. Associated anomalies were imperforate anus, congenital absence of a limb, left ventricular hypertrophy, fusion or absence of toes, coarctation of the aorta, and pulmonary valve dysplasia. Of the five children with neuroblastoma, 4 were female. INSS Stages were 1 (n = 1), 2A (n = 1), 3 (n = 1), and 4S (n = 2). Two were treated with surgery + chemotherapy + radiotherapy; two with surgery + chemotherapy; and one with surgery alone. Four children are long-term survivors. Associated congenital anomalies and medical problems were ventricular septal defect, seizure disorder, and Fanconi's anemia. A child with a dumbbell neuroblastoma, treated with surgery and chemotherapy, is paraplegic. Of the four children with retinoblastoma, two were female. Two had trilateral disease and two bilateral. Three of the four had a family history of retinoblastoma. The two children with trilateral retinoblastoma died after therapy with surgery, craniospinal and orbital irradiation, and chemotherapy. Two children with bilateral disease are long-term survivors: one treated with radiotherapy + chemotherapy and one with radiotherapy alone. They have marked orbital bone growth abnormalities. The three patients with CNS tumors were female. The histologies were glioblastoma multiforme, anaplastic astrocytoma, and malignant mixed oligodendroglioma. Two of the patients are long-term survivors after surgery + chemotherapy. Six children received eight courses of radiation therapy: 2 for Stage 4S neuroblastoma with respiratory compromise from an enlarging liver and 4 for retinoblastoma. The two infants with trilateral retinoblastoma received two courses of irradiation each: one of the treatment of intraocular tumor and a second, at an older age, for the pineal tumor. The most serious complication of anesthesia was a case of enterobacter cloacae sepsis in the central venous access line used for repetitively administering the anesthetic. Conclusion: The most common neonatal neoplasm histologic diagnoses are teratoma/germ cell tumor, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma. Neonatal neoplasms may be associated with congenital anomalies. Radiation therapy is administered infrequently in a population highly susceptible to late ill effects. When radiotherapy is required, anesthesia may be repetitively administered to aid in reproducible treatment

  19. Patients Candidate for thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim:thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: during two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was preformed after IV injection of 15 mCi of Tc-99 m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in 4 phases (angiography-first 10 minutes-15 min and 2-3 hours after injection). Thyroid methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4) with no uptake as score 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age = 35.5 years +/- 13.6) 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules(P=0.37). Sensitivity and specificity of high methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake (score 3-4) for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The values for sensitivity and specificity were 69.2 % and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as different in uptake scores of late and early phases) was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P = 0.07). The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P = 0.65). Conclusion: thyroid methoxy isobutyl isonitrile scan has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidates for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation.Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity

  20. Effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? on incidence, benign/malignant ratio and multiplicity of rat mammary neoplasms - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? administration on mammary tumorigenesis in females of 3 rat strains, viz. the WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD. The 3 rat strains differed significantly in their spontaneous mammary tumor incidence. Female SD rats had the highest incidence (47%) and female BN/BiRij rats the lowest (17%). Female WAG/Rij rats had an intermediate incidence of 29%. The benign/malignant ratio in female WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD rats was 1.0, 2.0 and 7.3, respectively. The average number of mammary gland neoplasms per untreated tumor-bearing female was 1.2 in the WAG/Rij, 1.0 in the BN/BiRij and 1.6 in the SD, whereas the respective maximum numbers were 2, 1 and 5. Ovariohysterectomy almost entirely prevented mammary tumour formation in all 3 rat strains, whereas estrogen treatment enhanced it. In addition, estrogen treatment resulted in an increased number of mammary tumors per tumor-bearing female and changed the benign/malignant ratio into the direction of malignant. X-irradiation increased the mammary tumor incidence in all 3 rat strains, especially of the benign tumors. Estrogen potentiated the effect of irradiation. An effect of irradiation on mammary tumorigenesis was not observed in ovariohysterectomized females of all 3 rat strains. (author)

  1. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

  2. An extremely rare case of testicular malign neoplasm; alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma with long term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ipekci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm usually occur in men aged between 15 and 35. These are solid organ tumours and also should be operated when there is a suspicious clinical findings. Testis tumours are levelled after histopathology evaluation. The medical, surgical and follow-up strategies of well know testis tumours, such as seminomas, non-seminom germ cell tumours, have been established. In case of testis tumours rare entities may occur as rhabdomyosarcoma.We here presented a rare case of alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma in testis with long term follow-up.

  3. VON RECKLINGHAUSENS DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Niculescu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausens Disease (RD since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since 97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC pT1NxMxG1 (sclerous infiltrative 3 mm node on joint nodular goitre with metaplasia, hemorrhage, sclero hyalinisation and lymphomatous thyroiditis aspects. She was treated with L Thyroxin, chemotherapy (Cisplatinum, Dacarbazin and radioactive iodine therapy. After oncological evaluation she was addressed to the First Surgery Clinic for thyroidectomy totalisation and the treatment of an umbilical tumour occurred after the fourth cure (June-July 2005. The patient was evaluated by physical exam, ultrasonography and computed tomography (cervical and abdominal which revealed tumours in the cervical region and in the liver. Thyroidectomy totalisation with limphadenectomy and an abdominal laparoscopy and biopsy were performed. The pathologic exam diagnosed multiple metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM localized in the cervical region, in the liver, great omentum and cervical limphatic nodes. The postoperative follow-up revealed multiple bone mestastasis from the malignanat melanoma. The case particularities were: association of RD with 2 primitive malignant tumours (occult PTC and MM, both diagnosed histopathologically and the multiple bone metastasis developed in a short time.

  4. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaad, K.; Chetty, R.

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic serous neoplasms are rare but account for the most common type of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. The vast majority of serous cystic tumours are benign (serous cystadenoma). A few cases of clinically more aggressive and metastatic serous tumours have been reported in the literature, and designated as malignant (serous cystadenocarcinoma). Due to the rarity of malignant pancreatic serous neoplasms, their true incidence is still unclear. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas can be a ...

  5. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Struma Testis with Malignant Transformation in the Lung Associated with Trisomy 17 Successfully Treated with Total Thyroidectomy and Radioiodine Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Shadi; Odem, Jamie; Batanian, Jacqueline R.; Raza, Shahzad; Khan, Uzma Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background Struma testis is a rare entity, and there are only few reports on the malignant transformation of a testicular teratoma to papillary thyroid carcinoma in the literature. In this report, we describe the malignant transformation of struma testis with distant lung metastasis associated with trisomy 17 and a coexisting papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid. Case Report A 56-year-old man presented after a left orchiectomy for an undescended left testicle. Pathologic examination identified a monodermal teratoma composed of thyroid parenchyma and associated with a 1.7-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma. Further evaluation showed a pulmonary mass on a chest CT scan. Total thyroidectomy revealed a 0.5-mm focus of papillary thyroid cancer, and removal of the lung mass confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Array-comparative genomic hybridization of both tumors showed trisomy 17 in the struma testes and the lung metastasis. The patient responded well to radioactive iodine ablation and has no evidence of cancer 3 years later. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case of papillary thyroid cancer in struma testes metastatic to the lung. It highlights the difficulties in treating these patients. Surgery to remove cancer foci, followed by radioactive iodine ablation, resulted in an excellent response in our patient. Interestingly, trisomy 17, which has so far been observed only in noninvasive thyroid nodules, was associated with pulmonary metastasis in our patient. PMID:25520651

  6. Patterns of Benign and Malignant Lesions of the Thyroid in Two Wilayahs of Northeastern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoum, Mona; Kherfi-Kadi, Hind; Benharkat-Boughaba, Ouahiba; Djemaa-Bendjazia, Aicha; Keghouche, Sihem; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Azzouz, Amina; Kadi, Yacine; Hainaut, Pierre; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare histological patterns and to estimate the burden of thyroid cancers in the two Wilayahs (departments) of El-Taref and Guelma in northeast of Algeria (total population 0.9 million), locally reputed as having different rates of endemic thyroid diseases and cancer. A retrospective analysis of central pathology registers and clinical records of patients with thyroid diseases, covering the period 20082012, was conducted. A total of 145 cases of thyroid cancers with histological confirmation were registered in the two Wilayahs during the period, with a female to male ratio of 5.9?:?1. Estimates of crude incidence rates suggested that thyroid cancers were twice as frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma compared to El-Taref (p < 0.05) with a tendency to occur at a younger age in resident of the Wilayah of El-Taref. Diagnoses of thyroid adenoma were more frequent in the Wilayah of Guelma, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid lesions, including goitre, was similar in the two Wilayahs. This first descriptive study on geographic variations in thyroid cancer in Northern Africa suggests that significant differences may occur in relation with environmental and lifestyle exposures. PMID:26681943

  7. Incidence of malignant hemopathies and thyroid carcinomas in infants less than 15 years old around the nuclear site of Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine, for the last ten years (1985-1995), the incidence of malignant blood diseases and thyroid carcinomas for children less than fifteen years old in a periphery of 35 km around the nuclear site of Marcoule. The conclusions are that it does not seem to exist a sur-incidence of these pathologies around Marcoule. But a surveillance register is placed for these carcinomas for the coming years, because of the choices made by the site of Marcoule and the expected developments. (N.C.)

  8. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  9. Role of apparent diffusion coefficient values and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: The purpose of the study was to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules using nodule-spinal cord signal intensity and nodule apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratios on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients (27 females, 17 males; mean age 49) with nodules who underwent diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) were included in this study. The images were acquired with 0, 50, 400 and 1000 s/mm2 b values. ADC maps were calculated afterwards. Fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) were performed at the same day with DW-MRI acquisition. The diagnosis in patients where malignity was detected after FNAB was confirmed by histopathologic analysis of the operation material. The signal intensities of the spinal cord and the nodule were measured additionally, over b-1000 diffusion weighted images. Nodule /cord signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained and the digital values were calculated by dividing to ADC values estimated for each nodule. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: The (nodule SI-cord SI)/nodule ADC ratio is calculated in the DW images and a statistically significant relationship was found between this ratio and the histopathology of the nodules (p<0.001). The ratio was determined as 0.27 in benign, and 0.86 in malignant lesions. The result of ROC analysis was statistically significant, and the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (100%) was considerably high. The threshold value was calculated as 0.56 according to the ROC analysis. According to this threshold value, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy rates for (nodule SI/cord SI)/ADC ratios in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules are calculated as 100%, 97%, 83%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: We have found that (nodule/cord SI)/ nodule ADC ratio has the highest values for sensitivity and specificity among the tests defined for characterization of nodules.

  10. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  11. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, I.

    1982-02-01

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility.

  12. Guideline for therapy of malignant thyroid tumours. Pleading for an actualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total (or near total) thyroidectomy (TE) followed by radioiodine (131I) ablation (RIA) of residual thyroid tissue is considered to be the ideal treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the actual guideline of the DGN (German Society of Nuclear Medicine) recommends for the so-called papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid (PMC) no further therapeutic strategy (no complete TE, no 131I-ablation of the remaining lobe). PMC has been defined as papillary carcinoma measuring 1 cm (T1) in maximal diameter according to the World Health Organization classification system for thyroid tumours (1988). The new WHO-classification (starting in 2003) defines the T1-tumour measuring 2 cm in maximal diameter. The authors demand a new, modern guideline, following the new WHO classification. This includes, that despite the overall excellent prognosis for patients with PMC, the treatment of patients with T1-tumours of the new WHO-classification (including the 'old' PMC) should not be different from the treatment of patients with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, i.e. complete surgery (TE and central lymph node dissection) followed by RIA of residual thyroid tissue. The authors argue that it is not appropriate to consider the tumour size as the single most important key factor for therapy and prognosis. Even small tumours may have poor prognostic factors, such as lymph node metastasis, multifocality or molecular characteristics (expression of oncogenes). (orig.)

  13. Evaluacin clnica de la salud oral de nios con neoplasias malignas Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm

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    MA Gordn-Nez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio de carcter descriptivo vis evaluar clnicamente nios con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relacin entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatolgicas. Pacientes y mtodos: la salud bucal de 40 nios con neoplasias malignas (grupo I fue evaluada clnicamente mediante examen fsico extra e intra oral, obtencin del ndice de placa visible, ndice de sangrado gingival e ndice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatolgicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de stos nios fue comparado al de nios saludables (grupo II. Resultados: los nios del grupo I presentaron ndices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el ndice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los nios del grupo I, sin embargo, slo hubo diferencia estadsticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002. En el grupo I, 16 nios desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatolgicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusin: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplsico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatolgicas.Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neoplasm (group I through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II. Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002. In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99mTc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area in agreement with currently accepted Japanese lymphatic anatomy. It is important to confirm lymphatic drainage to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. (author)

  15. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo thyroid function testing is conducted with isotopes of iodine, the rate-limiting substrate for thyroid hormonogenesis, or with pertechnetate, an anion which the thyroidal follicular cells will concentrate or trap similarly to iodide, but will not organify. The physical characteristics of these isotopes, their advantages or indications, their disadvantages, and the average radiation dose to the thyroid in the infant, child, and adult are reviewed. The latter is expressed as estimated dose in rads per microcurie administered assuming an uptake of 27 percent and a biological half-life of 68 days. For many years the standard isotope for thyroid studies has been 131I. This isotope, however, has the disadvantage of a high radiation dose to the gland, especially in infants and children. Furthermore the high-energy gamma ray (364 keV) requires low-efficiency, thick septal collimators for scanning. More recently 125I, 123I, and 99/sup m/Tc-pertechnetate have been used. (auth)

  16. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  17. THE INCIDENCE OF THYROID MALIGNANCY IN NODULAR GOITER: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS IN A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL

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    Praveen Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malignancy in nodular goiter has been found to vary from 4% to 17%. Our aim is to determine the incidence of malignancy in nodular goiter by doing the histopathological examination of thyroidectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was carried out on patients who are undergone thyroidectomy for clinically diagnosed nodular goiter in Fr . Muller Medical College Hospital during 2012 - 2014 (3 yrs. All the operated specimens were subjected to a histopathological examination to determine the incidence of malignancy. RESULTS: Among the 258 nodular goitre cases which were studied, 21 (8.1% cases contained malignant foci. Among them, papillary carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy observed. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy in nodular goitre should not to be underestimated. Total/ Near - total thyroidectomy is the preferred operation. All the operated specimens should be sent for histopathological examination

  18. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates. Application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. (author)

  19. Cardioprotective effects of fullerenol C(60)(Oh)(24) on a single dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injac, R; Perse, M; Boskovic, M; Djordjevic-Milic, V; Djordjevic, A; Hvala, A; Cerar, A; Strukelj, B

    2008-02-01

    The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C(60)(OH)(24) in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. The animals were sacrificed two days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and alpha-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR, and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower alpha-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR, and TAS level in the heart (p fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals. PMID:18198920

  20. Increment of platelet during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm patients injected subcutaneously with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of hematologic cells is one of the most severe morbidities in radiation therapy. Thrombocytopenia in particular has no effective treatment methods except blood transfusion. Thus, avoiding severe thrombocytopenia is considered to be one of the most important concerns. We treated 2 patients who had increment of platelets during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm following subcutaneous injection with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). One patient was an 84-year-old woman suffering from uterine cervical carcinoma and the other was a 73-year-old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In both patients, platelets decreased after radiation therapy. Following subsequent injection of Z-100 subcutaneously, an increase in platelets was observed. The mechanisms of Z-100 to increase platelets in these patients are obscure, although some interleukins (IL) such as IL-6 might be related to the increment of the platelets. Thus, further studies will be required to evaluate the mechanisms of the increment of platelet in patients injected with Z-100. (author)

  1. Risk of Secondary Malignant Neoplasms From Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated X-Ray Therapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the risk of a secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) from proton therapy relative to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using X-rays, taking into account contributions from both primary and secondary sources of radiation, for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A proton therapy plan and a 6-MV IMRT plan were constructed for 3 patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Doses from the primary fields delivered to organs at risk of developing an SMN were determined from treatment plans. Secondary doses from the proton therapy and IMRT were determined from Monte Carlo simulations and available measured data, respectively. The risk of an SMN was estimated from primary and secondary doses on an organ-by-organ basis by use of risk models from the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Results: Proton therapy reduced the risk of an SMN by 26% to 39% compared with IMRT. The risk of an SMN for both modalities was greatest in the in-field organs. However, the risks from the in-field organs were considerably lower with the proton therapy plan than with the IMRT plan. This reduction was attributed to the substantial sparing of the rectum and bladder from exposure to the therapeutic beam by the proton therapy plan. Conclusions: When considering exposure to primary and secondary radiation, proton therapy can reduce the risk of an SMN in prostate patients compared with contemporary IMRT.

  2. Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

  3. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (1018 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 2030%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (7080% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.820.94] in thyroid nodules. The positive and negative predictive values of the model are 83% (95%CI: 76%91% and 79% (95%CI: 72%86%, respectively. Conclusion An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. This model warrants further validation testing in prospective clinical trials.

  4. Plasma thyroglobulin in detecting thyroid carcinoma after childhood head and neck irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of thyroglobulin in plasma was measured in 904 subjects with a history of head and neck irradiation during childhood to evaluate its potential value in screening for and differentiating thyroid neoplasms. Mean plasma thyroglobulin level was significantly elevated in subjects with nodular thyroid disease versus those without evidence of nodules (49.8 versus 27.0 ng/ml). However, the overlap with normal subjects does not allow thyroglobulin assays to serve as the only screening procedure. The mean levels in subjects with benign and malignant thyroid nodules were indistinguishable (48.8 versus 53.9 ng/ml). Thirteen percent of otherwise normal-appearing subjects had elevated values that may represent clinically inapparent thyroid disease. It is concluded that in screening large numbers of persons at risk for thyroid neoplasia, thyroglobulin assays are useful in combination with other modes of evaluation. The assay is without value in distinguishing benign from malignant disease

  5. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  6. Evaluacin clnica de la salud oral de nios con neoplasias malignas / Clinical Assessment of Oral Health of children with Malignant Neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MA, Gordn-Nez; L, Pereira Pinto; BL, Souza; PT, Oliveira; MZ, Fernandes.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio de carcter descriptivo vis evaluar clnicamente nios con neoplasias malignas y poner de manifiesto la relacin entre el status de salud bucal y la ocurrencia de complicaciones estomatolgicas. Pacientes y mtodos: la salud bucal de 40 nios con neoplasias malignas (grupo I) [...] fue evaluada clnicamente mediante examen fsico extra e intra oral, obtencin del ndice de placa visible, ndice de sangrado gingival e ndice de dientes cariados, ausentes y obturados y simultneamente fueron observadas las complicaciones estomatolgicas desarrolladas en esos pacientes. El status de salud bucal de stos nios fue comparado al de nios saludables (grupo II). Resultados: los nios del grupo I presentaron ndices de sangrado gingival y experiencia de caries menores que los del grupo II, por otro lado, el ndice de placa visible fue ligeramente mayor en los nios del grupo I, sin embargo, slo hubo diferencia estadsticamente significativa en el valor del CAO-D/cao-d entre ambos grupos (p = 0.002). En el grupo I, 16 nios desarrollaron conjuntamente 61 complicaciones estomatolgicas, con predominancia de la mucositis, seguida del sangrado oral espontneo, candidiasis y xerostomia. Conclusin: Pacientes bajo tratamiento antineoplsico, presentando higiene oral deficiente, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones estomatolgicas. Abstract in english Objective: In this descriptive study were assessment clinically children with malignant neoplasm, to evidence the correlation between oral health status and the occurrence of stomatologic complications. Patients and methods: Were evaluated the oral health conditions of 40 children with malignant neo [...] plasm (group I) through intra and extra oral physic examination, obstention of Visible Plate Index, Gingival Bleeding Index and Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth Index; simultaneously were observed the stomatologic complications developed in this patients. The oral health status of the children of group I was compared to the healthy children (group II). Results: The children of group I presented Gingival Bleeding Index and caries experience lower than children of group II, in other hand, the Visible Plate Index was lightly greater in children of group I, nevertheless existed statistical difference in the value of the DMF-T/dmf-t between both groups (p = 0.002). In the group I, 16 children developed together 61 stomatologic complications, with predominance of oral mucositis, followed by spontaneous oral bleeding, candidiasis and xerostomy. Conclusions: Patients in anti neoplastic therapy with deficient oral hygiene had high risk of develop stomatologic complications.

  7. Long-term follow-up sonography of benign cystic thyroid nodules after a percutaneous ethanol injection: the incidence of malignancy-mimicking nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the incidence of malignancy-mimicking sclerosed thyroid nodules, from long-term follow-up ultrasonography (US) after an US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). We examined 86 benign cystic thyroid nodules from 80 patients. The nodules were classified into two groups based on whether an aspiration (Group A, n = 26) or non-aspiration (Group B, n 60) of infused ethanol was performed. The final follow-up US over 12 months was performed in all patients. Of the 86 nodules, the cystic portion of 82 (95.3%) cases, from 76 patients, completely disappeared subsequent to the first follow-up US (Group A, n = 24, Group B, n = 58) (Chi-square test, ? > 0.05). Moreover, 46 sclerosed thyroid nodules showed two or more of the 'five sonographic criteria' upon a follow-up US (Group A, n = 13, 50.0%, Group B, n = 32, 53.3%). A higher ratio of the cystic portion of the nodules was associated with a higher incidence of the 'five sonographic criteria' for malignancies detected via a follow-up US (? < 0.01; Student's t-test). For the long-term follow-up US, the 'five sonographic criteria' were observed in half the patients who received US-guided PEI. Also, by acknowledging the possibility that sonographic findings mimic a malignancy, since the sclerosed thyroid nodule, patients may avoid an unnecessary biopsy

  8. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  9. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  10. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    B. N. Macharia; M. A. Iddah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the w...

  11. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

  12. Caractersticas clnicas, ultrasonogrficas y anatomopatolgicas de pacientes operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea / Clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for suspected thyroid malignancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalberto, Infante Amors; Zussel, Rodrguez Obret; Regla, Ramos Duarte.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: el carcinoma tiroideo se caracteriza por su lenta evolucin y elevado porcentaje de curacin. Objetivo: describir las caractersticas clnicas, ultrasonogrficas y anatomopatolgicas de los pacientes operados. Mtodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron para obtener el d [...] ato primario las historias clnicas de los pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusin: operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea, mayores de 18 aos de edad que contaron con datos completos demogrficos, clnicos, sonogrficos y anatomopatolgicos, y que estuviesen inscritos en el hospital. Se confeccionaron tablas de distribucin de frecuencias. Se aplic la prueba de comparacin de proporciones para describir la significacin estadstica de las variables estudiadas en relacin con la malignidad tiroidea. Resultados: el 81,8 % de los pacientes afectados de malignidad tiroidea correspondi al gnero femenino. El 39,4 % de estos correspondieron al grupo de edad entre 41 y 50 aos, el 75,8 % de este grupo de pacientes correspondi al examen sonogrfico con un rea del ndulo tiroideo mayor de 10 mm, el 53,3 % de estos pacientes present como morfologa tiroidea el ndulo nico, y el 75,8 % present como resultado de la citologa con aguja fina un carcinoma de tiroides. El 91 % present como clasificacin histolgica carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: la mayor frecuencia de carcinoma fue la variante papilar. Se encontr de forma predominante en mujeres con edades entre los 41 y 50 aos que tenan ndulos mayores de 1 cm. Abstract in english Introduction: thyroid carcinoma is characterized by slow progression and high recovery percentage. Objective: to describe the clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for thyroid malignancy. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study for which the [...] primary data were collected from the medical histories of patients who met the inclusion criteria. These criteria comprised surgery for suspected thyroid malignancy, age over 18 years, and complete demographic, clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological data and registration at the hospital. Frequency distribution tables were drawn up. The ratio comparison test was applied to describe the statistical significance of the studied variables with respect to the thyroid malignancy. Results: in the group of patients with thyroid malignancy, 81.8 % were females, 39.4 % aged 41 to 50 years. The ultrasonographic test showed that 75.8 % of them had a thyroid nodule area greater than 10 mm, 53.3 % presented solitary nodule morphology whereas the result of the fine needle aspiration cytology was thyroid carcinoma. The histological classification yielded papillary carcinoma in 91 % of patients. Conclusions: the papillary carcinoma was the most common, particularly in females aged 41 to 50 years who had over 1 cm nodules.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of 99mTc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

  14. The influence of various amounts of 131-iodine on the proliferation of benign and malignant thyroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our work was to find a method to predict the sensitivity of different thyroid diseases towards 131-iodine individually for each patient who is going to have a 131-iodine treatment. We tried to determine the 131-iodine-uptake of benign primary thyroid cells and malignant thyroid (carcinoma) cell-lines (follicular -UCLA RO 82 W-1 and papillary -NPA'87). The following culture dishes were used: 75 cm2-flasks, 24-well plates and Palladium-covered dishes. We incubated 350000 cells per well with 3,7; 9,25; 18,5; 37; and 185 mbq 131-iodine/500 μl Hanks Balanced Salt Solution and 10 (5; 100; 0,1 and 0) μM non-active sodium-iodide for 2 minutes up to 72 hours. The amount of 131-iodine stored by the cells was measured with a Gamma-counter. The ability of the tested two cell-lines to take up 131-iodine was pretty low (about 0,02 % - 0,9 % of the added 131-iodine doses). In addition to that we controlled and determined the cell proliferation by staining them with Trypan-blue and counting using a phase-contrast-microscope. From the cell numbers we collected during 8 days control a growth curve could be prepared. There was a remarkable difference in the growth rate between 131-iodine-incubated (3,7 mbq) and non-incubated cells. The number of the irradiated cells was about 30 % lower. Furthermore we added 10 μM 13-cis retinoic acid to the nutrition media to attempt to rise the extent of the cells differentiation and therefor also the 131-iodine-uptake. Four days preparation with retinoic acid in the media caused a slight increase (10 %) of the 131-iodine-uptake in the RO 82 W-1-cells, 28 days incubation decreased the 131-iodine-uptake significantly (about 30 % - 70 %) and the cells died. After 10 days preparation with retinoic acid the NPA'87-cells also showed a decrease in the 131-iodine-uptake (∼40-50 %) and the cells died. (author)

  15. Multiparametric PET imaging in thyroid malignancy characterizing tumour heterogeneity: somatostatin receptors and glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Putzer, Daniel; Bale, Reto [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Dobrozemsky, Georg; Nilica, Bernhard; Kendler, Dorota; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Radiolabelled somatostatin (SST) analogues have proven useful in diagnosing tumours positive for SST receptor (SSTR). As different subtypes of SSTR are expressed on the tumour cell surface, the choice of appropriate therapeutic SST analogue is crucial. We evaluated the SSTR status of thyroid cancer patients who had signs of progressive disease comparing different SSTR ligands for PET imaging to evaluate possible further therapeutic options. PET with {sup 68}Ga-radiolabelled SSTR ligands DOTA lanreotide (DOTA-LAN), DOTA-Tyr{sup 3} octreotide (DOTA-TOC) and {sup 18}F-FDG was performed in 31 patients with thyroid cancer (TC). These 31 patients comprised 18 with radioiodine non-avid differentiated TC (DTC) including 6 papillary TC (PTC), 8 follicular TC (FTC) and 4 oxyphilic TC (oxyTC), 5 with anaplastic TC (ATC), and 8 with medullary TC (MTC). The PET results were compared in a region-based evaluation. All patients underwent a PET study with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN, 28 patients with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC and 28 patients with {sup 18}F-FDG. A lack of SSTR expression was found in 13 of the 31 patients (42 %) with negative results with both SSTR tracers in 12 patients. Ambiguous results with both SSTR tracers were observed in one patient. High tracer uptake in SSTR PET images was seen in seven DTC patients (39 %; two PTC, three FTC, two oxyTC), in four ATC patients (80 %) and in six MTC patients (75 %). Lesions showing aerobic glycolysis on {sup 18}F-FDG PET were found in 24 of 28 patients (86 %) with corresponding positive results with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-LAN in 35 % and with {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-TOC in 29 %. The heterogeneous SSTR profile of TC tumour lesions needs to be evaluated using different SSTR PET tracers to characterize more closely the SSTR subtype affinities in patients with progressive TC in order to further stratify therapy with SSTR therapeutics. (orig.)

  16. Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV

    OpenAIRE

    De Micco, C; Savchenko, V.; Giorgi, R.; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receive...

  17. Cost-effective and non-invasive automated benign and malignant thyroid lesion classification in 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound using combination of wavelets and textures: a class of ThyroScan algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U R; Faust, O; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Garberoglio, R; Suri, J S

    2011-08-01

    Ultrasound has great potential to aid in the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid lesions, but interpretative pitfalls exist and the accuracy is still poor. To overcome these difficulties, we developed and analyzed a range of knowledge representation techniques, which are a class of ThyroScan algorithms from Global Biomedical Technologies Inc., California, USA, for automatic classification of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. The analysis is based on data obtained from twenty nodules (ten benign and ten malignant) taken from 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound images. Fine needle aspiration biopsy and histology confirmed malignancy. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and texture algorithms are used to extract relevant features from the thyroid images. The resulting feature vectors are fed to three different classifiers: K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), and Decision Tree (DeTr). The performance of these classifiers is compared using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Our results show that combination of DWT and texture features coupled with K-NN resulted in good performance measures with the area of under the ROC curve of 0.987, a classification accuracy of 98.9%, a sensitivity of 98%, and a specificity of 99.8%. Finally, we have proposed a novel integrated index called Thyroid Malignancy Index (TMI), which is made up of texture features, to diagnose benign or malignant nodules using just one index. We hope that this TMI will help clinicians in a more objective detection of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. PMID:21728394

  18. The Evolution of Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer—From Mass Screening to a Personalized Biosignature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymon H. Grogan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. The diagnosis of thyroid nodules, made by neck examination and ultrasonography, is a common event occurring in over 50% of the patient population over the age of 50. Yet, only 5% of these patients will be diagnosed with cancer. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid nodules. However, 10–15% of these biopsies are inconclusive, ultimately requiring a diagnostic thyroid lobectomy. Consequently, research in thyroid biomarkers has become an area of active interest. In the 40 years since calcitonin was first described as the biomarker for medullary thyroid cancer, new biomarkers in thyroid cancer have been discovered. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have defined many of these novel thyroid biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive literature review of how these biomarkers have evolved from simple screening tests into a complex array of multiple markers to help predict the malignant potential and genetic signature of thyroid neoplasms.

  19. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies

  20. Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)

  1. Thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinomaA case report after 9 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Alves, D.; Koch, P.; Soares, V.; Gouveia, P.; Honavar, M.; Taveira-Gomes, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thyroid gland is a rare site of clinically detectable tumor metastasis. As thyroid tumors are usually assumed to be primary in origin, its recognition as a secondary is difficult. Presentation of case We report a case of an 80-year old female who was referred to the Department of Surgery for a symptomatic thyroid nodule. Her medical history included a radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) nine years ago. During follow-up a pancreatic nodule was noted suggestive of a neuroendocrine tumor and the von Hippel-Lindau syndrome had to be ruled out. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) guided by ultrasound (US) of the thyroid nodule was inconclusive and a hemithyroidectomy and isthmectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed metastasis of a clear cell carcinoma. Discussion RCC disseminates in an unpredictable manner and can show late recurrences. Although secondary involvement of the thyroid gland by RCC is rare, it is still one of the more common neoplasms to metastasize to this site. There are no specific clinical features and few characteristic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma on imaging studies. FNAB is a useful procedure to diagnose metastatic thyroid cancer, but one should remain suspicious when the result for malignant cells is negative or indeterminate. After thyroidectomy the diagnosis of RCC is confirmed immunohistochemically. There is a clear survival benefit if a surgical approach to the thyroid metastasis is chosen. Conclusion Thyroid metastasis should be considered in patients with a thyroid nodule and positive history for RCC. PMID:26421840

  2. HYALINIZING TRABECULAR ADENOMA FEIGNING PAPILLARY CARCINOMA THYROID: CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Kandukuri Mahesh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing Trabecular Adenoma (HTA of the thyroid is a rare neoplasm that was first described by Carney in 1987. It is a tumor of follicular derivation with peculiar nuclear, architectural, histochemical, and immunohistochemical features. We report a case of Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma in a 36-year-old woman with enlarged thyroid lobe. Ultrasonographic features and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the enlarged thyroid was performed and the diagnosis given was Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, with a histopathological diagnosis of hyalinizing trabecular Adenoma (HTA. We present this case in view of its rarity and to discuss the clinical and diagnostic approach, including the role of FNAC, and the pathologic features of HTA with special reference to the possible differential diagnosis and also review of literature. Although rare cases of malignant Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA have been documented, this tumor should be considered a benign neoplasm or at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential, however invasion of the capsule should be considered on histopathology. An awareness of hyalinizing trabecular adenomas and their characteristic features is valuable for their recognition and management as well as for the possible prevention of over diagnosis and over treatment for benign disease

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  4. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

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    Nah, Hae Kyeong; Kim, Yoon Sook; Lee, Shin Hyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Chong Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors.

  5. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

  6. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  7. Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUVmax of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at pmax of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.70.6 vs. 1.90.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2.0, respectively. The result of this study indicates that FDG PET/CT can provide additional information for the differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the pancreas with mural nodules. (author)

  8. Metastatic proclivities and patterns among APUD cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, F L; Ketcham, A S

    1993-01-01

    Neoplasms of APUD cell origin are quite variable in their metastatic behavior. Whereas pituitary and parathyroid tumors almost never metastasize, all oat cell lung cancers, malignant melanomas, trabecular carcinomas of the skin and medullary thyroid cancers are capable of dissemination. The metastatic proclivity of individual carcinoids, pancreatic and extrapancreatic islet cell tumors, and paragangliomas is much less predictable. In particular, there are no reliable histological markers of risk for lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination. The behavior of many carcinoids, islet cell carcinomas and paragangliomas is relatively indolent, even when metastatic disease is already present. However, unresectable distant metastases, especially liver involvement, connote a poor prognosis. Mortality is more often related to uncontrolled tumor growth and metastasis than to associated endocrinopathies. Curative or debulking surgical resection should be aggressively pursued as recent data show that worthwhile clinical disease-free survival can be realized in at least some patients. PMID:7902611

  9. Correlation of FDG-PET in the thyroid nodules with ultrasonographic and pathologic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the aspect of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the thyroid nodules and to find the correlation between ultrasonographic (US), pathologic and positron emission tomography (PET) results. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had pathologically confirmed thyroid neoplasm and who had undergone FDG-PET imaging from 9/2004 to 8/2005. There were 41 and 35 patients (9 men + 67 women, 52 years (29-76)) were confirmed to have papillary thyroid cancer by surgery and adenomatous hyperplasia by aspiration. 34 of the 41 patients underwent after US-guided aspiration biopsy, excepting 7 cases of thyroid incidentaloma (3 papillary cancers and 4 adenomatous hyperplasias) on PET. With the presence of perithyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis of papillary cancers in the pathologic report, malignant nodules were grouped to progressed and limited. We compared US findings and surgical results between thyroid nodules with and without FDG uptake on PET. 23 of the 41 papillary cancers and 9 of the 35 AHs showed increased FDG uptake. SUV of 23 papillary carcinoma and 9 AHs were similar (6.396.14 and 5.32.97). The size of thyroid nodules with FDG uptake was slightly larger than nodules without FDG uptake in both papillary cancer and AH. There are no remarkable difference of US findings between thyroid nodules with and without increased FDG uptake. 13 of 16 malignant nodules with SUV = 2 and 4 of 7 nodules with SUV < 2 were belonged to progressed group. There was significant difference of SUV and nodular between progressed and limited groups. Nodular size and SUV were positively correlated with each other (R = 0.56, P < 0, Pearson correlation). Thyroid nodules of increased FDG uptake are not necessarily indicative of malignant tumors. There are no remarkable US differences of thyroid nodules between with and without increased FDG uptake on PET. However, large malignant nodules show tendency to present increased FDG uptake and to be progressed

  10. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  11. Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature

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    Lawrence Julia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesothelioma treated with six cycles of Pemetrexed and Carboplatin completed 03/11/04 followed by radiotherapy to the drain site 250 Kv/TD20Gy/5F completed 13/12/2004. Then he developed multiple facial skin lesions 4 years later. These lesions were proved to be metastatic malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Conclusion Mesothelioma metastases should be suspected in any known Mesothelioma patient with newly developed skin lesion.

  12. Diagnostic value of PET and PET-CT for thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET and PET-CT has become an important tool in the postoperative management of de-differentiated thyroid cancer. But the value of this method in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules is unclear.Various groups of investigators have explored the potential role of 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT in patients with benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms especially those with indeterminate fine needle aspiration cytology findings. With the increasing demand for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT,clinicians are faced with the challenge of managing an increasing number of 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT detected thyroid incidentally because their significance remains unclear. The standardized uptake value of 18F-FDG is the most common semi-quantitative index and can be used to characterize malignant and benign thyroid nodules by describing the metabolism of glucose. This article reviewed the value of SUV in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. (authors)

  13. Myopathy following postoperative ablative radioiodine for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

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    Hermione C Price

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hermione C Price, Vijay JayagopalCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, York Hospital, York, UKAbstract: We highlight a case of disabling myopathy following radioablative iodine treatment for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. A 34-year-old man presented with a tender neck swelling, ultrasound and biopsy were suggestive of thyroid malignancy. Thyroidectomy was undertaken and histology confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Treatment with ablative radioiodine followed and within days the patient developed disabling myopathy. Investigations to date do not reveal any other cause for the myopathy and there is no evidence to suggest that this is a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We believe this is the first reported case of ablative radioiodine-induced mypoathy.Keywords: thyroid neoplasms, muscular diseases, iodine radioisotopes

  14. Late bone metastasis from an apparently benign oncocytic follicular thyroid tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Mauro; Cabrera, Juan J; Perera, Carmen; Isla, Concepcin; Nvoa, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    A man underwent total thyroidectomy for goiter when he was 62 years old. The pathology report informed on a 5.5?cm oncocytic follicular adenoma and a 3.5?mm papillary microcarcinoma. Due to the papillary tumor, he was treated with ablative radioiodine therapy and suppressive doses of levothyroxine. After uneventful follow-up for 9 years, increased levels of serum thyroglobulin were detected. Further imaging studies including a whole body scan (WBS) after an empirical dose of 200?mCi 131I were negative. Two years later, a 99mTc SestaMIBI WBS and a 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron-emission tomography showed a well-delimited focal uptake in the right femur. A bone biopsy of the lesion demonstrated metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Retrospective histological reexamination of available material from the primary oncocytic thyroid tumor failed to reveal definitive traits of malignancy. Learning points Oncocytic follicular thyroid tumors are a relatively uncommon variant of follicular thyroid neoplasms mostly composed of distinctive large oxyphilic cells (Hrthle cells).Criteria for the distinction between benign and malignant oncocytic neoplasms are not different from those used in the diagnosis of ordinary follicular tumors.Some cases of apparently benign oncocytic neoplasms have been found to develop malignant behavior.Search to rule out vascular and capsular invasion should be particularly exhaustive in histological assessment of oncocytic thyroid tumors.Even so, long-term surveillance remains appropriate for patients with large apparently benign oncocytic tumors. PMID:24616777

  15. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without 131I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the 131I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with 131I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. 131I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between 131I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  16. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  17. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

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    M Pujani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  18. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

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    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  19. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  20. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Violi, Maria Antonia; Galletti, Bruno; Baldari, Sergio; Campenn, Alfredo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2016-01-01

    The lingual thyroid is the most common form of thyroid ectopy. The ectopic tissue may display any disease affecting the thyroid, including malignancies, which have an estimated incidence of less than 1%. To date only 51 cases of lingual thyroid cancer were reported. Analogously to what observed in orthotopic thyroid, papillary carcinoma is the predominant histotype in lingual thyroid carcinoma. The higher frequency of lingual follicular thyroid carcinoma previously reported is possibly related to histological misclassification in some early reports, prior to the standardization of histological typing of differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Nonetheless, the frequency of the follicular histotype is not negligible, accounting for about one-third of the reported cases. Both natural history and prognosis of lingual thyroid carcinoma are poorly known, likely because of the rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity in the therapeutic approach. However, among the cases more recently reported, surgical excision of the mass, either alone or followed by radioiodine ablation, is the first-line approach, with only two cases treated by radioiodine alone. The nonsignificant rate of neoplastic transformation in lingual thyroid should encourage efforts to obtain a widely accepted consensus for the management of this rare condition, along with standardization of either diagnostic or therapeutic handling of malignancies arising in ectopic thyroid. PMID:25987346

  1. Asbestos-related malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

  2. Asbestos-related malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

  3. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

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    Ay?e Karaday?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ?1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.12.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.71.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.32.3 and 3.31.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  4. Investigation of thyroid nodules in the female population in Cyprus and in Romania

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    Andra Piciu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The most common thyroid disorders, with an increasing detection worldwide, are the thyroid nodules and thyroiditis, which leads to an increase of thyroid cancer incidence . In two different countries with a different exposure to risk factors for thyroid cancer, such as Cyprus and Romania, the rank of thyroid cancer among other neoplasms is very different: the 3rd most prevalent cancer among females in Cyprus and the 12th in Romania, respectively. Environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A have a proven effect on the thyroid function. However, the relation between the exposure to the endocrine disruptor and the development of thyroid nodules, with a potential of malignant transformation has not been previously studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential factors that lead to the difference of thyroid nodules incidence in the mentioned countries.Methods. A pilot case-control study has been conducted in 2014-2015 in the Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricu?? Institute of Oncology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and the Endocrinology Department of Archbishop Makarios III Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus. Females older than 20 years with no medical history were recruited. Cases were women with ultrasound-confirmed thyroid nodules of size >3mm. Controls were women without thyroid nodules after ultrasound confirmation. All participants provided blood samples for measurements of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, anti- thyroglobulin (ATg and anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO; urine samples. Demographics, anthropometrics and other relevant information were provided through the administration of a questionnaire.Results. In Romania we selected 51 patients with thyroid nodules (case group and 41 without thyroid nodules (control group and in Cyprus 57 cases, respectively 65 controls. After the statistical analysis of the data collected we observed statistically significant differences between the populations of the two countries regarding BMI and the value of the thyroid hormones and antibodies.Conclusions. Using the data observed in this study, differences were found between Cyprus and Romania among females with thyroid nodules the BMI, and the level of thyroid hormones had statistically significant differences. This study reports preliminary data, further analysis of environmental exposures to chemical factors that might have a certain influence over the thyroid in the two countries will follow.

  5. Investigation of thyroid nodules in the female population in Cyprus and in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    PICIU, ANDRA; ANDRIANOU, XANTHI D.; IRIMIE, ALEXANDRU; B?L?CESCU, OVIDIU; ZIRA, CHRISTINA; B?RBU?, ELENA; PE?TEAN, CLAUDIU; ARISTEIDOU, KYRIAKOS; THEOFANOUS, THALIA; AGATHOKLEOUS, MARGERITA; PICIU, DOINA; MAKRIS, KONSTANTINOS C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The most common thyroid disorders, with an increasing detection worldwide, are the thyroid nodules and thyroiditis, which leads to an increase of thyroid cancer incidence . In two different countries with a different exposure to risk factors for thyroid cancer, such as Cyprus and Romania, the rank of thyroid cancer among other neoplasms is very different: the 3rd most prevalent cancer among females in Cyprus and the 12th in Romania, respectively. Environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A have a proven effect on the thyroid function. However, the relation between the exposure to the endocrine disruptor and the development of thyroid nodules, with a potential of malignant transformation has not been previously studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential factors that lead to the difference of thyroid nodules incidence in the mentioned countries. Methods A pilot case-control study has been conducted in 20142015 in the Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricu?? Institute of Oncology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and the Endocrinology Department of Archbishop Makarios III Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus. Females older than 20 years with no medical history were recruited. Cases were women with ultrasound-confirmed thyroid nodules of size >3mm. Controls were women without thyroid nodules after ultrasound confirmation. All participants provided blood samples for measurements of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), anti-thyroglobulin (ATg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO); urine samples. Demographics, anthropometrics and other relevant information were provided through the administration of a questionnaire. Results In Romania we selected 51 patients with thyroid nodules (case group) and 41 without thyroid nodules (control group) and in Cyprus 57 cases, respectively 65 controls. After the statistical analysis of the data collected we observed statistically significant differences between the populations of the two countries regarding BMI and the value of the thyroid hormones and antibodies. Conclusions Using the data observed in this study, differences were found between Cyprus and Romania among females with thyroid nodules the BMI, and the level of thyroid hormones had statistically significant differences. This study reports preliminary data, further analysis of environmental exposures to chemical factors that might have a certain influence over the thyroid in the two countries will follow. PMID:26733748

  6. Shear-Wave Elastography for the Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Lesions of the Thyroid: Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Measurement Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Anthony E; Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Prescott, Jason; Halpern, Elkan F; Faquin, William C; Stephen, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the diagnosis of malignancy in follicular lesions and to identify the optimal SWE measurement plane. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, single-institution, prospective pilot study. Subjects scheduled for surgery after a previous fine-needle aspiration report of "atypia of undetermined significance" or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance," "suspicion for follicular neoplasm," or "suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm," were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Subjects underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), Doppler evaluation, and SWE preoperatively, and their predictive value for thyroid malignancy was evaluated relative to the reference standard of surgical pathologic findings. Results Thirty-five patients (12 men, 23 women) with a mean age of 55 years (range, 23-85 years) and a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n = 16), suspicion for follicular neoplasm (n = 14), and suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 5) were enrolled in the study. Male sex was a statistically significant (P = .02) predictor of malignancy, but age was not. No sonographic morphologic parameter, including nodule size, microcalcification, macrocalcification, halo sign, taller than wide dimension, or hypoechogenicity, was associated with malignancy. Similarly, no Doppler feature, including intranodular vascularity, pulsatility index, resistive index, or peak-systolic velocity, was associated with malignancy. Higher median SWE tissue Young modulus estimates from the transverse insonation plane were associated with malignancy, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.00) for differentiation of malignant from benign nodules. At a cutoff value of 22.3 kPa, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 82%, 88%, 75%, and 91%, respectively, were observed. Conclusion This prospective pilot study indicates that SWE may be a valuable tool in preoperative malignancy risk assessment of follicular-patterned thyroid nodules. () RSNA, 2015. PMID:25955578

  7. Diagnostic Biomarkers in Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Li Yan; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Incidental small renal masses identified on imaging are increasingly investigated via needle core or fine needle aspiration biopsies with limited material provided for rendering a diagnosis. Lesions with a prominent eosinophilic or oncocytic cell presence showing morphologic overlap between well-known eosinophilic neoplasms are challenging to diagnose. We review the range of known benign and malignant eosinophilic renal neoplasms and their immunoprofiles to elucidate a useful panel of stains that may assist the pathologist in making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26614031

  8. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marg...

  9. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  10. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs

  11. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hrthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiofalo Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Case presentation Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with "signet ring cells" and Hrthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Discussion and Conclusion Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. "Signet ring cell" is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare "signet ring cells" carcinomas so far described.

  12. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hrthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hrthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  13. The Challenge of Cancer Genomics in Rare Nervous System Neoplasms: Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors as a Paradigm for Cross-Species Comparative Oncogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Steven L

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive genomic analyses of common nervous system cancers provide new insights into their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although analogous studies of rare nervous system tumors are needed, there are major barriers to performing such studies. Cross-species comparative oncogenomics, identifying driver mutations in mouse cancer models and validating them in human tumors, is a promising alternative. Although still in its infancy, this approach is being applied to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), rare Schwann cell-derived malignancies that occur sporadically, after radiotherapy, and in neurofibromatosis type 1. Studies of human neurofibromatosis type 1-associated tumors suggest that NF1 tumor suppressor loss in Schwann cells triggers cell-autonomous and intercellular changes, resulting in development of benign neurofibromas; subsequent neurofibroma-MPNST progression is caused by aberrant growth factor signaling and mutations affecting the p16(INK4A)-cyclin D1-CDK4-Rb and p19(ARF)-Mdm2-p53 cell cycle pathways. Mice with Nf1, Trp53, and/or Cdkn2a mutations that overexpress the Schwann cell mitogen neuregulin-1 or overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor validate observations in human tumors and, to various degrees, model human tumorigenesis. Genomic analyses of MPNSTs arising in neuregulin-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor-overexpressing mice and forward genetic screens with Sleeping Beauty transposons implicate additional signaling cascades in MPNST pathogenesis. These studies confirm the utility of mouse models for MPNST driver gene discovery and provide new insights into the complexity of MPNST pathogenesis. PMID:26740486

  14. Etiology of thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellabarba, D. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-12-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors.

  15. VON RECKLINGHAUSENS DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, D.; Liliana Fortu; Madalina Jacota

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausens Disease (RD) since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since 97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness) and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an...

  16. Value of the Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Differential Diagnostics of Malignant and Benign Kidney Neoplasms – Our Clinical Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is an MRI modality using strong bipolar gradients to create a sensitivity of the signal to the thermally-induced Brownian motions of water molecules and in vivo measurement of molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a quantitative parameter calculated from DWI images which is used as a measure of diffusion. DWI allows to obtain comprehensive information on morphological and functional state of the kidney during a single examination without contrast medium administration. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of DWI in differentiating benign and malignant solid kidney tumors based on the initial stage of the study. The study included 19 adult patients with pathologically verified renal tumors: 9 patients with clear cell subtype of the renal cell carcinoma, 5 patients with oncocytoma and 5 patients with angiomyolipoma (AML). In addition, 5 healthy volunteers with completely normal findings according to kidney ultrasound were included into this study and set as reference. All patients underwent renal MR imaging which included DWI with subsequent ADC measurement. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 T body scanner using an eight-channel phased-array body coil. The mean ADC value of ccRCC was significantly lower than that of normal renal parenchyma (2.11±0.25×10−3 mm2/s vs. 3.36±0.41×10−3 mm2/s, p<0.01). There was a significant difference in ADC between the malignant and benign renal lesions: in patients with angiomyolipoma the ADC value was 2.36±0.32×10−3 mm2/s vs. 2.11±0.25×10−3 mm2/s; p<0.05 and in patients with oncocytoma – 2.75±0.27×10−3 mm2/s vs. 2.11±0.25×10−3 mm2/s; p<0.05. The difference in ADC values in patients with high and low ccRCC grades was observed. DWI can be used to characterize renal lesions; the ADC of a renal lesion can be potentially used as an additional parameter to help determine the appropriate clinical management

  17. Equivalent doses in thyroid tissue and residual body dose from radioiodine treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the thyroid as determined under therapeutic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses actually administered to patients undergoing radiotherapy for hyperthyroidism (104), autonomous adenoma (16) and goiter without functional anomaly (22) averaged 90, 165 and 100 Sv. Attempts were made to elucidate the causes of deviations between the predetermined dose and that actually administered, which occurred quite irrespective of whether a one-staged or split-dose regimen was used. Significant differences were occasionally also seen between the individual doses of fractionation regimens in respect of their uptake and effective half-life in the thyroidal tissue. It was calculated that the mean body dose remaining after each administration of radioactivity amounted to 0.6 mSv/MBq. In the majority of patients examined, clinical follow-up observations could be made for periods ranging from 6 to 41 months. Records were kept of all the results obtained. Further analyses were made to assess the mean residual body dose of carcinoma bearers subjected to wholebody radioiodine scintigraphy in the follow-up (14 patients) as well as of patients, in which secondary radioiodine treatment was carried out after thyroidectomy (59 patients). This was found to vary between 0.05 and 0.07 mSv/MBq. The significant discrepancies formerly determined for uptake rate and effective half-life between the individual sessions of one treatment course were confirmed by these examinations. (VHE)

  18. [Classification of vascular neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeiker, M

    1978-11-01

    Neoplasms of blood and lymph vessels differ from angiectatic and angiokeratotic nevi by real proliferating growth. According to their features of growth and their wall structures, they are classified into three main groups: angiomas, glomangiomas and malignant vascular tumors. Within the angiomas on the one hand, capillary angiomas are classified into: planotuberous and tuberonodous angiomas of childhood and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, multilocular hemangiomatosis, progressive multiple angiomas, tardive ("senile") angiomas, eruptive angiomas (granulomata pediculata), papular angioplasia, gemmangioma, and benign juvenile hemangioendothelioma. On the other hand, cavernous angiomas, i.e. arterial and venous cavernomas, as well as blue rubberbleb nevus, Mafucci's syndrome, angioleiomyoma, benign juvenile hemangiopericytoma and cavernous lymphangioma, form thick walled structures without involution. Glomangiomas occur as solitary, multiple systematized, and multiple disseminated and familiar forms. Within the group of malignant vascular tumors--Kaposi sarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma in lymphedema, hemangioendothelioma and angioplastic reticulosarcoma, hemangio- or lymphangiosarcoma, angioendotheliomastosis proliferans, rarity and increasing loss of characteristic differentiated structures give rise to difficulties in nosologic classification. PMID:214413

  19. Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanovic N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neda Stjepanovic, Jaume CapdevilaDepartment of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor.Keywords: thyroid cancer, lenvatinib, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors, targeted therapies

  20. Carcinossarcoma tireoidiano em um co Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela de dois anos de idade, sem raa definida, apresentou disfagia e aumento de volume da regio cervical ventral, correspondendo regio tireoidiana. Duas massas localizadas nessa regio foram removidas cirurgicamente. O co morreu poucos dias aps a cirurgia e no foi necropsiado. O diagnstico de carcinossarcoma de tireide baseou-se na presena de componentes neoplsicos epiteliais e mesenquimais malignos, os quais foram confirmados pela reao imunoistoqumica positiva para citoqueratina e vimentina, respectivamente. A origem tireoidiana foi confirmada pela imunomarcao positiva para tireoglobulina nas clulas epiteliais foliculares e no colide. Este um neoplasma raramente diagnosticado em ces.A two year-old female mongrel dog was presented with dysphagia and focal swelling at the thyroid region. Two masses were surgically removed from that site. The dog died a few days after surgery and it was not submitted to necropsy. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinosarcoma was based on malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cell components of the neoplasm and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. The thyroid origin was confirmed based on the positive immunostaining for thyroglobulin on the follicular epithelial cells and colloid. This is a neoplasm rarely diagnosed in dogs.

  1. Carcinossarcoma tireoidiano em um co / Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Rodrigues; Eduardo Kenji, Masuda; Maria Andria, Inkelmann; Adriano Tony, Ramos; Brenda Maria Ferreira Prado, Marques; Tessie Beck, Martins; Glaucia Denise, Kommers.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela de dois anos de idade, sem raa definida, apresentou disfagia e aumento de volume da regio cervical ventral, correspondendo regio tireoidiana. Duas massas localizadas nessa regio foram removidas cirurgicamente. O co morreu poucos dias aps a cirurgia e no foi necropsiado. O diagns [...] tico de carcinossarcoma de tireide baseou-se na presena de componentes neoplsicos epiteliais e mesenquimais malignos, os quais foram confirmados pela reao imunoistoqumica positiva para citoqueratina e vimentina, respectivamente. A origem tireoidiana foi confirmada pela imunomarcao positiva para tireoglobulina nas clulas epiteliais foliculares e no colide. Este um neoplasma raramente diagnosticado em ces. Abstract in english A two year-old female mongrel dog was presented with dysphagia and focal swelling at the thyroid region. Two masses were surgically removed from that site. The dog died a few days after surgery and it was not submitted to necropsy. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinosarcoma was based on malignant epith [...] elial and mesenchymal cell components of the neoplasm and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. The thyroid origin was confirmed based on the positive immunostaining for thyroglobulin on the follicular epithelial cells and colloid. This is a neoplasm rarely diagnosed in dogs.

  2. Diagnostic value of tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-MIBI for pulmonary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnotic value of tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) for pulmonary neoplasm. Methods: Twenty-eight cases pulmonary neoplasms traded by 99Tcm-MIBI imaging,then performed tomogram imaging after 1h. By the uptake ratio value exceeding 1.31 between pulmonary neoplasm (T) and normal tissue on the opposite side or vicinity tissue (N), benign or malignant was diagnosted. Results: The malignant pulmonary neoplasm had abnormal high uptake, but benign pulmonary neoplasm had light uptake. The sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging for the malignant pulmonary neoplasm were 76.9% and 86.7% respectively, the false positive and false negative rate were 13.3% and 23.1% respectively. Conclusions: Tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-MIBI for pulmonary neoplasm is an important detection in differentiating benign and malignant, it has high sensitivity, specificity, picture quanlity and no wound again. (authors)

  3. Atypical fibroxanthoma: An unusual skin neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-year-old male with XP.

  4. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  5. Thyroid nodule: first manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Gonalves; Sara, Vale; Ema, Nobre; Ana Paula, Barbosa; Ema, Piloto; Ana, Wessling; Mrio, Mascarenhas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells in the thyroid gland is most likely due to a secondary involvement by a systemic disease. The reported incidence of CLL involving the thyroid is extremely low, representing about 34% of all thyroid lymphoproliferative neoplasm. We report a r [...] are case of CLL presenting initially in the thyroid gland. Systemic disease was detected as a result of thyroid investigation. An 85 years old woman, with multinodular goiter without adenophaties, was referred to our department, carrying a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) report of a private institution referring lymphoid monomorphic proliferation and suggesting a Core-needle biopsy for further investigation. She was euthyroid (TSH0.5 uU/mL (0.4-4.0), thyroid antibodies negative, including TRab). The patient denied systemic symptoms and at physical examination there were no adenophaties or organomegalies. FNAB analysis was repeated. Although the patient denied constitutional symptoms and there were no relevant findings in physical examination, technetium 99m thyroid gamagraphy (GG) and blood count were additionally asked. FNAB analysis concluded lymphocytic tiroiditis, but thyroid GG revelled global hypocaptation and blood count showed 173.4 x 109 leukocyte/L with 94% lymphocyte. An ecoguided FNAB with flow cytometry identified thyroid infiltration by monotonous population of blasts with phenotype consistent with CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells. CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells was also detected in peripheral blood analysis, suggesting systemic disease with secondary thyroid involvement. The patient started chemotherapy with rituximab and chlorambucil with good response. Pos-treatment GG revelled Increased levels of uptake in the middle third of the right lower lobe, with low uptake of the remaining parenchyma. In conclusion, good communication with the pathologist can improve diagnostic accuracy and dictate appropriate therapy. The use of techniques such as flow cytometry, immunoglobulin gene rearrangements, and immunohistochemistry has improved diagnostic accuracy and obviated more invasive procedures, such as core needle or open surgery biopsy. Apart from chemotherapy, immunochemotherapy with anti-CD20 and anti-CD52 monoclonal antibodies can be used in the treatment of CLL.

  6. Activation of tumor cell proliferation by thyroid hormone in a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, C; Zhu, X.; Willingham, MC; Cheng, S-y

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most common malignancy of the endocrine system in humans. To understand the molecular genetic events underlying thyroid carcinogenesis, we have generated a mouse model that spontaneously develops follicular thyroid carcinoma similar to human thyroid cancer (ThrbPV/PV mouse). This mutant mouse harbors a dominantnegative mutated thyroid hormone receptor β (denoted PV). The PV mutation was identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone (TH). ThrbPV/PV mice exh...

  7. The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: characteristics of preoperative ultrasonography and cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to validate the ultrasonography (US and cytopathological features that are used in the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC and to characterize the role of BRAFV600E mutation analysis in the diagnosis of FVPTC. Methods: From May 2012 to February 2014, 40 thyroid nodules from 40 patients (mean age, 56.2 years; range, 26 to 81 years diagnosed with FVPTC were included in this study. The US features of the nodules were analyzed and the nodules were classified as probably benign or suspicious for malignancy. Twenty-three thyroid nodules (57.5% underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis. Clinical information and histopathologic results were obtained by reviewing the medical records of the patients. Results: Thirty nodules (75.0% were classified as suspicious for malignancy, while 10 (25.0% were classified as probably benign. Seven of the eight nodules (87.5% with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS cytology showed suspicious US features, while one of the two nodules (50.0% with follicular neoplasm cytology presented suspicious US features. Five of the 23 nodules (21.7% that underwent BRAFV600E mutation analysis had positive results, all of which were diagnosed as suspicious for malignancy or malignant based on cytology. None of the nodules with benign, AUS/FLUS, or follicular neoplasm cytology were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation. Conclusion: US features allow nodules to be classified as suspicious for malignancy, and the presence of suspicious US features in nodules with ambiguous cytology may aid in the diagnosis of FVPTC. BRAFV600E mutation analysis is of limited value in the diagnosis of FVPTC.

  8. Multikinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer: specific role of lenvatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjepanovic, Neda; Capdevila, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancers are the most frequent neoplasms of the endocrine system and in the initial stages their prognosis is excellent. However, few therapeutic options are available for advanced or metastatic disease. In the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancers has led to development of new targeted agents for the management of advanced and refractory disease. Multikinase inhibitors that are able to block pathways involved in the proliferation, invasion, and neoangiogenesis of thyroid cancer have been the most widely studied. After an international effort to identify and recruit sufficient patients, four placebo-controlled studies of multikinase inhibitors have been completed. These trials have led to the approval of the first agents with activity in advanced medullary thyroid cancers, which will probably change the landscape of treatment for iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of targeted agents for thyroid malignancy, with a special focus on lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor. PMID:24748771

  9. Uterine neoplasms, version 1.2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wui-Jin; Greer, Benjamin E; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Apte, Sachin M; Campos, Susana M; Chan, John; Cho, Kathleen R; Cohn, David; Crispens, Marta Ann; Dupont, Nefertiti; Eifel, Patricia J; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Fisher, Christine M; Gaffney, David K; George, Suzanne; Han, Ernest; Huh, Warner K; Lurain, John R; Martin, Lainie; Mutch, David; Remmenga, Steven W; Reynolds, R Kevin; Small, William; Teng, Nelson; Tillmanns, Todd; Valea, Fidel A; McMillian, Nicole; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (also known as endometrial cancer or more broadly as uterine cancer or carcinoma of the uterine corpus) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in the United States. An estimated 49,560 new uterine cancer cases will occur in 2013, with 8190 deaths resulting from the disease. Uterine sarcomas (stromal/mesenchymal tumors) are uncommon malignancies, accounting for approximately 3% of all uterine cancers. The NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms describe malignant epithelial carcinomas and uterine sarcomas; each of these major categories contains specific histologic groups that require different management. This excerpt of these guidelines focuses on early-stage disease. PMID:24586086

  10. Palliative radiation in primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Until date, only around 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Primary treatment of the patient is radical surgery. With optimum treatment survival is not more than 6 months in this aggressive malignancy. However in our patient surgery it was not possible because of unresectability of the mass due to encroachment of major vessels. Hence, we have delivered radiotherapy alone, with which effective palliation could be achieved and patient is leading a good quality-of-life for last 1 year.

  11. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, H.; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Christiansen, C.F.; Sørensen, H.T.; Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... assessed the risk of both types of malignancies after an ET, PV, or CML diagnosis. We linked 2 population-based nationwide registries, the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals and the Danish Cancer Registry, and assessed subsequent cancer risk in a cohort of all 7229 patients...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of...

  12. Valor preditivo do exame clnico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina srica no ndulo tiroideano nico atxico: estudo prospectivo de 110 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente / Prediction of malignancy in the solitary thyroid nodule by physical exaination, thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasound, Fine-needle biopsy and serum thyroglobulin: a prospective study of 110 operated patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lcia D., Alves; Rui M.B., Maciel; Fabio V., Valeri; Magnus R. Dias da, Silva; Jos D., Contrera; Jurandyr M., Andrade; Maria A., Llorach-Velludo; Nassim, Iazigi.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ndulos de tiride so comuns na prtica mdica. Para estabelecer o valor preditivo dos diversos testes diagnsticos, estudamos prospectivamente os dados de exame clnico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina srica pr-operatria de 110 pacientes com ndulos operado [...] s e os comparamos com o diagnstico antomo-patolgico da cirurgia. Nos 110 pacientes encontramos histologia 124 leses distintas, sendo 106 (85%) benignas e 18 (15%) malignas. Entre as benignas havia 90 bcios colides (73%), 8 adenomas foliculares (6%), 4 cistos tiroglossos (3%) e outras 4 leses; entre as malignas havia 16 (13%) carcinomas primrios da tiride (9 papilferos, 3 foliculares, 3 indiferenciados e 1 medular) e 2 secundrios. Entre os testes diagnsticos a citologia aspirativa apresentou os melhores resultados (sensibilidade: 94%, especificidade: 97%), em comparao com a cintilografia (sensibilidade: 89%, especificidade: 21%), ultra-sonografia (sensibilidades entre 60 e 100% e especificidades entre 25 e 69%) e tiroglobulina pr-operatria (sensibilidade: 7% para qualquer valor discriminatrio e elevada especificidade). Alguns dados clnicos tambm apresentaram elevada especificidade, mas baixa sensibilidade, como rouquido, disfagia, aparecimento de nova leso, adenomegalia cervical e antecedentes de radiao. Neste estudo prospectivo conclumos que a citologia aspirativa o melhor mtodo disponvel para o diagnstico dos ndulos de tiride. Abstract in english Thyroid nodules are common in medical practice. To establish the predictive values of diagnostic tests we studied prospectively the results obtained from physical examination, aspiration cytology, scintigraphy, ultra-sonography and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin in 110 patients operated and compa [...] red them with the results obtained from surgical pathology specimens. We found 124 lesions in the 110 patients: 106 (85%) benign and 18 (15%) malignant. The benign were 90 simple goiters (73%), 8 follicular adenomas (6%), 4 thyroglossal cysts (3%) and 4 other rare lesions; the malignant were 16 (13%) primary thyroid carcinomas (9 papillary, 3 follicular, 3 undifferentiated and 1 medullary) and 2 secondary thyroid carcinomas. Aspiration cytology presented the best results (sensitivity: 94%, specificity: 97%), compared with scintigraphy (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 21%), ultra-sonography (sensitivities from 60 to 100%, specificities from 25 to 69%) and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin (very low sensitivity and high specificity). Few clinical signs and symptoms also presented high specifity, but low sensitivity, as hoarseness, dysphagia, new lesion, cervical adenomegaly and previous local irradiation. We conclude that aspiration cytology is the best available method to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  13. Valor preditivo do exame clnico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina srica no ndulo tiroideano nico atxico: estudo prospectivo de 110 pacientes tratados cirurgicamente Prediction of malignancy in the solitary thyroid nodule by physical exaination, thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasound, Fine-needle biopsy and serum thyroglobulin: a prospective study of 110 operated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lcia D. Alves

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ndulos de tiride so comuns na prtica mdica. Para estabelecer o valor preditivo dos diversos testes diagnsticos, estudamos prospectivamente os dados de exame clnico, cintilografia, ultra-sonografia, citologia aspirativa e tiroglobulina srica pr-operatria de 110 pacientes com ndulos operados e os comparamos com o diagnstico antomo-patolgico da cirurgia. Nos 110 pacientes encontramos histologia 124 leses distintas, sendo 106 (85% benignas e 18 (15% malignas. Entre as benignas havia 90 bcios colides (73%, 8 adenomas foliculares (6%, 4 cistos tiroglossos (3% e outras 4 leses; entre as malignas havia 16 (13% carcinomas primrios da tiride (9 papilferos, 3 foliculares, 3 indiferenciados e 1 medular e 2 secundrios. Entre os testes diagnsticos a citologia aspirativa apresentou os melhores resultados (sensibilidade: 94%, especificidade: 97%, em comparao com a cintilografia (sensibilidade: 89%, especificidade: 21%, ultra-sonografia (sensibilidades entre 60 e 100% e especificidades entre 25 e 69% e tiroglobulina pr-operatria (sensibilidade: 7% para qualquer valor discriminatrio e elevada especificidade. Alguns dados clnicos tambm apresentaram elevada especificidade, mas baixa sensibilidade, como rouquido, disfagia, aparecimento de nova leso, adenomegalia cervical e antecedentes de radiao. Neste estudo prospectivo conclumos que a citologia aspirativa o melhor mtodo disponvel para o diagnstico dos ndulos de tiride.Thyroid nodules are common in medical practice. To establish the predictive values of diagnostic tests we studied prospectively the results obtained from physical examination, aspiration cytology, scintigraphy, ultra-sonography and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin in 110 patients operated and compared them with the results obtained from surgical pathology specimens. We found 124 lesions in the 110 patients: 106 (85% benign and 18 (15% malignant. The benign were 90 simple goiters (73%, 8 follicular adenomas (6%, 4 thyroglossal cysts (3% and 4 other rare lesions; the malignant were 16 (13% primary thyroid carcinomas (9 papillary, 3 follicular, 3 undifferentiated and 1 medullary and 2 secondary thyroid carcinomas. Aspiration cytology presented the best results (sensitivity: 94%, specificity: 97%, compared with scintigraphy (sensitivity: 89%, specificity: 21%, ultra-sonography (sensitivities from 60 to 100%, specificities from 25 to 69% and pre-operative serum thyroglobulin (very low sensitivity and high specificity. Few clinical signs and symptoms also presented high specifity, but low sensitivity, as hoarseness, dysphagia, new lesion, cervical adenomegaly and previous local irradiation. We conclude that aspiration cytology is the best available method to diagnose thyroid nodules.

  14. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  15. Second Malignancy in Pediatric Patients: Imaging Findings and Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignancies."nPrimary neoplasms which are often associated with second malignancies include lymphoma, retinoblas-toma, medulloblastoma and leukemia. The most common second malignancies are central nervous system (CNS tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parathyroid gland carcinoma and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are included as pathogenic factors in second malignancies. We know all survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with US, magnetic resonance imaging and other procedures with no ionizing radiation. A new progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or more infrequently, a second malignancy. Differential diagnosis may be very difficult and the outcome is often fatal. "nTreatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk of second malignancies without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. "nClinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy."nIn a report of new England journal of medicine in 2007, 357:227-2284 by Dr. Brenner and Hall, 2% of all carcinomas in U.S.A are due to more use of CT exam and children are three to four times more sensitive to ionization radiation. "nSo all the radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the complications and should recommend follow up exams in children who have had previous treatments for such carcinomas.

  16. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  17. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  18. Utilidad de la citologa obtenida mediante aspiracin con aguja fina en el diagnstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glndula tiroides en la E.S.E Hospital Universitario del Caribe: un estudio retrospectivo / Utility of the fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland at Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Herrera; Katherine, Redondo; Carlos, Osorio; Juan, Grice; Alberto, Fernndez.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. En este estudio se evalu en forma retrospectiva la utilidad de la citologa obtenida mediante aspiracin con aguja fina, en el diagnstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glndula tiroides. Metodologa. Se llev a cabo una revisin retrospectiva de las historias clnicas de los pa [...] cientes con impresin diagnstica de ndulo tiroideo, durante un periodo de 7 aos, de 2007 a 2013, durante los cuales se practic citologa mediante aspiracin con aguja fina antes del abordaje quirrgico. El diagnstico citolgico se compar con el estudio anatomopatolgico, con el objetivo de determinar los parmetros de rendimiento. Resultados. La poblacin de estudio fue de 149 pacientes. Para la citologa obtenida mediante aspiracin con aguja fina, se calcularon los siguientes parmetros de rendimiento en el diagnstico de neoplasias foliculares: sensibilidad, 54,5 %; especificidad, 92,9 %; valor diagnstico positivo, 57,1 %; valor diagnstico negativo, 92,2 %; precisin diagnstica, 87,2 %; falsos negativos, 6,9 % y falsos positivos, 6,1 %. Conclusin. La citologa obtenida mediante aspiracin con aguja fina posee una sensibilidad baja en el diagnstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glndula tiroides, comportamiento atribuible a la similitud citolgica de este grupo de lesiones con los bocios con cambios adenomatosos. Abstract in english Introduction: This study evaluates retrospectively the performance of cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Methods: A review of medical records of patients with diagnostic impression of thyroid nodule over a period of seven years [...] from 2007 to 2013 was completed, in those patients in which a fine needle aspiration cytology prior to a surgical approach was performed. The cytological diagnosis was compared with pathologic study to determine the performance parameters. Results:The study population included 149 patients. The following performance parameters of the fine needle aspiration cytology were determined in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms: sensitivity, 54.5%; specificity, 92.9%; positive predictive value, 57.1%; negative predictive value, 92.2%; accurately diagnosed, 87.2%; false negatives and false positives 6.9%, 6.1% Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology has a low sensitivity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland due to the cytologically similarity presented by this group of lesions with goiters with adenomatous changes.

  19. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7397%) and 85% (95% CI, 7592%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 8598%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  20. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  1. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  2. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules, evaluation of subjective estimates using a bayesian analysis / Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los ndulos tiroideos, evaluacin de los estimados subjetivos usando un anlisis bayesiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Alfonso; lvaro, Sanabria; Mario, Castillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. Los ndulos tiroideos son la condicin endocrina ms frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluacin de un ndulo tiroideo es determinar si ste corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones mdicas sobre los ndulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones [...] subjetivas. Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las caractersticas clnicas de un paciente con un ndulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de influencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clnica final de un proceso maligno en comparacin con los datos objetivos. Materiales y mtodos. Se dise un anlisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de un proceso maligno en un ndulo tiroideo, con base en la relacin causal conocida de los factores clnicos y los demogrficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarroll un modelo con las variables clnicas y demogrficas usando como expertos a los cirujanos. Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de un proceso maligno (94 %) se asign al caso clnico de un hombre mayor de 60 aos, con disfona y disfagia, ndulo de crecimiento rpido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cncer de tiroides, con ndulos mltiples, mayores de 1 cm, de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con ndulos sin caractersticas de un proceso maligno, la probabilidad de ste asignada por los clnicos fue de 33,59 % y para los de alto riesgo de 75,54 %. Conclusin. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnsticas basadas en creencias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las caractersticas de ndulos. Abstract in english Introduction: Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The mainpurpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs. Objective: To assess the subjective p [...] robabilities of malignancy that are assigned to the clinicalcharacteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clinical suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data. Material and methods: A bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consultation. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed. Results: The highest probability of malignancy (94%) was assigned to the pooled case of a malewho was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%. Conclusion: Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteristics of the nodules.

  3. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  4. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum

  5. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) system in malignant and benign thyroid tumor cells / Anlise comparativa da prevalncia do sistema glutationa S-transferase (GST) em clulas tumorais malignas e benignas da tireide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Jos, Gonalves; Lucia Helena de, Carvalho; Kau, Serdeira; Marianne Yumi, Nakai; Tatiana Ramos, Malavasi.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Os genes do sistema glutationa S-transferase mu e theta (GSTM1 e GSTT1, respectivamente), quando nulos, apresentam relao com tumores malignos de pulmo, clon, prstata, bexiga e cabea e pescoo, podendo nesses casos ser utilizados como marcadores tumorais. Na tireide, o sur [...] gimento do cncer tem sido relacionado deleo desses genes. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a freqncia dos genes GSTM1 e GSTT1 em pacientes com tumores benignos e malignos da glndula tireide. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo clnico transversal, realizado na Faculdade de Cincias Mdicas da Santa Casa de So Paulo. MTODOS: Amostras de tecido tireoidiano foram coletados de 32 pacientes e divididas em dois: tumor benigno (A) e carcinoma (B). Aps extrao do DNA os genes foram amplificados em reao de polimerase em cadeia. RESULTADOS: O grupo B apresentou 4 casos de gentipo positivo para ambos os genes, 7 positivos para GSTT1 e negativos para GSTM1, 2 negativos para GSTT1 e positivos para GSTM1, e apenas 1 caso duplo negativo. J o grupo A mostrou 11 casos com gentipo positivo para ambos os genes e nenhum com o gentipo duplo negativo. CONCLUSO: No h relao entre a presena dos genes GSTT1 e GSTM1 com o carcinoma bem diferenciado e os tumores benignos da tireide em nossos casos. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: When null, the mu and theta genes of the glutathione S-transferase system (GSTM1 and GSTT1, respectively) are related to malignant tumors affecting the lungs, colon, prostate, bladder and head and neck. In the thyroid, the appearance of cancer has been correlated with deletion [...] of these genes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequencies of these genes in patients with benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional clinical trial carried out in the Head and Neck Surgery Division, Faculdade de Medicina da Santa Casa de So Paulo. METHODS: Samples of thyroid tissue were collected from 32 patients and divided into two groups: benign tumor (A) and malignant tumor (B). After DNA extraction, the genes were amplified using PCR. RESULTS: The B group presented four cases of positive genotyping for both genes, seven positive for GSTT1 and negative for GSTM1, two negative for GSTT1 and positive for GSTM1, and only one case of double negative. The A group showed 11 cases with positive genotyping for both genes and none with the double negative genotype. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was no relationship between the presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and the benign and malignant thyroid tumors.

  6. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Song

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH/uniparental disomy (UPD that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants.

  7. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratrio de Patologia Veterinria, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  8. Cytologic findings and differential diagnoses of primary thyroid MALT lymphoma with striking plasma cell differentiation and amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuoka, Yuri; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kuma, Seiji; Takagi, Nozomi; Higuchi, Miyoko; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miya, Akihiro; Kubota, Sumihisa; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with associated amyloid protein deposition. While other primary thyroid neoplasms sush as medullary carcinoma and plasmacytoma with associated amyloid protein are known to occur and have been previously described by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), to our knowledge, the current cases are the first of thyroid MALT lymphoma with amyloid deposition to be detailed in the cytopathology literature. Case 1 was a 73-year-old female with chronic thyroiditis. FNAC suspected MALT lymphoma. The amyloid material was not noticed, nevertheless it existed. Case 2 was a 71-year-old female with a nodule of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma and medullary carcinoma were suspected by FNAC. The possibility of medullary carcinoma was excluded by a measurement of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. After follow-up for two years, the nodule was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma associated with plasma cell differentiation and amyloidosis by the fourth FNAC. When we encounter small round cell tumors associated with amyloid in thyroid FNAC, we should consider not only medullary carcinoma but also MALT lymphoma. PMID:23636898

  9. Clinical presentation of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical manifestation of thyroid cancer (TC) as seen at the Nuclear Medicine Department, where the patients investigated prior to diagnosis of disease are clinically suspected to harbor malignancy and mostly referred for scintigraphic investigations are presented

  10. A case of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid with abundant colloid (masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia): Cytological evaluation with histopathological correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalagan, Elancheran; Subashchandrabose, Priya; Sivasubramanian, Priya Banthavi; Venkateswaran, Sarada

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology smears of conventional PTC, the background usually shows scanty, bubble gum-like colloid. But the macrofollicular variant and papillary microcarcinoma reveals abundant thin colloid in the background. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of thyroid in a 37-year-old female with abundant thin colloid, obscuring the nuclear morphology in many clusters, along with the presence of typical nuclear features within occasional clusters in FNA cytology and hence, masquerading as colloid goiter with papillary hyperplasia. Histopathological examination of the total thyroidectomy specimen revealed papillary microcarcinomatous focus in a background of nodular hyperplasia. The differential diagnosis of PTC should be entertained even in colloid-rich FNA smears if the typical nuclear features are present. Hence, a meticulous search for any fragment with nuclear features of PTC is mandatory before labeling the smears as benign nodular hyperplasia.

  11. Initial experience with MRI staging of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the technical development and clinical application of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is at an early phase, there is enough accumulated evidence to support a major radiologic role for MRI in the staging of human malignancy. Because MRI is evolving so rapidly, certain factual aspects of this brief review will almost certainly be somewhat outdated at publication. For this reason the authors present not only current data but also general observations concerning potential uses of proton MRI in the staging of neoplasms

  12. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update

    OpenAIRE

    de la Santa, Luis Gijn; Retortillo, Jos Antonio Prez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct di...

  13. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody; ...

  14. Thyroid nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid nodules are growths of cells in the thyroid gland. These growths can be: Not cancer (benign) or thyroid cancer Fluid-filled (cysts) One nodule or a group of small nodules Producing thyroid hormones (hot) or not ...

  15. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients with invasive tumors or extensive lymph node involvement, in patients requiring a second thyroid surgery, and ... the lower front of the neck. The thyroids job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted ...

  16. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rogozinski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We made a prospective study evaluating the prevalence of thyroid nodular disease in acromegalic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy were performed when nodules were detected. Nodules were characterized by cytology and histopathology. RESULTS: We found high prevalence of nodular thyroid disorder, 23/34 (67% in acromegalic patients. High risk and malignant cytology were significantly higher in acromegalic patients than in our non-acromegalic population (25% vs. 9%. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was present in 11% of the acromegalic patients. CONCLUSIONS: We strongly recommend periodic thyroid evaluation by ultrasound in patients with acromegaly. Fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed in nodules larger than 10 mm, and in all suspicious nodules, regardless of the size.

  17. Second malignancies in pediatric patients: imaging findings and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vzquez, Elida; Castellote, Amparo; Piqueras, Joaquim; Ortuno, Pedro; Snchez-Toledo, Jos; Nogus, Pere; Lucaya, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). Primary neoplasms that are often associated with SMNs include lymphoma, retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and leukemia. The most common SMNs are central nervous system (CNS) tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parotid gland carcinomas, and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are implicated as pathogenic factors in SMN. All survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging, which does not require ionizing radiation and provides greater anatomic detail and resolution in the head and neck region and the CNS. A new or progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or, more infrequently, an SMN. Differential diagnosis can be very difficult, and outcome is often fatal. Treatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk for SMN without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. Clinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed to SMN. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy to facilitate diagnosis and anticipate adverse outcomes. PMID:12975507

  18. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomei Sara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers. Results The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers. Conclusion The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules.

  19. Concordancia de la citologa por puncin con aguja fina para la deteccin de cncer de tiroides en pediatra / Diagnostic yield of fine-needle aspiration cytology for the detection of thyroid cancer in pediatric patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca, Grob; Diego, Carrillo; Alejandro, Martnez-Aguayo; Pablo, Zoroquain; Antonieta, Solar; Irini, Nicolaides; Hernn, Gonzlez.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Despite the low frequency of thyroid nodules (TN) in children, one of every four is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high accuracy detecting thyroid cancer. Aim: To evaluate the performance of FNAC in TN in Chilean children to detect thyroid cancer. Patients and Me [...] thods: The pathological reports of 77 thyroidectomies and 103 FNAC carried out in patients aged less than 18 years, between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. In 36 patients aged 15 2 years (77% women), both the reports of the thyroidectomy and FNAC were available. The cytological specimens were reclassified based on Bethesda 2010. The histology was classified as benign (nodular hyperplasia and follicular adenoma, n = 18), or malignant (papillary, follicular and medullar carcinoma, n = 18). The concordance of the cytology with the final biopsy report was calculated. Results: FNAC classified 13 specimens as definitively benign and 13 as definitively malignant. Among these, these concordances with the pathological study of the biopsy was 100%. Of six cytology tests considered "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" by FNAC, four were benign (67%), and two malignant (33%). Of four cytology tests considered "suggestive of carcinoma" by FNAC, one was benign (25%), and three malignant (75%). Conclusions: Among the studied children, there was a good concordance between FNAC and surgical biopsies. Therefore a FNAC should be carried out when malignancy is suspected in pediatric patients with a TN.

  20. Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic neoplasms of pancreas are rare lesions. Following the Compagno-Oertel classification, we differenciate serous microcystic adenomas (SMA) from mucinous macrocystic adenomas/adenocarcinomas (MMA). The former are benign tumors with slow growth, composed by innumerable small and tiny cystic with centra calcifications, resulting in a ''honeycomb'' pattern. They have a mixed US structure while CT densitometric values reflect a mixture of connective tissue and proteinaceous fluid. Postcontrast enhancement is frequently seen. MMA are potential (adenoma) or frankly (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumors. They appears as moltilocular cystic masses containing septa and/or papillary bulgings, with thickened walls. Both US and CT demonstrate their predominantly cystic character, and the eventual presence of excrescences. WE report a series of 23 cases (6 SMA, 17 MMA) of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas studied during the past five years. A correct diagnosis of SMA was possible in all 6 cases, while MMA was correctly diagnosed in 17 out of 18 cases. There were no false negatives, and 1 falsa positive. All differential diagnoses are also discussed

  1. Uterine adenosarcomas are mesenchymal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Burke, Kathleen A; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Martelotto, Luciano G; de Bruijn, Ino; De Filippo, Maria R; Schultheis, Anne M; Ioris, Rafael A; Levine, Douglas A; Soslow, Robert A; Rubin, Brian P; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2016-02-01

    Uterine adenosarcomas (UAs) are biphasic lesions composed of a malignant mesenchymal (ie stromal) component and an epithelial component. UAs are generally low-grade and have a favourable prognosis, but may display sarcomatous overgrowth (SO), which is associated with a worse outcome. We hypothesized that, akin to breast fibroepithelial lesions, UAs are mesenchymal neoplasms in which clonal somatic genetic alterations are restricted to the mesenchymal component. To characterize the somatic genetic alterations in UAs and to test this hypothesis, we subjected 20 UAs to a combination of whole-exome (n = 6), targeted capture (n = 13) massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and/or RNA sequencing (n = 6). Only three genes, FGFR2, KMT2C and DICER1, were recurrently mutated, all in 2/19 cases; however, 26% (5/19) and 21% (4/19) of UAs harboured MDM2/CDK4/HMGA2 and TERT gene amplification, respectively, and two cases harboured fusion genes involving NCOA family members. Using a combination of laser-capture microdissection and in situ techniques, we demonstrated that the somatic genetic alterations detected by MPS were restricted to the mesenchymal component. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA sequencing of microdissected samples revealed that epithelial and mesenchymal components of UAs were clonally unrelated. In conclusion, here we provide evidence that UAs are genetically heterogeneous lesions and mesenchymal neoplasms. Copyright 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26592504

  2. Vascular encasement by pancreatobiliary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that vascular encasement is common with pancreatobiliary malignancy. This study was performed to determine the value of gradient-echo (GRE) MR imaging in the detection of mesenteric vessel encasement. Fifteen patients with known pancreatobiliary tumors underwent dynamic CT and gradient-echo and spin-echo MR imaging. Imaging findings were correlated with clinical/surgical follow-up. GRE MR imaging provides useful adjunctive information to dynamic CT and conventional spin-echo (SE) MR imaging in patients with pancreatobiliary neoplasms. It excels at diagnosing mesenteric venous compression and occlusion. It does not, however, significantly add information regarding celiac arterial abnormalities to that available with dynamic CT. Dyamic Ct, SE Mr imaging, and GRE MR imaging all fall short of enabling diagnosis of pancreatobiliary tumor adherence to the abdominal vasculature

  3. Horner syndrome as a manifestation of thyroid carcinoma: a rare association / Sndrome de Horner como manifestao clnica de carcinoma da tireoide: uma associao rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo, Pereira; Tiago, Silva; Henrique, Luiz; Isabel, Manita; Lusa, Raimundo; Jorge, Portugal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 82 anos apresentando-se com ndulo tireoidiano de crescimento progressivo e ptose palpebral esquerda. O exame oftalmolgico revelou ainda miose ipsilateral e achados diagnsticos de sndrome de Horner. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa tireoidiana de 7,5 cm infiltrando os grande [...] s vasos do pescoo. Apesar dos dados clnicos e imagiolgicos sugestivos de um carcinoma pouco diferenciado da tireoide, a citologia aspirativa foi diagnstica de carcinoma papilar. Em funo do estdio avanado da neoplasia e das comorbilidades significativas, foi proposta para teraputica paliativa. A sndrome de Horner uma manifestao clnica infrequente em tumores tireoidianos, estando as condies benignas maioritariamente implicadas. As neoplasias malignas da tireoide representam uma causa rara de sndrome de Horner. Contudo, um diagnstico adequado e expedito fundamental para o tratamento atempado nos raros casos de malignidade da tireoide. Abstract in english An 82-year-old patient presented a progressively growing hard thyroid nodule, and left ptosis. Additionally, ophthalmologic evaluation revealed ipsilateral miosis, diagnostic findings of Horner syndrome. Computerized tomography revealed a 7.5-cm thyroid mass infiltrating the main neck vessels. Altho [...] ugh clinical and imaging data were suggestive of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, fine-needle aspiration led to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Paliative care was proposed to the patient due to the advanced stage of the neoplasm and to significant comorbidities. Horner syndrome is an infrequent manifestation of thyroid disorders and benign etiologies are more often implied. Malignant thyroid neoplasms represent a rare cause of Horner syndrome. However, an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is paramount for timely treatment of rare thyroid malignancies.

  4. Differential diagnostics and surgical indications of cold thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.; Fazakas, S.; Szikorszky, M., L.; Hajer, G.; Csaky, G.

    1974-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma, of thyroid tumours of potential malignancy and of thyroiditis was studied on the basis of the histological features of cold nodules observed in 300 thyroids from a population of a flat area with endemic goitre. Clinical parameters have been designed for use in the differentiation of cold nodules and the timing of surgery.

  5. Local molecular analysis of indeterminate thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Mandeep S.; Nayan, Smriti; Kocovski, Linda; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Archibald, Stuart D.; Jackson, Bernard S.; Young, James E. M.; Gupta, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common but only a minority are malignant. Molecular testing can assist in helping determine whether indeterminate nodules are suspicious for malignancy or benign. The objective of the study was to determine if the analysis of mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KRAS and HRAS) using readily available molecular techniques can help better classify indeterminate thyroid nodules. Methods A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic thyroid surgery were ana...

  6. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumors originating from soft tissue or bone. Diagnosis and treatment of sarcomas should be performed at specialized sarcoma centers, where patients are evaluated at a multidisciplinary tumor conference. We present a case where sarcoma was suspected from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasou...

  7. Fecaloma simulating colonic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M H; Martel, W

    1976-05-01

    Large, discrete fecal masses in the colon may be confused with neoplasms, particularly if they are relatively immobile. The radiologic features of such masses generally permit their true identification. PMID:1265606

  8. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid with concomitant papillary carcinoma: comparison of findings on fine-needle aspiration biopsy and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Vikas; Parks, Graham E; Baliga, Mithra; Hartle, Edgar O; Geisinger, Kim R; Shenoy, Veena

    2014-12-01

    We report two cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland coexisting with, and possibly arising in, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). In the first case, CT-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on a paratracheal mass representing extrathyroidal invasion of a right thyroid lobe tumor. The aspirate showed papillary fronds and cells in honeycombed arrangements with fine chromatin, enlarged nuclei, nuclear grooves, and intranuclear inclusions in a background of mucus and blood; a diagnosis of PTC was rendered initially. However, examination of histologic sections of the mass showed nests of malignant squamous cells with interspersed mucous cells and extracellular mucin, concordant with MEC, as well as PTC. A retrospective review of the FNA specimen identified MEC. In the second case, ultrasound-guided FNA was performed on a right thyroid lobe nodule. The aspirate contained two populations of epithelial cells: larger cells showing foci of both squamous and glandular differentiation that were interpreted as MEC and smaller follicular cells with nuclear changes characteristic of PTC; both were addressed in the diagnostic report. Primary MEC of the thyroid is a rare neoplasm typically exhibiting indolent clinical behavior, although our first case demonstrated extensive local invasion. It is thought to arise from squamous metaplasia associated with PTC, Hashimoto thyroiditis, or other inflammatory or neoplastic processes. In thyroid FNAs, the presence of neoplastic mucous cells and extracellular mucin plus malignant squamous cells is diagnostic of MEC. As MEC is thought to arise in PTC, the finding of the latter in these aspiration specimens is not unexpected. PMID:25307114

  10. Surgical and Pathological Changes after Radiofrequency Ablation of Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinja, Chiara; Bernardi, Stella; Fabris, Bruno; Eramo, Rita; Makovac, Petra; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Piscopello, Lanfranco; Barro, Enrica; de Manzini, Nicol; Bonazza, Deborah; Pinamonti, Maurizio; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Stacul, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been recently advocated as an effective technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. It is not known to what extent it may affect any subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. Materials and Methods. RFA was performed on 64 symptomatic Thy2 nodules (benign nodules) and 6 symptomatic Thy3 nodules (follicular lesions/follicular neoplasms). Two Thy3 nodules regrew after the procedure, and these patients accepted to undergo a total thyroidectomy. Here we present how RFA has affected the operation and the final pathological features of the surgically removed nodules. Results and Conclusions. RFA is effective for the treatment of Thy2 nodules, but it should not be recommended as first-line therapy for the treatment of Thy3 nodules (irrespective of their mutational status), as it delays surgery in case of malignancy. Moreover, it is unknown whether RFA might promote residual tumor progression or neoplastic progression of Thy3 lesions. Nevertheless, here we show for the first time that one session of RFA does not affect subsequent thyroid surgery and/or histological diagnosis. PMID:26265914

  11. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a biologically distinct form of thyroid cancer and accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid neoplasms. Twenty percent of MTC can occur in a familial setting either by itself or as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasm syndromes. A disciplined approach is necessary in the work-up of these patients to rule out coexistent endocrine tumors (pheochromocytomas and parathyroid). Cacitonin is a sensitive tumor marker secreted by MTC that is of prognostic value and important in the follow-up of patients. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a total thyroidectomy and centre compartment clearance being the minimum for patients without cervical adenopathy. Radiotherapy has a limited role and is only indicated as a palliative measure in patients with advanced/metastatic disease not amenable to surgery

  12. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kuan-Yin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Lin, Cheng-Li [China Medical University Hospital, Management Office for Health Data, Taichung (China); China Medical University, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without {sup 131}I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. {sup 131}I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between {sup 131}I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  13. A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

  14. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  15. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  16. Pediatric Head and Neck Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisi, Mohammed; Eid, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck malignancies are rare in pediatric patients, and represent 12% of all pediatric malignancies. The incidence for these head and neck tumors is 1.49 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. Among the most common pediatric head and neck malignancies are lymphomas (27%), neural tumors including primitive neurectodermal tumors (23%), thyroid malignancies (21%), soft tissue sarcomas including rhabdomyosarcoma (12%), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, skeletal and odontogenic malignancies including osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma. This article presents an overview of pediatric head and neck malignancies with emphasis on diagnosis and management. PMID:26614697

  17. Thyroglobulin determinations in the serum of patients with benign and malignant thyroid diseases by means of a commercial human thyroglobulin (hTg) radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunological thyroglobulin determination in the serum as a post-operative progress control with patients suffering from different thyroid carcinomas using commercial test instruments was proven as correct. It was found that with all patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas there was pre-operatively an increased hTg serum concentration. After thyroidectomy the serum level of metastases-free patients fell within the normal range. Also with radioiodine resectioning there was a definite fall in the hTg level. With only a minimal number of observations medullary carcinoma (C-cell carcinoma) showed no serum hTg concentration increases, and non-differentiated tumors showed no safely interpretable increases. Thyroglobulin determination proved itself as a reliable control parameter for follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma with regard to tumor, metastatic and recidivistic progression or regression, but not for medullary and undifferentiated tumors. Furthermore, thyroglobulin determination with benign tumors of the thyroid and with the various forms of thyroiditis does not provide any reliable diagnostic information. (MBC)

  18. Sweet syndrome and its association with hematopoietic neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Rodrigo; Levy, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The Sweet syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is rare and has characteristic clinical, physical, and pathologic findings: abrupt onset of pyrexia, elevated neutrophil count, tender erythematous skin lesions, and a diffuse infiltrate of mature neutrophils in the reticular dermis with edema in the papillary dermis. The Sweet syndrome can be further classified based on the clinical setting: classical, malignancy-associated, and drug-induced. Diagnosis can alert the clinician to the presence of an underlying malignancy or the recurrence of a malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is acute myelogenous leukemia. We present three cases of Sweet syndrome associated with hematopoietic neoplasms. PMID:25552802

  19. Criterios ecogrficos diagnsticos de neoplasia maligna en el ndulo tiroideo: correlacin con la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina y la anatoma patolgica Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrs Ignacio Chala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. La ecografa de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnstica para neoplasia maligna del ndulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qu ndulos requieren biopsia por aspiracin con aguja fina (BACAF para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el diagnstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecogrficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y mtodos. Se dise un estudio prospectivo a tres aos para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecogrficos y la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatologa. Se evalu la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlacin. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 aos; el tamao promedio del ndulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectoma; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografa. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecogrficos relacionados con cncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinacin de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adicin de aumento del flujo intranodular, result alta. Conclusiones. La combinacin de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna.Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignancy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

  20. Diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration biopsy in 'cold' thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study fined needle aspiration (FNA) was performed to ascertain a preoperative diagnosis in patients with cold thyroid nodules. A brief clinical history comprising of general physical and local examination was recorded on a proforma. Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules were performed with 5 ml disposable syringe (22g needle). Local anesthesia was not used. Four slides were prepared in each case, two were fixed in 95% alcohol for Pananicolau's stain and the Haematoxylin and Eosin while other two slides were air dried for May Grunwald Giemsa stains. Surgical specimens were received at the Department of Pathology and processed as per routine. Cytological and histological reporting was done separately and independently. Special stains were performed when required. A total of 91 patients were studied, in 14 cases aspirate was unsatisfactory and in 21 cases surgery was not performed. In 56 patient, histological correlation was available. Forty were reported benign, out of which 37 proved correct on histological examination. Of the eleven smears reported as follicular neoplasm, 9 proved correct and 2 reported as 'suspicious' and 3 as 'malignant' also proved malignant on histological examination. Sensitivity was 86.36% and specificity was 100%. Efficiency of the test was 94.9%. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was found to be simple and valuable technique for a reliable preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules. (author)

  1. Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size

  2. Lingual Tuberculosis Clinically Resembling as a Neoplasm - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Shete

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lingual tuberculosis is a very rare case in theareas where tuberculosis is endemic. There arediagnostic difficulties in patients presentingwith non healing ulcer over the tongue due tovariety of clinical appearances, most of whichmay clinically resemble malignant lingual neo-plasm. Here we report a case of lingual nonhealing ulcer in a 40 years male which was clini-cally diagnosed as malignant ulcer but histopa-thology and ZN staining confirmed the diagno-sis of lingual tuberculosis.

  3. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary ca...

  4. Panorama of neoplasms of upper GI tract: a 5 year research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Suman Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Results: we have received 120 specimens regarding the upper gastrointestinal system. Among these 120 specimens, 71 specimens were endoscopic biopsies and 49 specimens were surgically resected specimens. Out of 71 Endoscopic biopsies 28 biopsies were malignant among which 2 was esophagus and 26 were stomach. Out of 49 surgically resected specimens 1 was benign and 32 were malignant tumors. Out of 59 neoplasms of stomach there were single cases each of Sub mucosal Lipoma, Malignant lymphoma, GIST and 56 cases of Adenocarcinoma and its variants were noted. Conclusion: Most of the neoplasms are of stomach (97%. All the neoplasms are malignant except one benign lesion sub mucous lipoma of stomach. Most of the neoplasms of stomach were Adenocarcinoma (96.5%. Both tumors of esophagus were squamous cell carcinoma occurred after 50 years of age. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1313-1320

  5. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79 Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a positive or negative, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations. PMID:19365829

  6. Thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive idiom therapy may be helpful in patients with normal postoperative calcitonin levels in preventing recurrence. At this time, the concomitant use of I-131 whole body scintigraphy, serum thyroglobulin. and neck ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and efficacious methods of long-term follow-up. Ultrasound and or are being added to the armament atrium as it becomes clear that patient with a negative whole body iodine image and measurable serum T g may have recurrent disease that is amenable to surgical removal and/or further radiotherapy

  7. Criterios ecogrficos diagnsticos de neoplasia maligna en el ndulo tiroideo: correlacin con la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina y la anatoma patolgica / Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrs Ignacio, Chala; Rafael, Pava; Humberto Ignacio, Franco; Andrs, lvarez; Armando, Franco.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. La ecografa de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnstica para neoplasia maligna del ndulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qu ndulos requieren biopsia por aspiracin con aguja fina (BACAF) para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el dia [...] gnstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecogrficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y mtodos. Se dise un estudio prospectivo a tres aos para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecogrficos y la puncin por aspiracin con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatologa. Se evalu la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlacin. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 aos; el tamao promedio del ndulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectoma; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografa. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecogrficos relacionados con cncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinacin de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adicin de aumento del flujo intranodular, result alta. Conclusiones. La combinacin de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna. Abstract in english Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignan [...] cy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

  8. Irradiation-related thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Cancer Control and Rehabilitation of NCI has posted information for physicians with regard to irradiation-related thyroid cancer. A summary about late effects of radiation of head and neck in infancy and childhood points out that irradiation of the thyroid gland during various therapeutic regimens is now recognized as a possible cause of development of both benign and malignant thyroid tumors many years later. The often benign and slow growing tumors may develop up to 35 years after treatment. They can be removed surgically. The greatest problem is identifying persons who received radiation in childhood. Careful inspection and palpation of the gland are recommended. Radioisotope scans may be helpful since cold nodules are more likely to be carcinomas. If a nodule is suspected on palpation, administrating thyroid hormone may shrink the gland and make the nodule more prominent. Some feel that hormone given to asymptomatic patients with irradiation history may help prevent tumor development. At-risk individuals and those who have been treated surgically for thyroid malignancy should be examined every 1--2 years. Surgical exploration should be considered for thyroid nodules. The nuclear medical section of the Wilmington Medical Center has established a tumor registry for thyroid tumors and has recorded 96 patients who are being followed by a special thyroid registry. Recommendations concerning identification of patients at-risk, detection, and scintiscanning are given

  9. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules in detecting malignancy in childhood: comparison with conventional clinical, laboratory, and imaging approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    De Sanctis, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    In childhood the traditional diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules consists of clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluations. A safe and accurate procedure is needed to promptly identify patients who require surgery. In regard to the usefulness of fine needle aspiration biopsy, the data in the literature concerning children and adolescents are scanty. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of clinical, laboratory, and imaging data collected retrospectivel...

  10. Focal thyroid inferno on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using focal thyroid inferno as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of focal thyroid inferno is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  11. Cribriform-Morular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar AKKAYA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This subtype is commonly reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, cases not associated with polyposis have also been reported. The differential diagnosis of this entity from other aggressive thyroid neoplasms is important. A 29-year old man presented with a solitary mass in the left thyroid lobe underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis, colonoscopy revealed a normal colon without polyposis. Herein, we report a case not associated with polyposis and discuss with the literature.

  12. Preoperative thyroid scintigraphy: pro routine investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid scintigraphy using Tc-99m-pertechnetate is indicated to differentiate regional function whenever parenchymal lesions are shown by ultrasound. Using quantitatively evaluated thyroid scans it is possible to early detect autonomously functioning thyroid tissue and to quantify its functional mass as well. Clinical indications for thyroid imaging using radioiodine are to determine the nature of a mass in the substernal area, in the neck or in the tongue, to detect thyroid malignant growth and functioning metastases as well, and to follow therapy of disease. (author)

  13. Elastography of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monpeyssen, H; Tramalloni, J; Poire, S; Hlnon, O; Correas, J-M

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common, while thyroid cancer is rare and has a very good prognosis. Thyroid nodule ultrasound characterization performed by experienced clinicians allows the selection of the tumours to be punctured and guiding fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA provide cytology information able to differentiate benign tumours from cancer in approximately 80% of cases. However, it remains difficult to identify thyroid cancers with ultrasound imaging, as demonstrated by the very low rate of cancers detected in all of the carried out FNA (approximately 5%). As a majority of thyroid cancers are hard, the stiffness evaluation has become part of nodular characterization. Since 2005, elastography has been used for the evaluation of thyroid nodules; quasi-static elastography was the first technique available and used, at first, an external pressure induced by the probe, which was then replaced by carotid internal excitation allowing improvement in sensitivity. Semi-quantitative analysis allows comparison of tissue elasticities between tissue with elasticity anomalies and normal tissue and provides therefore useful analytic information. Shear wave elastography (SWE) provides a map of the elasticity in a region and allows stiffness quantification of lesions in kilopascals in order to reinforce the predictive value of malignancy. A tumour whose stiffness is greater than 65kPa or for which the stiffness ratio is greater than 3.7 compared to surrounding healthy tissue is highly suspicious. SWE may enable the detection of malignant follicular tumours that currently escape detection by the ultrasound-guided ultrasound/aspiration cytology couple. Lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid cancer can also be detected by elastography due to its increased stiffness. PMID:23623210

  14. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Linfoma Burkitt primario tiroideo. Coexistencia con tiroiditis de Hashimoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar Jaen (Spain); Vicente, J.; Lazaro, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Acquired hemophilia in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Brandi N; Key, Nigel S

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia is a rare but potentially morbid complication in patients with cancer. It may be seen in patients with hematologic neoplasms (usually lymphoproliferative disorders) or with solid tumors. Although the presence of an underlying malignancy portends a worse outcome, the literature suggests that the usual principles of treatment, including immunosuppression, apply to these patients. However, appropriate consideration should be given to the choice of agents, depending on individual risk factors for complications such as thrombosis and infection. PMID:22682137

  16. Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma With Initial Presentation As Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zerk OKUTAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord compression due to the follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare. In this paper, we report 6 unusual cases of isolated vertebrae metastasis of the follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting with spinal cord compression. It is unusual for this neoplasm to begin with present as a single metastasis to the spine. Comprehensive preoperative works up for metastatic tumors of vertebrae is significant. This should include evaluation of the thyroid gland consisting of detailed clinical history and physical examination.

  17. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  18. Expression of the RET/PTC fusion gene as a marker for papillary carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirtschafter, A; Schmidt, R; Rosen, D; Kundu, N; Santoro, M; Fusco, A; Multhaupt, H; Atkins, J P; Rosen, M R; Keane, W M; Rothstein, J L

    1997-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland with autoimmune etiology. Patients afflicted with Hashimoto's have a higher risk of thyroid malignancies such as papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated the frequency of papillary thyroid carcinoma ...

  19. Radiotherapy for Thymic Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Clifton D; Ramahi, Emma H.; Aherne, Noel; Eng, Tony Y.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of thymoma and thymic carcinoma has been evaluated by many investigators over the past two decades. The low incidence of these neoplasms has limited most published studies to small series spanning long time intervals or extant population-based studies. The exact indications and protocols for the use of RT as a part of the multidisciplinary approach to thymoma and thymic carcinoma are still unclear. However, a review of recent literature shows pot...

  20. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B; De Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks ...

  1. Association between systemically administered radioisotopes and subsequent malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a long history recording the association of x radiation and the subsequent development of malignant tumors. For systemically administered isotopes this came into prominence when Martland discovered the association between cancer, particularly of the bone, and ingestion of radioactive isotopes by radium dial painters. This association was amplified by the development of cancer in patients given thorotrast as a contrast medium for diagnostic radiologic examination. Acute leukemia was reported 30 years ago in patients with polycythemia vera treated with 32P. Acute leukemia also occurs in patients with polycythemia vera treated only with phlebotomy or drugs. A controlled study is now underway to provide a more definite answer to question what is the incidence of acute leukemia in patients with polycythemia vera treated by phlebotomy alone, chlorambucil, or 32P. 131I for the treatment of hyperthyroidism probably does not induce cancer, but in the doses used for thyroid cancer there was an increased incidence of neoplasms (12/200 in one study). This was higher than the expected incidence of neoplasms. The doses of radioactive isotopes used currently for diagnostic purposes have not induced cancer, but it is difficult and probably impossible to verify this with absolute certainty

  2. Clinical application of EBCT in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To probe the clinical utilization of electron beam CT (EBCT) in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms. Methods: Between July 1995 and Feb 1999. EBCT was performed in 12024 patients in our hospital. 40 (0.33%) patients were diagnosed as cardiac neoplasms. Retrospective analysis of 22 patients confirmed by operation, autopsy or follow-up was done. In this group, there were 13 males and 9 females, age ranged from 5 months to 72 years old (averaged 41.9 years). 17 patients had both contrast single slice mode (contrast SSM) and movie mode, 3 patients only SSM, 1 patient movie mode and 1 patient plain SSM. Results: Accurate localization and quantitative diagnoses were made in all the 22 patients and correct histopathological diagnosis was made in 10 patients with myxoma. EBCT provided characteristic clues to proper histopathological determination in 6 of the 7 patients with non-myxomatous benign neoplasms. In the 5 patients with malignant masses, 4 patients acquired distinct histopathological classifications, and involvement of the adjacent anatomic structures was revealed. Conclusion: Because of excellent temporal, spatial and density resolution, EBCT has not only high accuracy in the diagnosis of myxoma, but also possesses advantage superior to echocardiography in the definition of non-myxomatous benign and malignant neoplasms, which are difficult to diagnose histopathologically using echocardiography. EBCT is also valuable for assessment of involvement of neighbouring organs. In the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasm without specific features, this method is limited and difficult

  3. Estrogens and Stem Cells in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiorgioStassi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries highlight the emerging role of estrogens in the initiation and progression of different malignancies through their interaction with stem cell compartment. Estrogens play a relevant role especially for those tumors bearing a gender disparity in incidence and aggressiveness, as occurs for most thyroid diseases. Although several experimental lines suggest that estrogens promote thyroid cell proliferation and invasion, their precise contribution in stem cell compartment still remains unclear. This review underlines the interplay between hormones and thyroid function, which could help to complete the puzzle of gender discrepancy in thyroid malignancies. Defining the association between estrogen receptors status and signaling pathways by which estrogens exert their effects on thyroid cells is a potential tool that provides important insights in pathogenetic mechanisms of thyroid tumors.

  4. Papillary thyroid cancer and ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Giovanni; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Di Bella, Camillo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Baldini, Vittorio; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is associated with several malignancies. Here we report one such association, a rare one, with papillary thyroid carcinoma, and discuss the possible risk factors of such an association.

  5. ANTI-THYROID PEROXIDASE ANTIBODY LEVEL IN THYROID NODULES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bera Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-TPO antibody level was evaluated in 86 patients, along with 25 healthy controls to detect its change in various forms of thyroid nodules particularly in thyroid malignancy when compared with healthy controls. The study revealed that Anti-TPO antibody level was increased in Benign & toxic form of Multi nodular goiter and papillary carcinoma but there is no elevation of Anti- TPO antibody level in follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma.

  6. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy Call?oglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kaz?m; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first des...

  7. Thyroid tumors associated with radiation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, C

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of medically and environmentally exposed populations have been central to establishing ionizing radiation as a cause of malignant and benign thyroid tumors. Issues currently under investigation concern low dose effects, age sensitivity, the relative effectiveness of X-rays and iodine-131 in inducing thyroid cancer, and other risk factors. Excess thyroid tumors continue to appear in irradiated populations under study more than three decades after exposure.

  8. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Irfan MOHAMAD; Balasubramanian, Anusha; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  9. In vivo fluorescence of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: a technology with potential to improve visualization of malignant tissue at surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terence E; Luiken, George A; Quigley, Michael M; Xu, Mingxu; Hoffman, Robert M

    2008-08-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid requires aggressive treatment because of its potential to metastasize and because of the current limitations of preoperative localization and systemic therapy. If these tumors could be made to fluoresce in vivo with tagged fluorophore antibodies against tumor antigens, surgeons would be able to obtain additional information in the operating room to facilitate a more complete resection. Based on the success of our previous work in breast and colon cancer models, we conducted an animal study of in vivo tumor fluorescence of a human medullary thyroid cell line in which bright tumor fluorescence is visible during dissection. To accomplish this, we used an inexpensive and commercially available handheld, blue (470 nm), light-emitting diode flashlight and filtered goggles (520 nm). This procedure, which we call the fluorescent antibody-assisted surgical technique (FAAST), is easy to perform, requires no complex or expensive technical equipment, and has the potential to be applied to a wide variety of tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment of its kind to be reported in the literature. PMID:18712683

  10. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  11. Update on epidemiology classification, and management of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitham Gheriani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer represents approximately 0.51% of all human malignancy1. In the UK the incidence of thyroid cancer is 2-3 per 100,000 populations 2. In geographical areas of low iodine intake and in areas exposed to nuclear disasters the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher. Benign thyroid conditions are much more common. In the UK approximately 8 % of the population have nodular thyroid disease2. Nodular thyroid disease increases with age and is also more common in females and in geographical areas of low iodine intake. Primary thyroid malignancy can be broadly divided into 2 groups. The first group, which generally have much better prognosis, are the well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which includes papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and Hrthle cell tumours. The second group includes the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma like medullary thyroid carcinoma and the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Other rare tumours such as sarcomas, lymphomas and the extremely rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid should be included in the second group. Secondary or metastatic thyroid cancer can be from breast, lung, colon and kidney malignancies.

  12. Application of CD56, P63 and CK19 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alowami Salem

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PTC is the commonest thyroid cancer. In the recent decades an obvious increase in the incidence of PTC has occurred. The pathological diagnosis of PTC is usually an easy diagnosis in the majority of cases. However since the introduction of follicular variant of PTC and the wide threshold range in interpretation of the clearly set pathological criteria for diagnosis of PTC, between pathologists including experts, the diagnosis in some cases became quite difficult. Unfortunately some cases are unjustifiably over-called as follicular variant of PTC as a result of the wide inter observable variability between pathologists, including thyroid pathologists. Ancillary studies such as immmunohistochemistry may be helpful, but till now there is no 100% consistent marker(s, that distinct between PTC and other follicular thyroid lesions and tumors. We assessed expression of antibodies against CD56, CK19, P63 and E-Cadherin in PTC and other follicular thyroid lesions and neoplasms. A total of 175 cases were studied. The neoplastic cases included 75 carcinomas (72 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 Hurthle cell and 35 adenomas (32 follicular and 3 Hurthle cell. The non-neoplastic thyroids included 65 cases, (25 nodular hyperplasia, 5 thyrotoxic hyperplasia (Grave's disease, 19 lymphocytic thyroiditis and 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All cases were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of the above mentioned markers. The markers' patterns and intensities of staining were scored. Positive expression of the markers equal or >10% of the follicular epithelium within the tumor or lesional cells was considered positive. An expression of Our results showed CD56 positive in all the lesions and tumors except for PTC in all cases (100%. CD56 was negative in all PTC cases (100%. CK 19 showed positive expression in PTC accounting for 85% of cases and in 26% of non PTC lesions/tumors. P63 showed selective focal positivity in PTC cases, in contrast to other non PTC lesions/tumors. P63 expression was in 70% of cases of PTC and was consistently absent in all the non PTC cases. E-Cadherin showed consistent non discriminatory expression in all cases included in the study. We concluded that a panel consisted of CD56, CK19 and P63 is of value in distinction of PTC from other thyroid follicular lesion. P63 is a specific but less sensitive marker for PTC than CK19. CD56 is more specific and sensitive marker than CK19, however it is a negative rather than a positive marker for PTC. E-Cadherin is of no value in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions/tumors. We recommend application of a panel composed of CK19, P63 and CD56 by a group of expert thyroid pathologists on a large series of follicular malignant thyroid neoplasms of uncertain malignant.

  13. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  14. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to remove a nodule); (Figure 2) total thyroidectomy, which removes all identifiable thyroid tissue. (Figure 2) ... thyroid operation, such as lobectomy (hemi) or total thyroidectomy, and the reasons why such a procedure is ...

  15. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with: Autoimmune disorders (such as Type 1, or juvenile onset, Diabetes Mellitus) Positive anti-thyroid antibodies (risk correlates with antibody levels, the higher the antibody the higher the risk) History of previous thyroid dysfunction History of previous postpartum ...

  16. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE BABY? Thyroid hormone is critical for brain development in the baby. Children born with congenital hypothyroidism (no thyroid function at birth) can have severe cognitive, neurological and developmental abnormalities if the condition is ...

  17. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Key Points Plasma cell neoplasms are ...

  18. Correlacin entre biopsia rpida operatoria y biopsia diferida de tiroides: Revisin de 10 aos en el Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau Concordance between intraoperative frozen section and deferred biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GASTN ASTROZA E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La biopsia rpida intraoperatoria es un examen esencial en el curso de una tiroidectoma para decidir la magnitud del procedimiento resectivo. Un patlogo experimentado va a redundar en un alto grado de concordancia en el resultado entre la biopsia rpida y el de la biopsia diferida. Para analizar cmo se dio esta concordancia en nuestro hospital, revisamos retrospectivamente 351 tiroidectomas, de las 795 realizadas en los ltimos 10 aos en nuestro Servicio. Para esta seleccin, excluimos aquellos procedimientos que no contaban con ambos tipos de biopsia. Se inform como proceso maligno por la biopsia rpida en 88 pacientes, lo que coincidi con la biopsia diferida en 75 pacientes (85,2%. En el resto (13 pacientes 14,8% la biopsia rpida inform malignidad y el resultado final fue benigno. En 263 pacientes la biopsia rpida inform lesin benigna, presentndose una concordancia en 238 pacientes (90,5%. Por tanto, en el resto (25 pacientes 9,5% el estudio diferido inform malignidad. Se calcul la sensibilidad y especificidad de la biopsia rpida intraoperatoria en relacin a patologa tirodea, obtenindose una sensibilidad de 75% y una especificidad de 94,8%. De los falsos negativos informados por biopsia rpida, el carcinoma papilar fue el tipo histolgico ms frecuente encontrado (15/25. Se concluye que si bien se obtuvo una buena especificidad lo que se acompaa de un bajo nmero de tiroidectomas totales en vano, la sensibilidad (75% pudo haber sido mayor, lo que oblig en los pacientes errneamente catalogados en una primera instancia como benignos a ser sometidos a una segunda intervencin. Es necesario buscar la forma de optimizar estos resultados, para as disminuir el nmero de pacientes que deben ser reintervenidosBackground: Intraoperative frozen section s essential procedure during thyroidectomy, to decide magnitude of the excision. There is usually a good concordance between fast and deferred biopsy results in hands of experimented pathologists. Aim: To assess the concordance between fast and deferred thyroid biopsies. Material and methods: Prospective study of 351 thyroidectomies, performed to 312 women and 39 men, aged 13 to 83 years, in which a fast and a deferred biopsy, were performed. Results: Intraoperative frozen section diagnosed a total of 88 malignant lesions, that were confirmed with the deferred biopsy in 75 cases (85.2%. In 13 (14.8% patients with a malignant lesion diagnosed with the fast biopsy, the final result was benign. In 263 cases, the fast biopsy reported a benign lesion, that was corroborated with the deferred biopsy in 238 patients (90,5%. In 25 of these patients (9.5%, the deferred biopsy showed a malignant lesion. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the fast biopsy were 75 and 95%, respectively. Papillary carcinoma was the most common pathological finding in 15 of 25cases. Conclusions: intraoperative frozen section thyroid has a high specificity for the diagnosis of malignant lesions, but sensitivity must be improved

  19. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  20. Thermal Ablation for Benign Thyroid Nodules: Radiofrequency and Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Valcavi, Roberto [Endocrinology Division and Thyroid Disease Center, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pacella, Claudio M. [Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Department, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum, Albano Laziale-Rome (IT); Rhim, Hyun Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Kyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Although ethanol ablation has been successfully used to treat cystic thyroid nodules, this procedure is less effective when the thyroid nodules are solid. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation, a newer procedure used to treat malignant liver tumors, has been valuable in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules regardless of the extent of the solid component. This article reviews the basic physics, techniques, applications, results, and complications of thyroid RF ablation, in comparison to laser ablation.

  1. [Surgical Treatment of Thyroid Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Izumi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ookouchi, Chiyo

    2015-06-01

    The strategy for surgical treatment of thyroid cancer differs depending on the histopathological type. In papillary thyroid cancer, which accounts for most cases of thyroid cancer, total thyroidectomy is recommended in high-risk cases with tumors of more than 5 cm or with N1, EX2, or M1 tumors in Japan. On the other hand, ipsilateral lobectomy is performed for low-risk cases with T1N0M0. Our department has also added a treatment policy for the prognostic factor, age. Prophylactic lymph node dissection is performed in the central neck region but is not recommended in the lateral neck region. In follicular thyroid cancer, total thyroidectomy is recommended for widely invasive cancer, and hemithyroidectomy or ipsilateral lobectomy is performed for minimally invasive cancer. When widely invasive cancer is diagnosed after lobectomy, completion thyroidectomy is recommended. Whether minimally invasive follicular cancer with vascular invasion requires completion thyroidectomy is controversial. I also handle medullary thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and thyroid malignant lymphoma with a different policy. It is important to balance a surgical treatment strategy with a molecular targeted therapy and radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:26199237

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat ARA; Saw OHNMAR

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  3. [Paediatric malignant liver tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugires, Laurence; Branchereau, Sophie; Laithier, Vronique

    2012-02-01

    Tumours and pseudotumours of the liver are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm including 60% of malignant tumours. Malignant liver tumours account for less than 2% of the lesions in children and vary considerably in incidence throughout the paediatric age range, with hepatoblastoma, rhabdoid tumour of the liver, hemangioendothelioma, biliary tract rhabdomysosarcoma and mesenchymal hamartoma in the first two years of life and hepatocellular carcinoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, and undifferentiated sarcoma in older children and adolescents. Treatment of malignant epithelial tumours is based on the surgical resection of the tumour associated with pre- and postoperative chemotherapy including cisplatinum. Modalities of the treatment are adapted to risk factors. Survival rates at three years are over 80% for localised hepatoblastoma whereas they are less than 30% in hepatocellular carcinomas. The role of targeted therapies still has to be defined. PMID:22266074

  4. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  5. Decrease in thyroid adenoma associated (THADA expression is a marker of dedifferentiation of thyroid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloth Lars

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid adenoma associated (THADA has been identified as the target gene affected by chromosome 2p21 translocations in thyroid adenomas, but the role of THADA in the thyroid is still elusive. The aim of this study was to quantify THADA gene expression in normal tissues and in thyroid hyper- and neoplasias, using real-time PCR. Methods For the analysis THADA and 18S rRNA gene expression assays were performed on 34 normal tissue samples, including thyroid, salivary gland, heart, endometrium, myometrium, lung, blood, and adipose tissue as well as on 85 thyroid hyper- and neoplasias, including three adenomas with a 2p21 translocation. In addition, NIS (sodium-iodide symporter gene expression was measured on 34 of the pathological thyroid samples. Results Results illustrated that THADA expression in normal thyroid tissue was significantly higher (p p p THADA mRNA expression was found to be inversely correlated with HMGA2 mRNA. HMGA2 expression was recently identified as a marker revealing malignant transformation of thyroid follicular tumors. A correlation between THADA and NIS has also been found in thyroid normal tissue and malignant tumors. Conclusions The results suggest THADA being a marker of dedifferentiation of thyroid tissue.

  6. Is there loss or qualitative changes in the expression of thyroid peroxidase protein in thyroid epithelial cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnocka, B; Pastuszko, D; Janota-Bzowski, M; Weetman, A.P.; Watson, P F; Kemp, E. H.; McIntosh, R S; Asghar, M S; Jarzab, B; Gubala, E; Wloch, J; Lange, D.

    2001-01-01

    There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgG? Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was comp...

  7. The prognosis and treatment of primary thyroid cancer occurred in breast cancer patients: comparison with ordinary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chang Min; Lee, Young Don; Oh, Eun Mee; Kim, Kwan-Il; Park, Heung Kyu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Chung, Yoo Seung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Due to the increased prevalence of thyroid cancer, it has been frequently detected in breast cancer patients recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of thyroid cancer in breast cancer patients with respect to prognosis and treatment. Methods From August 1998 to September 2012, 101 breast cancer patients were diagnosed with thyroid cancer (BT group). One hundred ninety-three female patients with a thyroid malignancy that underwent thyroidec...

  8. Malignant Struma Ovarii in a Postmenopausal Asymptomatic Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye P?nar ilesiz Gksedef

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian tumor that consists predominantly thyroid tissue and accounts for only 2% of all mature teratomas. It is usually a benign condition - malignant transformation has been reported to occur in about 5% of all struma ovarii cases. Case: A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman attended our outpatient clinic for her annual gynecologic exam, on which a palpable ovary was incidentally found. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging work-up showed two-centimeter solid mass on the right ovary. Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy was performed; the histology report revealed a focus of thyroid papillary carcinoma in a struma ovarii. The patient underwent surgical staging procedure according to the ovarian cancer guideline. The tumor was in stage 1A, thus, no further treatment was indicated apart from follow-up. Conclusion: Malignant struma ovarii is a rare neoplasm of the ovary. Surgical staging should be included in the treatment, like in the other germ cell ovarian tumors. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2011;49: 117-9

  9. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave?s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto?s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  10. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  11. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  12. Thyroid abscess.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohondia O

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess arising from Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis (AST is a rare clinical disorder. The ability of the thyroid gland to resist infection is well known and infection in the thyroid gland is rare, particularly so with the advent of widespread usage of antibiotics. An internal pharyngeal fistula (Pyriform sinus fistula is the most common underlying abnormality in patients with AST. We report a case of an adult male who presented with a thyroid abscess. The causal organism was found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous antibiotics and, incision and drainage of the abscess led to an uncomplicated recovery.

  13. Malignancy-associated pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, B; Yosipovitch, G

    2016-01-01

    Malignancy-associated pruritus can be the result of a neoplasm's local effect on tissue or due to the systemic reaction to malignancy. A systemic reaction to malignancy has been termed 'paraneoplastic itch' and can be the first sign of an underlying malignancy. Paraneoplastic itch is most commonly caused by lymphoproliferative malignancies, and severity of itch correlates with stage of disease in Hodgkin's lymphoma and polycythemia vera. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy-associated pruritus, and recent data indicate that pruritus is associated with more than one-third of non-melanoma skin cancers. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL), particularly more advanced stages, cause intractable pruritus and recent investigations into the pathophysiology of CTCL-associated itch have implicated cyotokine interleukin-31 as a putative mediator. Treatments that reduce itch in CTCL patients, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), Mogamulizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody against chemokine receptor type-4, and oral corticosteroids, have demonstrated a correlation between their anti-pruritic effect and reduced serum levels of interleukin-31. PMID:26416212

  14. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Vidal, Campregher; Fbio Pires de Souza, Santos; Guilherme Fleury, Perini; Nelson, Hamerschlak.

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. [...] In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL) and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  15. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vidal Campregher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  16. Papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas in a teenage boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a 13-year-old boy with a left-sided abdominal mass which proved to be a papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. This low-grade malignant lesion of young patients is very rare, and exceedingly rare in males. The prognosis following resection of this tumor is good. We present the ultrasound and computed tomographic picture of this lesion, as well as the gross and microscopic pathology. (orig.)

  17. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Gibson, Todd M; Clarke, Christina A.; LYNCH, CHARLES F.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Landgren, Ola; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, due in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207,859 solid organ transplants (19872009). Solid organ transplant recipients had significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidenc...

  18. Genomic alterations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Borze, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders whose etiology and molecular pathogenesis are poorly understood. During the past decade, enormous developments in microarray technology and bioinformatics methods have made it possible to mine novel molecular alterations in a large number of malignancies, including MPN and MDS, which has facilitated the detection of new prognostic, predictive and therapeutic bioma...

  19. Part 2: CT characterisation of pancreatic neoplasm: tumour mimics

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Tom; Galvin, Angela; Little, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous pancreatic and peripancreatic conditions that can mimic pancreatic neoplasms. Many of these can be confidently diagnosed on computed tomography (CT), while others will require further imaging. Knowledge of these tumour mimics is important to avoid misclassification of benign conditions as malignant and to avoid unnecessary surgery. Mimics can be grouped as parenchymal, vascular, biliary and peripancreatic. These are discussed and illustrated in this review.

  20. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; FALCONI, MASSIMO

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs...

  1. [Neoplasms in nevus spilus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, C; Ernst, K; Hundeiker, M

    1996-10-01

    Among 946 patients with nevus spilus we observed 5 patients (3 women and 2 men) with transformations on it-2 cases with malignant melanoma and 3 cases with spitz-nevus. Histologically the nevus spilus is a superficial variant on congenital pigmented nevus missing corial parts. Because of the risk of transformation a regular skin examination is advisable, a prophylactical excision of nevi spili as used in congenital pigmented nevi should be discussed. PMID:9036124

  2. Pathologic Classification of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, David S

    2016-02-01

    The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms has evolved over the past decades, as new understanding of the biological behavior, histologic characteristics, and genetic features have emerged. Nonetheless, many aspects of the classification systems remain confusing or controversial. Despite these difficulties, much progress has been made in determining the features predicting behavior. Genetic findings have helped establish relationships among different types of neuroendocrine neoplasms and revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the current approach to the diagnosis, classification, grading, and therapeutic stratification of neuroendocrine neoplasms, with a focus on those arising in the lung and thymus, pancreas, and intestines. PMID:26614366

  3. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to keep any small or residual amounts of thyroid cancer cells from growing (see Thyroid Cancer brochure). Thyroid hormone ... is effective in stopping the growth of microscopic thyroid cancer cells or residual thyroid cancer. In this case, the ...

  4. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  5. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  6. Use of the gamma probe and of 99mTc-DMSA (V) in the identification of the neck recurrence of medullary carcinoma thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, a malignant neoplasm of para follicular C cells, represent about 5-10% of thyroid tumors. The symptoms are related to local invasion and hormonal secretion. The clinical course is variable, from indolent cases to extremely aggressive. Many radionuclide imaging have been described to locate metastasis of medullary cancer. Tl-201 and Tc-99m (V)DMS A showed to be useful in the evaluation o persistent elevated serum calcitonin levels. On the other hand, the use of the 131 I-Mibg, that is the isotope more used, has not been demonstrating efficiency in identifying metastasis. Our objective is to report a case of a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the follow-up use DMS A(V) demonstrated a recurrence no identified for other methods. A 34-year-old man had a diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and has submitted a total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection. He presented elevated serum calcitonin levels and DMS A(V) scintigraphy demonstrated focal area of pathologic uptake at the medline of the neck, but the surgical exploration was negative. He persisted with high calcitonin levels and it was used a new DMS A(V). On this occasion he was submitted to the radio-guided surgery that located the recurrence and it was confirmed with anatomo-pathologic exam. This case allowed to demonstrate that the use of radionuclide associated to the gamma-probe is promising, allowing a precise surgical approach. (author)

  7. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ?20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ?20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  8. The value of sonography in thyroid diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the gray scale-technique, sonography has gained a definitive position in thyroid diagnostics. Sonography should be combined with scintigraphy and fine needle-aspiration biopsy according to the underlaying thyroid disease. As a rule, a combination of sonography and scintigraphy is recommended for basic thyroid examinations, except for cases of normally sized thyroid glands, pregnancy or young patients. Follow-up examinations should be based on sonography alone, unless autonomy is suspected, which should be examined by suppressive scintigraphy during thyroid hormone therapy. After surgery or radio-iodine therapy, the follow-up should be based on both scintigraphy and sonography. Metastases of thyroid malignancies always have to be examined for their radio-iodine uptake. The positive effects of sonography suitably combined with scintigraphy and fine needle-aspiration biopsy have been reflected in the decreasing number of indications for surgical intervention in our patients with nodular goitres. (orig.)

  9. CC-486 (Oral Azacitidine) Bioequivalence Study in Patients With Solid Tumor or Hematologic Malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Hematological Neoplasms; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Neoplasms; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Osteosarcoma; Sarcoma; Thyroid Cancer; Genitourinary

  10. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Mediastinum: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation in Two Case

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Mi Young; Chae, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is extremely rare, accounting for 0.1-0.5% of all primary malignant neoplasms. These tumors may be mistakenly diagnosed as lymphomas, thymic carcinomas and malignant germ-cell tumors of the mediastinum. We describe two cases of primary malignant melanomas of the anterior mediastinum and report their CT and pathology findings.

  11. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Mediastinum: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation in Two Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant melanoma of the anterior mediastinum is extremely rare, accounting for 0.1-0.5% of all primary malignant neoplasms. These tumors may be mistakenly diagnosed as lymphomas, thymic carcinomas and malignant germ-cell tumors of the mediastinum. We describe two cases of primary malignant melanomas of the anterior mediastinum and report their CT and pathology findings.

  12. Co-occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a patient with long-standing hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Seong Keun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Sang Soo; Jung, Woo Jin; Kahng, Dong Hwahn; Kim, In Ju

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common affliction of the thyroid gland, accounting for 70% to 80% of all thyroid cancers, whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland is uncommon. The simultaneous occurrence of both malignancies is extremely rare. We report the case of a patient with both PTC and MALT lymphoma in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. An 81-year-old female patient was first admitted with goiter and hoarseness, which was attributed to an ultrasonographic thyroid nodule. Subsequent fine-needle aspirate, interpreted as suspicious of papillary thyroid cancer, prompted total thyroidectomy. MALT lymphoma was an incidental postsurgical finding, coexisting with PTC in the setting of Hashimoto thyroiditis. Although the development of MALT lymphoma is very rare, patients with longstanding Hashimoto thyroiditis should undergo careful surveillance for both malignancies. PMID:24396701

  13. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancers are especially common in patients who have received irradiation to the head and neck region for benign diseases. Well-differentiated papillary and/or follicular carcinomas are the most common types of thyroid cancer. They grow slowly and have a very good prognosis when managed with an appropriate combination of surgical and medical therapy. Other types of thyroid cancer often require more intensive therapy and follow-up. It is especially important to evaluate relatives of patients with medullary thyroid cancer

  14. Molecular profiling of endometrial malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarnthai, Norasate; Hall, Kevin; Yeh, I-Tien

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of endometrial neoplasms reveals genetic changes in endometrial carcinomas that support the dualistic model, in which type I carcinomas are estrogen-dependent, low grade lesions and type II carcinomas are nonestrogen dependent and high grade. The molecular changes in type I endometrial carcinomas include mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, and beta-catenin, along with microsatellite instability, whereas type II endometrial carcinomas are characterized by genetic alterations in p53, HER2/neu, p16, and E-cadherin. For endometrial neoplasms with a malignant mesenchymal component, C-MYC mutations and loss of heterozygosity are frequently seen in carcinosarcomas, and a fusion gene, JAZF1/JJAZ1, is distinctive for endometrial stromal sarcoma. In addition, p53 mutations may play an important role in tumorigenesis of undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. These molecular changes can help in the diagnosis of endometrial neoplasms, as well as form the basis of molecular targeted therapy. PMID:20368795

  15. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  16. Correlacin entre biopsia rpida operatoria y biopsia diferida de tiroides: Revisin de 10 aos en el Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau / Concordance between intraoperative frozen section and deferred biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GASTN, ASTROZA E; MIGUEL, GONZLEZ P; PABLO, PALADINES Z; RAL, CASAS C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La biopsia rpida intraoperatoria es un examen esencial en el curso de una tiroidectoma para decidir la magnitud del procedimiento resectivo. Un patlogo experimentado va a redundar en un alto grado de concordancia en el resultado entre la biopsia rpida y el de la biopsia diferida. Para analizar c [...] mo se dio esta concordancia en nuestro hospital, revisamos retrospectivamente 351 tiroidectomas, de las 795 realizadas en los ltimos 10 aos en nuestro Servicio. Para esta seleccin, excluimos aquellos procedimientos que no contaban con ambos tipos de biopsia. Se inform como proceso maligno por la biopsia rpida en 88 pacientes, lo que coincidi con la biopsia diferida en 75 pacientes (85,2%). En el resto (13 pacientes 14,8%) la biopsia rpida inform malignidad y el resultado final fue benigno. En 263 pacientes la biopsia rpida inform lesin benigna, presentndose una concordancia en 238 pacientes (90,5%). Por tanto, en el resto (25 pacientes 9,5%) el estudio diferido inform malignidad. Se calcul la sensibilidad y especificidad de la biopsia rpida intraoperatoria en relacin a patologa tirodea, obtenindose una sensibilidad de 75% y una especificidad de 94,8%. De los falsos negativos informados por biopsia rpida, el carcinoma papilar fue el tipo histolgico ms frecuente encontrado (15/25). Se concluye que si bien se obtuvo una buena especificidad lo que se acompaa de un bajo nmero de tiroidectomas totales en vano, la sensibilidad (75%) pudo haber sido mayor, lo que oblig en los pacientes errneamente catalogados en una primera instancia como benignos a ser sometidos a una segunda intervencin. Es necesario buscar la forma de optimizar estos resultados, para as disminuir el nmero de pacientes que deben ser reintervenidos Abstract in english Background: Intraoperative frozen section s essential procedure during thyroidectomy, to decide magnitude of the excision. There is usually a good concordance between fast and deferred biopsy results in hands of experimented pathologists. Aim: To assess the concordance between fast and deferred thyr [...] oid biopsies. Material and methods: Prospective study of 351 thyroidectomies, performed to 312 women and 39 men, aged 13 to 83 years, in which a fast and a deferred biopsy, were performed. Results: Intraoperative frozen section diagnosed a total of 88 malignant lesions, that were confirmed with the deferred biopsy in 75 cases (85.2%). In 13 (14.8%) patients with a malignant lesion diagnosed with the fast biopsy, the final result was benign. In 263 cases, the fast biopsy reported a benign lesion, that was corroborated with the deferred biopsy in 238 patients (90,5%). In 25 of these patients (9.5%), the deferred biopsy showed a malignant lesion. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the fast biopsy were 75 and 95%, respectively. Papillary carcinoma was the most common pathological finding in 15 of 25cases. Conclusions: intraoperative frozen section thyroid has a high specificity for the diagnosis of malignant lesions, but sensitivity must be improved

  17. Diagnostic accuracy between fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA and pathological examination of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerso Menegassi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the fact that the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is commonly used in the initial evaluation and distinction of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules, it may yield variable results, inasmuch as it is contingent on the pathologist's analysis and expertise in collecting appropriate samples. OBJECTIVE: To check the diagnostic accuracy between FNA and pathological examination of thyroid nodules, both performed in a diagnostic pathology service. METHODS: Retrospective study carried out in a diagnostic pathology service in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. All patients who underwent FNA and pathological examination in the period from January 1st 2005 to December 31 2010 were included in this study. RESULTS: 1,172 FNA were conducted during this period and 265 patients underwent both FNA and pathological examination. Most patients were female (85%, with mean age 47.75 years (standard deviation [SD] = 14.93 years. Cytopathological examinations yielded the following results: benignity (43.77 %, suspected malignancy (23.77%, follicular neoplasm (5.28%, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (1.51% and unsatisfactory sample (1.51%. In the pathological examination, the most predominant diagnoses were colloid goiter (38.87%, follicular adenoma (22.64% and classic papillary carcinoma (18.87%. In satisfactory samples (n = 261, the following results were obtained: diagnostic accuracy (89.66%, sensitivity (82.14%, specificity (93.22%, negative predictive value (91.67% and positive predictive value (75.19%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that FNA provides a good predictive value for benign thyroid, constituting a reliable and effective tool for diagnosis and surgical indication.

  18. Both F-18 FDG-avidity and Malignant Shape of Cervical Lymph Nodes on PET/CT after Total Thyroidectomy Predict Resistance to High-dose I-131 Therapy in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Hyun Byun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resistance of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs to high dose I-131 therapy is associated with high morbidity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the prediction of resistance to high dose I-131 therapy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Methods: The subjects were 307 patients who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy followed by high dose (5.55-6.66 GBq I-131 therapy. We divided the patients into three subgroups by visual assessment of regional LNs: FDG-avid LNs with a malignant shape on CT (PET/CT-positive group, FDG-avid LNs with a benign shape on CT (PET/CT-intermediate group and no FDG-avid lesion (PET/CT-negative group. We measured the maximum SUV (SUVmax of FDG-avid LNs in each patient. The presence or absence of focal increased uptake of I-131 was evaluated by whole body scan (WBS, and was denoted as WBS-positive group or WBS-negative group, respectively. Resistance to therapy was defined as presence of thyroglobulin (Tg in serum (Tg ?1.0 ng/ml 3-6 months after I-131 therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between resistance to I-131 therapy and various clinico-pathologic variables. Results: PET/CT-positive, intermediate, and negative groups included 20 (6.5%, 44 (14.3% and 243 (79.2% patients, respectively. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in the PET/CT-positive group than that of the PET/CT-intermediate group (4.6 vs. 2.7, P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that the PET/CT-positive group (P <0.001, T2-4 stage (P <0.001, N1b stage (P = 0.001, lower dose (5.55 GBq of I-131 (P <0.001, and the WBS-positive group (P = 0.029 were associated with resistance to therapy. In multivariate analysis, the PET/CT-positive group, lower dose of I-131, N1b stage, and T2-4 stage remained significant with odds ratios of 10.07 (P <0.001, 3.82 (P <0.001, 3.58 (P = 0.001, and 2.53 (P = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion: FDG-avidity and malignant shape of cervical LNs on pre-therapy FDG PET/CT were a strong risk factors predicting resistance to high dose I-131 therapy. A lower dose of administered I-131 (5.55 GBq and more extensive tumors (T2-4 and N1b were also associated with resistance to high dose I-131 therapy.

  19. Mortalidade por neoplasia maligna do fgado e vias biliares intra-hepticas no Brasil, 1980-2010 / Mortality due to malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in Brazil, 1980-2010 / Mortalidad por neoplasia maligna de hgado y vas biliares intrahepticas en Brasil, 1980-2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Rodrigues de, Amorim; Edgar, Merchn-Hamann.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a tendncia da mortalidade por neoplasia maligna do fgado e das vias biliares intra-hepticas no Brasil, entre 1980 e 2010. Trata-se de um estudo de sries temporais com dados do Sistema de Informaes sobre Mortalidade. Coeficientes de mortalidade brutos, pad [...] ronizados, especficos por idade, regio de residncia e sexo foram calculados e as tendncias analisadas utilizando-se modelos de regresso polinomial. Tendncia crescente da mortalidade foi observada no Brasil, para ambos os sexos. O coeficiente mdio de mortalidade para o pas foi de 3,59 bitos por 100 mil habitantes com aumento linear anual de 0,020 (R = 0,588; p Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la tendencia de la mortalidad por neoplasia maligna de hgado y vas biliares intrahepticas en Brasil, entre 1980 y 2010. Se trata de un estudio de series temporales con datos del Sistema de Informacin sobre Mortalidad. Se calcularon las tasas brutas y [...] estandarizadas de mortalidad especficas por edad, regin de residencia y sexo. Se analizaron las tendencias, utilizando modelos de regresin polinomial. Fue observada una tendencia creciente de la mortalidad en el pas para ambos sexos. La tasa general de mortalidad fue 3,59 muertes /100 mil habitantes, mostrando aumento lineal anual de 0,020 (R = 0,588; p Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze trends in mortality due to malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in Brazil from 1980 to 2010. This was a time series study using data provided by the Mortality Information System. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated according to a [...] ge, area of residence, and gender. Trends were analyzed using polynomial regression models. An increasing trend in mortality was observed for both males and females in Brazil. Mean overall mortality was 3.59, with a linear increase of 0.020 (R = 0.588; p

  20. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P?0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition. Keywords: genetic susceptibility, incidence study, hereditary, multiple primary neoplasms, survival analysis, prognosis

  1. Malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... general anesthesia You know you have a family history of malignant hyperthermia ... hyperthermia during surgery. Avoid stimulant drugs such as cocaine, ... of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant hyperthermia.

  2. ROLE OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY & COLOR DOPPLER IN THE EVALUATION OF THYROID NODULES WIT H HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

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    Raghu Teja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: 1. To identify morphologic patterns on sonography , those are predictive of benign thyroid nodules and malignant thyroid nodules. 2. To evaluate the efficacy of sonography in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid nodules in comparison with histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HRS of thyroid was performed in 60 patients with clinically palpable STN , referred to Department of Radiodiagnosis , R. L. Jssalappa Hospital and Research Centre , Tamaka , Kolar , Karnataka over a period of 24months , using SIEMENS ACCUSON X 300 and SIEMENS G 50 with 5 - 10 MHz transducers . Thyroid sonographic findings relevant to benign or malignant thyroid nodules were recorded and these findings w ere compared with histopathology reports. RESULTS: Out of 60 cases of solitary thyroid nodules evaluated at sonography , 41 were diagnosed to be benign thyroid nodules. 19 were malignant thyroid nodules. After histopathological evaluation , 43 cases were fou nd to be benign thyroid nodules and 17 were malignant thyroid nodules. Among benign thyroid nodules , follicular adenoma 55.8% (24 caseswas most common followed by nodular hyperplasia 27.9% (12 casesand colloid nodule 16.3%(7 cases. Among malignant nodul es , papillary carcinoma 88.2% (15 cases was most common followed by follicular carcinoma 11.8% (2 cases. CONCLUSION: Thyroid nodules were more common in the females of age group 31 45 years. Sonography is a safe , fairly accurate investigation to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules with sensitivity of 82.3 % and specificity of 88.3 %. KEY WORDS: solitary thyroid nodu le; high resolution sonography; histopathology.

  3. Glypican-3 expression in gastrointestinal and pancreatic epithelial neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounajjed, Taofic; Zhang, Lizhi; Wu, Tsung-Teh

    2013-04-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a plasma membrane-bound proteoglycan that can be overexpressed in certain malignancies but has been particularly linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GPC3 is currently used as an immunohistochemical marker for HCC, but its expression in epithelial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and pancreas, a common source of liver metastasis, has not been studied in detail. In this study, we examined GPC3 immunoreactivity in 98 neoplasms of the GI tract including 30 adenocarcinomas (ADCA), 29 squamous cell carcinomas (esophageal and anal), and 39 neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 60 neoplasms of the pancreas including 22 ADCA, 26 pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, and 12 pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas. Two control groups of 32 HCCs and 16 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas were also stained with GPC3. Although most (7/12, 58.5%) acinar cell carcinomas were GPC3 positive, pancreatic ADCA and neuroendocrine neoplasms were GPC3 negative. In addition, 27.5%, (8/29) of squamous cell carcinomas, 20% (6/30) of ADCA, and 2.5% (1/39) of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the GI tract were immunoreactive for GPC3. HCC was positive for GPC3 in 75% (24/32) of cases but cholangiocarcinoma was negative. While significant correlation between GPC3 positivity and poor differentiation was observed in HCC only, GPC3 expression did not correlate with tumor size. In conclusion, 14% of GI tract and pancreatic carcinomas/neoplasms (particularly pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma) can express GPC3 by immunohistochemistry. As these tumors commonly metastasize to the liver, this offers a potential pitfall in differentiating between HCC and metastatic carcinoma when evaluating tumors involving the liver. PMID:23079207

  4. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

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    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  5. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  6. Lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ectopic thyroid is caused by an alteration in the embryological migration of the gland. Its most common location is the base of the tongue, and it is generally discovered by chance. We present a case of lingual ectopic thyroid gland diagnosed by computerized tomography (CT) and confirmed by isotopic study

  7. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  8. Thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress made in ultrasonography and improved in vitro tests has changed the field of application for scintigraphy of the thyroid. Thyroid scanning itself has been improved by the use of isotopes with better imaging properties and less radiation burden (99mTc, 123I) and by gamma cameras for imaging. Scintigraphy yields real topographic and functional information on the gland, in addition to which ultrasonography gives morphological data only. This holds true especially for autonomous nodular goiter with iodine deficiency. The goal of thyroid imaging is always to match the appropiate diagnostic procedure with all the clinical data available. When optimized techniques (gamma camera, on-line processor) are used thyroid scintigraphy is useful for the diagnosis, adequate therapy and follow-up of various thyroid disorders. (orig.)

  9. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Evaluation of subjective estimates using a Bayesian analysis Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos. Evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano

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    Alvaro Sanabria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The main purpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs.
    Objective. To assess the subjective probabilities of malignancy that are as-signed to the clinical characteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clini-cal suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data.
    Material and methods. A Bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consulta-tion. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed.
    Results. The highest probability of malignancy (94% was assigned to the pooled case of a male who was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%.
    Conclusion. Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteris-tics of the nodules.
    Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si este corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones subjetivas.
    Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las característi-cas clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de in-fluencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de malignidad en comparación con los datos objetivos.
    Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de malignidad en un nódulo tiroideo basado en la relación causal conocida de factores clínicos y demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los ci-rujanos.
    Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de malignidad (94% se asignó al caso clíni-co de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de creci-miento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de ti-roides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de malignidad, la probabilidad de malignidad asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59%, para los de alto riesgo fue de 75,54%.
    Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creen-cias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos.

  10. Thyroid scintigraphy in patients with thyroid tumors using 99mTc-hexakis 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early and delayed thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-hexakis 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) was performed in 18 patients with thyroid tumor, including 8 with papillary carcinoma, 1 each with follicular carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and malignant lymphoma, and 7 with thyroid adenoma. Scintigrams obtained were compared with those taken with other radionuclides. In all 11 patients with malignant tumors, increased 99mTc-MIBI uptake was noted in the tumors on early images, although anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma had mild uptake. On delayed images, 99mTc-MIBI washout was noted in 45.4% (5/11). In one patient with extensive cervical lymph node metastasis, 99mTc-MIBI concentration was evident in the metastatic foci. In the 4 where the thyroid adenoma consisted mainly of cystic degeneration, a focal defect was noted, but two of the three patients whose thyroid adenoma consisted mainly of a solid component had an intense tracer uptake in the tumors on early and delayed images. In conclusion, there were increased 99mTc-MIBI accumulations in all of the 14 solid thyroid tumors. The quality of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphic images of thyroid tumors was equal or slightly superior to that taken with 201Tl scintigraphy. 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy may be useful in detecting a solid thyroid tumor and its metastasis, although it cannot be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  11. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia / Plasmocitoma da glndula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Diego Mendona, Ucha; Vanessa, Ypez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmcitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratrio superior. Plasmocitomas primrios da tireoide (TPP) so tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfa [...] gia. O exame fsico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor slido comprometendo a glndula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimenso, o qual foi submetido bipsia cirrgica. microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituda por clulas redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos slidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpresso positiva para CD138, antgeno da membrana epitelial (AME), cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma mltiplo 1 (MUM1). O diagnstico de TPP foi, ento, estabelecido. Abstract in english Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination [...] and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME), kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.

  12. ANAPLASTIC THYROID CARCINOMA

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    AugustoTaccaliti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancers represent about 1% of all human cancers. Differentiate thyroid carcinomas (DTCs, papillary and follicular cancers, are the most frequent forms, instead Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC is estimated to comprise 1-2% of thyroid malignancies and it accounts for 14% to 39% of thyroid cancer deaths. The annual incidence of ATC is about 1-2 cases/million, with the overall incidence being higher in Europe (and area of endemic goiter than in USA. ATC has a more complex genotype than DTCs, with chromosomal aberrations present in 85100% of cases. A small number of gene mutations have been identified, and there appears to be a progression in mutations acquired during dedifferentiation. The mean survival time is around 6 months from diagnosis an outcome that is frequently not altered by treatment. ATC presents with a rapidly growing fixed and hard neck mass, often metastatic local lymph nodes appreciable on examination and/or vocal paralysis. Symptoms may reflect rapid growth of tumor with local invasion and/or compression. The majority of patients with ATC die from aggressive local regional disease, primarily from upper airway respiratory failure. For this reason, aggressive local therapy is indicated in all patients who can tolerate it. Although rarely possible, complete surgical resection gives the best chance of long-term control and improved survival. Therapy options include surgery, external beam radiation therapy, tracheostomy, chemotherapy, and investigational clinical trials. Multimodal or combination therapy should be useful. In fact, surgical debulking of local tumor, combined with external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy as neoadjuvant (before surgery or adjuvant (after surgery therapy, may prevent death from local airway obstruction and as best may slight prolong survival. Investigational clinical trials in phase I or in phase II are actually in running and they include antiangiogenetic drugs, multi-kinase inhibitor drugs.

  13. Possible association between hepatitis C virus and malignancies different from hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Sirio; Bacchi-Reggiani, Letizia; de Biase, Dario; Fornelli, Adele; Masetti, Michele; Tura, Andrea; Grizzi, Fabio; Zanello, Matteo; Mastrangelo, Laura; Lombardi, Raffaele; Acquaviva, Giorgia; di Tommaso, Luca; Bondi, Arrigo; Visani, Michela; Sabbatani, Sergio; Pontoriero, Laura; Fabbri, Carlo; Cuppini, Andrea; Pession, Annalisa; Jovine, Elio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the current knowledge about the potential relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of several extra-liver cancers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Statement. We extracted the pertinent articles, published in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, using the following search terms: neoplasm/cancer/malignancy/tumor/carcinoma/adeno-carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, kidney/renal-, cholangio-, pancreatic-, thyroid-, breast-,oral-, skin-, prostate-, lung-, colon-, stomach-, haematologic. Case series, case-series with control-group, case-control, cohort-studies as well as meta-analyses, written in English were collected. Some of the main characteristics of retrieved trials, which were designed to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection in each type of the above-mentioned human malignancies were summarised. A main table was defined and included a short description in the text for each of these tumours, whether at least five studies about a specific neoplasm, meeting inclusion criteria, were available in literature. According to these criteria, we created the following sections and the corresponding tables and we indicated the number of included or excluded articles, as well as of meta-analyses and reviews: (1) HCV and haematopoietic malignancies; (2) HCV and cholangiocarcinoma; (3) HCV and pancreatic cancer; (4) HCV and breast cancer; (5) HCV and kidney cancer; (6) HCV and skin or oral cancer; and (7) HCV and thyroid cancer. RESULTS: According to available data, a clear correlation between regions of HCV prevalence and risk of extra-liver cancers has emerged only for a very small group of types and histological subtypes of malignancies. In particular, HCV infection has been associated with: (1) a higher incidence of some B-cell Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma types, in countries, where an elevated prevalence of this pathogen is detectable, accounting to a percentage of about 10%; (2) an increased risk of intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma; and (3) a correlation between HCV prevalence and pancreatic cancer (PAC) incidence. CONCLUSION: To date no definitive conclusions may be obtained from the analysis of relationship between HCV and extra-hepatic cancers. Further studies, recruiting an adequate number of patients are required to confirm or deny this association. PMID:26668515

  14. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L M; Gibson, T M; Clarke, C A; Lynch, C F; Anderson, L A; Pfeiffer, R; Landgren, O; Weisenburger, D D; Engels, E A

    2014-12-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, owing in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207?859 solid organ transplants (1987-2009). Solid organ transplant recipients had a significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.6; N=101) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 2.7 (2.2-3.2; N=125) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2.3 (1.6-3.2; N=36) for chronic myeloid leukemia and 7.2 (5.4-9.3; N=57) for polycythemia vera. SIRs were highest among younger individuals and varied by time since transplantation and organ type (Poisson regression Pcancer registries (log-rank P<0.0001). Our novel finding of increased risks for specific myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation supports a role for immune dysfunction in myeloid neoplasm etiology. The increased risks and inferior survival should heighten clinician awareness of myeloid neoplasms during follow-up of transplant recipients. PMID:24727673

  15. Diffuse Pancreatic Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm Treated by Total Pancreatectomy

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    Hongyi Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Multifocal or diffuse mucinous cystic neoplasm are uncommon and may be difficult to distinguish from multifocal intra-ducal mucinous neoplasm or diffuse serous cystadenoma. Case report A forty-seven-year old lady with vague abdominal pain was noted to have cystic lesions ranging from 5 to 20 mm throughout her pancreas. The cysts had enlarged over several years of observation. There was no evidence of pancreatic duct dilatation or communication with the pancreatic duct on magnetic resonance imaging. Cyst fluid analysis for carcinoembryonic antigen and amylase were non-diagnostic. A total pancreatectomy was performed, with histology confirming numerous cysts lined by mucus producing cells, without obvious ovarian-like stroma. The stroma did however demonstrate positive staining for oestrogen receptor and smooth muscle actin. These findings were most consistent with a mucinous cystic neoplasm, despite the apparent absence of typical ovarian like stroma. Conclusion Multifocal or diffuse pancreatic mucinous cystic neoplasm are uncommon and may be suspected when imaging demonstrates multiple pancreatic cysts without communication with the pancreatic duct or pancreatic duct dilation. Surgical resection is indicated due to the increased risk of malignancy.

  16. Screening of colorectal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany approximately 29,000 people died of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in 2002; the risk of getting CRC is 4-6% in Germany, rising with age from the 50th year of life. About one third of all people over 50 years of age have polyps with the potential for malignant transformation in the colorectum, which is a sufficiently high prevalence rate to justify screening. In contrast to most other cancer diseases, in the case of CRC it is possible to prevent the cancer and not only to detect it at an early stage. Application of the test for occult blood in persons between their 45th and 80th years can reduce the mortality of CRC by 14%. We can assume that already regular sigmoidoscopies with consistent performance of polypectomy when needed could reduce the incidence of CRC by 50-70%. There is no doubt that coloscopy is the technique of choice for secondary prevention, as it unites the possibility of complete diagnosis and treatment with a justifiably low level of risk. The economic advantages of an avoidance strategy compared with the treatment of CRC, which is certainly expensive, have been documented. On the basis of all the data reported, in the case of CRC preventive strategies can be emphatically recommended. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ?18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  18. Value of thyroid scintigraphy using thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules demonstrated on the thyroid scan with technetium-99m was emphasized. From the clinical results it can be deduced that if a cold nodule is positive with thallium-201 the lesion has a high percentage of being a high risk of malignancy. This information might be quite valuable in selecting patients for operation

  19. Lingual thyroid

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    Marina ?or?e

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lingual thyroid is a rare congenital malformation that occurs more frequently in the female population. It occurs because of the error in transcriptional factors, the key for the normal differentiation of thyrocyte, so the thyroid gland tissue does not descend normally down the thyroglossal duct to the final position in the neck. Due to that, it can entirely or partially remain at the base of the tongue. This is the most frequent localization of the ectopic tissue while it can remain in the sublingual, suprahyoid and infrahyoid area as well. This disease can be diagnosed in the asymptomatic phase, as well as in the phase of compensatory and manifest hypothyroidism. In the ectopic thyroid gland, all diseases of the thyroid gland can occur as in the usual localization in the neck. The authors show a 6-year old patient, who had a routine medical examination for the inflamed throat, during which a vascular tumefaction was discovered at the base of the tongue. A cyst at the base of the tongue was suspected, but additional examination showed that it was an ectopic thyroid tissue marked as a lingual thyroid gland. Diagnosis of this disease starts with the laboratory analysis of the thyroid status. The next step involves scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with technetium-pertechnetate (99mTc or radioactive iodine (123I. The therapy of the compensatory hypothyroidism is suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and in the manifest hypothyroidism it is hormone substitution therapy with levothyroxine. Although there are recommended age-related daily doses, they should not be accepted as final, but rather prescribed according to the individual thyroid status. .

  20. Radiogenic Risk of Malignant Neoplasms for Techa Riverside Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste into the Techa River from the Mayak PA in the 1950s, residents of the riverside villages were for decades exposed to external and internal radiation resulting from consumption of locally produced food and river water. Presented in the paper is a brief description of the radiation conditions, organization of medical follow-up of the exposed population, principles for dose estimation, epidemiological analyses of cancer mortality and incidence for residents of the Techa RIverside villages. The estimates of excess relative risk of radiation-related leukemia and solid cancer mortality and incidence obtained for members of the Techa River cohort point to a clear-cut dependence of the rates on radiation exposure. Attributive risk of cancer incidence characterizing the proportion of radiation-related cancer cases among the total cancers was comparable with that for mortality: 3.2% derived for cancer incidence and 2.5% for cancer mortality. Based on the non-CLL leukemia excess relative risk (ERR) estimates calculated using the linear dose-effect model and the nature of the cohort, it was estimated that 31 (60%) out of 49 leukemia death cases (with the exclusion of 12 cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia) can be related to a long-term radiation exposure due to the contamination of the Techa River.

  1. Risk factors in larynx and oropharyngeal malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina Kodjabashija

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are most strongly and best-recognized risk factors of oral cavity cancer (OCC and laryngeal cancer (LC. Alcohol multiplicative interaction includes acetaldehyde effects, reactive oxygen compound, epithelial cells irritation, increasing cross links penetration in mucosal cells. Some of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke and induction of oxidative stress by inhalation of free radicals of O2 and N2 are gunanine derivatives like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-nitrosamines. There is substantial evidence that N-nitrosamines have an important role in DNA alkylation as a result of reactions with N, O and P atoms. The mutagenic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-Nitrosamines are known as important factors in pulmonary carcinogenesis. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking metabolism derivatives mutually play a roll in carcinogenesis. Alcohol's role as solvent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-nitrosamines stimulates carcinogenics absorption and transport to tissues. Alcohol has a role in the selective inhibition of nitrostamines metabolism in liver and cigarette smoking increased risk of extra hepatic tissues exposure of nitrostamines. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, but may play an important role as risk factor in extra hepatic carcinogenesis.

  2. Studies of heterotransplantation of transplantable human urogenital malignant neoplasms, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapeutic effects were studied using human urinary bladder cancer (NM-B-1) and human prostatic cancer (Pro-1) transplantable to nude mice. NM-B-1 is a poorly differentiated transitional cell carcinoma and Pro-1 is a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In both the 24th to 27th passage of NM-B-1 and the 35th to 38th passage of Pro-1, the successful transplantation rates were almost 100 per cent and the growth rates were similar and stable. Two weeks after subcutaneous transplantation of the tumor, electron beam irradiation was performed locally using a linear accelerator. The therapeutic effects were evaluated on the tumor growth curve, as well as light and electron microscopic findings. The standard deviations of the tumor volumes were relatively small in all radiated groups and this study seemed applicable to radiosensitivity test. On the tumor growth curve, significant tumor regressive effects were observed statistically in a dose of 12 Gy for NM-B-1 and 6 Gy or more for Pro-1, respectively, and dose-dependency was seen in the effects. Stromal degeneration and destruction of cancer cells were demonstrated by light and electron microscopy in both NM-B-1 and Pro-1 two weeks after irradiation of 18 Gy. (author)

  3. Neoplasias malignas en el neonato / Malignant neoplasms in the neonate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Zapata-Tarrs; Daniel, Ibarra-Ros; Irma Viridiana, Cruz-Rodrguez; Luis Enrique, Jurez-Villegas; Humberto, Pea-del Castillo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cncer en la edad peditrica presenta caractersticas que lo diferencian de otros tipos reportados en edades posteriores. La supervivencia global a 3 aos es de hasta el 70%, dependiendo de la neoplasia estudiada. Los principales aparatos y sistemas afectados son el sistema hematopoytico, el sis [...] tema nervioso central y simptico, as como tejidos mesenquimatosos. El incremento en la incidencia de tumores neonatales observado en este y otros estudios se basa en el aumento del nmero de tumores slidos (teratomas y neuroblastomas), ya que los casos de tumores en el sistema nervioso central y leucemias han permanecido constantes. La ultrasonografa es la primera lnea de abordaje y puede detectar hasta el 70% de las anomalas fetales. La fisiologa del neonato hace que el tratamiento multidisciplinario necesario en las enfermedades neoplsicas sea modificado sustancialmente en este grupo de edad, para evitar toxicidad y secuelas. El tratamiento ms utilizado es la ciruga. Logrando el diagnstico oportuno existen opciones teraputicas efectivas para mejorar la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Abstract in english Cancer in children has characteristics that differentiate it from other types reported in later ages. Overall survival at 3 years is up to 70% depending on the tumor studied. Major organs and systems affected are the hematopoietic system, central nervous system and sympathetic and mesenchymal tissue [...] s. The increased incidence of neonatal tumors observed in this and other studies is based on the increasing number of solid tumors (teratomas and neuroblastomas) because cases of central nervous system tumors and leukemias have remained constant. Ultrasonography is the first line of approach and can detect up to 70% of fetal anomalies. The physiology of the newborn causes the necessary multidisciplinary treatment in neoplastic disease to be modified substantially in this age group to avoid toxicity and sequelae. The most common treatment is surgery. Achieving timely diagnostic treatment options are effective in improving the survival of these patients.

  4. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directed against thyroid cell proteins: thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin. Measuring levels of thyroid antibodies may help diagnose ... example, positive anti-thyroid peroxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in a patient with hypothyroidism make a ...

  5. [Thyroid in the elderly (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retornaz, F; Castinetti, F; Molines, C; Oliver, C

    2013-11-01

    Aging is associated with an increased prevalence of thyroid diseases. The diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be difficult since they are often pauci- or monosymptomatic. Subclinical forms of thyroid diseases, in particular hypothyroidism, are even more frequent. Therapeutic abstention with regular follow-up is usually recommended in hypothyroidism. Radical treatment is usually preferred for subclinical hyperthyroidism since heart complications may be severe. Increased prevalence of benign and malignant nodules is observed in the elderly. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is less favorable than in adults, due to a higher proportion of histological types with a worse evolution. Whatever the thyroid disease, diagnosis and treatment modalities should be adapted to the age and general conditions of the patient. Contradictory results have been reported on the relationship between thyroid status and neuromuscular and cognitive alterations linked to aging. PMID:23669556

  6. Stent placement in treating tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of stent placement for tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm or compression of esophageal stent. Methods: 11 patients with tracheal stenosis, including 6 men and 5 women, with age ranging from 50 to 73 years(mean age 63.5 years). The etiology of tracheal stenosis consisted of esophageal malignancy in 8 patiens and compression by esophageal stent in 3. All together 11 nitinol stents(7 bare stents and 4 covered stents)were implanted in trachea under X rays guidance, with diameter of the stent ranging from 16 to 18 millimeters, and length from 40 to 60 millimeters. Results: All stents were implanted into trachea successfully, and symptoms such as dyspnea were relieved immediately after placement of stents in all patients, without severe complications. Conclusion: Stent placement to treat tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm or compression of esophageal stent is a safe and effective approach, providing immediate relief of symptom. (authors)

  7. Thyroid metastasis as initial presentation of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csar Pablo Ramrez-Plaza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of finding of an incidental metastatic tumor in the thyroid gland from a previous unknown and non-diganosed primary (as CCRC in our case was is rare and account only for less than 1% of malignancies. Nonetheless, the thyroid gland is a frequent site of metastasis and the presence of de novo thyroid nodules in oncologic patients must be always considered and studied.

  8. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate mana...

  9. Loss of heterozygosity 4q24 and TET2 mutations associated with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Szpurka, Hadrian; Tiu, Ramon V.; Makishima, Hideki; Afable, Manuel; Huh, Jungwon; O'Keefe, Christine L; Ganetzky, Rebecca; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are frequent in myeloid malignancies, but in most cases of myelodysplasia (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), underlying pathogenic molecular lesions are unknown. We identified recurrent areas of somatic copy numberneutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and deletions of chromosome 4q24 in a large cohort of patients with myeloid malignancies including MDS and related mixed MDS/MPN syndromes using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. We then investigated gen...

  10. Adenocarcinoma with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Arising in Jejunal Heterotopic Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ju Young; Han, Jee Young; Choi, Sun Keun; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Park, In Suh; Chu, Young Chae; Kim, Kyu Ho; Kim, Joon Mee

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man suffered from jejunal perforation and adhesion to sigmoid colon due to adenocarcinoma associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) arising in a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. The jejunal lesion showed direct extension to the sigmoid colon, which was mistaken as sigmoid colon cancer by surgeons. Malignant transformation is a rare complication of a heterotopic pancreas. About half of malignancies in reported cases were ductal adenocarcinoma arising in the stom...

  11. 201Tl scintigraphy in postoperative detection of thyroid cancer: a comparative study with 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    201Tl scintigraphy was performed to visualize malignant lesions postoperatively in 28 patients with thyroid cancer. The results were compared with those of 131I and/or /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy. Of eight patients who had malignant lesions and no normal thyroid tissue, 201Tl concentration was observed in seven, while 131I concentration was observed in only three. All of four patients who had malignant lesions and did have remaining normal thyroid tissue showed concentrations of 201Tl. 201Tl scintigraphy can be performed without any preparation and may be useful in depicting residual and recurrent lesions regardless of the presence of normal thyroid tissue

  12. Diagnostic Assays for the Detection of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents a disease particularly amenable to improved methods of diagnosis. Current methods of diagnosis determining the malignancy of thyroid nodules involve needle biopsies and microscopic inspections which are subjective, often leading to inconclusive results and the need for surgery. Therefore, there is a need for improved methods of diagnostic accuracy.

  13. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood that are extremely helpful in diagnosing Hashimotos disease. Two principal types of antithyroid antibodies are ... Test TSH T 3 /T 4 Antithyroid Antibody Hashimotos disease (thyroiditis, early stage) ? ? or Normal + Hashimotos disease ( ...

  14. Thyroid Nodules in Children: A Single Institution's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nini Khozeimeh; Cynthia Gingalewski

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid nodules in children are uncommon but often present an increased risk of malignancy in comparison to their adult counterpart. Multiple diagnostic modalities are frequently employed to characterize these nodules including ultrasound, radionuclide scans, fine needle aspiration (FNA), thyroid function tests, and evaluation of patient demographics. We chose to evaluate if any of these modalities influence treatment or signify a tendency for a nodule to represent a malignant lesion. A retro...

  15. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm and absolute monocytosis has not been described and may, in fact, have prognostic value. Keywords: blastic, plasmacytoid, dendritic, monocytosis

  16. Immunosuppression involving increased myeloid-derived suppressor cell levels, systemic inflammation and hypoalbuminemia are present in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; KANKE, YASUYUKI; ASHIZAWA, MAI; UJIIE, DAISUKE; SUZUSHINO, SEIKO; NAKANO, KEIICHI; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; KUMAMOTO, KENSUKE; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive neoplasms in humans and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to the negative regulation of immune responses in the context of cancer and inflammation. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of thyroid cancer, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 49 patients with thyroid cancer, 18 patients with non-cancerous thyroid diseases and 22 healthy volunteers. The MDSC levels were found to be ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Fine needle aspiration cytology: sensitivity and specificity in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Thyroid enlargement is one of the common problems in patients presenting at outpatients department of ENT particularly in females. Thyroid nodules are common, thyroid cancer is uncommon and the most common way for it to present is as a solitary thyroid nodule. This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid diseases. Method: This prospective analytic study was conducted at ENT Department of Karachi Medical and Dental College/Abbasi Shaheed Hospital during year 2004-8. One hundred and five cases were enrolled who underwent thyroid surgery after complete evaluation by history, clinical examination, Thyroid profile, Thyroid Scintigraphy, Ultrasound neck and FNAC. In cases which were revealed malignant by FNAC, CT scan were done to see the extent of disease and neck node status. Surgery was done in all cases and specimens sent for histopathology. Results: Male to female ratio of the patients was 1:8.5. Most common lesion was benign nodule (96). Malignant lesions were 9 in FNAC. In histopathology, the benign nodules were 92, and malignant cases were 13. Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%. Conclusion: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  19. Application of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in thyroid ultrasonography interpretation by less experienced physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To verify the usefulness of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for thyroid nodule diagnosis by less experienced physicians. From March 2012 to May 2012, ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 204 thyroid nodules in 195 consecutive patients by four less experienced radiologists (<1 year in thyroid imaging). The number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score of each thyroid nodule were calculated according to the previous two models suggested by Kwak et al. The Delong method was used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the two models. Associations between the two models and the risk of malignancy were analyzed using penalized B-splines and the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Among 204 thyroid nodules, 65 were malignant and 139 were benign. The probability of malignancy tended to increase as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features, and the sum of risk scores increased. There was no significant difference in the AUCs of the two models (P=0.673). The Cochran-Armitage trend test demonstrated an increased risk of malignancy as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score increased (P=0.001). Both the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score are applicable and show comparable results in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules by less experienced radiologists in thyroid imaging.

  20. Application of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in thyroid ultrasonography interpretation by less experienced physicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To verify the usefulness of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for thyroid nodule diagnosis by less experienced physicians. From March 2012 to May 2012, ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 204 thyroid nodules in 195 consecutive patients by four less experienced radiologists (<1 year in thyroid imaging). The number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score of each thyroid nodule were calculated according to the previous two models suggested by Kwak et al. The Delong method was used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the two models. Associations between the two models and the risk of malignancy were analyzed using penalized B-splines and the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Among 204 thyroid nodules, 65 were malignant and 139 were benign. The probability of malignancy tended to increase as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features, and the sum of risk scores increased. There was no significant difference in the AUCs of the two models (P=0.673). The Cochran-Armitage trend test demonstrated an increased risk of malignancy as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score increased (P=0.001). Both the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score are applicable and show comparable results in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules by less experienced radiologists in thyroid imaging.

  1. Pediatric liver neoplasms: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only 1-2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  2. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery

  3. The impact of ruxolitinib treatment on inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjrn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2015-06-01

    The inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis (MF) and related neoplasms (MPNs) likely reflect the concurrent immune deregulation and systemic inflammatory nature of the MPNs, emphasizing the link between chronic systemic inflammation, immune deregulation, and the malignant clone. JAK1-2 inhibitors in MF-patients reduce constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, but also taget autoimmune and inflammation-mediated comorbidities. PMID:26185657

  4. The impact of ruxolitinib treatment on inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2015-01-01

    The inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis (MF) and related neoplasms (MPNs) likely reflect the concurrent immune deregulation and systemic inflammatory nature of the MPNs, emphasizing the link between chronic systemic inflammation, immune deregulation, and the malignant clone. JAK1......-2 inhibitors in MF-patients reduce constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, but also taget autoimmune and inflammation-mediated comorbidities....

  5. The impact of ruxolitinib treatment on inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2015-01-01

    Key clinical message The inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis (MF) and related neoplasms (MPNs) likely reflect the concurrent immune deregulation and systemic inflammatory nature of the MPNs, emphasizing the link between chronic systemic inflammation, immune deregulation, and the malignant clone. JAK1-2 inhibitors in MF-patients reduce constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, but also taget autoimmune and inflammation-mediated comorbidities.

  6. Mandibular metastasis from follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid: Report of an uncommon initial presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular carcinomas of thyroid have more prone to metastasize through hematogenous route and commonly involve bone, whereas papillary carcinomas spread through lymphatics. However, mandibular metastasis from thyroid malignancy is rare. Few cases have been reported until now. We are presenting a case of metastatic carcinoma of mandible and gingiva from follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid and interestingly secondary malignancy identified before the diagnosis of primary tumor.

  7. Thyroid Metastasis in Pyramidal Lobe from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyung Seok; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Sang Su [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Soo Jin [Dept. of Pathology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Thyroid metastasis is rare. The most common primary malignancy of thyroid metastasis worldwide is known to be renal cell carcinoma, but the most common primary malignancy in South Korea is breast cancer. Many studies have reported that primary renal cell carcinoma is almost unilateral and thyroid metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is a nearly ipsilateral, single lesion. We report a case of pyramidal lobe metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.

  8. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenki?-Boinovi?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 ?m thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  9. Thermoradiotherapy in treatment of vulva neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of increasing of radiotherapy efficiency using local SHF-hyperthermia in treating primary and relapsed neoplasms as well as metastases in patients with vulva neoplasms are clarified. It is shown that immediate and early results of thermoradiotherapy of vulva neoplasms and metastases are favourable. Further investigations in this field are necessary. 4 refs

  10. Thyroid cancer - diagnosis, treatment and late results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is an analysis of late results of surgical treatment for thyroid carcinoma and valuation of used diagnostic methods in patients operated in 2. Surgical Department, Medical Academy in Gdansk in 1970-1985. 102 patients were operated for thyroid carcinoma, it is 4 % of all operations performed on thyroid gland. 99 patients were questioned, except 3 cases of early postoperative death. Information was obtained in 81 cases and 54 of them were later investigated clinically. According to his pathological type 4 groups were distinguished: I - 33 papillary cancer, II - 35 follicular cancer, III - 3 medullary cancer, IV - 10 anaplastic cancer. Usefulness of scintigraphy, thin needle aspiration biopsy and intraoperative histopathological examination were evaluated. In cases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer the serum thyroglobulin level was also determined. Late studies were performed 5 to 20 years after surgery. Results and survival rates were analyzed statistically drafting survival curve lines under ''life table'' Kaplan-Meier method in dependence on histopathological type of neoplasm, degree clinical advance, surgical and supplementary treatment. It has been concluded that the histopathological type, progression of neoplasm and the age of patients are decisive prognostic in the long term results. (author)

  11. Mouse models of thyroid cancer: A 2015 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Lawrence S; Qamri, Zahida; Kari, Suresh; Ashtekar, Amruta

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm, and its rate is rising at an alarming pace. Thus, there is a compelling need to develop invivo models which will not only enable the confirmation of the oncogenic potential of driver genes, but also point the way towards the development of new therapeutics. Over the past 20 years, techniques for the generation of mouse models of human diseases have progressed substantially, accompanied by parallel advances in the genetics and genomics of human tumors. This convergence has enabled the development of mouse lines carrying mutations in the genes that cause thyroid cancers of all subtypes, including differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, poorly differentiated/anaplastic cancers, and medullary thyroid cancers. In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of mouse modeling of thyroid cancer, with the eventual goal of providing insight into tumor biology and treatment. PMID:26123589

  12. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR); Diagnostico de lesoes da tireoide pela espectroscopia de absorcao no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier - FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by {mu}-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm{sup -1}), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm{sup -1} and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm{sup -1}, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm{sup -1}) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm{sup -1}. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm{sup -1} were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Hashimoto thyroiditis and may include treatment providers. American Thyroid Association: Thyroid Function Tests Genetic Testing Registry: Hashimoto thyroiditis National Institute of Diabetes ...

  14. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  15. Simultaneous ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome and adrenal metastasis of a medullary thyroid carcinoma causing paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Michael; Uecker, Samuel; Bechara, Falk G; Gelos, Marcos; Sand, Daniel; Wiese, Till H; Mann, Benno

    2007-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C-cells which can secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and/or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in abnormally high concentrations, potentially causing paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome (CS).

  16. Effects of potassium iodide (KI) protective dose on the course of thyroid diseases diagnosed at the Outpatient Endocrinologic Clinic in Lodz, 1986, before Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2521 patients of the Lodz Outpatient Endocrinologic Clinic (2290 females, 231 males; inhabitants of the central region of Poland were included in the study. The obtained results indicate that: 1) KI administration neither increased the number of exacerbations of hyperthyroidism nor affected the onset of new cases of that disease in 1986. 2) The same can be said about the cases of thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. 3) No increase of ATMA or ATG antibodies ''prevalence, as well as no elevation of those antibodies'' titres after KI prophylactic dose were observed in the patients with Grave's disease and chronic thyroiditis, when compared to persons who did not take Lugol's iodine. 4) The course of the majority of diseases diagnosed in 1986, evaluated with use of the, so called, test for analysis of trends, became unchanged. 5) There were adverse side effects noted after KI in 32 patients out of all the examined 774 patients (i.e., in 4.13%); five of the affected patients required medical care. 6) After iodine tincture; side effects occurred in three patients in the group of 35 patients included in the examination, i.e., in 8.57%; none of the affected patients required medical care. 7) Our results, comprising the four year observation period after Chernobyl accident, do not indicate any increased incidence of malignant neoplasms of the thyroid gland, what confirms the apparent theoretical data; much longer observation time is necessary to reveal phenomena of scholastic type (10-15 years). (author). 30 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  17. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7,000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment for cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas. (author)

  18. PET/CT in thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovi? Jasna

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic imaging procedures that have a role in detection of malignant thyroid tissue are radioiodine (131I) diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), neck ultrasound, and CT and MRI for evaluation of the mediastinal area. Despite excellent morphologic characterization of metastatic nodal recurrences, MRI cannot reliably make a differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes. Although it detects enlarged metastatic lymph nodes, there are also many small nodal metastases t...

  19. [Eye manifestation of extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvarov, E; Gri?kov, L; Lokaj, M; Vokurkov, J; Maznek, P; Autrata, R

    2014-04-01

    Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour (EMRT) is very rare and aggresive childhood neoplasm with a rapid progression. The prognosis is still very poor with 80 % mortality rate. We report a case of a newborn baby with extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour of an upper eyelid. An EMRT was diagnosed based on the histological examination. This case report highlights the clinical presentation, radiological features and difficulty in diagnosis. The purpose is to underline the importance of its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of any aggresive lesion in a child. Key words: malignant rhabdoid tumour, childhood, diagnostic process. PMID:25030315

  20. Primary malignant melanoma of proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, Aditya K; Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Saini, Raghav; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2012-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (clear cell sarcoma) of bone is a very rare neoplasm. Although metastatic melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary malignant melanoma of bone is extremely uncommon. To date, only nine cases have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising from the medial aspect of the proximal tibia in a 26-year-old woman. We treated the patient with above-knee amputation without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. At final follow-up of 18 months, the patient was free of disease. PMID:22624252

  1. Management and follow-up of thyroid cancer in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Gibelli, B; ZAMPERINI, P.; Proh, M; GIUGLIANO, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, is often detected in young female patients. Therefore, pregnancy following thyroid cancer is not infrequent, and about 10% of thyroid cancers occurring during the reproductive years are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the early post-partum period. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in young people generally has an excellent prognosis, and disease-free survival among women with DTC diagnosed during pregnancy may not differ from that in ag...

  2. The transcription factor LMO2 is a robust marker of vascular endothelium and vascular neoplasms and selected other entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratzinger, Dita; Zhao, Shuchun; West, Robert; Rouse, Robert V; Vogel, Hannes; Gil, Elena Cubedo; Levy, Ronald; Lossos, Izidore S; Natkunam, Yasodha

    2009-02-01

    The transcription factor LMO2 is involved in vascular and hematopoietic development and hematolymphoid neoplasia. We have demonstrated that LMO2 is expressed nearly ubiquitously in native and neoplastic vasculature, including lymphatics. LMO2 reactivity is otherwise virtually absent in nonhematolymphoid tissues except in breast myoepithelium, prostatic basal cells, and secretory phase endometrial glands. Vasculature is LMO2- in adult and fetal heart, brain of older adults, hepatic sinusoids, and hepatocellular carcinoma. LMO2 is uniformly expressed in benign vascular and lymphatic neoplasms and in most malignant vascular neoplasms with the exception of epithelioid vascular neoplasms of pleura and bone. Among nonvascular neoplasms, LMO2 reactivity is present in giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small round blue cell tumors, and myoepithelial-derived neoplasms. The restricted expression pattern, nuclear localization, and crisp staining of LMO2 in paraffin blocks make it an attractive candidate for the diagnostic immunohistochemistry laboratory. PMID:19141387

  3. Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Hot nodule on Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Thyroid Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, hot nodules on technetium scan are regarded as benign tumors, and usually no further work up for malignancy is indicated, if they are truly autonomous. The authors experienced two cases of thyroid carcinoma presenting as hot nodule on technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. One case with papillary carcinoma, and other case with follicular carcinoma are presented in addition to a review of the literature.

  4. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-?1 and TGF-?3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  5. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumors originating from soft tissue or bone. Diagnosis and treatment of sarcomas should be performed at specialized sarcoma centers, where patients are evaluated at a multidisciplinary tumor conference. We present a case where sarcoma was suspected from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re-evaluation of previous pathology and a thorough patient history enabled a final diagnosis. PMID:26600943

  6. PATTERNS OF ESOPHAGEAL NEOPLASMS IN A REFERRAL DIAGNOSTIC C ENTRE OF BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Benign tumors of the esophagus are rare and are usually more bothersome than harmful. Carcinoma of esophagus is the sixth most common cancer in the world. The objective of this study was to understand the patterns of benign and malignant neoplasms encountered in oesophageal biopsies and to correlate with age, gender and clinical details. METHODS: A retrospective study was done in a referral diagnostic centre over a period of four years. The patients age, gender, clinical details and endoscopy findings were noted. The biopsy was done on patients with weight loss and dysphagia. Special stains and Immunohistochemistry wer e done wherever necessary. Statistical analysis used: Chi square test and Fishers exact test were employed. Ethics: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: A total of 1110 consecutive oesophageal biopsies (13 resected specimens a nd 1097 endoscopic biopsies were seen of which neoplasms accounted for 914 cases while 196 cases were non neoplastic. The malignant neoplasms (96.2% far outnumbered the benign neoplasms in biopsy. Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant histologic ty pe (83.5% of oesophageal neoplasm whereas adenocarcinoma constituted only 14.5% of all neoplasms in our study. Nine cases of small cell carcinoma, one case of adeno - squamous carcinoma and three cases of sarcomatoid carcinoma were noted. One case each of g ranular cell tumour, leiomyoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour, non Hodgkins lymphoma and malignant melanoma were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Malignant neoplasms far outnumbered benign neoplasms in biopsy. Male gender and age above 50 years were important ris k factors. The mean age was similar for both the genders. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common malignancy across all age groups in the referral diagnostic laboratory of Bangalore Barrett's esophagus is a consequence of chronic gastro esophageal refl ex disorder which is the most important risk factor for adenocarcinoma of esophagus. Mesenchymal tumours of the esophagus are rare. Epidemiological factors governing the distribution of lesion need to be studied further.

  7. Post treatment thyroid dysfunction and obesity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to effects of thyroid dysfunction on short stature and obesity in adolescent with ALL and NHL, we suggest to have more attention about growth, thy-roid test to avoid late side effect of malignancy treatment.

  8. Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Pinchot

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Scott N Pinchot, Rebecca S Sippel, Herbert Chen11Endocrine Surgery Research Laboratories, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: While accounting for only 1% of solid organ malignancies (9% in women, thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although most patients have a favorable prognosis, over 1,500 people will die from thyroid carcinoma each year. The spectrum of disease types range from papillary thyroid cancer, which is a well-differentiated indolent tumor, to anaplastic carcinoma, a poorly differentiated fulminant cancer. With advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, and clinical care of patients with thyroid carcinoma, the current management of thyroid cancer demands a multidisciplinary approach. The majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell origin are cured with adequate surgical management; however, some thyroid malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection. As such, novel palliative and therapeutic strategies are needed for this patient population. Here, we explore the current management of thyroid carcinoma, including surgical management of the primary tumor, lymph node disease, and locoregional recurrence. Likewise, we explore the application of current molecular techniques, reviewing nearly two decades of data that have begun to elucidate critical genetic pathways and therapeutic drug targets which may be important in specific thyroid tumor types.Keywords: thyroid carcinoma; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; RET tyrosine kinase (RTK; glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?

  9. Hallazgos anatomopatolgicos definitivos en pacientes tiroidectomizados con diagnstico preoperatorio de neoplasia folicular / Definitive anatomopathological findings in thyroidectomized patients with preoperative diagnosis of follicular neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Goi E; Claudio, Krsulovic R; Augusto, Len R; Hernn, Gonzlez D; Antonieta, Solar; Claudia, Campusano M; Catalina, Ruiz A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: El hallazgo de una neoplasia folicular por PAAF, obliga a realizar una tiroidectoma parcial o total, para definir la naturaleza maligna o benigna definitiva de la lesin tiroidea. Junto a este diagnstico preoperatorio se identifican finalmente con alta frecuencia lesiones histolgica [...] s adicionales. Objetivo: Conocer y describir los hallazgos anatomopatolgicos definitivos que se encuentran en tiroidectomas por neoplasias foliculares diagnosticadas por PAAF. Materiales y Mtodos: Revisin transversal de las biopsias definitivas de 133 pacientes sometidos a tiroidectoma total entre 2003 y 2009, que cumplieron los requisitos establecidos para evaluar la histologa definitiva del ndulo puncionado y de la glndula tiroides completa. Resultados: En el 33,1% de los pacientes el diagnstico definitivo del ndulo puncionado fue efectivamente una neoplasia folicular (adenoma en el 26,3% y cncer en el 6,8%). El 51,9% correspondi a hiperplasia folicular y el 8,3% otro cncer. La prevalencia de malignidad final en la glndula completa fue de un 29,3%. Conclusiones: Siendo la indicacin de tiroidectoma en estos pacientes un tratamiento y procedimiento diagnstico aceptado y necesario, se concluye que la alta prevalencia de lesiones malignas (29,3%) tanto en el ndulo puncionado como, adicionalmente, en el resto de la glndula, reforzara la necesidad de este tratamiento quirrgico. Abstract in english Background: The finding of follicular neoplasm, using a FNAP, is an indication for partial or total thyroidectomy, to obtain the definitive malignant or benign histology. Frequently, it is possible to identify significant additional histological diagnosis. Aim: To obtain the definitive histological [...] findings in patients with follicular neoplasm by FNAP. Patients and Method: Transversal analysis of 133 patients that underwent to total thyroidectomy between 2003 and 2009, that filled de requirements for adequate histological assessment. Results: In 33.1% of the treated patients the final diagnosis was indeed a follicular neoplasm (adenoma in 26.3% and cancer in 6.8%). In the 51.9% the finding was follicular colloidal hyperplasia and other thyroid cancer in 8.3%. The total malignant prevalence in the whole gland was 29.3%. Conclusions: The thyroidec-tomy is the treatment of choice and the final diagnostic procedure for these patients. The histological findings of cancer different from follicular not only in the punctioned nodule are a secondary and an additional argument for reinforcing the surgical indication.

  10. Effect of radio- and chemotherapy on tumor and organs of immunogenesis in patients with neoplasms of large intestine and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sharp suppression and depression of hyperplastic, proliferative and transformation processes in the organs of immunogenesis was revealed in patients with large intestine and rectum neoplasms of 3-4 clinical stages in the course of observation. O