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Sample records for malignant thyroid neoplasms

  1. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  2. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  3. Ultrasonography a useful adjunctive in management of thyroid neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Latoo, Manzoor; Lateef, Mohammed; Kirmani, Omar

    2007-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been the gold standard of diagnosis in case of thyroid neoplasm. However ultrasonography of thyroid neoplasm is a useful guide for an operating thyroid surgeon. We in our study evaluated patients of thyroid neoplasm with USG thyroid & studied its role in the therapeutic management of neoplasm. In our study of 10 patients of thyroid neoplasm we found USG of the thyroid neoplasm as a valuable guide in management.

  4. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  5. Thermography in thyroid neoplasm diagnostics

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    Kuz' michev, A.S. (Leningradskij Pediatricheskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    Thermographic procedures were used in the examination of 70 patients suspected of bearing thyroid tumors in whom /sup 131/I scanning had revealed hypofunction of nodes (''cold'' nodes) as well as 38 patients who had been operated for thyroid tumors at different periods. Thermographic diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor was confirmed histologically in 49 cases. Pseudonegative results were established in 5 cases. Pseudopositive results were recorded in 6 out of 21 cases of benign legions of the thyroid. Recurrences were identified thermographically in 16 patients operated for thyroid tumors. No pseudonegative results were obtained.

  6. Thermography in thyroid neoplasm diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermographic procedures were used in the examination of 70 patients suspected of bearing thyroid tumors in whom 131I scanning had revealed hypofunction of nodes (''cold'' nodes) as well as 38 patients who had been operated for thyroid tumors at different periods. Thermographic diagnosis of primary thyroid tumor was confirmed histologically in 49 cases. Pseudonegative results were established in 5 cases. Pseudopositive results were recorded in 6 out of 21 cases of benign legions of the thyroid. Recurrences were identified thermographically in 16 patients operated for thyroid tumors. No pseudonegative results were obtained

  7. Galectin-3 immunostaining in thyroid neoplasms Imunomarcação por galectina-3 em neoplasias de tireóide

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Emanuel de Alcântara Segura; Albino Verçosa de Magalhães

    2005-01-01

    Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland is the most important presurgical proceeding in defining the malignancy of a nodular lesion, it has limitations such as shared cytological morphology between malignant and benign lesions. Galectin-3, a b-galactoside-binding lectin is expressed mainly by malignant thyroid neoplasms. Fifty-seven specimens, including 14 papillary carcinomas, 22 follicular carcinomas and 21 follicular adenomas were tested for immunohistochemical s...

  8. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. 99mTc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and 18F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  9. Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy of malignant thyroid tumours is usually secondary to surgical treatment. Operation should be as radical as possible but also be connected with as little risk as possible and take account of the possibility of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy here means radioiodine therapy as well as external radiotherapy. Radioiodine therapy is employed for local treatment of the thyroid with the objective of radical tumour destruction, either to destroy tumour foci or residues in apparently normal thyroid tissue or for complete elimination of the thyroid as metastases can be detected and treated reliably only after elimination of the thyroid. Radioiodine therapy is also used for the treatment of accumulating metastases; especially in small-focus lung metastases, it has a remittent or even a curative effect. Practical aspects of 131I-therapy are discussed, including radiation protection regulations and side-effects. Generally, external megavolt therapy with an intended curative effect on the primary tumour and the regional excretory ways is used in all types of tumour with the exception of differential thyreocyte carcinomas of stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 or in case of metastases distant from the primary tumour (M1). Palliative radiotherapy should be applied as early as possible in order to prevent pathological fractures, to give relief of pain, and to reduce local symptoms. Aspects of information and guidance of the patient and after-care are discussed. Results of the treatment and the prognosis of the patient are determined by the following factors: Histology, tumour stage, sex, age. The best prognosis is given for women under 40 with differentiated carcinoma and stage T0sub(-)2N0M0 (five-years survival rate 80%). Early detection, advances in surgery, radiotherapy and hormone therapy, and adherence to the above guidelines have improved the prognosis significantly. (orig./MG)

  10. Malignant lymphoma and the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 4325 goiter patients first examined in the period from February 1980 to April 1982, 5 cases of lymphoma appearing primarily in the thyroid gland were discovered incidentally. During the same period 13 patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were observed. 5 of 23 systematically examined patients who had already known extrahyroidal malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and lymphoma patient examined by chance exhibited a secondary thyroid gland lymphoma, that is, a secondary infiltration of the enlarged thyroid. Altogether, 29 patients with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Kiel classification) were examined. Of 8 Hodgkin's disease patients none showed clinical or cytological evidence of thyroid infiltration. The clinical symptoms of primary lymphoma of the thyroid gland corresponded to those of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A positive differential diagnosis of the two tumours succeeded cytologically. The secondary lymphoma of the thyroid also could only be diagnosed cytologically. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were always found to be euthyroid. Autoimmunological phenomena (antimicrosomal and antithyreoglobulin autoantibodies) as an indicator of lymphocytic thyroiditis could only be examined among 11 patients. Two patients with secondary lymphoma of the thyroid showed positive titers. A small cell anaplastic thyroid carcinoma could not be diagnosed in any of 37 patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer out of an enlarged patient collective (period under consideration: 1976-1982). (orig.)

  11. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs. PMID:22688583

  12. Second malignant neoplasms after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980 and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome (5-year survival rate, 18.1% ± 2.9%, 31.1% ± 6.2%, and 18.3% ± 3.8%, respectively). Five-year survival estimates for AML were 11.2% ± 2.9% for 125 patients diagnosed before 2000 and 34.1% ± 6.3% for 61 patients diagnosed after 2000 (P < .001); 5-year survival estimates for MDS were 17.1% ± 6.4% (n = 36) and 48.2% ± 10.6% (n = 33; P = .005). Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation failed to improve outcome of secondary myeloid malignancies after adjusting for waiting time to transplantation. Five-year survival rates were above 90% for patients with meningioma, Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and parotid gland tumor, and 68.5% ± 6.4% for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Eighty-nine percent of patients with brain tumors had received cranial irradiation. Solid tumors were associated with cyclophosphamide exposure, and myeloid malignancy was associated with topoisomerase II inhibitors and starting doses of methotrexate of at least 25 mg/m(2) per week and mercaptopurine of at least 75 mg/m(2) per day. Myeloid malignancies with monosomy 7/5q- were associated with high hyperdiploid ALL karyotypes, whereas 11q23/MLL-rearranged AML or MDS was associated with ALL harboring translocations of t(9;22), t(4;11), t(1;19), and t(12;21) (P = .03). CONCLUSION: SMNs, except for brain tumors, AML, and MDS, have outcomes similar to their primary counterparts.

  13. The Profile of Heparanase Expression Distinguishes Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma from Benign Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Leandro Luongo; Suarez, Eloah Rabello; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Melo, Carina Mucciolo; Garcia, Larissa Ferraz; Oliveira, Olivia Capela Grimaldi; Matos, Maria Graciela Luongo; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The search for a specific marker that could help to distinguish between differentiated thyroid carcinoma and benign lesions remains elusive in clinical practice. Heparanase (HPSE) is an endo-beta-glucoronidase implicated in the process of tumor invasion, and the heparanase-2 (HPSE2) modulates HPSE activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heparanases in the development and differential diagnosis of follicular pattern thyroid lesions. Methods HPSE and HPSE2 expression by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry evaluation, western blot analysis and HPSE enzymatic activity were evaluated. Results The expression of heparanases by qRT-PCR showed an increase of HPSE2 in thyroid carcinoma (P = 0.001). HPSE activity was found to be higher in the malignant neoplasms than in the benign tumors (P<0.0001). On Western blot analysis, HPSE2 isoforms were detected only in malignant tumors. The immunohistochemical assay allowed us to establish a distinct pattern for malignant and benign tumors. Carcinomas showed a typical combination of positive labeling for neoplastic cells and negative immunostaining in colloid, when compared to benign tumors (P<0.0001). The proposed diagnostic test presents sensitivity and negative predictive value of around 100%, showing itself to be an accurate test for distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusions This study shows, for the first time, a distinct profile of HPSE expression in thyroid carcinoma suggesting its role in carcinogenesis. PMID:26488476

  14. Thyroid cancer: a lethal endocrine neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference focuses on the controversies about managing thyroid cancer, emphasizing the possibility that the treatment of patients with potentially fatal thyroid cancer may be improved. Although the mortality rate from thyroid cancer is low, it is the highest among cancers affecting the endocrine glands (excluding the ovary). Exposure to radiation during childhood in the 1930s and 1940s increased the incidence of but not the mortality from thyroid cancer, because these tumors are mainly papillary cancers developing in young adults. These rates may change as the exposed cohort ages. Risk factors that increase mortality include older patient age and the growth characteristics of the tumor at diagnosis, the presence of distant metastases, and cell type (for example, the tall-cell variants of papillary cancer, follicular cancer [to be distinguished from the more benign follicular variant of papillary cancer], medullary cancer, and anaplastic cancer). Local metastases in lymph nodes do not seem to increase the risk for death from papillary cancer, but they do increase the risk for death from follicular and medullary cancer. In the latter, mortality is decreased by the early detection and treatment of patients with the familial multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2a. There are excellent tumor markers for differentiated cancer of the parafollicular and of the follicular cells. Measuring the calcitonin level allows early diagnosis of familial medullary cancer, whereas measuring the thyroglobulin level, although useful only after total thyroidectomy, allows early recognition of recurrence or metastases of papillary or follicular cancer. Initial surgery, protocols for follow-up, and the use of radioiodine for the ablation of any residual thyroid and the treatment of metastatic cancer are discussed.128 references

  15. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  16. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Okada Masafumi; Wagatsuma Yukiko; Kinoshita Setsuko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003). Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to g...

  17. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  18. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Baruchel, Andre; Devidas, Meenakshi; Escherich, Gabriele; Gibson, Brenda; Heydrich, Christiane; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Michel, Gérard; Pieters, Rob; Piette, Caroline; Pui, Ching-Hon; Raimondi, Susana; Silverman, Lewis; Stanulla, Martin; Stark, Batia; Winick, Naomi; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980 and 2007. RESULTS: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 186), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS; n = 69), and nonmeningioma brain tumor (n = 116) were the most common types of SMNs and had the poorest outcome...

  20. Secondary neoplasms following treatment of malignant germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study investigates the frequency and outcome of secondary malignancies in patients treated for testicular cancer between 1970 and 1990. Chemotherapy containing standard-dose etoposide did not increase the risk of occurrence of secondary neoplasms. A significantly elevated relative risk of 7.53 (range , 3.4 to 14.3) was only found for patients treated by radiotherapy. (orig./MG)

  1. Dupuytren’s disease and the risk of malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    ?yluk, Andrzej; Paszkowska-Szczur, Katarzyna; Gupta, Satish; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubi?ski, Jan; D?bniak, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was the investigation of the risk of occurrence of malignant neoplasms in 508 patients with Dupuytren’s disease (DD) and in 2157 of their 1st degree relatives. In the first stage of the study, we evaluated the tumour spectrum as well as the age of the patient at diagnosis of cancers in DD families along with the observed and expected frequencies of malignancies. In the second stage of the study, we examined the distribution of 20 common mutations/polymorphisms in 12 k...

  2. Extrapancreatic malignancies and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Benarroch-Gampel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades multiple studies have demonstrated an increased incidence of additional malignancies in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs. Additional malignancies have been identified in 10%-52% of patients with IPMNs. The majority of these additional cancers occur before or concurrent with the diagnosis of IPMN. The gastrointestinal tract is most commonly involved in secondary malignancies, with benign colon polyps and colon cancer commonly seen in western countries and gastric cancer commonly seen in Asian countries. Other extrapancreatic malignancies associated with IPMNs include benign and malignant esophageal neoplasms, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, carcinoid tumors, hepatobiliary cancers, breast cancers, prostate cancers, and lung cancers. There is no clear etiology for the development of secondary malignancies in patients with IPMN. Although population-based studies have shown different results from single institution studies regarding the exact incidence of additional primary cancers in IPMN patients, both have reached the same conclusion: there is a higher incidence of extrapancreatic malignancies in patients with IPMNs than in the general population. This finding has significant clinical implications for both the initial evaluation and the subsequent long-term follow-up of patients with IPMNs. If a patient has not had recent colonoscopy, this should be performed during the evaluation of a newly diagnosed IPMN. Upper endoscopy should be performed in patients from Asian countries or for those who present with symptoms suggestive of upper gastrointestinal disease. Routine screening studies (breast and prostate should be carried out as currently recommended for patient’s age both before and after the diagnosis of IPMN.

  3. Second Malignant Neoplasms after Radio-Chemotherapy of Hodgkins Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to identify the second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after treatment of Hodgkins lymphoma (HL)in long-term survivors (LTS) of Hodgkins disease (HD) patients who were regularly attending the pediatric oncology clinic of National Cancer Institute (NCI). 42 LTS were studied. During 3 years period, all patients subjected to through clinical history/ examination. Files were revised for date of diagnoses, original site(s), stage, histopathological subtypes and dose/ duration of therapy. Clinical examination was done with laying stress on blood pressure, pulse, chest and cardiac examination, visceromegaly and the presence of lymphadenopathy. Lab investigations included CBC, ESR and bone marrow aspirate and/or biopsy. Radiodiagnostic studies were done whenever indicated. One LTS had acute myeloid leukemia [AML] as a second malignant neoplasm. Finally, the study documented the risk of secondary malignancy [AML] was one of the long-term sequelae of radio-chemotherapy in HD patients. Recommendations regarding the follow-up of therapy for HD and Screening for early detection of late effects were discussed. New strategies with reduction or elimination of radiation dose are needed for dealing with HD, especially in children.

  4. Actinomycosis of the parotid masquerading as malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland is of rare occurrence and can mimic a malignant neoplasm both clinically as well as radiologically. We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. Clinical presentation of cervico-facial actinomycosis is characterized by the presence of a suppurative or indurative mass with discharging sinuses. The lesion demonstrates characteristic features on fine needle aspiration cytology and histology, however at times the findings are equivocal

  5. Four primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 60-year-old Caucasian male, with a previous history of a 10-year occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and a long history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, developed synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Four years later, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were diagnosed. In this case report, we suggest that increased exposure to multiple carcinogenic factors may result in an increased incidence of both synchronous and metachronous primary malignant neoplasms

  6. Actinomycosis of the parotid masquerading as malignant neoplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland is of rare occurrence and can mimic a malignant neoplasm both clinically as well as radiologically. Case presentation We present here a case of primary actinomycosis of the parotid gland presenting with a parotid mass lesion with erosion of skull bones. Conclusions Clinical presentation of cervico-facial actinomycosis is characterized by the presence of a suppurative or indurative mass with discharging sinuses. The lesion demonstrates characteristic features on fine needle aspiration cytology and histology, however at times the findings are equivocal.

  7. Dupuytren’s disease and the risk of malignant neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was the investigation of the risk of occurrence of malignant neoplasms in 508 patients with Dupuytren’s disease (DD) and in 2157 of their 1st degree relatives. In the first stage of the study, we evaluated the tumour spectrum as well as the age of the patient at diagnosis of cancers in DD families along with the observed and expected frequencies of malignancies. In the second stage of the study, we examined the distribution of 20 common mutations/polymorphisms in 12 known cancer susceptibility genes among DD patients and 508 matched healthy controls. No such study has been published to date. Results. No significant differences were noted between malignancies diagnosed among members of DD families and the general population. Molecular examination of 20 mutations/polymorphisms in 12 cancer susceptibility genes in Dupuytren’s patients and controls showed a statistically significant association of one mutation with Dupuytren disease: D312M in XPD (OR?=?1.75, p?=?0.004). We observed a tendency toward changed frequencies of occurrence of central nervous system tumors, laryngeal cancer and non-melanoma skin cancers in DD families. The results of our study indicate a lack of a strong association between Dupuytren disease and familial cancer risk. PMID:24598251

  8. Multiple primary malignant neoplasm and radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasm and radiation induced cancer were discussed based on the experiences of Tokyo Women's Medical College in which radiotherapy has been mainly used for cancer. These cases have been increasing in number and it seems t o be that the problems of them shall be gradualy developed in future, because survival time of cancer patients become longer due to improvement of cancer treatment. But if the mechanisms of cancer etiology on which radiation and other many things influence, whoud not be clear, radiotherapy have been still principal post in cancer treatment. Systemical multidisciplinary treatment of cancer must be considered and we are looking forward to establishing it. (author)

  9. Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the records of 20 patients with malignant lymphoma present in the thyroid gland who were seen at The Princess Margaret Hospital between 1958 and 1977. The disease predominantly affected females of an older age group and clinically was characterized by a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with obstructive symptoms. All patients were treated with radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in only three patients. Overall survival rate at 5 years was 35%. Survival rate at 5 years from time of recurrence was 7%. Postmortem examination of eight patients showed widespread lymphoma in all; the lung, G.I. tract, liver and kidney were the most frequently affected distant sites. We conclude that radiotherapy to the neck and mediastinum is an adequate form of treatment in patients with lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Stage I or localized Stage II disease. More advanced disease should be managed with radiation and chemotherapy

  10. Thyroidal malignancy and scintigraphy; Schilddrsenmalignitaet und Szintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt-Mainz, K.; Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin Radionuk, Essen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Thyroid hypofunctional ('scintigraphic cool or cold') nodules are detected frequently. Dependent on the clinical situation, on morbidity and on economic aspects it is necessary to select patients for surgery and to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Therefore it is necessary to develop appropriate diagnostic algorithm to manage hypofunctional thyroid nodules. The ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNA) is on the one hand side a useful diagnostic tool, but on the other hand side there exist certain limitations. It is questionable if the nodule is correctly reached. In case of heterogeneous larger mixed nodules or multiple hypofunctional nodules, it is difficult to choose the correct location of punctation. Furthermore a certain number of FNA's is not diagnostic without any result or due to 'follicular neoplasia'. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI-sctintigraphy (MIBI) and {sup 18}F-FDG-positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) are established methods in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy with elevated thyroglobulin-levels without adequate 131-Iodine-uptake. Moreover in case of parafollicular medullary thyroid carcinomas after thyroidectomy with elevated calcitonin-concentrations the FDG-PET is a valuable diagnostic method in localizing tumor. However these tracers gain in importance in differentiating malignant from benign preoperative hypofunctional nodules. In conclusion MIBI-scintigraphy should be used routinely to plan the correct guide of FNA. The application of both methods (MIBI and FNA) improves the differentiation of dignity, whereas a negative MIBI-examination and a negative FNA is able to exclude malignancy nearly. In this way the number of unnecessary numbers of surgical treatments can be reduced. FDG-PET is not definitely superior compared to MIBI-scintigraphy. From the cost perspective MIBI is more attractive than FDG-PET. (orig.)

  11. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro Molinari; Karla Lais Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas an...

  12. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant peripheral nerve-sheath neoplasms frequently complicate neurofibromatosis causing pain, enlarging masses, or neurologic deficits. However, similar findings sometimes also occur with benign nerve neoplasms. Our study was done retrospectively to determine if imaging techniques can differentiate malignant from benign nerve tumors in neurofibromatosis. Eight patients with symptomatic neoplasms (three benign, five malignant) were studied by CT in eight, MR in six, and 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy in seven. Uptake of 67Ga occurred in all five malignant lesions but not in two benign neoplasms studied. On CT or MR, all eight lesions, including three benign neoplasms, showed inhomogeneities. Of five lesions with irregular, infiltrative margins on CT or MR, four were malignant and one was benign. Of three lesions with smooth margins, one was malignant and two were benign. One malignant neoplasm caused irregular bone destruction. Accordingly, CT and MR could not generally distinguish malignant from benign lesions with certainty. However, both CT and MR provided structural delineation to help surgical planning for both types of lesion. 67Ga scintigraphy appears promising as a screening technique to identify lesions with malignant degeneration in patients with neurofibromatosis. Any area of abnormal radiogallium uptake suggests malignancy warranting further evaluation by CT or MR. Biopsy of any questionable lesion is essential

  13. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.L.; Gebhardt, U. [Klinikum Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Warmuth-Metz, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Pietsch, T. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Soerensen, N. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus, Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kortmann, R.D. [University Hospital Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology

    2012-05-15

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  14. Meningioma as second malignant neoplasm after oncological treatment during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 38 patients (18 female/20 male) with childhood meningioma were recruited from the German registry HIT-Endo (1989-2009). In 5 cases meningioma occurred as second malignant neoplasm (SMN). Histologies were confirmed by reference assessment in all cases (SMN: 2 WHO I, 1 WHO II, 2 WHO III). The SMNs were diagnosed at a median age of 12.4 years with a median latency of 10.2 years after primary malignancy (PMN; 4 brain tumors, 1 lymphoblastic leukemia; median age at diagnosis 2.7 years). Meningioma occurred as SMN in the irradiated field of PMN (range 12-54 Gy). The outcome after treatment of SMN meningioma (surgery/irradiation) was favorable in terms of psychosocial status and functional capacity in 4 of 5 patients (1 death). We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who were exposed to radiation therapy at young age harbor the risk of developing meningioma as a SMN at a particularly short latency period in case of high dose exposure. (orig.)

  15. Secondary Malignant Neoplasms Following Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bomken

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving survival rates in children with malignancy have been achieved at the cost of a high frequency of late adverse effects of treatment, especially in intensively treated patients such as those undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, many of whom suffer the high burden of chronic toxicity. Secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs are one of the most devastating late effects, cause much morbidity and are the most frequent cause of late (yet still premature treatment-related mortality. They occur in up to 7% of HSCT recipients by 20 years post-HSCT, and with no evidence yet of a plateau in incidence with longer follow-up. This review describes the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and risk factors of the three main categories of post-HSCT SMNs. A wide range of solid SMNs has been described, usually occurring 10 years or more post-HSCT, related most often to previous or conditioning radiotherapy. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplasia occurs earlier, typically three to seven years post-HSCT, mainly in recipients of autologous transplant and is related to previous alkylating agent or topoisomerase II inhibitor chemotherapy. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders occur early (usually within two years post-HSCT, usually presenting as Epstein-Barr virus-related B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  16. Corticosteroid correction of leukopenia in radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radiation therapy, depression of hematopoiesis, particularly leukopoiesis, is a common attendant phenomenon presenting a complex therapeutic problem that is not readily solved. On account of this and in connection with some reports in te literature, the Roentgenology and Radiology Chair at the Sofia Medical Faculty has undertaken a study of corticosteroid leukostimulating effects in 25 female patients with extinct ovarian function. These patients with carcinomas were distributed as follows. By site of carcinoma: 11, uterus; 8, breast; 5, ovarium; 1, larynx. By clinical stage: 3, first stage; 13, second stage; 8, third stage; 1, forth stage. By degree of leukopenia: 4, light (3000-4000); 20, intermediate (2000-3000); 1, severe (1000-2000). Five of the patients were given corticosteroids alone; the remaining 20, corticosteroids plus conventional leukostimulators (leukogen, leuko-4, folic acid, vitamin B6). The following results were obtained: averaged over the group, leukopenia correction time was of 5.96 days per patient; rise in leukocyte counts relative to initial levels, by 79%. For comparison, observations were made on a control group of 25 patients with the same pathologic entities, who were given no corticosteroids but only the above mentioned conventional leukostimulators. Findings in this group were as follows: average correction time, 9.16 days; rise in leukocyte counts, by 22%. These results give us reason to assume that corticosteroids may be a good means for obtaining a more rapid and effective correction of leukopenias in radiotherapy of malignant neoplasms. (author)

  17. Case report: study of a beagle with a malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Segment III beagle was noted clinically to have cervical edema and muffled heart sounds. Radiographically, masses were found at the base of the heart and throughout the lung field. An electrocardiogram revealed right bundle branch blockage. An echocardiogram demonstrated thickening of the left ventricle and conduction disturbances in the heart which could not be visualized by conventional diagnostic techniques. At necropsy, a neoplasm was found at the base of the heart that had extended into the pulmonary artery, right atria-auricle, interatrial septum, dorsal interventricular septum, and between the pericardium and epicardium over the surface of the right and left ventricles. The location of the tumor masses accounted for the clinical signs and the abnormalities in the electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Light and electron microscopic examination of the neoplasm at the base of the heart and metastatic neoplasms in the lungs, kidney, and pancreas established a diagnosis of malignant ectopic thyroid tumor

  18. Imaging appearance of bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm, a rare and potentially malignant tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkrantz, A B; Do, R K G; Hajdu, C H

    2010-01-01

    Oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is a rare adrenal tumour that usually follows a benign clinical course. In some cases, however, these tumours have exhibited malignant behaviour. Here, we present the first published case showing bulk fat within an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm on CT and MRI, a finding that mimics fat within an adrenal myelolipoma. The distinction between these entities is important, as the current suggested management of an oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm is resection ...

  19. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003. Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to global solar radiation level. People residing in regions with lower solar radiation and lower temperatures may be at higher risk of development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and climatic factors, such as the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in Japan. Results The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034 and -2.81 (p Conclusion This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.

  20. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma

  1. Unusual malignant solid neoplasms of the kidney: Cross-sectional imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Hahn, Peter F. [Dept. of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Shirkhoda, Ali [Dept. of Radiology, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine (United States); Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Ozmen, Mustafa [Dept. of Radiology, University of Hacettepe School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    Malignant kidney neoplasms are the most frequently encountered solid kidney masses. Although renal cell carcinoma is the major renal malignancy, other solid malignant renal masses should be considered in the differential diagnosis of solid renal masses that do not contain a macroscopic fatty component. In this pictorial essay, we present the imaging findings of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, primary liposarcoma of the kidney, primary neuroendocrine tumor, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, sclerosing fibrosarcoma and renal metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  2. Dedifferentiation in Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasms: A Critical Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Raj, A Thirumal

    2015-01-01

    Several authors have reported cases with focal or diffuse areas of undifferentiated or poorly-differentiated tumor alongside relatively low grade well-differentiated tumor. Such presentations were referred to as 'dedifferentiation', in which the tumor exhibits cellular features of both low and high grades.(1-4) These tumors were suspected to be hybrid tumors arising from the same progenitor cells. Hybrid tumor, by definition, must arise in the same topographical area and must represent histologically distinct tumor entities. Such tumors have to be segregated from dedifferentiated tumors, due to the poorer prognosis of the latter. Dahlin and Beabout(1) were the first to propose the concept of dedifferentiation. They noticed a well-differentiated chondrosarcoma juxtaposed with a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Among the 370 chondrosarcomas cases, dedifferentiation was noticed in 33 cases(2). Though some authors believe that inadequate removal of the primary tumor could have been a triggering factor for dedifferentiation, Dahlin and Beabout(1) proposed dedifferentiation to be part of normal evolution of the tumor. Although the terminology 'dedifferentiation' sounds optimal in case of sarcomas, its use in epithelial malignancy is questionable. Dedifferentiated epithelial tumors, especially salivary gland neoplasms, exhibit low grade tumor; occurring concurrently with a less differentiated but histopathologically similar counterparts. Seethala et al(4) suggested the usage of the term high grade transformation (HGT), as it better suits the progressive nature of the tumor. In most of the cases, a transitional zone of intermediate grade is noticed between the transformed and the well-differentiated component. This arrangement suggests a common origin for both the components. PMID:26323458

  3. Ultrasonographic examinations of the thyroid gland in women at confirmed risk of familial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of new gene mutations, which increase the risk of neoplasm (e.g. breast and thyroid gland) improves the examinations that can help in early diagnosis and quick treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of asymptomatic focal lesions in ultrasonographic examinations of women at confirmed risk of family neoplasm aggregation. A total of 445 women aged 25-60 years were examined in 2004-2005. 278 patients descended from families with higher frequency of confirmed risk of familial neoplasm (I group), 167 belonged to the control group. Ultrasonographic examinations of the breast and thyroid gland were performed in all women. Patients were divided into selected groups depending on the kind of changes. In the analyzed material asymptomatic focal changes in the thyroid gland were found in 46, 5% of the first group and 61,6% of the control group. The solid-cystic lesions in this material were ascertained in 36% of the first group and 51% of the second group. A large frequency (almost 50%) of the asymptomatic focal changes in thyroid glands were found. Detections of lesions were similar in both groups: the confirmed risk of familial neoplasm group and the control group. On the basis of these findings we can conclude, that it is reasonable to perform screening examinations of thyroid glands in connection with breast's diagnostics. (author)

  4. The role of 201Tl scintigraphy in evaluating proliferative activity in thyroid neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the relationship between the uptake of 201Tl and the proliferative activity in thyroid neoplasms, 201Tl scintigraphy was performed in 57 patients with thyroid neoplasms. 201Tl uptake ratio was calculated in both the early and the delayed images and then compared with factors representing cellular or practical proliferative activity of the lesions. The labeling index (LI) for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was determined quantitatively by flow cytometry. There was a significant correlation between the uptake ratio and LI for PCNA. The correlation coefficient for the delayed ratio (DR) vs. LI was better than that for the early ratio (ER) vs. LI. As parameters for practical proliferation, the surgical stage in primary thyroid carcinoma or 131I uptake in recurrent thyroid carcinoma was focused on. DR was strongly related to these parameters, regardless of the histopathological features or size of the lesions. Our results suggest that 201Tl uptake in delayed thyroid scan is useful in assessing proliferative activity in thyroid neoplasms. (author)

  5. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  6. [Echo-guided needle biopsy of the thyroid. An assessment of 52 thyroid neoplasms found in 1042 consecutive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzoi, F; Santini, E; Solivetti, F M; Bacaro, D; Nardi, F

    1991-12-01

    The authors report on a series of 1,043 fine-needle biopsies of the thyroid performed under US guidance; the patients had been selected for thyroid pathologic conditions. Fifty-two neoplasms were observed (46 papillary carcinomas, 1 medullary carcinoma, 2 follicular carcinomas, and 3 metastases), which had been detected by cytology and confirmed by histology or autopsy. The authors focus on 46 cases of papillary carcinoma: their US features were studied which, through a correlation of variables, allow a quick and "safe" recognition of the type of carcinoma (papillary carcinomas account for nearly 60% of thyroid neoplasms). Tumor echogenicity and outline, and the presence/absence of calcifications were evaluated: in most cases, papillary carcinomas presented as focal lesions (alone or associated with other goiter lesions), with irregular and blurred outline, no hypo/anechoic halo and, in about 1/3 of the cases, with calcifications and colliquative areas. In 17% of papillary neoplasms, metastases to loco-regional nodes were observable at US; in 3 cases the carcinoma did involve a loco-regional node but there were no US signs suggestive of it. The incidence of neoplasms on the total of fine-needle biopsies is 4.9%, while in a previous series of 3,038 fine-needle biopsies, without US guidance, on clinically detectable lesions, the figure was about 2%. PMID:1788432

  7. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon Ratnatunga; Eranga Himalee Siriweera

    2010-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

  8. Osteosarcoma as Malignant Mural Nodule in Ovarian Mucinous Neoplasms of Intestinal Type: Report of 2 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Marie; Dina, Roberto; Fisher, Cyril; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2015-07-01

    Mural nodules, which may be benign or malignant, are well recognized in ovarian mucinous neoplasms, especially of borderline type. Malignant mural nodules most commonly comprise anaplastic carcinoma but sarcomas of various types have been reported. We report 2 cases of osteosarcoma occurring in young women (aged 18 and 34) as malignant mural nodules in a Grade 1 ovarian mucinous carcinoma of intestinal type and a borderline mucinous tumor of intestinal type. Primary osteosarcomas of the ovary have been described either arising within a teratoma or as a pure neoplasm but, to the best of our knowledge, osteosarcoma occurring as a mural nodule in an ovarian mucinous neoplasm has not been reported. In both our cases, the tumor was Stage 1 at presentation and the patients were treated with surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy. Both patients are free of disease with follow-up of 12 and 18 mo. PMID:25760909

  9. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  10. Radionuclide therapy in the treatment of thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleševi? Milica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the principles of performance of radionuclide therapy, its adverse effect, together with mentioned complications obligation to use it only according to directions and the success of the therapy, which is seen through the length of a patient's survival rate. All types of thyroid malignancies are primary cured surgically, by the total or near-total thyreoidectomy, together with lymph node dissection of the neck and with a long-term suppressive- therapy or only substitutive L-thyroxin therapy. Radionuclide therapy is used only for the types of thyroid malignancies where a radionuclide was detected, beta emitter which is distinguished by its selective entering into the primary tumor and metastatic tissue. This therapy is used for patients with differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (DTC and patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC. By the means of 131-I we additionally cure patients with DTC, by MIBG-131-I we treat patients with MTC, but we also try to cure this malignancy by the specific monoclonal antibodies, marked by 131-I or 90-Y, which is still a part of clinical trial studies. It is very likely that the radioimmune therapy will be the means of cure for malignant thyroid lymphoma (MLT, since this therapy is successful in healing the lymphomas in other locations.

  11. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls.

  12. Malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoi, Noriko; Ozawa, Yasunori

    2005-07-01

    Reported herein is a rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 71-year-old woman with a past history of chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaints were rapidly growing neck mass, weight loss and hoarseness. Presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood, and an increase in anti-microsome antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies were found on preoperative laboratory tests. A diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto's thyroiditis was made, and a total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD4 predominance. Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed. No adjuvant therapy was performed because of the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 25 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. The present case suggests that Hashimoto's thyroiditis might play an important role in the carcinogenesis of thyroid lymphoma not only of B-cell lineage but also of T-cell lineage. PMID:15982218

  13. Clinical-morphological characteristic of bening thyroid neoplasms in children and adolescents of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained testify to an increase in the number of children and adolescents operated on for thyroid benign neoplasms after the Chernobyl accident.According to pathohistological diagnosis nodular and multinodular goiters were the most frequent.A tendency towards a decrease in the percentage of follicular adenomas and cystadenomas was observed in spite of an increase in the absolute number of cases.All these changes in structure of benign surgical thyroid pathology allow us to presuppose radiation effects and demand more careful epidemiological and radiological analysis

  14. Thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodules in hematological malignancies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrizia, Mondello; Alessandro, Sindoni; Vincenzo, Pitini; Claudio, Scisca; Giuseppe, Altavilla; Salvatore, Benvenga.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Hematological malignancies encompass a large spectrum of disease entities whose treatment by chemo/radiotherapy could lead to thyroid complications. To the best of our knowledge, no study has simultaneously addressed thyroid function, autoimmunity and nodularity. Therefore, we decided to c [...] onduct one.Materials and methods We evaluated 82 Caucasian patients (36 women and 46 men), who were treated at our Oncology division for hematological malignancies (multiple myeloma, chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and polycythemia vera) and compared them with a control group of 104 patients. Patients who had received or were receiving external head/neck radiotherapy were excluded. All oncological patients and control individuals underwent thyroid ultrasonography and thyroid function and autoimmunity tests.Results A lower prevalence of enlarged thyroid and nodules were found in patients with respect to controls. The rate of thyroid nodules was the highest in multiple myeloma and polycythemia vera, and the lowest in chronic lymphatic leukemia. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients had the smallest thyroid nodules while men with multiple myeloma the biggest ones. No patient had hypothyroidism, while 5.6% of patients had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In contrast, within the control group the rates of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, overt and subclinical, were 3.8%, 20.2%, 0% and 0% respectively. Moreover, the overall rate of thyroid autoantibody positiveness in patients was significantly lower than controls.Conclusion In our experience, we found a significantly lower prevalence of thyroid abnormalities in hematologic patients who underwent chemotherapy, but not radiotherapy, with respect to controls. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):236-44

  15. [The impact of public health system on mortality of malignant neoplasms in Voronezh oblast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, P E; Kuralesina, E N

    2013-01-01

    The total mortality and population mortality of main classes of diseases and single causes of death are to be considered in operative and strategic planning of development of national economy and industry In the Russian Federation, the decrease of mortality of neoplasms including malignant ones up to 190 per 100 000 of population in 2020 will be one of indicators of effectiveness of implementation of the State program of development of public health in the Russian Federation. The study was organized to determine the possibility to impact the level and dynamics of mortality of malignant neoplasms by means of variation of managed factors on the basis of indicators of activity of public health system. The main indicators of population health and activity of health institutions of Voronezh oblast were analyzed. The methods of mathematical statistics, management theory, system analysis and mathematical modeling were applied. To study the impact of managed factors on mortality of malignant neoplasms on the territory of Voronezh oblast the analysis of correlation interdependency was applied concerning 162 factors characterizing condition and activity of public health system according oblast districts and level of mortality of malignant neoplasms among adult population. The combinations of factors were calculated using the model to determine the level of prospective mortality to come in certain time after implementation of activities changing the given levels of factors. The data concerning qualitative interrelationship of indicators of condition and functioning of network of health institutions with indicators of level and dynamics of mortality of malignant neoplasms can be applied to model and forecast and to evaluate the current and forthcoming situation according indicators of mentioned mortality on the territory of Voronezh oblast in development of comprehensive plan of activities targeted to decreasing of this indicator. PMID:24432574

  16. The thyroid malignancies at the Esslingen Radiation Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns itself with the results of the therapy of thyroid malignancies in the years 1968-1979. The frequency of differentiated/undifferentiated tumors was 90.9/9.1%, follicular/papillary carcinomas 71.4/19.5%. Three times as many women suffer from thyroid cancer as men. Differentiated carcinomas appear preferably in middle age (50 a), undifferentiated around 60 to 70 years. Papillary carcinomas metastasise in 26.7% of the cases in the neck region and 6.7% in the lungs, follicular in 34.5%, the most frequent, in the lungs. The therapy method used was I 131 and/or telecobalt. The 3-year survival rate with undifferentiated tumors was 27%, the 5-year survival rate of papillary carcinoma was 40%, of follicular carcinoma 33%. Clearly papillary carcinomas have the best prognosis of all thyroid malignancies, especially when they appear in younger patients. (orig./TRV)

  17. Prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with previous history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood (in khorosan province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased prevalence of thyroid cancer was noted in patients with previous history of radiotherapy of the head and neck region in childhood. According to previous research, radiotherapy for Ti nia capitis was using up to 30 years ago in Khorasan Province. This study tries to evaluate prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and detect and treat these patients earlier to prevent more complications and increased cost. Methods and patients: Using mass media, we recalled all patients with history of radiotherapy for Tinea capitis in childhood. A questionnaire was filled for each patient and thyroid examination, thyroid scan and thyroid sonography were performed. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was done if a thyroid nodule larger than 1 cm was palpable. Serum TSH was measured in all patients. Also thyroid surgery was recommended for all patients with thyroid nodules more than 1 cm. A control group was defined from a group of patients who referred for non thyroidal sonography to radiology department of Ghaem hospital. These patients also were evaluated by clinical examination and thyroid sonography. Results: We studied 180 patients with mean age of 47.7 years and 127 age and sex m etched controls. Thyroid nodules was palpated in 45.5% of patients and 7% of controls (P0.01). The mean largest diameter of nodules were 24.8 mm in patients and 10.8 mm in control group (P<0.001). 75% of patients were agreed with FNAB and 5% of them had suspicious cytology results. No suspicious or malignant results was noted in control group. Twenty seven patients (33.7%) were operated. Pathological results were benign in 89.9% and malignant in 1% of patients. His study showed that thyroid nodules and thyroid neo plasma were significantly more larger in the patients group. Thyroid neoplasm were more frequent in younger patients with latent thyroid (from radiotherapy) of less than 40 years, so aggressive evaluation is recommended in these group

  18. The pattern and distribution of malignant neoplasms among Yemeni patients.

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Al-Thobhani; Y. A. Raja'a; T. A. Noman

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This research was aimed at describing the pattern of malignancies among 1,491 patients during 1996 through to 2000 and to explore association with age, sex and site of cancers. METHODS A research was carried out at a Histopathology Center in Sana'a, Republic of Yemen between the period August 1996 through to August 2000. All specimens were diagnosed by one pathologist based on the International Classification of Disease for Oncology. RESULTS Results revealed com...

  19. Second malignancies following the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To see the incidence of second cancers in patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinoma after being treated with radioiodine. Medical records of 814 (417 males, 397 females) patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Dhaka were reviewed. The purpose was to investigate the incidence of second cancer in these patients after radioiodine therapy. The age range of the patient population treated with radioiodine was 9 to 69 years. Doses of radioiodine given were in the range of 30 to 100mCi for ablation and 150 to 250mCi for treatment of metastasis. The median follow-up period was 93.7± 15 months. Eleven (1.35 %) of the 814 patients developed a second malignancy. Two patients (0.25%) developed chronic myelogenous leukemia within a latency period of 5 years and after receiving a cumulative dose of 600- 670mCi. The over all incidence of second malignancy in the form of solid tumors was 1.10%. Of the nine patients with solid tumors, there were two patients with renal cell carcinoma, three patients with parotid gland tumor, one patient with pancreatic cancer, one with adenocarcinoma of the stomach, one with carcinoid tumor and one with small cell carcinoma of the lungs. The mean latency period for development of these tumors was 6.92 ± 3.934 years and the mean cumulative dose received by all these patients was 537.25±120.55 mCi. Follow-up of a fairly large cohort of patients treated with radioiodine showed a low incidence of second neoplasm. No relation was observed between the cumulative dose received and the development of a second malignancy. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease, which may be associated with other malignancies. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of radioiodine therapy should be considered. (author)

  20. Role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the management of thrombocytopenic patients with malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was done to investigate the role of indium-111 labelled platelet scintigraphy in the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with malignant neoplasms. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms or hematological disorders and without evidence of underproduction of megakaryocytes due to chemotherapy or bone marrow infiltration by the malignancy. Splenic sequestration of platelets was evaluated by measuring spenic uptake of 111In-labelled platelets, and findings were correlated with the outcome of splenectomy and medication. Of the 20 patients, 13 had splenic sequestration of platelets. Seven of the 13 patients underwent splenectomy; six of these seven patients experienced a complete response. The other six patients received medication only and showed no response. Of the seven patients without splenic sequestration of platelets, five received medication, and four of them responded to it. 111In-labelled platelet scintigraphy has a role in selecting appropriate therapy and predicting its efficacy in patients with thrombocytopenia associated with malignant neoplasms. (orig.)

  1. An epidemiologic study of thyroid malignancies - impact of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the design and the first results of a case-control epidemiological study of thyroid malignancies. The cases are patients with the most common radiation-related histological type - differentiated papillar or follicular carcinomas, diagnosed after 1991. Sex and age corresponding controls are patients from different hospitals having no thyroid or oncological diseases. The estimations of individual doses from medical and occupational irradiation as well from the Chernobyl accident are based on data from inquiries and information available in the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia. Provided is a comparison of the radiation factors with non-radiation agents as goitrogens and chemicals. (author)

  2. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  3. Malignant neoplasms on the territories of Russia damaged owing to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results of descriptive analysis of development of onco epidemiological situation in six of the most polluted regions owing to the Chernobyl accident in 1981-1994. The growth of malignancies incidence is marked in all territories as well as in the Russian Federation as a whole. The most adverse tendencies have been revealed in the Bryansk, Orel, Ryazan regions. It is marked that the formation of a structure, levels and trends of the malignancies incidence has been occurring under influence of a complex of factors usual up to the accident. The analysis of the data from the specialized cancer-register evidences that the incidence of thyroid malignancies is actively growing in the population of the Bryansk region. The probability of connection of growth of the thyroid cancer incidence in children of the Bryansk region with the Chernobyl accident is reasonably high, but should be confirmed through the application of methods of analytical epidemiology

  4. Ectopic production of the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin by malignant ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive and specific radio-immunoassay for the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin(?-HCG) was performed on serum samples from 18 patients with large pelvic masses. No ?-HCG level was detectable in 8 patients with either benign ovarian tumours or non-ovarian masses. Ten patients had a malignant ovarian neoplasm, and 6 of these (60%) had raised ?-HCG levels. Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary was the commonest malignant tumour (6/10) and the ?-HCG was raised in 4 patients (66,6%) with this tumour. Serum ?-HCG values therefore appear to be useful in the management of ovarian neoplasms, both for the early diagnosis of occult tumour and for monitoring response to treatment

  5. Radiobiological aspects of long-term epidemiological study of malignant lung neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a 33 years' study of uranium miners with a cumulated uptake of radon daughters of 220 WLM (working level months), an incidence of malignant lung neoplasms was found exceeding almost 5 times the neoplasm rate expected for the general population. The additional annual risk of a neoplasm was 21x10-6 WLM-1 and the relative risk coefficient was 1.4% for 1 WLM. The risk level of lung neoplasms was affected by age at the time of irradiation, by the mode of dose cumulation, and to a varying extent a simultaneous inhibition (sterilization) effect of irradiation and a decrease in carcinogenic effect with the time after irradiation was seen. A lung neoplasm incidence significantly exceeding the expected one, first occurred in the 6th year after exposure to the risk had started, the maximum excess was seen in the 22nd year, and starting with year 33 the observed and expected incidences did not differ. The mean time interval between the start of exposure and death was 20.3±7.0 years. (A.K.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 21 refs

  6. Patología maligna tiroidea. Hospital Sabogal, Callao / Malignant thyroid pathology. Callao, Sabogal Hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Oré; Marco, Otárola.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las características clínicas del cáncer de tiroides encontrados en la población del Callao. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Material y Métodos: Se revisó las historias clínicas de las intervenciones quirúrgicas de la glándula tiroides en el Hospital Nacional Alberto [...] Sabogal Sologuren (HNASS), en el periodo enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2002, cuyo resultado por anatomía patológica fue compatible con neoplasia maligna de dicha glándula. Resultados: Las 45 neoplasias malignas primarias de tiroides encontradas representaron 34,2% de la patología tiroidea operada en el periodo en estudio. El carcinoma papilar se presentó en 100% de los pacientes de sexo masculino y en 82% del sexo femenino; en la mujer, los carcinomas folicular, medular y linfoma representaron 10,3%, 5,1% y 2,6%, respectivamente. El grupo etáreo con mayor incidencia fue entre 50 y 69 años, con una edad promedio de 53 años. Dentro de los diferentes tipos de neoplasias malignas, el más frecuente fue el papilar con 38 casos (84,4%), seguido de los carcinomas folicular y medular con 8,9% y 4,4%, respectivamente. El síntoma más frecuente fue el aumento de volumen (61,5%), seguido de dolor (15,4%), disfagia (10,8%) y disfonía (9,2%); 29,6% se encontraba en estadio I y 59,1% en estadio II; sólo 11,4% estaba en estadio III. Conclusiones: El predominio de casos en mujeres del carcinoma papilar y la clínica asociada, fueron acordes con lo descrito en la literatura. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer at Callao’s population. Design: Descriptive and retrospective study. Material y Methods: Clinical histories and surgical reports that involved the thyroid gland were reviewed. The pathology result had to be compatible with primar [...] y thyroid malignant neoplasm. The study was performed at the Alberto Sabogal Sologuren National Hospital (HNASS) during the period January 2000 through December 2002. Results: Forty-five thyroid malignant neoplasms were identified representing 34,2% of all thyroid neoplasms operated during the period studied. In males papillary carcinoma was present in 100% of cases and in females in 82,1%, followed by both follicular and medullar carcinoma and lymphoma, in 10,2%, 5,1% and 2,6%, respectively. Major incidence was in the 50 to 69 years group, average 53 years. The most frequent malignant neoplasms were papillary carcinoma with 38 cases (84,4%), follicular and medullary carcinoma with 8,9% and 4,4%, respectively. Most frequent symptoms were growing tumor (61,5%), local pain (15,4%), dysphagia (10,8%) and dysphonia (9,2%); 29,6% of cases were on stage I, 59,1% on stage II, and only 11,4% on stage III. Conclusions: Papillary carcinoma occurred mainly in women and clinical features were as described in the literature.

  7. Clinicopathological aspects of malignant salivary gland neoplasms - a study of 150 cases at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinico pathological aspects of malignant salivary gland tumors, diagnosed at AFIP, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Study Design: Descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Jan 2005-Dec 2009. Patients and Methods: The study included all the cases diagnosed as malignant salivary gland tumors in the last five years. Records of all the tumors of head and neck region that presented during this period were analyzed and out of these clinico pathological features of malignant salivary gland tumors were studied. The data analysis included the age, gender, site of tumor and histopathological pattern. Results: A total of 18685 malignant tumors presented in the last five years. Out of these, malignant tumors of head and neck were 2165. Total malignant salivary gland tumors were found out to be 150 with an overall frequency of 0.8% and frequency in head and neck malignancies was found out to be 6.9%. The age ranged from 6-80 years (mean 48.02 + 1.23). Of these 150 cases, 58.7% were males and 41.3 were females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The most common tumor seen was muco epidermoid carcinoma (49.3%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (31.3%). A total of 48.7% of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands. Parotid gland was the second most commonly involved site (40.7%). Conclusion: Malignant salivary gland neoplasms are a common malignancy of head and neck region and their frequency is slightly more in our population. Almost half of the tumors originated in minor salivary glands and muco epidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy. (author)

  8. A de novo unclassified malignant spindle cell neoplasm of liver allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Jessica A; Saxena, Romil; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-02-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are rarely reported in liver allografts; most are benign and associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. We present a case of a malignant spindle cell neoplasm arising in a liver allograft. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplant for cirrhosis secondary to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. After 2 years, he presented with vague abdominal complaints. Imaging studies revealed a 10-cm right hepatic lobe mass. The patient underwent right-sided hepatectomy. The tumor displayed areas of broad, relatively hypocellular fascicles, whorls, and perivascular clustering; spindle cells with mild to moderate nuclear pleomorphism; and relatively abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mitotic activity ranged from 2 to 4 mitotic figures per 20 high-power fields. Immunostaining displayed positivity for epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, CD99, BCL2, cytokeratin, and human herpesvirus 8. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization findings were negative for a translocation involving the SS18 gene (18q11). We believe the tumor represents the first reported case of a novel unclassified spindle cell malignant neoplasm in a liver allograft. PMID:24476524

  9. "MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY HBME-1 USEFULNESS IN DIFFERENTIATION OF BENIGN NEOPLASM AND DIFFERENTIATED THYROID CARCINOMA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available HBME-l is an antimesothelial monoclonal antibody that recognizes an unknown antigen on microvilli of mesothelial cells. The antibody is only relatively specific for mesothelium and is used in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma within the context of an appropriate immuno-histochemical panel. HBME-l has also been reported to strongly and uniformly stain papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid while benign disorders have been usually negative. We studied the immunoreactivity of HBME-l in 90 cases of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. We found strong positive staining in the majority of papillary carcinomas (28/31, in some of follicular carcinomas (4/6,and in a few follicular adenomas (2/17. Negative staining was found in oxyphilic cell adenoma (0/4, nodular goiter (0/13 and undifferentiated carcinoma. The results suggest that monoclonal antibody HBME-l is useful in differentiating papillary and follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from benign lesions, especially in more differentiated lesions. Strong and generalized immunoreactivity for HBME-l in a follicular lesion should raise the suspicion of malignancy, but negative staining specially in poorly differentiated lesion does not rule out malignancy.

  10. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program. Based on a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most distinctive feature of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. 'FDG-PET cancer screening' was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT. (author)

  11. Role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the risk of second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Vathaire, F de; François, P.; Hill, C.; Schweisguth, O.; Rodary, C.; Sarrazin, D; Oberlin, O; Beurtheret, C.; Dutreix, A.; Flamant, R

    1989-01-01

    Of a cohort of 634 children treated from 1942 to 1969 at the Gustave Roussy Institute for a first cancer and alive 5 years after treatment, 32 later developed second malignant neoplasms (SMN). A case-control study was performed to determine the relationship between the dose of radiotherapy received on a given anatomical site for the treatment of a first cancer, and the risk of SMN development at the same anatomical site. Another aim of the study was to analyse the effects of the association o...

  12. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (?6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ? 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (?2 mm) ? 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as ?2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is reliable in the diagnosis of malignant PCN.

  13. Second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood or adolescence. Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology Association of the Nordic Cancer Registries.

    OpenAIRE

    J H Olsen; Garwicz, S; Hertz, H; Jonmundsson, G; Langmark, F.; Lanning, M; Lie, S O; Moe, P J; Møller, T; Sankila, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the relative risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm in people with a diagnosis of cancer in childhood and adolescence. DESIGN--Register based follow up study. SETTING--Populations of Nordic countries. SUBJECTS--30,880 people under the age of 20 with a first malignant neoplasm diagnosed during the period 1943-87. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relative and attributable risks of second malignant neoplasms by type of first cancer, age at first diagnosis, calendar period, sex...

  14. Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy. (Author)

  15. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for pediatric cancer patients: The advantage and fear of second malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy is used for delivering more efficient homogenous dose to the target and lowering of dose to the surrounding normal tissues. However, a second malignant neoplasm may develop after prolonged latent period. The use of modern precise radiotherapy techniques in the pediatric age group has many controversial issues in spite of its proven dosimetric distribution advantages and the considerable decrease of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). This concern is due to many factors; mainly the exposure of a larger volume of normal tissues to low dose radiotherapy. Children have more proliferating tissues compared to the adults. However, the epidemiological data did not detect an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced second malignancy. This issue is still controversial as IMRT and other precise radiotherapy techniques were not widely used except recently. This may entail a thorough careful follow up for children treated with these techniques to detect any incidence increase

  16. Diagnostic value of isotope scanning in thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannograms of the thyroid in 138 patients were analysed. Scanning of the thyroid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct, but it should be performed on definite indications. The scannogram pattern in malignant neoplasms of the thyroid is dependent on morphological features of a tumor, size and localization of a tumor node in the gland thickness. But scanning is found to be of no decisive value in establishing the differetial diagnosis between benign and malignant neoplasms of the thyroid. Isotope scanning of the thyroid proves to be a largly informative method of examination in patients previously subjected to thyroid surgery. Scanning technique seems to be of importance in recognizing

  17. Flow Pattern and Vascular Resistive Index as Predictors of Malignancy Risk in Thyroid Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Davoudi; Bakhshaee, M; Mehrabi, M; P. Layegh; A. Mirsadraee

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectral Doppler ultrasound (US) parameters, including resistive index (RI) and pulsisity index (PI), or vascular pattern can be used to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid nodules."nPatients and Methods: We prospectively examined 58 thyroid nodules in patients with solitary thyroid nodule undergoing surgery. Pathologic correlation was available for all nodules (30 malignant and 28 benign lesions). The flow pa...

  18. The role of projectional radiography in the detection of primary malignant and indeterminate bone neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate the role of projectional radiography in the detection of primary and potentially malignant bone neoplasms. Materials and methods: we retrospectively reviewed the images and medical records of 80 patients (42 male, 38 female; range: 6 to 73 years; mean: 33 years) with pathologically proven primary or indeterminate bone tumors. Results: the most common symptom was local pain (84%). In 69 of 80 patients (86%), projectional radiography was the first imaging modality, which correctly identified the malignant character of the bone lesion in 60 of these 69 patients (87%). In 2 patients, bone neoplasms were overlooked due to diagnostically inadequate image quality. The false-diagnosis rate was not significantly different between board-certified radiologists working in hospitals and radiologists in outpatient facilities (p>0.05). Bone tumors predominantly affecting adults, such as chondrosarcomas, needed a longer time for the diagnosis than bone tumors mainly found in childhood, such as osteosarcomas. The median age of patients with delayed imaging work-up because of attempted conservative therapy (45 years±20 years) was significant higher than the median age of patients with immediate radiographic work-up (27 years±16 years). (orig.)

  19. Second lymphoid malignant neoplasms occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who have been treated for Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk for second malignant neoplasms, particularly acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoid malignant neoplasms (NHLMs). We diagnosed five cases of NHLM in 242 patients initially treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1973 and 1980, giving a minimum incidence for this occurrence of 2.1%. The initial therapy for Hodgkin's disease, irradiation in three patients and chemotherapy in two patients, resulted in a complete remission in each case. The NHLM appeared 12, 13, 26, 30, and 54 months after the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The cell type of NHLM and immunologic phenotype were as follows: large cell, immunoblastic T; large cell, immunoblastic null; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved B; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved (not studied); and lymphoblastic T. A review of 24 other cases of NHLMs, occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, reported in the literature, confirm the morphologic and immunologic heterogeneity. The poor response to therapy in our patients and those previously described demonstrate the seriousness of this phenomenon

  20. Mortality on malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, there have been several reports of increases of leukemia, especially childhood leukemia, in populations resident in the vicinity of nuclear installations. However, there is no information on cancer mortality of the people living near nuclear power stations in Japan. Therefore, we have studied the standardized mortality ratio of malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue near nuclear power plant sites in Japan. Data on the cancer mortality were obtained from the magnetic tapes of National Vital Statistics, Ministry of Health and Welfare, for years of 1973-1987. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) of all leukemia, lymphoma, non-HODGKIN's lymphoma, multiple myeloma and acute non-lymphatic leukemia was calculated for various age groups (0-14, 0-24 years and all ages) and different period (1973-1977, 1978-1982, 1983-1987 and 1973-1987) for each nuclear power plant site. The results showed that some of the studied population had higher rates of certain malignant neoplasms, and some had lower rates, either before or after the facilities came into operation. Our statistical analysis provided no evidence of any association between particular sites and increased cancer mortality rates. (author)

  1. Thyroid malignancy markers on sonography are common in patients with benign thyroid disease and previous iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motavaf, Anne Krejbjerg; Brilli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of benign thyroid nodules on sonography and ultrasound elastography in a population exposed to iodine deficiency. METHODS: We conducted a prospective systematic evaluation of preoperative thyroid sonography and elastography in patients assigned for surgical excision of benign thyroid nodules. Two experienced sonographers performed all sonographic and elastographic examinations. Thyroid nodules were evaluated by 7 generally accepted sonographic malignancy risk markers and assigned an elasticity score on elastography. The final diagnosis of a benign thyroid nodule was based on histopathologic analysis of resected thyroid gland tissue. RESULTS: We evaluated 232 thyroid nodules in 105 patients (86 women and 19 men). In total, 57% of the examined nodules had 1 or 2 malignancy risk markers present, and 24% did not have any markers present. A solid nodule larger than 15 mm was the most common malignancy risk marker observed (63%), followed by low elasticity (33%), microcalcifications (26%), and hypoechogenicity (15%). In an analysis stratified according to the number of nodules (solitary versus multiple), low elasticity was described more frequently in solitary nodules (61.9% versus 30.4%; P= .004). A large nodular volume was a predictor (P < .05) of microcalcifications and intranodular vascularization, whereas an absent halo sign and a solid nodule were found less frequently in nodules with larger volumes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that routine preoperative malignancy risk evaluation of presumably benign thyroid nodules is of little value when performed on patients exposed to iodine deficiency.

  2. THYROID FUNCTION IN MALIGNANT PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HASHEMI POUR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignancy is seen in pediatrics, frequently. Radiotherapy as a common procedure in malignancy management may has many side effects and complications, especially about endocrine system. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of post radiotherapy hypothyroidism In malignant pediatric patients. Methods. In a cross sectional study one hundred and eighty children between 1 to 20 years old that survived of malignancy were selected. They have been treated in Sayyed-Alshohada hospital (affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences from 1993 Sep. until 1998 Sep. by radiotherapy. Baseline characteristics (e.g. sex, age, dose, location and number of radiotherapy fraction, type of malignancy were derived from medical records. Subjects were invited by letters to evaluate their thyroid functions in 1999. Serum T4 and FT4 concentrations assayed by RIA and TSH by IRMA methods. Results. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.3 percent (1.2 percent secondary hypothyroidism and 12.1 percent primary hypothyroidism. There was no statistical difference in age and sex distribution between patients with or without hypothyroidism. History of cervical region radiotherapy was taken in 45.8 percent of hypothyroid patients. There was no significant difference in dose and number of radiotherapy fraction between hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. Discussion. Radiotherapy may have a role in developing hypothyroidism in patients who received radiotherapy. This role has no relation to age and sex, dose and number of radiation fraction in development of hypothyroidism. Region of radiotherapy is important. It is suggested that this study continues and data will be collected during several years in future. Of course, many of hypothyroid patients will become euthyroid spontaneously.

  3. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm / Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; João Grigoleti, Scholl; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Karla Lais, Pêgas.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas [...] de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP), antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA), p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1) e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consi [...] sted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.

  4. Primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland: report of a rare neoplasm Osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide: relato de uma neoplasia rara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary mesenchymal tumors of the thyroid gland are extremely rare. The authors report a case of primary thyroid osteosarcoma in a male patient presenting a tumoral mass in the neck. CT scan demonstrated a large tumor in the right thyroid lobe with areas of calcification. The surgical specimen consisted of a hard brown-gray tumor, measuring 13 × 11 × 7.5 cm. Microscopy revealed a high-grade malignant neoplasm composed of polygonal cells of intermediate size, chondroid pattern in some areas and osteoid formation. The process was immunonegative for AE1/AE3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, p53 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, and immunopositive for CD99 and S100. Thus the diagnosis of primary osteosarcoma of the thyroid gland was established.Tumores mesenquimais da glândula tireoide são extremamente raros. Os autores relatam um caso de osteossarcoma primário de tireoide em um paciente masculino que apresentou massa tumoral na região cervical. A tomografia computadorizada demonstrou um grande tumor no lobo tireoideano direito, com zonas de calcificação. A peça cirúrgica consistia de um tumor marrom-acinzentado e firme, medindo 13 × 11 × 7,5 cm. À microscopia, foi encontrada neoplasia maligna de alto grau composta por células poligonais de tamanho intermédio, com um padrão condroide em algumas áreas e formação de osteoide. O processo revelou imunoexpressão negativa para AE1/AE3, proteína glial fibrilar ácida (GFAP, antígeno da membrana epitelial (EMA, p53 e fator de transcrição da tireoide (TTF-1 e imunopositividade para CD99 e S100. O diagnóstico de osteossarcoma primário da glândula tireoide foi, então, estabelecido.

  5. Autoantibody profiling of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and design of a prototype diagnostic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Lanshchakov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the “gold standard” in diagnostics of thyroid tumors is a fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. However, FNAC cannot discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid tumors in 15 to 30% of observations. In order to develop an additional tool for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors we evaluated the diagnostic performance of 3-antigen serum autoantibody signature in groups of benign ( n = 22 and malignant ( n = 26 thyroid tumors using a dot-blot ELISA-based analysis The sensitivity and specificity of resultant array were estimated to be 55–60% and 95–100%, respectively ( p < 0.001 according to one-sided Fisher Exact Test. Thus, we created a prototype antigen array for differential diagnostics of thyroid tumors which can be regarded as a platform for design of more complicated panel, highly sensitive in thyroid cancer detection, which can significantly improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  6. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy and local dose of radiation as risk factors for second malignant neoplasms after cancer in childhood: a case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are associated with an increased risk of a second malignant neoplasm. after a cancer during childhood. This study specified the dose effect relationship between the local dose of radiation received at the site of the second malignant neoplasm and the risk of a second malignant neoplasm.It also investigated the effect of chemo radiotherapy on the risk of second malignant neoplasm. An European cohort of 4581 patients, treated for a solid cancer during childhood have been included in the study. 153 cases with a second malignant neoplasm, and 442 controls were matched according to sex, age at first cancer, calendar year, type of first cancer and follow-up. The local dose of radiation was estimated at the site of the second malignant neoplasm, for each case and at the same site, for his matched control. In conclusion, radiation was the foremost treatment related risk factor for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm. Compared to sequential treatment, concomitant chemo radiotherapy may lead to a higher risk of a second malignant neoplasm. (N.C.)

  7. Renal cell carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in a patient with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy and previous Wilms tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraushaar, Greg; Wiebe, Sheldon [Royal University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Survivors of childhood Wilms tumors are at an increased risk of second malignant neoplasms. Recently, it has been postulated that renal cell carcinoma is among the malignancies for which this population is at risk. We present the unique case of an adult Wilms tumor survivor with non-syndromic hemihypertrophy (NSHH) who developed renal cell carcinoma. This case highlights the need for close follow-up in two populations: adults who have survived Wilms tumor and those with NSHH. (orig.)

  8. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the occipital condyle imitating a malignant neoplasm - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a non-neoplastic process of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of connective tissue with an inflammatory infiltrate. IPT most frequently arises in the orbit, but can also be found in the larynx, the paranasal sinus and rarely in the skull base. We present the case of a 20-year-old patient with a 4-month history of headache and insomnia. Neurological examination showed limited head mobility and hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. The patient was afebrile and no abnormalities in blood tests were found. CT revealed the presence of a tumor mass destructing the right occipital condyle. MRI was performed and the mass was surgically removed. The histological diagnosis was non-specific chronic inflammatory granulation tissue. Inflammatory pseudotumors can often mimic malignant neoplasms, especially in cases where bone destruction is observed. IPT of the occipital condyle is a rare but aggressive lesion that should be treated by surgical excision. (author)

  9. Imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel: new trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Fishman, Elliot K; Hoeffel, Christine; Dray, Xavier; Manfredi, Riccardo; Marteau, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the recent advances in radiological imaging of malignant neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel and provides an outline of new trends and perspectives that can be anticipated. The introduction of multidetector row technology, which allows the acquisition of submillimeter and isotropic voxels, has dramatically improved the capabilities of computed tomography in the investigation of the mesenteric small bowel. This technology combined with optimal filling of small bowel loops through the use of appropriate enteral contrast agents has markedly changed small bowel imaging. Computed tomography-enteroclysis, which is based on direct infusion of enteral contrast agent into the mesenteric small bowel through a naso-jejunal tube, provides optimal luminal distension. By contrast, computed tomography-enterography is based on oral administration of enteral contrast agent. These two techniques are now well-established ones for the detection and the characterization of small bowel neoplasms. During the same time, combining the advantages of unsurpassed soft tissue contrast and lack of ionizing radiation, magnetic resonance imaging has gained wide acceptance for the evaluation of patients with suspected small bowel neoplasms. Rapid magnetic resonance imaging sequences used in combination with specific enteral contrast agents generate superb images of the mesenteric small bowel so that magnetic resonance-enteroclysis and magnetic resonance-enterography are now considered as effective diagnostic tools for both the detection and the characterization of neoplasms of the mesenteric small bowel. Recent improvements in image post-processing capabilities help obtain realistic three-dimensional representations of tumors and virtual enteroscopic views of the small bowel that are useful for the surgeon and the gastroenteroenteologist to plan surgical or endoscopic interventions. Along with a better knowledge of the potential and limitations of wireless capsule endoscopy and new endoscopic techniques, these recent developments in radiological imaging reasonably suggest that substantial changes in the investigation of small bowel tumors may be anticipated in a near future, thus potentially create a new paradigm shift after standard small bowel follow-through study has been universally abandoned. PMID:21035353

  10. Association of lymphoid malignancies and Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms: Clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarova, Lucia; Newberry, Kate J; Pierce, Sherry A; Estrov, Zeev; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-08-01

    The co-occurrence of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative neoplasms (MPN/LPN) has been reported, mostly in case reports. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics and clinical course of the coexistent diseases. Among 9866 patients who presented to our institution from 1960 to 2014, 34 (0.3%) were diagnosed with MPN/LPN. LPN was diagnosed first in 16 patients, second in 15, and at the same time in 3. The time to secondary malignancy was longer when LPN was diagnosed first (119 vs 98 months). Myelofibrosis (41%), polycythemia vera (24%), and essential thrombocythemia (18%) were the most common MPNs, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (50%) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (32%) were the most common LPNs. Seventy-three percent of patients treated for MPN and 72% of those treated for LPN achieved a complete response. After a median follow-up from MPN diagnosis of 84 months, 16 patients are alive and 18 died (4 related to MPN and 2 LPN). Coexistent MPN/LPN is a rare event that does not appear to predict worse outcomes. Treatment choice is generally oriented towards controlling the prevalent disease; the other malignancy may influence treatment strategies in selected cases. PMID:26012362

  11. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  12. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Woo; Kim, Gou Young; Shim, Kye Shik [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  13. Malignant thyroid teratoma: report of an aggressive tumor in a 64-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, R; Zafon, C; Ruiz-Marcellan, C; Obiols, G; Fort, J M; Baena, J A; Villanueva, B; Garcia, A; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2013-09-01

    Malignant teratoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor, frequent in children than in adults. Histologically, thyroid teratomas usually show a predominance of a neuroectodermal component. Mature cartilage and bone may be present. We present the case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 64-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor displayed a predominant neuroectodermal component. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent a radical thyroidectomy with central neck dissection as primary treatment and radioiodine treatment afterwards. The patient had local and distant recurrence. A second surgery was performed with poor results and the patient died 3 months afterwards. PMID:23702575

  14. Leukemia in patients following radiotherapy for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of 1572 women treated with radiotherapy for cervical (1478 women) and ovarian cancer (95 women) was done. Patients had been followed clinically and especially by blood tests between 1961 and 1981, comprising 8990 women-years (WY). Following radiotherapy, 5 patients developed non-lymphocytic leukemia [2 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 1 acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL), and 2 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)]. Based on rates for the general population, 0.45 case would be expected, and, therefore, the relative risk was 11.2. The average mean marrow dose for all our subjects was calculated to be 11.77 rad, the risk of radiation-induced leukemia was 0.43 excess case per year per one million women exposed to 1 rad of radiation to the bone marrow. Four patients with cervical cancer who developed leukemia were in a high-dose-rate group treated with both a linear accelerator (Linac) and remote afterloading system (RALS), and 1 patient with ovarian cancer who developed leukemia was treated with a Linac alone. This is the first report of a statistically significant increased risk of leukemia for patients treated with large doses of radiation for malignant neoplasms in the pelvic region. (author)

  15. Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH)24

    OpenAIRE

    Injac Rade; ?or?evi? Aleksandar N.; Štrukelj Borut

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH)24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH)24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 gr...

  16. Study on different imaging time of late 201Tl thyroid imaging to differentiate malignant from benign thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to clarify better time to initiate the late 201Tl thyroid imaging to differentiate malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones. Thyroid images were obtained at 5 min, 1 and 3 hr after i.v. injection of 74 MBq of 201Tl chloride. The early (5 min) and late (1 or 3 hr) 201Tl images were compared in pathologically proven 38 malignant and 48 benign nodules of 83 patients. The lesion activity (LA) on the early image was visually graded as no uptake (-), slight uptake less than the surrounding thyroid tissue uptake (SITU) (±), uptake equal to the STTU (+), and uptake more than the STTU (++). The change of LA relative to the STTU from the early image to the late image was visually graded as decreasing (D), unchanged (U) or increasing (I) pattern when the LA was (±) to (++). The benign or malignant possibility at 1 hr and 3 hr in each lesion pattern was as follows: When the LA was (-) or D, the benign possibility was 95% (35/37) and 85% (39/46). When the LA was I, the malignant possibility was 96% (27/28) and 91% (21/23). When the LA is U, the diagnosis was equivocal: malignancy; 43% (9/21) at 1 hr and 59% (10/17) at 3 hr. The positive LA had a tendency to decrease with time irrespective of tumor character. The 1 hr image was statistically better than the 3 hr image as a late image. Comparative diagnosis of 5 min and 1 hr images with the criteria of I and U lesions being malignant and others being benign seems to be the best not to overlook malignant nodules: negative predictive value of 95% and sensitivity 95%. (author)

  17. A Controlled Vocabulary to Represent Sonographic Features of the Thyroid and its application in a Bayesian Network to Predict Thyroid Nodule Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yueyi I; Kamaya, Aya; Desser, Terry S.; Rubin, Daniel L

    2009-01-01

    It is challenging to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules on high resolution ultrasound. Many ultrasound features have been studied individually as predictors for thyroid malignancy, none with a high degree of accuracy, and there is no consistent vocabulary used to describe the features. Our hypothesis is that a standard vocabulary will advance accuracy. We performed a systemic literature review and identified all the sonographic features that have been well studied in thyroid ca...

  18. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules with concurrent Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Xu, Jun-Mei; Li, Dan-Dan; Bo, Xiao-Wan; Li, Xiao-Long; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Qu, Shen

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in patients with coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). A total of 141 pathological proven nodules in 141 HT patients (7 males and 134 females, mean age 50.1 years, range 23-75 years) received conventional ultrasound (US), elasticity imaging (EI) and ARFI elastography, including virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) and virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ), before surgery. Shear wave velocity (SWV) and SWV ratio were measured for each nodule on VTQ. The US, EI and ARFI elastography features were compared between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses and area under curve (AUC) were performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Pathologically, 70 nodules were benign and 71 nodules were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant nodules in HT patients for EI (EI score) and ARFI (VTI grade and SWV) (all P value ARFI elastography is useful for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid nodules in HT patients. The diagnostic performance of ARFI elastography is better than EI. PMID:25636511

  19. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couronné, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Véronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Fontenay, Michaëla; Tilly, Hervé; Bastard, Christian; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bernard, Olivier A.; Mercher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma but in no other B-cell lymphoma patients (0 of 104) or patients with myeloid malignancies (0 of 96). Functional in vitro assays indicated that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to a constitutive phosphorylation of the protein. STA21, a STAT3 small molecule inhibitor, inhibited the proliferation of two distinct STAT3 mutated cell lines. Using a mouse bone marrow transplantation assay, we observed that STAT3Y640F expression leads to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms with expansion of either myeloid cells or megakaryocytes. Together, these data indicate that the STAT3Y640F mutation leads to constitutive activation of STAT3, induces malignant hematopoiesis in vivo, and may represent a novel therapeutic target in some lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23872306

  20. Canine cutaneous neoplasms: prevalence and influence of age, sex and site on the presence and potential malignancy of cutaneous neoplasms in dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination was performed on cutaneous biopsies from 900 dogs with skin lesions from Zimbabwe, collected from 1996 to 2000. Clinical data were collected from medical records. Sixty per cent (540/900 of the cases were tumours and 40% (360/900 were non-neoplastic inflammatory or degenerative diseases. Thirty different histological types of tumour were diagnosed. The prevalence of epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphohistiocytic and melanocytic tumours was 39.4 %, 44.4 %, 7.4 % and 8.7 %, respectively. The 10 most common tumours, comprising 73.7% of all cutaneous neoplasms, were mast cell tumours, squamous cell carcinomas, perianal gland adenomas, lymphomas, benign melanomas, haemangiosarcomas, sebaceous gland adenomas, fibrosarcomas, lipomas and malignant melanomas. The prevalence of various neoplasms, age of affected dogs and sites of occurrence were similar to surveys in other countries, except that in Zimbabwe there was a greater prevalence of lymphomas and of tumours associated with increased exposure to ultraviolet light (squamous cell carcinomas, haemangiosarcomas and melanomas. For all classes of tumours the sex of the dog did not have any significant influence on the likelihood of developing a tumour. For a dog diagnosed with a tumour located on the trunk, the tumour was significantly more likely to be an epithelial tumour than a non-epithelial tumour. The occurrence of melanocytic tumours on the trunk was significantly lower than at other sites. Lymphohistiocytic tumours were 10 times more likely to occur at multiple locations as opposed to single locations.

  1. The value of calcification in CT differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnostic value of calcification in differentiating benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: CT images of 318 consecutive patients with pathologically proven thyroid lesions were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. The following characteristics of calcification on CT images were evaluated: (1) size (? 2 mm indicating microcalcification and >2 mm or shelly and irregular shape indicating macrocalcification, and both features indicating mixed calcification), (2) number (single or multiple) and (3) location (internal or edge). X2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results Of the 318 cases, 48 were diagnosed as malignant (papillary carcinoma 26, follicular carcinoma 7, medullary carcinoma 3 and microcarcinoma 12) and 270 were benign (nodular goiter 36, adenoma 170, nodular goiter with adenoma 38 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 26). Calcification was found in 60 cases (18.9%). Among them 21 (papillary carcinoma 12, microcarcinoma 6, follicular carcinoma 2 and medullary carcinoma 1) were malignant (43.8%) and 39 (nodular goiter 6, adenoma 13, nodular goiter with adenoma 19 and adenoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis 1) were benign (14.4%) (P0.05). Internal calcification was found in 15 cases of malignant lesions (71.4%) and 12 of benign lesions (30.8%); Edge calcification was found in 6 cases of malignant and 27 of benign, (P<0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of internal calcification for diagnosing thyroid carcinoma were 71.4% (15/21) and 69.2% (27/39), respectively. Conclusion: Internal calcification or (and) macrocalcification of t he thyroid lesions may strongly suspect thyroid carcinoma and fine-needle aspiration or surgery should be further performed. (authors)

  2. Differentiation between Malignant and Benign Masses of Thyroid Gland Using Color Doppler Ultrasonogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine color Doppler ultrasound findings of malignant and benign thyroid nodules, and to identify differential points among them. 35 patients with palpable enlarged thyroid nodules were imaged by using with 7 MHz linear-array transducer. Color Doppler images were obtained in the transverse and longitudinal planes on the color setting for the thyroid gland. After setting receiver gain, velocity scale and filter were set to 6 cm / sec and 1, respectively. And we measured resistive index, pulsatility index, peak systolic velocity and end diastolic velocity from the fastest or next fast arterial signals in the thyroid nodules or in the margins of the thyroid nodules. Final diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasonography-guided or surgical biopsy. 25 cases of malignant nodule and 10 cases of benign nodule were confirmed histopathologically.On the color mapping, malignant nodules showed various internal flow signals from avascular to hyper vascular and no marginal flow signals in all cases, and benign nodules revealed 9 (36%) hypo vascular cases and 16 (64%)hyper vascular cases in the internal flow signals and increased marginal flow signals in all cases. On the spectral analysis, malignant nodules showed RI 0.7 (0.63?0.83) in hyper vascular internal flow signals and RI 0.93(0.67?1.00) in hypo vascular internal flow signals, and measured PI was 1.39 (1.03?2.11), 2.71 (0.97?4.81),respectively. and in benign nodules, measured RI was 0.65 (0.5?0.88) and PI was 0.92 (0.59?1.90). Color Doppler imaging can be helpful to differentiate benign and malignant thyroid masses by means of measuring marginal and internal flow signals of thyroid nodules

  3. THYROID FUNCTION IN MALIGNANT PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER RADIOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    M HASHEMI POUR; F GOLPAIEGANI; SH BABA ZADEH; A.R MAAFI; GH.A JAVANMARD

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. Malignancy is seen in pediatrics, frequently. Radiotherapy as a common procedure in malignancy management may has many side effects and complications, especially about endocrine system. In this study, we evaluate the incidence of post radiotherapy hypothyroidism In malignant pediatric patients. Methods. In a cross sectional study one hundred and eighty children between 1 to 20 years old that survived of malignancy were selected. They have been treated in Sayyed-Alshohada ho...

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level. (letter)

  5. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ?30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  6. Implications of imaging criteria for the management and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms - benign versus malignant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Thula Cannon; Steffen, Ingo G.; Stelter, Lars H.; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm; Grieser, Christian [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Maurer, Martin H. [Universitaetsklinik Bern, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologe, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); Bahra, Marcus; Faber, Wladimir; Klein, Fritz [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Blaeker, Hendrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for differentiation of pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) subtypes based on objective imaging criteria. Fifty-eight patients with 60 histologically confirmed IPMNs were included in this retrospective study. Eighty-three imaging studies (CT,n = 42; MRI,n = 41) were analysed by three independent blinded observers (O1-O3), using established imaging criteria to assess likelihood of malignancy (-5, very likely benign; 5, very likely malignant) and histological subtype (i.e., low-grade (LGD), moderate-grade (MGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), early invasive carcinoma (IPMC), solid carcinoma (CA) arising from IPMN). Forty-one benign (LGD IPMN,n = 20; MGD IPMN,n = 21) and 19 malignant (HGD IPMN,n = 3; IPMC,n = 6; solid CA,n = 10) IPMNs located in the main duct (n = 6), branch duct (n = 37), or both (n = 17) were evaluated. Overall accuracy of differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs was 86/92 % (CT/MRI). Exclusion of overtly malignant cases (solid CA) resulted in overall accuracy of 83/90 % (CT/MRI). The presence of mural nodules and ductal lesion size ?30 mm were significant indicators of malignancy (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively). Invasive IPMN can be identified with high confidence and sensitivity using CT and MRI. The diagnostic problem that remains is the accurate radiological differentiation of premalignant and non-invasive subtypes. (orig.)

  7. Percutaneous port-catheter system implantation via left subclavian artery in the treatment of advanced malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of percutaneous port-catheter system (PCS) implantation via left subclavian artery in the treatment of advanced malignant neoplasms. Methods: The technique was used to treat 200 patients with advanced malignant neoplasms, 178 cases of primary liver carcinoma, 10 cases of metastatic liver cancer, 5 cases of pelvic neoplasm, 4 cases of gallbladder carcinoma, 3 cases of lung cancer. The authors performed implantation of PCS under guidance of DSA and fluoroscopy according to the arterial blood supply of tumors. Body of PCS was subcutaneously implanted below puncture point. The implanted catheter tip was positioned in the target artery. Intra-arterial chemotherapy or chemo-embolization with emulsion of anti-cancerous agents and lipiodol were regularly carried out via PCS. Results: 200 patients were traced for 3 months to 3 years, 202 PCS were implanted in 200 patients. Because of left and right hepatic artery supplied tumor simultaneously in 2 patients with liver cancer, another PCS was implanted for the right femoral artery (double PCS). The successful rate was 99%. Complications occurred in 7 cases (3.5%), including indwelling catheter tip dislocation (2 cases, 1%), disconnection between port and catheter after the procedure (1 cases, 0.5%), pneumothorax (2 cases, 1%), skin fester (1 cases, 0.5%), massive blood effusion in subcutaneous tissue (1 cases, 0.5%), target vessel closed off (2 cases, 1%). There was no serious complication. Conclusion: Percutaneous PCS implantation via left subclavian artery is safe, feasible and less traumatic. It provides a safe intra-arterial chemotherapy or chemo-embolization with emulsion of anti-cancerous agents and lipiodol for patient with malignant tumor

  8. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Phillip J.; Khater, Nabil; Zhang, Rui; Geara, Fady B.; Mahajan, Anita; Jalbout, Wassim; Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Youssef, Bassem; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2015-01-01

    Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN). In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI). We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care. PMID:25763928

  9. Inter-Institutional Comparison of Personalized Risk Assessments for Second Malignant Neoplasms for a 13-Year-Old Girl Receiving Proton versus Photon Craniospinal Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J. Taddei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children receiving radiotherapy face the probability of a subsequent malignant neoplasm (SMN. In some cases, the predicted SMN risk can be reduced by proton therapy. The purpose of this study was to apply the most comprehensive dose assessment methods to estimate the reduction in SMN risk after proton therapy vs. photon therapy for a 13-year-old girl requiring craniospinal irradiation (CSI. We reconstructed the equivalent dose throughout the patient’s body from therapeutic and stray radiation and applied SMN incidence and mortality risk models for each modality. Excluding skin cancer, the risk of incidence after proton CSI was a third of that of photon CSI. The predicted absolute SMN risks were high. For photon CSI, the SMN incidence rates greater than 10% were for thyroid, non-melanoma skin, lung, colon, stomach, and other solid cancers, and for proton CSI they were non-melanoma skin, lung, and other solid cancers. In each setting, lung cancer accounted for half the risk of mortality. In conclusion, the predicted SMN risk for a 13-year-old girl undergoing proton CSI was reduced vs. photon CSI. This study demonstrates the feasibility of inter-institutional whole-body dose and risk assessments and also serves as a model for including risk estimation in personalized cancer care.

  10. STAT3 mutations identified in human hematologic neoplasms induce myeloid malignancies in a mouse bone marrow transplantation model

    OpenAIRE

    Couronné, Lucile; Scourzic, Laurianne; Pilati, Camilla; Valle, Véronique Della; Duffourd, Yannis; Solary, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Damm, Frederik; Stern, Marc-Henri; Gaulard, Philippe; Lamant, Laurence; Delabesse, Eric; Merle-Beral, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    STAT3 protein phosphorylation is a frequent event in various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. Acquired STAT3 mutations have been recently identified in 40% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, a rare T-cell disorder. In this study, we investigated the mutational status of STAT3 in a large series of patients with lymphoid and myeloid diseases. STAT3 mutations were identified in 1.6% (4 of 258) of patients with T-cell neoplasms, in 2.5% (2 of 79) of patients wi...

  11. Thyroid Malignancy Association with Cortical and Subcortical Brain SPECT Changes In Patients Presenting with a Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid malignancy in ME/CFS patients greatly exceeds the normal incidence of thyroid malignancy in any known subgroup. The thyroid malignancy incidence in the ME/CFS group may exceed 6,000 / 100,000. As part of their investigation, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients should be examined by thyroid ultrasound for evidence of thyroid pathology and malignancy. Thyroid pathology may be missed in this group of patients if investigation relies only upon serum testing for TSH, FT3, FT4, microsomal and thyroglobulin antibodies, which are usually normal. Thyroid uptake scans tend also to be normal and may also miss malignant lesions. A newly recognized syndrome may exist in ME/CFS patients characterized by: (a) thyroid malignancy, (b) persistent abnormal cortical and subcortical SPECT brain scans (NeuroSPECT), (c) failure of thyroidectomy surgery and hormone replacement to correct the fatigue syndrome, and (d) an unusual high incidence of cervical vertebrae osteoarthritic changes. ME/CFS patients with treated non-malignant thyroid disease and abnormal NeuroSPECT scans may also fail to improve despite adequate thyroid hormone replacement. A brief summary of the differences between ME and CFS is discussed. Lee, Hur and Ahn [1] stated that thyroid malignancy is said to be an infrequent occurrence found in 0.5 to 3 patients per 100,000 in the general population. They noted that in a subgroup of patients booked for mammography, a thyroid ultrasound was also performed. In this group, they found thyroid malignancy frequency was as high as 3 per 100,000. It is not known if their subgroup was at a higher risk for malignancy. Mittelstaedt [2] in the Globe and Mail states that thyroid malignancy was 15 per 100,000. In the past 100 patients whom I have investigated for (ME/CFS)[3], with or without associated Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS), I have found that 6% of these patients had thyroid malignancy. In each of these patients the diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and needle biopsy under ultrasonography. This was followed by surgical removal of the thyroid, and each case the malignancy was confirmed. These findings would suggest that 6% of the ME/CFS patients seen, or 6,000 cases per 100,000, had a confirmed thyroid malignancy. Unfortunately, these figures may be conservative since we are in the process of obtaining needle biopsies on six further cases of these first 100 patients. In addition, we have not yet performed thyroid ultrasound on all 100 cases. We are in the process of further investigation of those patients who had not yet been investigated by thyroid ultrasound. Previously, it has been noted that the increased incidence of thyroid malignancy in the general population is only associated with increased radiation exposure. Patients presenting with symptoms of ME/CFS or Fibromyalgia may have significant higher thyroid malignancy incidence. NeuroSPECT was performed with the radiopharmaceutical NeuroliteTM and processed with the software Neurogam by Segami Corp.( Maryland USA.) (au)

  12. Retrospective epidemiologic study on some malignant neoplasms of the blood-forming system in children (0-14 years)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented from a case/control epidemiologic study of the radiation effect on malignant neoplasms of blood-forming system in children aged 0-14 years. The cases comprised children with acute myeloleucosis, chronic myeloleucosis and non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma, who had become ill after 1991. The controls were clinically healthy children matched for sex and age. The assessment of radiation factor was based on data provided by parents in a guided inquiry and on information available at the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (BG). Consideration was given to individual doses received prior to and following medical exposure as well as from the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  13. Radiation exposure and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are abundant experimental and clinical data to associate radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. The incidence of thyroid cancer increases with increasing doses of thyroidal radiation from 6.5 rads to 1,500 rads, but higher doses tend to destroy the gland and are associated with hypothyroidism rather than cancer. The peak occurrence of thyroid tumors is between five and 30 years after exposure, but a person may develop thyroid tumors as long as 50 years after irradiation. Multiple thyroidal lesions or disorders, including adenomas, thyroiditis, and hypothyroidism as well as malignant neoplasms, can occur after radiation exposure. It is imperative, therefore, to study carefully all patients with a history of radiation exposure to the gland and to observe them carefully for life. Suggestions are made for the management of thyroid disease in these patients

  14. Synchronous papillary carcinoma thyroid with malignant struma ovarii: A management dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struma ovarii (SO) is a rare form of ovarian tumor, which is defined by the presence of thyroid tissue comprising more than 50% of the overall tumor volume. The vast majority of the variants of SO are benign; however, malignant tumors have been reported in a small percentage of cases. An aggressive multimodality approach using ovarian cancer staging laparotomy, total thyroidectomy along with radioactive iodine-131 ablation, and thyroxin suppression therapy has been shown to safely treat malignant SO both its initial presentation as well as in the event of any subsequent recurrence with excellent efficacy and possibly better oncological outcomes. The rarity of the disease and the lack of evidence surrounding its management and prognosis continue to remain a challenge to the treating clinician. We present a unique case of malignant SO with an incidental synchronous association of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the cervical thyroid gland, this is possibly the second case reported in the English language literature

  15. Impact of the serum thyroglobulin concentration on the diagnostics of benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study is to evaluate new and controversially discussed indications for determining the thyroglobulin (Tg) level in different thyroid diseases to support routine diagnostics. Methods: The following groups were included: 250 healthy subjects without goiter, 50 persons with diffuse goiter, 161 patients with multinodular goiter devoid of functional disorder (108 of them underwent surgery, in 17 cases carcinomas were detected), 60 hyperthyroid patients with autonomously functioning nodular goiter, 150 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and 30 hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Results: The upper limit of the normal range of the Tg level was calculated as 30 ng Tg/ml. The evaluation of the collective with diffuse goiter showed that the figure of the Tg level can be expected in a similar magnitude as the thyroid volume in milliliters. Nodular tissue led to far higher Tg values then presumed when considering the respective thyroid volume, with a rather high variance. A formula for a rough prediction of the Tg levels in nodular goiters is described. In ten out of 17 cases with thyroid carcinoma, the Tg was lower than estimated with thyroid and nodular volumes, but two patients showed a Tg exceeding 1000 ng/ml. The collective with functional autonomy had a significantly higher average Tg level than a matched euthyroid group being under suppressive levothyroxine substitution. However, due to the high variance of the Tg values, the autonomy could not consistently be predicted with the Tg level in individual cases. The patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed slightly decreased Tg levels. In Graves' disease, a significantly higher average Tg level was observed compared with a matched group with diffuse goiter, but 47% of all Tg values were still in the normal range (<30 ng/ml). Conclusion: Elevated Tg levels indicate a high probability of thyroid diseases, such as malignancy, autonomy or Graves' disease. However, as low Tg concentrations cannot exclude the respective disorder, a routine Tg determination seems not to be justified in benign thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  16. Thyroid abnormalities associated with treatment of malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on the thyroid of radiation therapy to the neck and/or chemotherapy were investigated in 54 Hodgkin's and 72 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. These patients had received radiation therapy with doses ranging from 2000 to 4000 rad (median 3600 rad) to the cervical or mantle fields and/or multiple-agent chemotherapy following usual staging procedures. Palpable abnormalities of the thyroid were found in 15 patients. The patients with irradiation to the neck had a higher incidence of hypothyroidism than those patients treated with chemotherapy alone (31/74 vs. 8/52, P less than 0.001 for TSH and 10/74 vs. 1/52, P less than 0.025 for T4). A higher frequency of elevated serum TSH levels and antithyroid antibodies were also observed in patients receiving radiation therapy alone to the neck than in those receiving both radiation therapy and chemotherapy (19/33 vs. 12/41, P less than 0.025 for TSH and 16/33 vs. 7/41, p less than 0.01 for antibodies), suggesting that chemotherapy agents may reduce the thyroid dysfunction induced by irradiation. There was no difference in prevalence of elevated TSH levels following irradiation to the neck between patients in whom lymphangiogram was or was not performed

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoid Malignancies: The Expanding Spectrum of Hematopoietic Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUN-ICHI KAWADA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infects not only B cells but also T and NK cells, and is associated with various lymphoid malignancies. The spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies is expanding from Burkitt lymphoma to the newly defined systemic EBV+ T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood and hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma. However, some EBV-associated malignancies are not defined well and overlap other diseases. Furthermore, the role of EBV in tumorigenesis of lymphoid malignancies is still not clear. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies for a better classification of each disease and for the establishment of effective treatment.

  18. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos / Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo, Monteros Alvi; Nélida M., Romero; Sara, Gonorazky; Vasco, Gálvez; Mercedes, Gálvez; Elvira, Virgili; Graciela G., de Soler.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF) que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables [...] clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados) y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo. Abstract in english Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA) may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing asso [...] ciation between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm. Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed. The studied variables were: sex, age, size of the nodule, ultrasound characteristics, cytological diagnosis, TSH level and results of the scintigraphy. Of 92 cases, 74 were neoplastic nodules (56 adenomas and 18 differentiated thyroid cancer) and 18 were non neoplastic nodules. Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131. The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years. The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

  19. Marcadores de riesgo de neoplasia folicular en nódulos tiroideos Risk markers of follicular neoplasms in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Monteros Alvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Los nódulos tiroideos de origen folicular abarcan procesos no neoplásicos y neoplásicos. No existen métodos de diagnóstico ni rasgos citológicos por punción con aguja fina (PAF que los delimiten, constituyendo un dilema su diagnóstico diferencial. Analizamos la asociación existente entre variables clínicas y métodos de diagnóstico prequirúrgicos en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular, con el objetivo de definir riesgo de neoplasia.Se estudiaron 92 pacientes con bocios nodulares de estirpe folicular por citología, tratados con tiroidectomía. Las variables analizadas fueron: sexo, edad, tamaño del nódulo, características ecográficas, diagnóstico citológico, nivel de TSH y resultados del centellograma. De los 92 casos, 74 fueron neoplásicos (56 adenomas y 18 carcinomas diferenciados y 18 nódulos no neoplásicos, hiperplásicos o adenomatosos. Los marcadores que se relacionaron con alto riesgo de neoplasia folicular correspondieron al diagnóstico citológico de proliferación folicular de alto grado, en nódulos iso o hipoecogénicos, e hipocaptantes con I131. Los carcinomas presentaron citología de proliferación folicular de alto grado en nódulos hipoecogénicos, de bordes irregulares con microcalcificaciones e hipocaptantes, en pacientes varones o menores de 20 años. La presencia de macrocalcificaciones e hipercaptación estarían a favor de nódulo de origen benigno.La correlación de los métodos de diagnóstico y variables clínicas en nódulos tiroideos de estirpe folicular nos permitirían delimitar el riesgo de neoplasia y carcinoma para planificar un tratamiento quirúrgico selectivo.Thyroid nodules of follicular origin include neoplastic and non neoplastic processes. No methods of diagnosis or cytological features (obtained by fine-needle aspiration, FNA may differentiate both types, and therefore differential diagnosis still constitutes a dilemma.We analyzed the existing association between clinical variables and methods of diagnosis in thyroid nodules of follicular type with the aim of defining risk of neoplasm. Ninety two patients with nodular goiters, of follicular origin by cytology, previously submitted to surgical treatment were analyzed. The studied variables were: sex, age, size of the nodule, ultrasound characteristics, cytological diagnosis, TSH level and results of the scintigraphy. Of 92 cases, 74 were neoplastic nodules (56 adenomas and 18 differentiated thyroid cancer and 18 were non neoplastic nodules. Markers, that were related to high risk of follicular neoplasm corresponded to the cytological diagnosis of proliferation of high follicular degree, in iso or hypoechoic, and hypofunctioning nodules with I131. The carcinomas presented cytology of follicular proliferation of high degree, in hipoechoic nodules, of irregular edges with microcalcifications and hypofunctioning, in male patients or patients younger than 20 years. The presence of macrocalcifications and hypercaptation would be in favor of nodules of benign origin.The correlation of diagnostic methods and clinical variables in thyroid nodules of follicular type would allow us to differentiate the risk of neoplasm or carcinoma, and plan surgical selective treatments.

  20. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950 - 80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the RERF Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3,046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66 % of the cancer and 84 % of the benign tumor cases were classified by histological type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P 0.10). The distribution of histological types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that radiation injury of ovaries with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian neoplasms. (author)

  1. The role of elastosonography, gray-scale and colour flow Doppler sonography in prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatar Idil Gunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ultrasound is as a noninvasive method commonly used in the work-up of thyroid nodules. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic and elastosonographic parameters in the discrimination of malignancy.

  2. Early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of the patients with thyroid malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleševi? Milica ?.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of the paper was to give a reviw of an early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up and survival rate of patients with thyroid malignancy (TM. The paper presented the algorithm of early diagnosis: clinical, scintigraphic and ultrasonographic examination together with fine needle biopsy, cythologic analysis of the smear and biopsy ex tempore of the clear and suspected thyroid node to malignancy. Therapy of all TM forms was mainly surgical; postsurgical treatment was dependent on the type of malignancy: radioiodine 131-I, radiologic treatment, chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy, (the latest one being in the phase of a clinical research. Follow-up was in accordance with the protocole and it was necessary because it contributes to the survival rate. In the presentation of survival rate for differentiated and medullar carcinomas we gave our results and literature data, while for the other malignancies only data from literature were presented. Conclusion: only an early diagnosis of the nodular goiter together with an up-to-date treatment can cure TM patients in a high percentage and prevent development of a terminal stage of the desease which is extremely severe in all forms of this malignancy.

  3. Risk factors for malignancy in patients with solitary thyroid nodules and their impact on the management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun D Tai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presently it is difficult to differentiate malignancy for thyroid nodules by palpation, ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC at the outpatient department, especially for solitary thyroid nodule (STN. So a great emphasis should be placed on the STN. AIms: The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive clinicopathological risk factors for malignancy in patients with STN and further to provide an appropriate clinical management. Materials and Methods: The records were reviewed from 265 patients with STN who had undergone thyroidectomy in our hospital. All cases were classified as two independent groups in terms of the final pathological results to assess the independent risk factors using a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results: A multinomial logistic analysis revealed that the male gender, microcalcification and cervical lymphadenopathy were independent risk factors related to malignancy in patients with STN. The incidence of malignancy in patients with 0,1,2,3 risks was 10.71%, 26.6%, 61.43%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Male gender, microcalcification and lymphadenopathy were independent risk factors for predicting the malignancy in patients with STN. Patients with more than two of those risk factors should be subjected to further examination or thyroidectomy. The findings may provide a simple and reasonable management for the STN.

  4. [Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytokeratin in thyroid neoplasms and its clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, H

    1988-03-01

    Formalin fixed paraffin sections of previously resected surgical specimens and ethanol fixed stamped samples of newly obtained specimens from patients with thyroid neoplastic lesions were investigated for the presence of cytokeratin by the help of avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) method using anticytokeratin monoclonal antibody PKK-1. The result showed that PKK-1 reacted only to a large cell variant of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid and not to a small cell type. Therefore this method appears not to be useful for differentiation between small cell carcinoma and lymphoma. The differentiation between papillary carcinoma and follicularly growing tumor was possible by this method because the former reacted to PKK-1 at a high rate, whereas most of the latter were negative to it. Freshly prepared stamped samples showed a better reaction to the monoclonal antibody, and thus this technique appears to be applicable to an aspiration biopsy cytology. PMID:2455858

  5. Glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 polymorphisms and risk of thyroid neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Karmen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to test the possibility of association between GSTT1 and M1 (glutathione S-transferase null allele variant, in which the entire gene is absent, and the risk of TCO (thyroid carcinoma with cell oxyphilia, the case-control study was carried out. Methods: Genotypes for GSTT1 and GSTM1 were determined by multiplex PCR in the DNA from 108 healthy individuals and in DNA from samples of thyroid tumors from 130 patients of the same race and origin as the control group (Caucasian, Italian. The following types of NMTC were analyzed: oxyphilic adenoma (OA, oxyphilic carcinoma (OC papillary thyroid carcinoma with oxyphilic features (PTCof, follicular adenoma (FA, follicular carcinoma (FC, follicular variant of PTC (fvPTC and classical PTC. Associations between prevalence of particular genotypes and the occurrence of TCO (versus controls and other subtypes of NMTC were tested. Associations were quantified by calculating OR (odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. StatGraphics Plus v. 5 software (Manugistics was used for statistical analysis. Results: In this study of the association between the GSTT1 and M1 null genotype and the increased risk of TCO, the frequency of GSTT1 null genotype of 19.2% in cases and 15.7% in controls was found with an adjusted odds ratio (OR of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.70-2.81, and the frequency of GSTM1 null genotype of 59% in cases with oxyphilic tumors and of 55.6% in controls (OR 1.24; 95% CI, 0.62-2.48. Conclusion: These results indicate that the GSTT1 and M1 null genotypes do not increase the risk of development of oxyphilic tumors, as well as other types of NMTC that have been included in this study.

  6. A “cough induced” pelvic fracture as the first sign of a malignant neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of considering sinister causes in patients presenting with non-traumatic pelvic fractures and the need for regular follow up for those patients investigated with unexplained weight-loss with inconclusive results, but with a high index of suspicion for malignancy.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Vascularity Using 2-D Power Doppler Ultrasonography May Not Identify Malignancy of the Thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Shin, Hyun Joo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Roh, Yun Ho; Kwak, Jin Young

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative vascular index in predicting thyroid malignancy. A total of 1309 thyroid nodules in 1257 patients (mean age: 50.2 y, range: 18-83 y) were included. The vascularity pattern and vascular index (VI) measured by quantification software for each nodule were obtained from 2-D power Doppler ultrasonography (US). Gray-scale US + vascularity pattern was compared with gray-scale US + VI with respect to diagnostic performance. Of the 1309 thyroid nodules, 927 (70.8%) were benign and 382 (29.2%) were malignant. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) for gray-scale US (0.82) was significantly higher than that for US combined with vascularity pattern (0.77) or VI (0.70, all p thyroid malignancy. PMID:26298035

  8. Metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the thyroid gland, a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mohamed T; Hegazy, Mohamed A; Abd Elwahab, Khaled; Arafa, Mohammad; Abdou, Islam; Refky, Basel

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland is a known but an unusual site for metastatic tumors from various primary sites. Despite the fact that it is one of the largest vascular organs in the body, clinical and surgical cases have given an incidence of 3?% of secondary malignances of the organ. Nevertheless, thyroid metastases are not an exceptional finding at autopsy, they are encountered in 2?% to 24?% of the patients with malignant neoplasm.

  9. Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakiotaki, Eleftheria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Tolia, Maria; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Kyrgias, George; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is comprised of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and proteins responsible for their metabolism participate in many different functions indispensable to homeostatic regulation in several tissues, exerting also antitumorigenic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of CB1 and CB2 expression in human benign and malignant thyroid lesions. CB1 and CB2 proteins' expression was assessed immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 87 patients with benign (n = 43) and malignant (n = 44) lesions and was statistically analyzed with clinicopathological parameters, follicular cells' proliferative capacity, and risk of recurrence rate estimated according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) staging system. Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was significantly more frequently observed in malignant compared to benign thyroid lesions (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0005, resp.). Enhanced CB1 and CB2 expression was also significantly more frequently observed in papillary carcinomas compared to hyperplastic nodules (p = 0.0097 and p = 0.0110, resp.). In malignant thyroid lesions, elevated CB2 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0301). Enhanced CB2 expression was also more frequently observed in malignant thyroid cases with presence of capsular (p = 0.1165), lymphatic (p = 0.1989), and vascular invasion (p = 0.0555), as well as in those with increased risk of recurrence rate (p = 0.1165), at a nonsignificant level though, whereas CB1 expression was not associated with any of the clinicopathological parameters examined. Our data suggest that CB receptors may be involved in malignant thyroid transformation and especially CB2 receptor could serve as useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target in thyroid neoplasia. PMID:26539529

  10. Accuracy of Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography (CT Scan in Differentiation of Malignant Parotid Neoplasms: New Approaches for Better Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Sharifkashany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: One of the most important preoperative concerns in patients with parotid neoplasms is the probability of malignancy. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of different findings of contrast-enhanced CT scan in differentiation of malignant parotid neoplasms. Also we have presented the results of new approaches in this regard. Materials and Methods: All patients with noninflammatory parotid masses were considered in this study in a one year period. All patients with one or more of these conditions were excluded from the study: age under 15 years old, patients who underwent previous biopsy or fine needle aspiration and the time interval between imaging and surgery was more than 10 days. Finally 33 patients were entered to the study. Of all cases, 18 (54.6% were male and the mean age was 43.3±17.6 years (15-78. All patients underwent a facial and neck contrast enhanced CT scanning in the supine position and axial sections (5 mm thickness and 5 mm interval were performed from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ upper border to the thoracic inlet. Ten seconds after intravenous bolus injection of 100cc Omnipaque 240 mg I/cc, imaging began. For all parotid masses, 8 imaging findings were evaluated which consisted of the tumor size [maximum value of parotid tumor short-axis diameter], Hunsfield unit (HU [considered in section performed 120 seconds after contrast medium injection; region of interest (ROI was considered as a 5 mm diameter circle in the central part of the region with the highest visual density of the mass],visual density, heterogenecity, tumor border, tumor location, tumor extension to the other neck spaces and cervical adenopathy. Surgery was performed for all patients and the histopathologic evaluation was done as gold standard. For dichotomous variables, the diagnostic indices [including sensitivity(Se., specificity (Sp, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value(NPV, positive likelihood ratio (LR+ and negative likelihood ratio (LR-] were calculated. For continuous variables (including tumor size and HU the receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve was assessed and the selected cut points were yielded. Results: Totally 13 patients showed malignant tumor in pathology (39.4%. Deep lobe involvement, extension to the other neck spaces and adenopathy were higher in malignant tumors [all P-Values<0.018]. Among dichotomous variables, the best Se. was for enhancement pattern (Se=0.85 while Sp=0.4 and the best Sp. was for extension and adenopathy [Sp=0.95 for both, Se=0.38 for extension and 0.46 for adenopathy]. Among seven variables of enhancement pattern, density, tumor location, tumoral extension, lymphadenopathy, Hu greater than 69 and tumoral size greater than 29 mm, if the patient showed equal or greater than 6 variables in favor of malignancy, the Sp was 1. The area under the curve (AUC of ROC curve was 0.75 [95% CI=0.57-0.92] for Hu and 0.76 [95% CI=0.6-0.92] for size [both P-Values<0.02]. We multiplied the tumor size and Hu and plotted the ROC curve for this new variable. The AUC of this new variable was 0.83 [P-Values=0.002,95% CI=0.68-0.96]. Considering the cut off point of 2050 for this variable yielded the Se of 0.85 and Sp of 0.75 for malignant tumors. Conclusion: Considering individual findings together could improve the diagnostic accuracy of CT.

  11. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to gynecological malignancies.

  12. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children' s Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  13. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  14. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  15. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrieres, J.-B., E-mail: jbveyrieres@hotmail.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées St Anne, Bd Saint Anne, BP 20545 Toulon cedex (France); Albarel, F., E-mail: frederique.albarel@ap-hm.fr [Département médical d’endocrinologie et des pathologies métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Lombard, J. Vaillant, E-mail: Josiane.vaillant@ap-hm.fr [Département d’imagerie médicale, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Berbis, J., E-mail: Julie.berbis@ap-hm.fr [Département de santé publique, Université de Médecine, 27, Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Sebag, F., E-mail: frederic.sebag@ap-hm.fr [Département de chirurgie des pathologies endocriniennes et métaboliques, Hôpital Universitaire la Timone, Assistance publique des Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint Pierre, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); and others

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  16. A threshold value in Shear Wave elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules: A reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To evaluate hability of a threshold value in ShearWave™ elastography to rule out malignant thyroid nodules while studying its pertinence in association with morphological signs. Equipment and methods: 148 patients (110 women and 38 men; 52.5 y.o. 15.8) referred for surgery of thyroid nodules underwent standard ultrasound as well as elastography. Characteristics of the morphological signs and maximum elastographic index were calculated in relation to histology. Association of morphological signs alone and then of elastography was also evaluated. One hundred and fifty one nodules were studied on a double-blind basis. Results: 297 nodules were studied. Thirty-five cancers were detected (11.6%). Elastographic index was higher in malignant nodules (115 kPa 60.4) than in benign nodules (41 kPa 25.8) (p < 0.001, Student's t-test). Cut off value of 66 kPa was the best to discriminate malignant nodules with a sensitivity of 80% (CI 95%, 62.5; 90.9) and a specificity of 90.5% (CI 95%, 86.1; 93.6) (p = 0.0001). Association of elastography and morphological ultrasound signs presented a sensitivity of 97% (CI 95%, 83.3; 99.8) and a negative predictive value of 99.5% (CI 95%, 95.6; 99.9). Interobserver reproducibility proved to be excellent with an interclass correlation of 0.97 (CI 95%, 0.96; 0.98) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The 66 kPa threshold in Shear Wave elastography is the best ultrasound sign to rule out malignant thyroid nodules. The method is simple, quantitative, reproducible and usable in the study of nodules larger than 3 cm. Progress must still be made in the study of calcified nodules and follicular tumors.

  17. Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Julia; Kamel Dia E; Elbahaie Alaaeldeen M; Davidson Neville G

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesotheli...

  18. Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

  19. Malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 1950-80, 194 ovarian cancer cases were ascertained among the 70,030 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's Life-Span Study E-85 sample, and 106 autopsied cases with benign ovarian neoplasms were ascertained among all 3046 autopsies performed in the same sample. On the basis of microscopic review, 66% of the cancer and 84% of the benign tumor cases were classified by histologic type. The age-adjusted ovarian cancer incidence rates showed a statistically significant increase with increased exposure dose, both in the entire exposed group (P less than .01) and in the microscopically reviewed subset (P less than .01). This dose response was only significant (P less than .01) in the latter half of the study period, 1965-80. The radiation effect was higher in the younger age group at the time of the bomb (ATB) for the specific attained age or was adjusted for attained age. In general, relative risk (greater than or equal to 100 rad vs. 0 rad) did not differ by attained age, except for the youngest age group, less than 20 years old ATB, where the relative risk tended to decrease with increased attained age, although cases were few in number and follow-up study was necessary. Estimated minimum latent period for radiation-induced ovarian cancer seemed to be 15-20 years. The proportion of autopsied cases with benign ovarian tumor increased with increasing exposure dose, both in the entire series of cases (P less than .05) and in the microscopically reviewed subset. Statistical significance, however, was not achieved in the latter group. The distribution of histologic types of both cancer and benign tumor of the ovary did not vary significantly with radiation dose

  20. Potential value of elasto sonography in the diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A firm or hard consistency is associated with an increased risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Ultrasound (US) elasto sonography is a new powerful diagnostic technique that assesses hardness as indicator of malignancy that was recently applied in the diagnostic approach of nodular thyroid disease. The basic principle of elasto sonography is that tissue compression produces strain (displacement), that is less in hard than in soft tissues and is scored measuring the degree of distortion of US beam under the application of an external force, during the examination. The US elasto gram is displayed over the B-mode image in a colour scale that corresponds to tissue elasticity. The US elasto sonography performed on selected series of patients has displayed a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 98%. The predictivity of US elasto graphic measurement was independent from the nodule size, high sensitivity and specificity being observed also in nodules <1 cm. These data were also confirmed by other authors in smaller cytological series. Available data suggest that predictivity of US elasto sonography is maintained in indeterminate lesions. Conventional US maintains a pivotal importance to define which nodules are suitable for elasto graphic characterization. Indeed, nodules in which US reveals the presence of calcified shell and cystic nodules have to be excluded from the US elasto graphic evaluation. Another limitation is that the nodule to be examined must be clearly distinguishable from other nodules present in the thyroid. Thus, multi nodular goiters with coalescent nodules are not suitable for this analysis. US elasto sonography seems to have a great potential as a new tool for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, especially in nodules with indeterminate cytology.

  1. Spatial autocorrelation analysis of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan: a comparison between the 1995-1998 and 2005-2008 periods

    OpenAIRE

    Pui-Jen Tsai; Cheng-Hwang Perng

    2011-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including Global Moran’s I and Local Indicators of Spatial Association statistic (LISA), were used to describe and map spatial clusters of 13 leading malignant neoplasms in Taiwan. A logistic regression fit model was also used to identify similar characteristics over time. Two time periods (1995-1998 and 2005-2008) were compared in an attempt to formulate common spatio-temporal risks. Spatial cluster patterns were identified using local spatial autocorre...

  2. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estima...

  3. Malignant neoplasms morbidity tendencies between liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1986-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the constantly increasing malignant tumors, the great interest towards the cancers induced by radiation appears. The analyze of such cancers is possible because of the detailed statistic data. 5965 Chernobyl clean-up workers were examined. In the years of 1986 - 2004 it was registered 128 cancers. 27,4 % - the cancers of pulmonary system; 26,9 % - the cancers of gastrointestinal system; 10,8 % - the cancers of blood and lymph system; 10,2 % - the lip and mouth cancers; 6,1% - the skin cancers. Among the clean-up workers who were worked in Chernobyl in the period of 1986-1987 years more often - the cancers skin, of blood and lymph system, the lip and mouth were detected. More often the cancers were detected in the age groups of 45-64 years with predomination of pulmonary and gastrointestinal system cancers, o in the age groups of 25-44 - with skin cancers, the cancers of blood and lymph system and the lip and mouth cancers. Comparing with Lithuanian men population the cancer predomination of Chernobyl clean-up workers is higher

  4. Subsequent malignancies in patients treated with 131-iodine for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I-131 was administered to 298 patients with thyroid cancer, and there has been a follow-up of at least two years. Follow-up periods were: 2.5 to 30 years (median 14.5) in living patients, 2.5 to 15 years (median 5.5) in patients dead of tumour ? 2 years after first treatment and 2.5 to 23 years (median nine) in patients dead without tumour. Person-years at risk were (total applied activity of I-131): 1119 (3 to 21 GBq), 1477 (22 to 65 GBq), 521 (61 to 170 Gbq). 33 subsequent malignancies in 31 patients were observed, compared to an expected number of 17. The relative risk of subsequent malignancies is therefore 1.94 with a 95% confidence intervall of 1.15 to 3.05. This increase in the incidence of subsequent malignancies after I-131 treatments is largely due to the significantly increased incidence of leukemia and bladder cancer. Estimated radiation doses to the bone marrow in the patients with leukemia were 301 cGy to 792 cGy and the doses to the bladder in patients with bladder cancer were 2250 cGy to 10, 350 cGy. After a total activity of less than 37 GBq I-131, no cases of bladder cancer or leukemia were observed. The observed number of subsequent malignancies are compared with the expected number according to several dose-effect estimations. (orig.)

  5. Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eszlinger, Markus; Hegedüs, László

    2014-01-01

    Routine morphologic cytology is the basis for any kind of (integrated) molecular FNA diagnostics. The rule out (gene expression classifier) approach requires confirmation by independent studies, whereas the rule in approach (detection of BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, and KRAS and PAX8/PPARG- and RET/PTC rearrangements) has been investigated by several groups with overall reproducible results. Moreover, molecular screening for point mutations and rearrangements is feasible in routine air-dried FNA smears, offering several advantages over obtaining additional fresh FNA material. The current panel of somatic mutations (rule in approach) for indeterminate FNAs clarifies only a subgroup of indeterminate FNAs. Therefore, further markers are urgently needed that can reliably identify the malignant, but mutation negative and especially the many benign nodules, among the indeterminate FNAs. miRNA markers and the targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) technology do have the potential to identify those nodules that are mutation negative by current approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in the patient having a history of total thyroidectomy due to thyroid malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Dong Wook [Busan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the accuracy of ultrasound (US) diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy in patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy. During a follow up period after total thyroidectomy, due to known thyroid malignancy, 41 patients underwent US diagnosis and US guided fine needle aspiration for retrojugular lymphadenopathy. Each lymphadenopathy was prospectively classified by a single radiologist into 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: 'benign', 'indeterminate for malignancy', and 'malignant'. Based on the cytohistopathology result, thyroglobulin tittering, and sonographic follow up, the adequacy of US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy was assessed. Of the 41 retrojugular lymphadenopathies, malignant (n = 25) and benign (n = 16) lymphadenopathy were finally confirmed. Excluding 15 lymph nodes with indeterminate US diagnosis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and false positive and negative rates of US diagnosis were 100%, 66.7%, 95.8%, 100%, 96.2%, 0%, and 10%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of retrojugular lymphadenopathy, according to age, sex, and location (p > 0.05). In the patient with a history of total thyroidectomy, due to thyroid malignancy, US diagnosis for retrojugular lymphadenopathy showed a high accuracy.

  7. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid tumors by X-ray fluorescent analysis-comparison of cases from Russia and Albany, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra thyroid iodine level in different types of thyroid neoplasms in Russia (126 cases) and USA (37 cases) were investigated by X-ray fluorescent analysis in vitro. A decrease in intra thyroid iodine concentration is associated with the stepwise loss of differentiation in thyroid tumors. In colloid goiter tissue from Russia, the intra thyroid iodine level is increased. The intra thyroid iodine level was markedly increased in micro follicular adenomas and colloid goiters from American patients which may reflect a higher iodine supply in the USA. X-ray fluorescent analysis together with careful clinical appraisal can be used for management of thyroid patients with suspicious nodules which should be treated by surgery

  8. Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Husain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection. At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions. Previous studies have shown that some immunohistochemical (IHC markers may be helpful in establishing more accurate diagnosis. In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs. Materials and Methods: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret, HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19, on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections. They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC. The stains were done according to the standard avidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Results: Statistical analysis showed that immunoexpression was significantly higher in the malignant group for all four markers. The sensitivity for positive expression for all benign lesions versus malignant tumors was as follows: 10/44 (22.7% versus 25/27 (92.6% for galectin-3; 14/44 (31.8% versus 23/27 (85% for Ret; 12/44 (27.3% versus 24/27 (88.8% for HBME-1; and 13/44 (29.5% versus 23/27 (85% for CK19. The sensitivity and specificity was highest for galectin-3 (92.6% and 77.3%, respectively followed by HMBE-1 (88.9% and 72.7%, respectively. When combining the markers? expressions, the panel of galectin-3 + HBME-1 showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (90.7% and 75%, respectively, but this was, however, lower than galectin-3 alone (92.3% and 77.3%, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The galectin-3 + HBME-1 was the best combination for distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

  9. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  10. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seen in patients taking the drugs interferon and amiodarone. Thyroiditis FAQs WHAT ARE THE CLINICAL SYMPTOMS OF ... the gland. Finally, drugs such as interferon and amiodarone, can also damage thyroid cells and cause thyroiditis. ...

  11. Differentiation between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant neoplasms of the liver with free-breathing diffusion-weighted MR imaging: Comparison with T2-weighted fast spin-echo MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To test interobserver variability of ADC measurements and compare the diagnostic performances of free-breathing diffusion-weighted (FBDW) with that of T2-weighted FSE (T2WFSE) MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms. Materials and methods: Thirty-five patients with cavernous hemangiomas and 35 with untreated hepatic malignant neoplasms had FBDW and T2WFSE MR imaging. Hepatic lesions were characterized with ADC measurement and visual evaluation. Interobserver agreement for ADC measurement was calculated. Association between ADC value and lesion type was assessed using univariate analysis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ADC values and visual evaluation of MR images for the diagnosis of untreated malignant hepatic neoplasm were compared. Results: ADC measurements showed excellent interobserver correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.980). Malignant neoplasms had lower ADC values than hemangiomas for the two observers (1.11 x 10-3 mm2/s ± .21 x 10-3vs. 1.77 x 10-3 mm2/s ± .29 x 10-3 for observer 1 and 1.11 x 10-3 mm2/s ± .19 x 10-3vs. 1.79 x 10-3 mm2/s ± .32 x 10-3 for observer 2) and univariate analysis found significant correlations between lesion type and ADC values. Depending on ADC threshold value, accuracy for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm varied from 82.9% to 94.3%. Using visual evaluation, FBDW showed better specificity and accuracy than T2WFSE MR images for the diagnosis of malignant neoplasm (97.1% vs. 77.1% and 94.3% vs. 62.9%, respectively). Conclusion: FBDW imaging provides reproducible quantitative information and surpasses the value of T2WFSE MR imaging for differentiating between cavernous hemangiomas and untreated malignant hepatic neoplasms.

  12. Doxorubicin-induced myocardial failure in rats with malignant neoplasm: Protective role of fullerenol C60(OH24

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    Injac Rade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C60(OH24 in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that fullerenol C60(OH24, has strong antioxidative potential. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. All 32 rats (2-5 groups received i.p. applications of 1-methyl-l-nitrosourea (MNU; 50 mg/kg body weight on the 50th and 113th day of age. Animals were randomly divided into five groups as follows: (1 Untreated control group - rats received saline only; (2 Cancer control group - rats received MNU and saline; (3 Dox group - rats received MNU and Dox 8 mg/kg; (4 Full/Dox group -rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg 30 min before Dox 8 mg/kg; (5 Full group - rats received MNU and Full 100 mg/kg. Tumor incidence was 4.94 +- 0.576 per rat. The animals were sacrificed 2 days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and ?-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p < 0.05, after an i.p. administration of doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower oc-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR and TAS level in the heart (p < 0.05. Ultra structural analysis of heart tissues from rats treated with doxorubicin and indicated that the hearts of the rats were protected from doxorubicin-induced subcellular damage. Doxorubicin/fullerenol rats did not appear to show significant cardiac damage although occasional focal loss of cristae in the mitochondria was observed. Therefore, it is suggested that fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals.

  13. Diagnostic performance of combined elastosonography scoring and high-resolution ultrasonography for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the combined use of elstosonography (USE) scoring and high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodule. Patients and methods: Forty-seven consecutive patients with 66 thyroid nodules were enrolled in the present study. Thyroid surgery had been already planned for all the patients. All of them were submitted to high-resolution ultrasonography and elastography scoring at the same sitting. The latter was determined with 5-point scoring method. The examination results were compared against pathological findings as the gold standard of reference. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive, and negative predictive values of HRUS in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules were 92.0%, 72.9%, 60.1%, 95.0%, and 63.1%, respectively, while that of ultrasound elastography scoring were 75.4%, 85.5%, 86.7%, 71.4%, and 90.5%, respectively. Combined use of both US techniques resulted in a higher diagnostic performance as it showed 95.4%, 94.8%, 95.2%, 82.3% and 98.8% sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive, and negative predictive values, respectively. Conclusions: The use of combined USE and HRS for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules resulted in a high diagnostic performance and a significant statistical difference as compared to HRUS or USE alone (P = 0.003)

  14. Delayed results of combined treatment of malignant neoplasms of nasal cavity and accessory basal sinuses with the use of remote neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of results of combined treatment of 24 patients with locally spread forms of malignant neoplasms in nasal cavity and accessory nasal sinuses, subjected to preoperational remote neutron therapy, was carried out. Mean neutron energy was 6.5 MeV, total focus dose - 38-40 Gy. It is shown that combined method of treatment features high efficiency, ensuring 5-year survival rate of 67.8% of the patients. However, the treatment is accompanied by grave complications, formation of face tissue-defects and radiation-induced cataract. The necessity of improving the methods of eye protection in the course of radiotherapy is emphasized. 1 ref

  15. Identificación molecular de helicobacter pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina / Molecular identification of helicobacter pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edmundo Dantés, Escobar Habeica; Yaxsier, de Armas Rodríguez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Virginia, Capó de Paz; Fidel, Cathcart Roca; Marco Antonio, Jiménez López.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Helicobacter pylori es considerado uno de los principales agentes causales de gastritis crónica, úlcera péptica y neoplasias gástricas malignas en humanos. Objetivo: evaluar el uso de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la identificación de H. pylori y sus genotipos en tejidos [...] gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Material y Métodos: se estudiaron secciones de 5 bloques de parafina procedentes de 5 pacientes mexicanos con neoplasias gástricas malignas. Se realizaron coloraciones de rutina y especiales de anatomía patológica, así como la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para la detección del microorganismo y sus genotipos. Resultados: la técnica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa identificó a este agente infeccioso en todos los bloques analizados en correspondencia con su detección a través de las técnicas histológicas. Esta metodología permitió demostrar una variabilidad genética del patógeno en las muestras analizadas según los genotipos vacA y cagA. Conclusiones: la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa podría ser un método eficaz en la identificación del H. pylori en tejidos gástricos con neoplasias malignas embebidos en parafina. Esta se perfila como una estrategia atractiva para realizar estudios de epidemiología molecular y permitirá establecer posibles asociaciones de genotipos/subtipos del microorganismo con variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y de manejo del paciente. Abstract in english Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is considered one of the main causal agents of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric malignant neoplasms in humans. Objective: to evaluate polymerase chain reaction for identification of Helicobacter pylori and its genotypes in paraffin embedded gastric tissue [...] s with malignant neoplasms. Material and Methods: sections of five paraffin blocks from five patients with gastric malignant neoplasms were studied. They were analyzed through routine and special stains of pathological anatomy, as well as the polymerase chain reaction technic for microorganism and genotypes detection. Results: the infectious agent was identified in all of the analyzed blocks through the polymerase chain reaction technic in correspondence with its detection through histologic techniques. This methodology showed a genetic variability of the pathogen in the analyzed samples in respect to vacA and cagA genotypes. Conclusions: the polymerase chain reaction could be an efficacious method for the identification of H. pylori in paraffin embedded gastric tissues with malignant neoplasms. It is projected as an attractive strategy for performing studies of molecular epidemiology and the establishment of possible associations between genotypes/subtypes of the microorganism and clinic or epidemiologic variables, and patient handling.

  16. Trends in the incidence and mortality rates of malignant neoplasms in regions with radio ecological problems (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study is carried out to examine incidence and mortality trends of some malignant neoplasms in regions at high radioecological risk (Seslavtsi, Eleshnitsa, Yana) during the period 1995-1999. The analysis is made according to sex and age groups. Information sources are official medical statistics data, original records and database of the Oncological Dispensary in Sofia. The analysis of incidence and mortality dynamics doesn't show an increase in the incidence/mortality rate of the selected radiation-related oncological diseases compared with the same indices for the country within that period. (author)

  17. Malignant glomus tumor of the thyroid gland where is heretofore an unreported organ: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dong Hae; Kim, Na Rae; Kim, Taeeun; Ahn, Jungsuk; Lee, Sangho; Lee, Young Don; Cho, Hyun Yee

    2015-03-01

    Glomus tumors are relatively uncommon clinically benign tumors. Malignant glomus tumors are rare, and only a small number develop metastatic foci. The usual location is deep dermis or subcutis, but it has been reported in various locations. A 55-year-old man presented with an incidentally found thyroid mass. Neck ultrasound showed a mass with a heterogeneous hypoechoic calcific mass in the right lobe. Right lobectomy specimen showed the 3.6-cm-sized calcified mass composed of sheets of uniform round to polygonal cells and intervening staghorn-shaped vessels. Occasional cellular atypism and necrosis with increased mitotic activity (up to 7 per 10 high-power fields) were found. Infiltration to the residual thyroid parenchyma, vessel, thyroidal capsule, and strap muscle was found. These tumor cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle actin, collagen type IV, and vimentin with pericellular reticulin-cuffing. Ultrastructurally, closely packed oval-shaped tumor cells having cytoplasmic mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulums with pinocytotic vesicles along the plasmalemmal surface and thin filaments of 6 nm in diameter were surrounded by thick basal lamina. That mass was diagnosed as a malignant glomus tumor. Incidentally, a 0.5-cm-sized papillary carcinoma was found through entire embedding. Complete thyroidectomy with chemotherapy was done. Thirty months later, multiple metastases developed in the brain and lung, and he expired. To our knowledge, neither benign nor malignant thyroid glomus tumor has been previously described. Here, we describe the first case of a malignant glomus tumor in the thyroid gland. PMID:25544269

  18. Is Doppler ultrasound of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Weslley, Rosario; Alexandre Lemos da, Silva; Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro, Borges; Maria Regina, Calsolari.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Doppler ultrasound (DUS) is of additional value to gray-scale ultrasound (GSUS) in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. A total of 1,502 solid thyroid nodules ? 10 mm were evaluated. Suspicious vascularity (predominantly or [...] exclusively central blood flow) was observed in only 5% of the nodules. This finding showed 96% specificity, but only 15% sensitivity. GSUS alone showed sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 68.2%, respectively, which did not improve with the addition of DUS (sensitivity of 89.4% and specificity of 66.4%). In non-suspicious nodules on GSUS, the type of vascularity on DUS did not modify the risk of malignancy, which was low. In suspicious nodules on GSUS, suspicious vascularity on DUS increased the risk of malignancy, but non-suspicious vascularity did not reduce this risk. DUS provided no additional value to GSUS in predicting the benign or malignant nature of thyroid nodules. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(1):79-83

  19. Evidence for Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Alterations of the Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression in Hypofunctioning Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouttet-Masson, Séverine; Selmi-Ruby, Samia; Bernier-Valentin, Françoise; Porra, Valérie; Berger-Dutrieux, Nicole; Decaussin, Myriam; Peix, Jean-Louis; Perrin, Agnès; Bournaud, Claire; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Franc, Brigitte; Rousset, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of iodide by epithelial thyroid cells requires the expression of a specific transporter, the Na+/I? symporter, NIS. Benign and malignant thyroid tumors of epithelial origin show a decrease up to a loss of iodide uptake activity. Previous studies of the human NIS (hNIS) gene expression in these tumors, based on the amplification of transcripts and/or immunohistochemical detection of the protein, have yielded divergent data; hNIS expression was found either increased or decreased. To get a new and integrated view of the alterations of hNIS expression in hypofunctioning thyroid tumors, we performed investigations of hNIS transcript and hNIS protein levels on the same tumors and paired normal tissue samples. HNIS, identified as a 75- to 80-kd species, was present in all normal tissue samples from euthyroid patients, but was undetectable, even at high membrane protein input, in all benign and malignant hypofunctioning thyroid tumors. By contrast, ?50% of tumors contained hNIS transcripts. This dissociation between transcript and protein levels was not found for the transcript and protein encoded by the PDS gene assayed in the same tumors. The hNIS transcript-positive tumors contained small amounts of low-molecular mass hNIS-immunoreactive species identified as nonglycosylated hNIS. Tumors containing the nonmature form of hNIS exhibited a predominant intracellular immunolabeling. In conclusion, our data show that benign and malignant hypofunctioning thyroid tumors either no longer express hNIS protein or express only a very low amount of nonglycosylated hNIS and indicate that the impairment of hNIS gene expression might result from alterations at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:15215159

  20. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hoon; Choi Yoon; Yu Hae-Na; Yoon Seung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when...

  1. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Balasubramanian; Shanthi, Natesan

    2013-06-01

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used. PMID:23690210

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis system for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules in multi-stained FNAB cytological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated computer-aided diagnosis system is developed to classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules using multi-stained fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytological images. In the first phase, the image segmentation is performed to remove the background staining information and retain the appropriate foreground cell objects in cytological images using mathematical morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. Subsequently, statistical features are extracted using two-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposition, gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and Gabor filter based methods. The classifiers k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), Elman neural network (ENN) and support vector machine (SVM) are tested for classifying benign and malignant thyroid nodules. The combination of watershed segmentation, GLCM features and k-NN classifier results a lowest diagnostic accuracy of 60 %. The highest diagnostic accuracy of 93.33 % is achieved by ENN classifier trained with the statistical features extracted by Gabor filter bank from the images segmented by morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. It is also observed that SVM classifier results its highest diagnostic accuracy of 90 % for DWT and Gabor filter based features along with morphology and watershed transform segmentation methods. The experimental results suggest that the developed system with multi-stained thyroid FNAB images would be useful for identifying thyroid cancer irrespective of staining protocol used.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for analysis of iodine concentration in vitro in benign and malignant thyroid tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The thyroid ability to store and concentrate iodine is of importance for radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer. It is known that a normal thyroid contains 2-20 mg iodine while the information regarding malignant thyroid tissue is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the iodine concentration in benign compared to malignant tissue. Methods: Thyroid tissue samples from healthy patients and from patients with papillary cancer were collected and frozen in connection with surgery. For the thyroid cancer patients, tissue was taken from both benign and malignant tissue. The iodine concentration was analysed with an XRF system consisting of a 241-Am source and an HPGe detector. When irradiating iodine containing tissue, characteristic X-rays are emitted. That radiation is detected with the strength of the detected signal being proportional to the amount of iodine in the sample. SIMS was used on glutaraldehyde fixed tissue as a histological tool for quantification and localization of iodine by sputtering and analysis of secondary ions. Results: The iodine concentration in benign tissue is considerably higher than in malignant samples. XRF measurements showed a medium iodine concentration in healthy thyroid tissue of 0.5 mg/mL. For the cancer patients, the iodine concentration was 0.3 mg/mL in benign tissue while no iodine could be detected in the malignant samples. These findings were consistent with the results from the SIMS investigation that gave a 100 times lower iodine concentration in malignant than in benign tissue. SIMS also showed that the iodine in benign tissue was predominantly located in the follicle lumen, while in the cancer cells low iodine concentration was found intra cellular as well as in the lumen. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in tissue from papillary cancer can be 100 times lower than in normal thyroid tissue. This is in accordance with the empirical knowledge that thyroid cancer should need about 100 times higher activity of in radioiodine treatment. (author)

  4. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  5. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of telomerase activity in benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the status of telomerase activity during the development of thyroid tumors, and to determine whether telomerase activity can be used clinically as a molecular marker in the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Methods: Telomerase activity was measured in 37 thyroid carcinomas, 33 benign thyroid lesions and 30 normal thyroid tissue samples by means of a modified TRAP-PCR. The assay was also applied to 15 fine needle aspirates (FNAs) of thyroid carcinomas to test its sensitivity. Results: Thirty-one of 37 thyroid carcinomas (83.8%), 7 of 33 benign thyroid lesions (21.2%), and 4 of 30 adjacent normal thyroid tissue samples expressed telomerase activity, 15 FNAs also had positive telomerase activity, just as their corresponding tissue specimens. The quantitative analysis showed that the telomerase activity was significantly higher in thyroid carcinomas than that in benign thyroid tissue samples. And medullary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas had higher levels of telomerase activity than papillary carcinomas. Conclusions: Telomerase activity is a good marker for thyroid carcinomas. The quantitative TRAP-PCR might have more potential application in the differential diagnosis of tumors and the estimation of tumor progression and prognosis. And this sensitive assay could become a useful new modality for supplementing microscopic cytopathology in the detection of cancer cells in small tissue samples and FNAs

  6. Effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? on incidence, benign/malignant ratio and multiplicity of rat mammary neoplasms - a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the effects of X-irradiation, ovariohysterectomy and estradiol-17? administration on mammary tumorigenesis in females of 3 rat strains, viz. the WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD. The 3 rat strains differed significantly in their spontaneous mammary tumor incidence. Female SD rats had the highest incidence (47%) and female BN/BiRij rats the lowest (17%). Female WAG/Rij rats had an intermediate incidence of 29%. The benign/malignant ratio in female WAG/Rij, BN/BiRij and SD rats was 1.0, 2.0 and 7.3, respectively. The average number of mammary gland neoplasms per untreated tumor-bearing female was 1.2 in the WAG/Rij, 1.0 in the BN/BiRij and 1.6 in the SD, whereas the respective maximum numbers were 2, 1 and 5. Ovariohysterectomy almost entirely prevented mammary tumour formation in all 3 rat strains, whereas estrogen treatment enhanced it. In addition, estrogen treatment resulted in an increased number of mammary tumors per tumor-bearing female and changed the benign/malignant ratio into the direction of malignant. X-irradiation increased the mammary tumor incidence in all 3 rat strains, especially of the benign tumors. Estrogen potentiated the effect of irradiation. An effect of irradiation on mammary tumorigenesis was not observed in ovariohysterectomized females of all 3 rat strains. (author)

  7. Patients Candidate for thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim:thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: during two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was preformed after IV injection of 15 mCi of Tc-99 m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in 4 phases (angiography-first 10 minutes-15 min and 2-3 hours after injection). Thyroid methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4) with no uptake as score 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age = 35.5 years +/- 13.6) 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules(P=0.37). Sensitivity and specificity of high methoxy isobutyl isonitrile uptake (score 3-4) for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The values for sensitivity and specificity were 69.2 % and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as different in uptake scores of late and early phases) was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P = 0.07). The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P = 0.65). Conclusion: thyroid methoxy isobutyl isonitrile scan has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidates for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation.Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity

  8. Intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas: Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography in differentiation of benign and malignant neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas. Seven patients with intraductal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas confirmed by operation underwent EUS. After evaluation of findings of EUS, these observations were computed with pathologic findings, and then reevaluated them according to the histologic grade of malignancy. According to the pathologic specimens, three cases of them were malignant and the remaining 4 cases were benign. The subtypes of them were as follows: 2 main duct type, 2 branch duct type, and 3 combined type. All malignant tumors showed the main pancreatic duct dilatation (5-15 mm, mean 9.7 mm) , whereas all benign tumors showed no dilatation of the main pancreatic duct on EUS. The mural nodules of the malignant tumors (12-14 mm) were significantly larger than those od benign lesions (3-4 mm), significantly. EUS is useful for diagnosing intradutal papillary mucinous tumor of the pancreas, particularly for predicting malignancy.

  9. VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Niculescu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC pT1NxMxG1 (sclerous infiltrative 3 mm node on joint nodular goitre with metaplasia, hemorrhage, sclero hyalinisation and lymphomatous thyroiditis aspects. She was treated with L Thyroxin, chemotherapy (Cisplatinum, Dacarbazin and radioactive iodine therapy. After oncological evaluation she was addressed to the First Surgery Clinic for thyroidectomy totalisation and the treatment of an umbilical tumour occurred after the fourth cure (June-July 2005. The patient was evaluated by physical exam, ultrasonography and computed tomography (cervical and abdominal which revealed tumours in the cervical region and in the liver. Thyroidectomy totalisation with limphadenectomy and an abdominal laparoscopy and biopsy were performed. The pathologic exam diagnosed multiple metastasis of malignant melanoma (MM localized in the cervical region, in the liver, great omentum and cervical limphatic nodes. The postoperative follow-up revealed multiple bone mestastasis from the malignanat melanoma. The case particularities were: association of RD with 2 primitive malignant tumours (occult PTC and MM, both diagnosed histopathologically and the multiple bone metastasis developed in a short time.

  10. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature / Tumor fibroso solitário maligno da tiroide: relato de caso e revisão da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wellington, Alves Filho; Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti, Mahmoud; Daniel Marin, Ramos; Vergilius José Furtado de, Araujo-Filho; Patricia Picciarelli de, Lima; Claudio Roberto, Cernea; Lenine Garcia, Brandão.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O tumor fibroso solitário (SFT) é uma neoplasia rara de células fusiformes que mais frequentemente envolve a pleura, raramente ocorrendo em áreas extratorácicas. Já foram descritos 26 casos de SFT da tiroide. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente de 60 anos de idade com um histórico de 8 meses de aumento [...] do pescoço associado à disfagia. A paciente foi submetida a uma hemitiroidectomia direita e foi diagnosticado um SFT de tiroide. A imuno-histoquímica mostrou resultados positivos para o marcador CD34, e o grande número de mitoses e a presença de atipia celular sugerem que o tumor era maligno. Em nosso conhecimento, este é o segundo caso de STF da tiroide maligno já relatado. Dada a rara ocorrência desses tumores, a indicação de tratamento adjuvante e o prognóstico são incertos. Recomenda-se o acompanhamento de longo prazo depois da ressecção cirúrgica. Abstract in english Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enla [...] rgement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

  11. An extremely rare case of testicular malign neoplasm; alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma with long term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumay Ipekci

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Testicular neoplasm usually occur in men aged between 15 and 35. These are solid organ tumours and also should be operated when there is a suspicious clinical findings. Testis tumours are levelled after histopathology evaluation. The medical, surgical and follow-up strategies of well know testis tumours, such as seminomas, non-seminom germ cell tumours, have been established. In case of testis tumours rare entities may occur as rhabdomyosarcoma.We here presented a rare case of   alveolar subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma in testis with long term follow-up.

  12. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaad, K.; Chetty, R.

    2005-01-01

    Pancreatic serous neoplasms are rare but account for the most common type of pancreatic cystic neoplasms. The vast majority of serous cystic tumours are benign (serous cystadenoma). A few cases of clinically more aggressive and metastatic serous tumours have been reported in the literature, and designated as malignant (serous cystadenocarcinoma). Due to the rarity of malignant pancreatic serous neoplasms, their true incidence is still unclear. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas can be a ...

  13. Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Struma Testis with Malignant Transformation in the Lung Associated with Trisomy 17 Successfully Treated with Total Thyroidectomy and Radioiodine Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Shadi; Odem, Jamie; Batanian, Jacqueline R.; Raza, Shahzad; Khan, Uzma Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background Struma testis is a rare entity, and there are only few reports on the malignant transformation of a testicular teratoma to papillary thyroid carcinoma in the literature. In this report, we describe the malignant transformation of struma testis with distant lung metastasis associated with trisomy 17 and a coexisting papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid. Case Report A 56-year-old man presented after a left orchiectomy for an undescended left testicle. Pathologic examination identified a monodermal teratoma composed of thyroid parenchyma and associated with a 1.7-cm papillary thyroid carcinoma. Further evaluation showed a pulmonary mass on a chest CT scan. Total thyroidectomy revealed a 0.5-mm focus of papillary thyroid cancer, and removal of the lung mass confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid cancer. Array-comparative genomic hybridization of both tumors showed trisomy 17 in the struma testes and the lung metastasis. The patient responded well to radioactive iodine ablation and has no evidence of cancer 3 years later. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case of papillary thyroid cancer in struma testes metastatic to the lung. It highlights the difficulties in treating these patients. Surgery to remove cancer foci, followed by radioactive iodine ablation, resulted in an excellent response in our patient. Interestingly, trisomy 17, which has so far been observed only in noninvasive thyroid nodules, was associated with pulmonary metastasis in our patient. PMID:25520651

  14. Incidence of malignant hemopathies and thyroid carcinomas in infants less than 15 years old around the nuclear site of Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to determine, for the last ten years (1985-1995), the incidence of malignant blood diseases and thyroid carcinomas for children less than fifteen years old in a periphery of 35 km around the nuclear site of Marcoule. The conclusions are that it does not seem to exist a sur-incidence of these pathologies around Marcoule. But a surveillance register is placed for these carcinomas for the coming years, because of the choices made by the site of Marcoule and the expected developments. (N.C.)

  15. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  16. Second neoplasms following radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While radiotherapy and antineoplastic chemotherapy often control malignancies they may, paradoxically, cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Although almost any type of neoplasm can occur, radiation-induced malignancies are most likely to affect the myelopoietic tissues and the thyroid gland. The former tissues are also most frequently involved by chemotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and intensive chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. Acute myeloid leukemia has occurred with increased frequency following treatment of Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, polycythemia vera, carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and carcinoma of the breast. Radiation-induced malignancies usually occur in the field of irradiation. Tumors developing in an irradiated field include a substantial number of soft tissue sarcomas or osteosarcomas. There is a 20-fold increase of second cancers following treatment of childhood malignancies, mostly sarcomas of bone and soft tissues, but including leukemia, and carcinomas of the thyroid gland, skin, and breast. The latent period between radiotherapy and the appearance of a second cancer ranges from 2 years to several decades, often being 10-15 years. With chemotherapy the mean latent period is shorter, approximately 4 years. The mechanism of oncogenesis by radiotherapy or chemotherapy is poorly understood and probably involves a complex interplay of somatic mutation, co-oncogenic effects, depression of host immunity, stimulation of cellular proliferation, and genetic susceptibility

  17. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99mTc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area in agreement with currently accepted Japanese lymphatic anatomy. It is important to confirm lymphatic drainage to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. (author)

  18. Guideline for therapy of malignant thyroid tumours. Pleading for an actualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total (or near total) thyroidectomy (TE) followed by radioiodine (131I) ablation (RIA) of residual thyroid tissue is considered to be the ideal treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the actual guideline of the DGN (German Society of Nuclear Medicine) recommends for the so-called papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid (PMC) no further therapeutic strategy (no complete TE, no 131I-ablation of the remaining lobe). PMC has been defined as papillary carcinoma measuring 1 cm (T1) in maximal diameter according to the World Health Organization classification system for thyroid tumours (1988). The new WHO-classification (starting in 2003) defines the T1-tumour measuring 2 cm in maximal diameter. The authors demand a new, modern guideline, following the new WHO classification. This includes, that despite the overall excellent prognosis for patients with PMC, the treatment of patients with T1-tumours of the new WHO-classification (including the 'old' PMC) should not be different from the treatment of patients with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, i.e. complete surgery (TE and central lymph node dissection) followed by RIA of residual thyroid tissue. The authors argue that it is not appropriate to consider the tumour size as the single most important key factor for therapy and prognosis. Even small tumours may have poor prognostic factors, such as lymph node metastasis, multifocality or molecular characteristics (expression of oncogenes). (orig.)

  19. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Malignancies of the Thyroid and in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jeppe Kiilerich; Rohde, Max

    2015-01-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in a spectrum of malignant and benign conditions, because of a high sensitivity to detect even very small lesions with increased metabolism. This review focuses on the use of FDG-PET/CT in malignancies of the thyroid gland and in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. THE INCIDENCE OF THYROID MALIGNANCY IN NODULAR GOITER: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS IN A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malignancy in nodular goiter has been found to vary from 4% to 17%. Our aim is to determine the incidence of malignancy in nodular goiter by doing the histopathological examination of thyroidectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was carried out on patients who are undergone thyroidectomy for clinically diagnosed nodular goiter in Fr . Muller Medical College Hospital during 2012 - 2014 (3 yrs. All the operated specimens were subjected to a histopathological examination to determine the incidence of malignancy. RESULTS: Among the 258 nodular goitre cases which were studied, 21 (8.1% cases contained malignant foci. Among them, papillary carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy observed. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy in nodular goitre should not to be underestimated. Total/ Near - total thyroidectomy is the preferred operation. All the operated specimens should be sent for histopathological examination

  1. Probability of malignancy in non-palpable thyroid nodules. Predictive value of color Doppler ultrasound and cytological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound and Doppler criteria in the differentiation of malignant nodules, using cytological diagnosis as standard reference. Material and Method: Prospective observational study in 200 patients, between March-September 2008, assessed for known thyroid nodular disease using FNA. The probability of malignancy was categorized as low (0-3), intermediate (4-7) or high (greater than 7). The procedures were performed using Medison Sonoline ultrasound equipment, with a linear transducer (7.5 MHz), and the aspiration was performed with a 25 G needle and sent to cytology immediately. A single sample was needed in 88% of cases. Results: Approximately 96% of the nodules that went to cytology were categorized as low-grade, 3% as intermediate and 1% as high, without significant differences (p>0.5) when compared with the ultrasound score. Sonographic features indicating a high probability of malignancy were found in 2% (n=5) of cases, and the diagnosis was confirmed by cytology in 2 cases. Malignancy criteria such as size (>1 cm), irregular contours, solid echo structure, calcifications, and intranodal Doppler showed variable sensitivity and specificity (S: 32-44% and E: 28-55%) with overlapping confidence intervals within lesions of intermediate and low probability. Low probability lesions showed isoechogenicity, regular contours, lack of calcifications and intralesional Doppler, for a negative predictive value of 62-77%. Conclusion: Our results suggest that overlapping sonographic features between benign and malignant nodules requires final cytological diagnosis in most cases, given the safety of the cytological technique and the short waiting time.

  2. Cardioprotective effects of fullerenol C(60)(Oh)(24) on a single dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injac, R; Perse, M; Boskovic, M; Djordjevic-Milic, V; Djordjevic, A; Hvala, A; Cerar, A; Strukelj, B

    2008-02-01

    The therapeutic utility of the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of fullerenol C(60)(OH)(24) in preventing single, high-dose doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with malignant neoplasm. Experiment was performed on adult female Sprague Dawley rats with chemically induced mammary carcinomas. The animals were sacrificed two days after the application of doxorubicin and/or fullerenol, and the serum activities of CK, LDH and alpha-HBDH, as well as the levels of MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR, and TAS in the heart, were determined. The results obtained from the enzymatic activity in the serum show that the administration of a single dose of 8 mg/kg in all treated groups induces statistically significant damage. There are significant changes in the enzymes of LDH and CK (p < 0.05), after an i.p. administration of doxorubicin/fullerenol and fullerenol. Comparing all groups with untreated control group, point to the conclusion that in the case of a lower alpha-HBDH/LDH ratio, results in more serious the liver parenchymal damage. The results revealed that doxorubicin induced oxidative damage and that the fullerenol antioxidative influence caused significant changes in MDA, GSH, GSSG, GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, GR, and TAS level in the heart (p < 0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that fullerenol might be a potential cardioprotector in doxorubicin-treated individuals. PMID:18198920

  3. Predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm incidence and mortality due to secondary neutrons in a girl and boy receiving proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the predicted risks of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) incidence and mortality from secondary neutrons for a 9-year-old girl and a 10-year-old boy who received proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI). SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons were predicted from equivalent doses to radiosensitive organs for cranial, spinal and intracranial boost fields. Therapeutic proton absorbed dose and equivalent dose from neutrons were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. Risks of SMN incidence and mortality in most organs and tissues were predicted by applying risks models from the National Research Council of the National Academies to the equivalent dose from neutrons; for non-melanoma skin cancer, risk models from the International Commission on Radiological Protection were applied. The lifetime absolute risks of SMN incidence due to neutrons were 14.8% and 8.5%, for the girl and boy, respectively. The risks of a fatal SMN were 5.3% and 3.4% for the girl and boy, respectively. The girl had a greater risk for any SMN except colon and liver cancers, indicating that the girl's higher risks were not attributable solely to greater susceptibility to breast cancer. Lung cancer predominated the risk of SMN mortality for both patients. This study suggests that the risks of SMN incidence and mortality from neutrons may be greater for girls than for boys treated with proton CSI.

  4. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates. Application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. (author)

  5. Risk of Secondary Malignant Neoplasms From Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated X-Ray Therapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the risk of a secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) from proton therapy relative to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using X-rays, taking into account contributions from both primary and secondary sources of radiation, for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A proton therapy plan and a 6-MV IMRT plan were constructed for 3 patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Doses from the primary fields delivered to organs at risk of developing an SMN were determined from treatment plans. Secondary doses from the proton therapy and IMRT were determined from Monte Carlo simulations and available measured data, respectively. The risk of an SMN was estimated from primary and secondary doses on an organ-by-organ basis by use of risk models from the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Results: Proton therapy reduced the risk of an SMN by 26% to 39% compared with IMRT. The risk of an SMN for both modalities was greatest in the in-field organs. However, the risks from the in-field organs were considerably lower with the proton therapy plan than with the IMRT plan. This reduction was attributed to the substantial sparing of the rectum and bladder from exposure to the therapeutic beam by the proton therapy plan. Conclusions: When considering exposure to primary and secondary radiation, proton therapy can reduce the risk of an SMN in prostate patients compared with contemporary IMRT.

  6. Increment of platelet during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm patients injected subcutaneously with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decrease of hematologic cells is one of the most severe morbidities in radiation therapy. Thrombocytopenia in particular has no effective treatment methods except blood transfusion. Thus, avoiding severe thrombocytopenia is considered to be one of the most important concerns. We treated 2 patients who had increment of platelets during radiation therapy in malignant neoplasm following subcutaneous injection with a mycobacterium tuberculosis-derived arabinomannan (Z-100). One patient was an 84-year-old woman suffering from uterine cervical carcinoma and the other was a 73-year-old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In both patients, platelets decreased after radiation therapy. Following subsequent injection of Z-100 subcutaneously, an increase in platelets was observed. The mechanisms of Z-100 to increase platelets in these patients are obscure, although some interleukins (IL) such as IL-6 might be related to the increment of the platelets. Thus, further studies will be required to evaluate the mechanisms of the increment of platelet in patients injected with Z-100. (author)

  7. Development of a clinical decision model for thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt John

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules represent a common problem brought to medical attention. Four to seven percent of the United States adult population (10–18 million people has a palpable thyroid nodule, however the majority (>95% of thyroid nodules are benign. While, fine needle aspiration remains the most cost effective and accurate diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules in current practice, over 20% of patients undergoing FNA of a thyroid nodule have indeterminate cytology (follicular neoplasm with associated malignancy risk prevalence of 20–30%. These patients require thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy purely for the purpose of attaining a definitive diagnosis. Given that the majority (70–80% of these patients have benign surgical pathology, thyroidectomy in these patients is conducted principally with diagnostic intent. Clinical models predictive of malignancy risk are needed to support treatment decisions in patients with thyroid nodules in order to reduce morbidity associated with unnecessary diagnostic surgery. Methods Data were analyzed from a completed prospective cohort trial conducted over a 4-year period involving 216 patients with thyroid nodules undergoing ultrasound (US, electrical impedance scanning (EIS and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA prior to thyroidectomy. A Bayesian model was designed to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules based on multivariate dependence relationships between independent covariates. Ten-fold cross-validation was performed to estimate classifier error wherein the data set was randomized into ten separate and unique train and test sets consisting of a training set (90% of records and a test set (10% of records. A receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC curve of these predictions and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to determine model robustness for predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Results Thyroid nodule size, FNA cytology, US and EIS characteristics were highly predictive of malignancy. Cross validation of the model created with Bayesian Network Analysis effectively predicted malignancy [AUC = 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82–0.94] in thyroid nodules. The positive and negative predictive values of the model are 83% (95%CI: 76%–91% and 79% (95%CI: 72%–86%, respectively. Conclusion An integrated predictive decision model using Bayesian inference incorporating readily obtainable thyroid nodule measures is clinically relevant, as it effectively predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. This model warrants further validation testing in prospective clinical trials.

  8. Tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas: ¿Una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno? / Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a neoplasm of low malignant potential?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Reaño; José, De Vinatea; José, Arenas; Fritz, Kometter; Luis, Villanueva; Edgar, Gonzáles; Mónica, Uribe; Jorge, Tang; Guillermo, Casas; Hernán, Robledo.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas es considerado una neoplasia de bajo potencial maligno, por lo que la radicalidad del abordaje quirúrgico es aún controversial. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Se describe y analiza en forma retrospectiva los datos clínicos, radiológicos, de laboratorio, [...] el reporte operatorio y el resultado patológico de 7 pacientes que fueron diagnosticados y operados por tumor sólido pseudopapilar del páncreas en el período 2003 al 2010, en nuestra institución. RESULTADOS: Seis pacientes fueron de sexo femenino y uno masculino. La mediana de edad fue 35 años (rango: 15-49). El síntoma más frecuente fue dolor abdominal (100%). Se presentó ictericia en un paciente (14.3%). La apariencia radiológica mixta sólido-quística fue la más frecuente. En 5 pacientes el tumor se localizó en la cabeza del páncreas (71.4%) y en 2 se ubicó en la cola (28.6%). La mediana del tamaño tumoral fue de 93 mm (rango: 20-150) Se realizó 4 procedimientos de Whipple (57.1%), 2 pancreatectomías distales con esplenectomía (28.6%), una por vía laparoscópica y una resección local. En 2 casos (28.6%) se encontró el borde de sección pancreático comprometido. Se presentó morbilidad en 4 pacientes. No hubo mortalidad postoperatoria, ni reoperaciones. Cuatro tumores mostraron comportamiento maligno (57.1%): infiltración de cápsula esplénica y metástasis hepática metacrónica (1), infiltración de arteria mesentérica superior (1), metástasis linfática (1) y metástasis hepática sincrónica, infiltración duodenal e invasión linfovascular (1). No se detectó mortalidad por la enfermedad durante el período de seguimiento que fue en promedio 26 meses (rango: 6-70 meses). CONCLUSIÓN: El tumor sólido pseudopapilar es una neoplasia con alto potencial maligno en nuestra experiencia, por lo que recomendamos una actitud quirúrgica agresiva, con resecciones radicales incluyendo linfadenectomía. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas is considered a neoplasm of low malignant potential. The radicality of surgical approach is controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe and analyze retrospectively the clinical, radiological, laboratory, operative report and pathology res [...] ults of seven patients who were diagnosed and operated by solid pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas in the period 2003 to 2010, in our institution. RESULTS: Six patients were female and one male. The median age was 35 years (range: 15-49). The most common symptom was abdominal pain (100%). Jaundice in one patient (14.3%). The radiological appearance mixed solid-cystic was the most common. We performed four Whipple procedures (57.1%), 2 distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (28.6%), one by laparoscopy and the other by local resection. Morbidity presented in four patients. There was no postoperative mortality or reoperation. Five tumors were located in the pancreatic head (71.4%) and two in the tail (28.6%). The median tumor size was 93 mm (range: 20-150). Two (28.6%) were R1 resections. Four tumors showed malignant behavior (57.1%): splenic capsule and infiltration of metachronous liver metastases (1), infiltration of superior mesenteric artery (1), lymphatic metastasis (1) and synchronous liver metastases, and lymphovascular invasion duodenal infiltration (1). There was no mortality from the disease during the average follow-up of 26 months (range 6-70 months). CONCLUSION: Solid pseudo papillary tumor is a neoplasm with high malignant potential in our experience. We recommend an aggressive surgical approach with radical resection including lymphadenectomy.

  9. FAMILIAL NONMEDULLARY THYROID CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voichi?a Mogo?

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer which represents 90-95% of all thyroid malignancies may occur in at least 5% of cases as familial disease. Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC is defined as the existence of two or more first degree relatives affected within a family. FNMTC may occur in two situations: pure FNMTC in which FNMTC is the predominant neoplasm although other cancers may occur with increased frequency (non syndromic NMTC and syndromic NMTC in which other cancers or association of tumors are the most predominant feature and thyroid cancer is associated with known frequency. Most patients with syndromic NMTCs are asymptomatic, but genetic screening for the syndrome allows an early diagnosis and adequate surgery. Syndromic and non-syndromic FNMTC may represent 5-15% from all follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas. Four susceptibility loci for pure FNMTC have been described: TCO – familial thyroid carcinoma with oxyphilia on chromosome 19p13.2, FPTC/PRN – familial papillary thyroid carcinoma with papillary renal neoplasia (carcinoma on chromosome 1q13.2-1q22, NMTC1 – non medullary thyroid carcinoma type 1 on chromosome 2q21, NMG1 – multinodular goiter with papillary thyroid carcinoma on chromosome 14q32. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, but the candidate genes are unknown. Most authors agree that pure FNMTC have a more aggressive behavior: multifocality, bilaterality, association with other thyroid disease (nodules and thyroiditis, trend to spread locally and in lymph nodes, higher recurrence rate, lower disease-free survival. Syndromic FNMTCs occur in the following syndromes in which FNMTC occurs with a known frequency: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and Gardner’s syndrome (associated FNMTC - 5%, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (PTEN/PHTS - associated FNMTC - 10%, Carney’s complex (associated FNMTC - 10-25%, Werner’s syndrome (associated FNMTC - up to 18%. Knowing the aggressiveness of FNMTCs, affected individuals must be prospectively researched by screening, aggressively treated and closely monitored. Their relatives must be also monitored for early diagnosis known the phenomenon of genetic anticipation.

  10. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  11. Synaptophysin expression in neuroendocrine neoplasms as determined by immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, V. E.; Wiedenmann, B.; Lee, I.; Schwechheimer, K.; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B.; Radosevich, J. A.; Moll, R.; Franke, W. W.

    1987-01-01

    Synaptophysin is an integral membrane glycoprotein originally isolated from presynaptic vesicles of bovine neurons. The authors have studied a wide spectrum of neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms by immunofluorescence microscopy on cryostat sections of freshly frozen tissues using a monoclonal antibody to this protein (SY 38). Without exception, they found the identical--or a very similar--protein expressed in all neuroblastomas, ganglioneuroblastomas, ganglioneuromas, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas studied. In these "neural" type NE neoplasms, synaptophysin was coexpressed with neurofilament proteins. Synaptophysin was also demonstrated in NE neoplasms of "epithelial" type in which it was predominantly coexpressed with cytokeratins and desmoplakin. It was invariably found in all variants of islet cell neoplasms and in all medullary thyroid carcinomas. Synaptophysin was also demonstrated in several adenomas of the hypophysis and parathyroids, in the majority of carcinoids of the bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal tracts, and in many, though not all, NE carcinomas of the same sites, and of the skin. Conversely, SY 38 did not immunostain any of a large number of benign and malignant non-NE epithelial neoplasms; nor was any immunostaining obtained in a group of mesenchymal tumors. It is remarkable that SY 38 did not immunostain a number of malignant melanomas, including several that were immunostained for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and several neuropeptides. Parallel studies conducted on conventionally fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections immunostained by the use of the avidin-biotin complex technique yielded very similar results. The findings indicate that synaptophysin is expressed in the whole range of NE neoplasms without detectable relation to the expression of other NE markers such as NSE, serotonin, and neuropeptides. Nor could the expression of synaptophysin by these tumors be correlated with their epithelial and/or neural cytoskeletal characteristics, their clinical aggressiveness, or the presence or absence of endocrinologic abnormalities. While the consistent expression of synaptophysin by the "neural" type of NE neoplasms would seem predictable its presence in diverse benign and malignant NE tumors of "epithelial" type is remarkable. It is concluded that synaptophysin is a significant as well as novel NE marker, and the use of antibody SY 38 as a broad range marker for the study and diagnosis of NE neoplasms is proposed. Images Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5a and b Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3103452

  12. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Tomei Sara; Marchetti Ivo; Zavaglia Katia; Lessi Francesca; Apollo Alessandro; Aretini Paolo; Di Coscio Giancarlo; Bevilacqua Generoso; Mazzanti Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH) was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagno...

  13. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  14. Incidence of malignant neoplasi in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultra soud results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients. (Author)

  15. Presence of lung metastases in bitches affected by malignant mammary neoplasms in Medellin (Colombia) / Presencia de tumores mamarios malignos con metástasis a pulmón en perras en Medellín (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Brigitte, Gómez J; María, Ramírez R; Juan, Maldonado E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Definir la presencia de metástasis pulmonar en perras con tumores mamarios. Materiales y métodos. En una muestra de 30 perras atendidas en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Colombia) con diagnóstico de tumores mamarios, al momento de la consulta, fueron regi [...] strados las variables clínicas y el grado de compromiso de las glándulas mamarias y de los nódulos linfáticos. Imágenes radiográficas latero-laterales y ventro-dorsales del tórax fueron tomadas para la identificación de hallazgos radiográficos compatibles con metástasis pulmonar. Biopsias mamarias afectadas fueron sometidas a estudio histopatológico y clasificación del tipo de tumor. Los datos fueron analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados. La edad promedio (± error estándar) al diagnóstico clínico fue 10.87 ± 2.65 años de edad. La raza más frecuentemente afectada fue la French poodle (46.6%) seguida de perros cruzados (13.3%) y Schnauzer (10%). El carcinoma fue el tumor más hallado (81%) seguido del adenoma (8.1%) y otros tipos de tumor (10.8%). Las glándulas mamarias más afectadas fueron las inguinales derecha (70%) e izquierda (66.6%). Cinco de las 30 pacientes (16.6%), presentaron metástasis a pulmón. Entre estas, 4 de 5 (80%) tenían carcinoma complejo. Conclusiones. El carcinoma complejo fue la neoplasia más frecuente y es el tipo más relacionado con metástasis pulmonar. Abstract in english Objective. To define the presence of lung metastasis in bitches with malignant mammary neoplasms. Materials and methods. Thirty female dogs that were attended at Veterinary Hospital (University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia) were selected for the study. At consultation clinical variables and grad [...] e of mammary and inguinal lymph node compromise were registered. Latero-lateral and ventral-dorsal radiographic images of thorax were done for identification of radiographic lesions suggestive of lung metastasis. At surgery biopsies of affected mammary glands were taken for histopathological study and classification of tumors. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results. The average (± standard error) age at clinical diagnosis was 10.87±2.65 year old. French poodle (46.6%) cross-breed (13.3%) and Schnauzer (10%) were the breeds most frequently affected by mammary tumors. The most frequent tumor found was carcinoma (81%), followed by adenoma (8.1%), and other types (10.8%). The most frequently affected mammary glands by tumors were the right and the left inguinal glands (70% and 66.6%, respectively). Five out of 30 bitches (16.6%) had lung metastasis according to radiographic examination. From this group of dogs, 4 out of 5 neoplasms (80%) were diagnosed as complex carcinoma by histopathology diagnosis. Conclusions. We provide evidence suggesting that complex carcinoma is the most frequent mammary tumor in bitches in our city and it is highly related to lung metastasis.

  16. Cytodiagnosis of thyroid lesions-usefulness and pitfalls: A study of 288 cases

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    Guhamallick M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the thyroid gland has been widely and successfully utilized for diagnosis. Aim: Our aim was to demonstrate the effectiveness of this cheap and simple procedure for the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions, particularly, differentiation of malignant and nonmalignant lesions. In addition, we sought to highlight probable causes of error and possible remedies in the cases showing lack of correlation between cytological and histological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 cases of thyroid swellings were aspirated in our two-year study period. Cases were divided into four groups, namely, aspiration inadequate where diagnosis was not offered; a nonneoplastic group which included different goiters and thyroiditis; an indeterminate group which included cases showing features of follicular or Hurthle cell neoplasms, and a malignant group that included nonfollicular malignant tumors of the thyroid. Cases showing cytohistologic disparity were reevaluated. Results: Almost 14% of the cases could not be reported because of inadequate aspiration, however, an overall cytohistological correlation was achieved in 82.66% of all cases. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of malignancy were 92.7 and 98.2%, respectively. There were four false negative malignant cases with one false positive case and 13 cases failed to show any cytohistological correlation. Conclusions: FNAC is the single most important test for preoperative assessment of thyroid pathology if attention is paid to the clinical features and collection of samples from proper sites.

  17. Características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de pacientes operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea / Clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for suspected thyroid malignancy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adalberto, Infante Amorós; Zussel, Rodríguez Obret; Regla, Ramos Duarte.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el carcinoma tiroideo se caracteriza por su lenta evolución y elevado porcentaje de curación. Objetivo: describir las características clínicas, ultrasonográficas y anatomopatológicas de los pacientes operados. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo. Se utilizaron para obtener el d [...] ato primario las historias clínicas de los pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión: operados por sospecha de malignidad tiroidea, mayores de 18 años de edad que contaron con datos completos demográficos, clínicos, sonográficos y anatomopatológicos, y que estuviesen inscritos en el hospital. Se confeccionaron tablas de distribución de frecuencias. Se aplicó la prueba de comparación de proporciones para describir la significación estadística de las variables estudiadas en relación con la malignidad tiroidea. Resultados: el 81,8 % de los pacientes afectados de malignidad tiroidea correspondió al género femenino. El 39,4 % de estos correspondieron al grupo de edad entre 41 y 50 años, el 75,8 % de este grupo de pacientes correspondió al examen sonográfico con un área del nódulo tiroideo mayor de 10 mm, el 53,3 % de estos pacientes presentó como morfología tiroidea el nódulo único, y el 75,8 % presentó como resultado de la citología con aguja fina un carcinoma de tiroides. El 91 % presentó como clasificación histológica carcinoma papilar. Conclusiones: la mayor frecuencia de carcinoma fue la variante papilar. Se encontró de forma predominante en mujeres con edades entre los 41 y 50 años que tenían nódulos mayores de 1 cm. Abstract in english Introduction: thyroid carcinoma is characterized by slow progression and high recovery percentage. Objective: to describe the clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological characteristics of patients operated on for thyroid malignancy. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study for which the [...] primary data were collected from the medical histories of patients who met the inclusion criteria. These criteria comprised surgery for suspected thyroid malignancy, age over 18 years, and complete demographic, clinical, ultrasonographic and anatomopathological data and registration at the hospital. Frequency distribution tables were drawn up. The ratio comparison test was applied to describe the statistical significance of the studied variables with respect to the thyroid malignancy. Results: in the group of patients with thyroid malignancy, 81.8 % were females, 39.4 % aged 41 to 50 years. The ultrasonographic test showed that 75.8 % of them had a thyroid nodule area greater than 10 mm, 53.3 % presented solitary nodule morphology whereas the result of the fine needle aspiration cytology was thyroid carcinoma. The histological classification yielded papillary carcinoma in 91 % of patients. Conclusions: the papillary carcinoma was the most common, particularly in females aged 41 to 50 years who had over 1 cm nodules.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of 99mTc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI in the evaluation of thyroid nodules for malignancy: a new lease of life for an old radiopharmaceutical?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Heinzel, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Research Centre Juelich, Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Juelich (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    For many years it has been known that MIBI (methoxyisobutylisonitrile) scintigraphy can also be used in the diagnostic work-up of scintigraphically cold and therefore suspicious thyroid nodules in connection with fine needle biopsy. Recently, in a comparable meta-analysis in conjunction with a prior 99m-Tc pertechnate thyroid scintigraphy it was shown that MIBI scintigraphy can achieve a very high negative predictive value ranging from 88% to 100% with a mean of 97%. This indicates that a negative MIBI scan will obviate the need to surgically remove the thyroid nodule for definitive histological clarification in the large majority of patients, as the risk of malignancy in such a nodule is very low.

  20. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

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    Kim Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

  1. Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV

    OpenAIRE

    De Micco, C; Savchenko, V.; Giorgi, R.; Sebag, F; Henry, J-F

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas). Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 or TPO expression (% positive cells) and DPP4 staining score (12-point scale) were evaluated. Receive...

  2. Diagnostic value of PET/CT combined with ultrasound for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions incidentally found by 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT combined with ultrasound (US) imaging for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions. Methods: Seventy-three thyroid lesions incidentally found by 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were enrolled.Final diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology or cytology. Interpretations of PET/CT and US included a subjective classification on a 3-point scale (0: probably benign, 1: uncertain, 2: probably malignant), along with the longest diameter measure and SUVmax of the thyroid lesions. The accuracies of PET/CT, US and PET/CT + US for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions were compared by ROC curve analysis, with a Z test to compare the AUC. The Kappa test, t-test and ?2 test were also used. Results: Of the 73 thyroid lesions, there were 43 (59%) malignant and 30 (41%) benign lesions. The SUVmax of malignant lesions was significantly higher than that of benign lesions (7.0±8.1 vs 4.1±3.8; t=2.062, P=0.043), and the longest diameter of malignant lesions was smaller than that of benign lesions (2.0 ± 1.1 vs 2.7 ± 1.4; t=2.628, P=0.011). To differentiate malignant from benign thyroid lesions, the AUC of SUVmax was 0.580 (95% CI: 0.448-0.713). After analyzing the features of PET and CT images,the AUC of PET/CT was significantly improved to 0.763 (95% CI: 0.647-0.878; Z=2.033, P=0.042). The AUC of US (0.905, 95% CI: 0.826-0.983) and PET/CT + US (0.909, 95% CI: 0.840-0.979) were significantly higher than that of PET/CT (Z =1.992 and 2.112, both P<0.05) or SUVmax (Z=4.120 and 4.276, both P<0.001). The optimal sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were 42% (18/43), 83% (25/30), 59% (43/73), 78% (18/23), 50% (25/50) for SUVmax, 79% (34/43), 80% (24/30), 79% (58/73), 85% (34/40), 73%(24/33) for PET/CT, 84% (36/43), 90% (27/30), 86% (63/73), 92%(36/39), 79% (27/34) for US, and 98% (42/43), 67% (20/30), 85% (62/73), 81%(42/52), 95% (20/21) for PET/CT + US, respectively. Agreement was poor for SUVmax (Kappa=0.229, P=0.023), fair for PET/CT (Kappa=0.582, P<0.001), and good for US (Kappa=0.668, P<0.001) and PET/CT + US (Kappa=0.674, P<0.001). Compared with PET/CT, the sensitivity of PET/CT + US was significantly higher (?2=6.125, P=0.008), while the specificity had no statistical difference (?2=2.250, P>0.05). Conclusion: By combining PET/CT with US, the diagnostic efficacy is significantly improved in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions found by 18F-FDG PET/CT. (authors)

  3. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies

  4. Evaluation of thyroid scans with Tc-99m-sestamibi in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. This study tries to evaluate the role of sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodule, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injection of 15 mCi of Tc-99m-MIBI in 4 phases (Angiography-First 10 minutes-15 minutes and 2-3 hours after injection). Thyroid MIBI uptake was scaled in 5 scores (0-4) with no uptake considered 0 and hot nodule as score 4. Patients underwent thyroid surgery and results of pathology are correlated with MIBI uptake. Results: From 37 patients (27 female, 10 male, mean age: 35.5 years +/- 13.6) 16 malignant and 21 benign nodules were detected. In another classification, we had 26 neoplastic and 11 non-neoplastic nodules. MIBI uptake score 3-4 was noted in 11 out of 16 malignant nodules and 13 out of 21 benign nodules (P=0.73). Sensitivity and specificity for high MIBI uptake (score 3-4) for diagnosis of malignancy was 68.7% and 38% respectively. The numbers were 69.2% and 30.7% in diagnosis of neoplasm respectively. Washout index (considered as difference in uptake scores of late and early phases) was 0.45 in benign and 0.09 in malignant nodules (P=0.07). The values were 0.26 and 0.37 in neoplastic and non-neoplastic nodules respectively (P=0.65). Conclusion: Thyroid MIBI uptake in 15 minutes has a low specificity for differentiating malignant from benign or even neoplastic from non-neoplastic nodules in patients who are candidate for thyroid surgery according to clinical evaluation. Analysis of wash out index may increase specificity. (author)

  5. Neoplasms in persons treated with x-rays in infancy: fourth survey in 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of neoplastic disease was determined by a mail survey of 2,872 young adults given x-ray treatments in infancy and of their 5,005 nonirradiated siblings. Newly diagnosed benign and malignant neoplasms appeared more frequently in the irradiated subjects than in their siblings or the age- and sex-matched general population of upstate New York. Only thyroid neoplasms occurred in sufficient numbers to permit statistical analysis for the effects on incidence of sex, age, and dose, and of being in a high-risk group (sub-group C). Thyroid cancers developed earlier in life than did benign neoplasms, especially in boys; benign goiters occurred after smaller doses, predominantly in females. Females had a greater risk of developing thyroid cancer than males--2.3 times for females of all ages and 5 times for young adults. Except for young adult females, there was no definite age effect. The risk of cancer (but not of benign goiter) was proportional to the thyroid dose, with a linear risk coefficient of 2.5/year/million people exposed to 1 rad for the entire irradiated population and 4.0 for subgroup C. The high risk of thyroid cancer in subgroup C may be the result of the high percentage of Jews, who had a 3.4-fold greater risk than non-Jews. Young adult Jewish females had a 17-fold increased risk. An incidental observation was an apparent increased incidence of asthma and rare diseases with abnormal immunologic features in the irradiated population. (auth)

  6. HYALINIZING TRABECULAR ADENOMA FEIGNING PAPILLARY CARCINOMA THYROID: CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    Kandukuri Mahesh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyalinizing Trabecular Adenoma (HTA of the thyroid is a rare neoplasm that was first described by Carney in 1987. It is a tumor of follicular derivation with peculiar nuclear, architectural, histochemical, and immunohistochemical features. We report a case of Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma in a 36-year-old woman with enlarged thyroid lobe. Ultrasonographic features and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of the enlarged thyroid was performed and the diagnosis given was Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy, with a histopathological diagnosis of hyalinizing trabecular Adenoma (HTA. We present this case in view of its rarity and to discuss the clinical and diagnostic approach, including the role of FNAC, and the pathologic features of HTA with special reference to the possible differential diagnosis and also review of literature. Although rare cases of malignant Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma (HTA have been documented, this tumor should be considered a benign neoplasm or at most, a neoplasm of extremely low malignant potential, however invasion of the capsule should be considered on histopathology. An awareness of hyalinizing trabecular adenomas and their characteristic features is valuable for their recognition and management as well as for the possible prevention of over diagnosis and over treatment for benign disease

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in thyroid lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of different thyroid lesions. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective study of 296 diagnosed cases of thyroid nodules referred to cytology unit, pathology department, NCI, who underwent FNAC for diagnosis. The results were categorized according to the recent Bethesda classification into: insufficient for diagnosis, benign, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy, and malignant sampling. The final histologic diagnosis and/or clinico-radiologic follow-up assessment for non-neoplastic lesions were considered the gold standard. Results: The study included 296 cases presented with thyroid nodules who underwent diagnostic thyroid FNAC. Female to male ratio was 5.2:1, and the median age was 44 years. Ninety-eight cases (33.1%) were diagnosed as benign, 40 cases (13.5%) as follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 49 cases (16.5%) as follicular neoplasm, 30 cases (10.1%) as suspicious for malignancy, 58 cases (19.5%) as malignant, and 21 cases (7.1%) as unsatisfactory. Nodular hyperplasia represented the majority of benign cases (89.8%), while papillary carcinoma was the most frequent malignant lesion (72.4%). Cytologic diagnoses were compared with their corresponding final histologic ones. FNAC achieved a sensitivity of 92.8, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 94.9%, a negative predictive value of 91.8%, a false positive rate of 7.2%, a false negative rate of 5.8%, and a total accuracy of 93.6%.

  8. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality because of neoplasia was examined in Segment III dogs exposed to 0,20, or 100 R of 60Co gamma radiation in prenatal and early postnatal life. During the inital 10 years of the experiment (through January 31, 1978) 20 dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumors in these 19 irradiated dogs included 5 malignant lymphomas, 8 carcinomas (2 of mammary origin, 2 of prostatic origin, and 1 each or oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), 4 sarcomas (2 hemangiosarcomas, 1 fibrosarcoma and 1 mast cell sarcoma), 1 astrocytoma, and 1 hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100R) and 70 dpp (100R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100R. Four of the tumors in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before 2 years of age. The earliest death was at 3 months, because of an astrocytoma. A single sham-irradiated dog died or a malignant tumor, a mammary carcinoma. Preliminary analyses point to three findings of particular interest: the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs, the unusual finding of four deaths because of neoplasia prior to 2 years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs, and the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  9. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Hae Kyeong; Kim, Yoon Sook; Lee, Shin Hyung; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Chong Soon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors.

  10. Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) of thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous alcohol injection (PAI) is a new sclerosing method for treatment of diseases such as cyst, malignant tumor and benign neoplasm. Percutaneous alcohol injection of 26 cases (adenomatous goiter 23 cases, follicular adenoma 2 cases and recurrent papillary carcinoma 1 case) of thyroid nodules were done with 23-G needle under the guidance of ultrasonography. After then, we followed up thyroid function test, ultrasonographical size and volume of nodules, cytologic examination and complications of treatment. The results were as follows: 1. With 0.5-1 cc alcohol injection, the mean volume of thyroid nodules were reduced after PAI to 59% (N=26) at 1 month, and to 33% (N=14, cases of additional PAI) at 6 month, of the base line volume (100%) before PAI. 2. There were no significant changes at 1 and 6 months follow-up of TFT after PAI in all cases as compared with base line studies. 3. In conclusion, ultrasonic guided PAI for thyroid nodule is simple, useful and cost-effective method, and recommendable in cases of mixed and solid nodules resistant to medical treatment, refuse of surgery because of cosmetic problem and recurrent malignant tumors

  11. Unusual Presentation of Cystic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Vijayraj S.; Abhishek Vijayakumar; Neelamma Natikar

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 80% of all thyroid cancers. The most common presentation of thyroid cancer is an asymptomatic thyroid mass or a nodule. Usually as thyroid enlarges, it extends in to mediastinum. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presentation as multiple true cystic swelling extending from neck to anterior chest wall in subcutaneous plane is not present in the literature. We present a rare case of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma wh...

  12. Late cutaneous metastases to the face from malignant pleural mesothelioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Julia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant Mesothelioma is a rare primary neoplasm affecting the serosal membranes. During its relative short course, this malignant neoplasm can give local and, rarely, distant haematogenous metastases in different organs. The reported metastatic sites include liver, lung, heart, brain, thyroid, adrenals, kidneys, pancreas, bone, soft tissue, skin and lymph nodes. Case Presentation We report a sixty one year-old man with a history of malignant pleural epithelioid mesothelioma treated with six cycles of Pemetrexed and Carboplatin completed 03/11/04 followed by radiotherapy to the drain site 250 Kv/TD20Gy/5F completed 13/12/2004. Then he developed multiple facial skin lesions 4 years later. These lesions were proved to be metastatic malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Conclusion Mesothelioma metastases should be suspected in any known Mesothelioma patient with newly developed skin lesion.

  13. Thyroid Cancer Initially Presenting Compression Fracture without Common Thyroid Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dong Hwan; Yoo, Seung Don; Kim, Sung Min; Im, Sung Jig; Kang, Jin Kyu; Cho, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the commonest endocrinological malignancy. After papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common histological subtype. Common presentations of FTC include a solitary thyroid nodule and cervical lymphadenopathy. The incidence of individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer showing initially distant metastatic disease ranges from 1 to 9%. Also, the incidence of solitary bone metastasis from thyroid is only 2 to 3%. We report a ca...

  14. Additional value of FDG PET/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with mural nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at determining the additional value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT to contrast-enhanced CT in the differentiation between benign and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas with mural nodules. This retrospective review of medical records was approved by our institutional review board. The preoperative PET/CT images of 16 non-diabetic patients with surgically proven IPMN, where mural nodules of 3 mm or larger were shown by preoperative contrast-enhanced CT, were retrospectively evaluated. The 16 patients were divided into two groups: 7 patients with benign IPMN [adenoma (n=1) and borderline tumor (n=6)] and 9 patients with malignant IPMN [carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n=8) and invasive carcinoma (n=1)]. Nuclear medicine physician blinded to the pathologic assessment of malignancy of IPMN set a spherical volume of interest (VOI) over the mural nodules on PET/CT images and recorded the peak standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the VOI, referring the contrast-enhanced CT images. Statistical differences in the size of mural nodule, the diameter of main pancreatic duct (MPD), and SUVmax of the tumors between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was set at pmax of the malignant IPMNs with mural nodules of 3 mm or larger was higher than that of benign IPMNs (2.7±0.6 vs. 1.9±0.3, p<0.01). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in mural nodule diameter and MPD diameter between the two groups. FDG PET/CT showed an excellent diagnostic accuracy for the differentiation between malignant and benign IPMNs with mural nodules: the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy in malignant IPMN with mural nodule of FDG PET/CT were 77.8, 100, 100, 77.8, and 87.5 for the cutoff value of 2.3; and 100, 57.1, 75.0, 100, and 81.3 for the cutoff value of 2.0, respectively. The result of this study indicates that FDG PET/CT can provide additional information for the differentiation between benign and malignant IPMNs of the pancreas with mural nodules. (author)

  15. Correlation of FDG-PET in the thyroid nodules with ultrasonographic and pathologic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the aspect of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the thyroid nodules and to find the correlation between ultrasonographic (US), pathologic and positron emission tomography (PET) results. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had pathologically confirmed thyroid neoplasm and who had undergone FDG-PET imaging from 9/2004 to 8/2005. There were 41 and 35 patients (9 men + 67 women, 52 years (29-76)) were confirmed to have papillary thyroid cancer by surgery and adenomatous hyperplasia by aspiration. 34 of the 41 patients underwent after US-guided aspiration biopsy, excepting 7 cases of thyroid incidentaloma (3 papillary cancers and 4 adenomatous hyperplasias) on PET. With the presence of perithyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis of papillary cancers in the pathologic report, malignant nodules were grouped to progressed and limited. We compared US findings and surgical results between thyroid nodules with and without FDG uptake on PET. 23 of the 41 papillary cancers and 9 of the 35 AHs showed increased FDG uptake. SUV of 23 papillary carcinoma and 9 AHs were similar (6.39±6.14 and 5.3±2.97). The size of thyroid nodules with FDG uptake was slightly larger than nodules without FDG uptake in both papillary cancer and AH. There are no remarkable difference of US findings between thyroid nodules with and without increased FDG uptake. 13 of 16 malignant nodules with SUV = 2 and 4 of 7 nodules with SUV < 2 were belonged to progressed group. There was significant difference of SUV and nodular between progressed and limited groups. Nodular size and SUV were positively correlated with each other (R = 0.56, P < 0, Pearson correlation). Thyroid nodules of increased FDG uptake are not necessarily indicative of malignant tumors. There are no remarkable US differences of thyroid nodules between with and without increased FDG uptake on PET. However, large malignant nodules show tendency to present increased FDG uptake and to be progressed

  16. Metastatic proclivities and patterns among APUD cell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, F L; Ketcham, A S

    1993-01-01

    Neoplasms of APUD cell origin are quite variable in their metastatic behavior. Whereas pituitary and parathyroid tumors almost never metastasize, all oat cell lung cancers, malignant melanomas, trabecular carcinomas of the skin and medullary thyroid cancers are capable of dissemination. The metastatic proclivity of individual carcinoids, pancreatic and extrapancreatic islet cell tumors, and paragangliomas is much less predictable. In particular, there are no reliable histological markers of risk for lymphatic or hematogenous dissemination. The behavior of many carcinoids, islet cell carcinomas and paragangliomas is relatively indolent, even when metastatic disease is already present. However, unresectable distant metastases, especially liver involvement, connote a poor prognosis. Mortality is more often related to uncontrolled tumor growth and metastasis than to associated endocrinopathies. Curative or debulking surgical resection should be aggressively pursued as recent data show that worthwhile clinical disease-free survival can be realized in at least some patients. PMID:7902611

  17. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, tumorigenesis and therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2010-03-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a fatal endocrine malignancy. Current therapy fails to significantly improve survival. Recent insights into thyroid tumorigenesis, post-malignant dedifferentiation and mode of metastatic activity offer new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Diagnostic value of PET and PET-CT for thyroid nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET and PET-CT has become an important tool in the postoperative management of de-differentiated thyroid cancer. But the value of this method in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules is unclear.Various groups of investigators have explored the potential role of 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT in patients with benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms especially those with indeterminate fine needle aspiration cytology findings. With the increasing demand for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT,clinicians are faced with the challenge of managing an increasing number of 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT detected thyroid incidentally because their significance remains unclear. The standardized uptake value of 18F-FDG is the most common semi-quantitative index and can be used to characterize malignant and benign thyroid nodules by describing the metabolism of glucose. This article reviewed the value of SUV in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. (authors)

  19. Myopathy following postoperative ablative radioiodine for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermione C Price

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hermione C Price, Vijay JayagopalCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, York Hospital, York, UKAbstract: We highlight a case of disabling myopathy following radioablative iodine treatment for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. A 34-year-old man presented with a tender neck swelling, ultrasound and biopsy were suggestive of thyroid malignancy. Thyroidectomy was undertaken and histology confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Treatment with ablative radioiodine followed and within days the patient developed disabling myopathy. Investigations to date do not reveal any other cause for the myopathy and there is no evidence to suggest that this is a paraneoplastic phenomenon. We believe this is the first reported case of ablative radioiodine-induced mypoathy.Keywords: thyroid neoplasms, muscular diseases, iodine radioisotopes

  20. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with 131I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without 131I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the 131I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with 131I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. 131I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between 131I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  1. Follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walts, Ann E; Mirocha, James; Bose, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the validity of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS), an indeterminate diagnostic category of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). According to BSRTC, FLUS carries a 5-15% risk of cancer. This study was designed to determine if cytomorphology could stratify FLUS into subgroups with different risks of malignancy. Reports of 127 consecutive FNAs reported as FLUS with subsequent tissue diagnoses were evaluated for the presence of various cytologic features and the results were correlated with histological diagnoses. FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia (nuclear overlap/crowding, nuclear grooves/membrane irregularities, nuclear enlargement, and/or nuclear pseudoinclusions) were more frequently malignant on excision whereas those with architectural atypia (microfollicles) were more often benign on excision (P architectural atypia were adenomas or hyperplastic nodules on histological evaluation. BSRTC recommends that thyroid aspirates containing follicular cell nuclear and/or architectural atypia insufficient for a diagnosis of suspicious for follicular neoplasm, suspicious for malignancy or malignant be classified as FLUS. Our findings indicate that FLUS cases with focal nuclear atypia carry a risk for malignancy that is substantially higher than that assigned to FLUS and are best classified as suspicious. FLUS cases lacking these atypical nuclear features have a risk for malignancy that approximates the risk BSRTC has assigned to FLUS. PMID:23894017

  2. [Histological and clinical characteristics of patients with malignant neoplasms of the upper respiratory tract treated in the Cracow Institute of Oncology 1971-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowa-Urbaniak, A; Niezabitowski, A

    1990-01-01

    The histologic and clinical characteristics of 591 patients treated in Cracow Oncologic Institute because of the malignant upper respiratory tract tumors during the years 1971-1980 were presented. The histologic examination were performed in Department of Tumor's Pathology. PMID:2084604

  3. Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pujani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult. Thus, additional diagnostic features that can assist in this distinction would have great clinical usefulness. Aims: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective study from a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Ki-67 immunostaining was performed by peroxidase-antiperoxidase method and compared with mitotic counts. Results: Ki-67 labeling index (LI showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms. A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05 and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05. The correlation between mitotic counts and Ki-67 LI was found to be significant. Conclusions: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.

  4. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  5. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  6. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides / Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Teresa, Marrero Rodríguez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH) en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma pap [...] ilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares). El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %), en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 %) y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %). En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia. Abstract in english The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular a [...] nd undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas). The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %), in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %), and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %). No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  7. Metilación del receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides: marcador diagnóstico de malignidad en cáncer de tiroides Methylation of the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: diagnostic marker of malignity in thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Marrero Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el estado de metilación del promotor del gen para el receptor de la hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH en el diagnóstico de tumores tiroideos de origen epitelial. El estudio se realizó en tejido tiroideo obtenido de bloques de parafina de diferentes patologías tiroideas (carcinoma papilar, folicular e indiferenciado, y adenomas foliculares. El trabajo se realizó empleando la técnica de modificación del ADN con bisulfito de sodio y el análisis del estado de la metilación del gen RTSH se realizó por el método de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa específica para metilación. Encontramos metilación del promotor para el gen del receptor de TSH en los carcinomas papilares (33 de 40; 82,5 %, en los 10 carcinomas indiferenciados (100 % y en 10 de los 15 carcinomas foliculares analizados (66,6 %. En cambio, no se observó metilación en los 8 adenomas foliculares analizados. Se propone la metilación del gen para el receptor de TSH como un nuevo marcador diagnóstico de malignidad, y una base para emplear agentes desmetilantes conjuntamente con la terapia con radioyodo, en los pacientes con cáncer de tiroides de origen epitelial que no respondan a la terapia.The methylation state of the gene promoter for the receptor of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in the diagnosis of thyroid tumors of epithelial origin was analyzed. The study was conducted in thyroid tissue obtained from paraffin blocks of different thyroid pathologies (papillary, follicular and undifferentiated carcinoma and follicular adenomas. The work was done by using the DNA modification technique with sodium bisulfite, and polymerase chain reaction was applied to analyze the gene methylation state. Methylation of the promoter for the gene of the TSH receptor was found in the papillary carcinomas (33 of 40; 82.5 %, in 10 undifferentiated carcinomas (100 %, and in 10 of the 15 follicular carcinomas analyzed (66.6 %. No methylation was observed in the 8 follicular adenomas under study. The methylation of the gene for the TSH receptor was proposed as a new diagnostic marker of malignity and as a basis for using demethylating agents together with radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer of epithelial origin that do not respond to therapy.

  8. Shear-Wave Elastography for the Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Lesions of the Thyroid: Diagnostic Accuracy and Optimal Measurement Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Anthony E; Dhyani, Manish; Anvari, Arash; Prescott, Jason; Halpern, Elkan F; Faquin, William C; Stephen, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) for the diagnosis of malignancy in follicular lesions and to identify the optimal SWE measurement plane. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, single-institution, prospective pilot study. Subjects scheduled for surgery after a previous fine-needle aspiration report of "atypia of undetermined significance" or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance," "suspicion for follicular neoplasm," or "suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm," were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Subjects underwent conventional ultrasonography (US), Doppler evaluation, and SWE preoperatively, and their predictive value for thyroid malignancy was evaluated relative to the reference standard of surgical pathologic findings. Results Thirty-five patients (12 men, 23 women) with a mean age of 55 years (range, 23-85 years) and a fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n = 16), suspicion for follicular neoplasm (n = 14), and suspicion for Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 5) were enrolled in the study. Male sex was a statistically significant (P = .02) predictor of malignancy, but age was not. No sonographic morphologic parameter, including nodule size, microcalcification, macrocalcification, halo sign, taller than wide dimension, or hypoechogenicity, was associated with malignancy. Similarly, no Doppler feature, including intranodular vascularity, pulsatility index, resistive index, or peak-systolic velocity, was associated with malignancy. Higher median SWE tissue Young modulus estimates from the transverse insonation plane were associated with malignancy, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 1.00) for differentiation of malignant from benign nodules. At a cutoff value of 22.3 kPa, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 82%, 88%, 75%, and 91%, respectively, were observed. Conclusion This prospective pilot study indicates that SWE may be a valuable tool in preoperative malignancy risk assessment of follicular-patterned thyroid nodules. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:25955578

  9. Investigation of thyroid nodules in the female population in Cyprus and in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra Piciu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The most common thyroid disorders, with an increasing detection worldwide, are the thyroid nodules and  thyroiditis, which leads to an increase of thyroid cancer incidence . In two different countries with a different exposure to risk factors for thyroid cancer, such as Cyprus and Romania, the rank of thyroid cancer among other neoplasms is very different: the 3rd most prevalent cancer among females in Cyprus and the 12th in Romania, respectively. Environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A have a proven effect on the thyroid function. However, the relation between the exposure to the endocrine disruptor and the development of thyroid nodules, with a potential of malignant transformation has not been previously studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential factors that lead to the difference of thyroid nodules incidence in the mentioned countries.Methods. A pilot case-control study has been conducted in 2014-2015 in the “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricu??” Institute of Oncology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania and the Endocrinology Department of Archbishop Makarios III Hospital, Nicosia, Cyprus. Females older than 20 years with no medical history were recruited. Cases were women with ultrasound-confirmed thyroid nodules of size >3mm. Controls were women without thyroid nodules after ultrasound confirmation. All participants provided blood samples for measurements of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxin (FT4, anti- thyroglobulin (ATg and anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO; urine samples. Demographics, anthropometrics and other relevant information were provided through the administration of a questionnaire.Results. In Romania we selected 51 patients with thyroid nodules (case group and 41 without thyroid nodules (control group and in Cyprus 57 cases, respectively 65 controls. After the statistical analysis of the data collected we observed statistically significant differences between the populations of the two countries regarding BMI and the value of the thyroid hormones and antibodies.Conclusions. Using the data observed in this study, differences were found between Cyprus and Romania among females with thyroid nodules the BMI, and the level of thyroid hormones had statistically significant differences. This study reports preliminary data, further analysis of environmental exposures to chemical factors that might have a certain influence over the thyroid in the two countries will follow.

  10. Diagnostic Biomarkers in Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Li Yan; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Incidental small renal masses identified on imaging are increasingly investigated via needle core or fine needle aspiration biopsies with limited material provided for rendering a diagnosis. Lesions with a prominent eosinophilic or oncocytic cell presence showing morphologic overlap between well-known eosinophilic neoplasms are challenging to diagnose. We review the range of known benign and malignant eosinophilic renal neoplasms and their immunoprofiles to elucidate a useful panel of stains that may assist the pathologist in making an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26614031

  11. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marg...

  12. The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Development of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay?e Karaday?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of IGF-1 in the development of nodular thyroid disease. Material and Methods: A total number of 100 consecutive patients operated for nodular thyroid disease in our institution were included in this prospective study. In addition to classical pathological examinations, nodules and extranodular healthy tissues were sampled and immunochemically stained for IGF-1. The materials were independently evaluated using an Allred Scoring System ranging from 0 to 8. If the score was ?1, the tissue was accepted as IGF-1 positive.Results: IGF-1 positivity was observed in 88% and 58% of the samples obtained from nodules and extranodular healthy tissues, respectively. Allred 8-unit scores were higher in benign nodules (n=89; 4.1±2.3 and papillary carcinomas (n=7; 6.7±1.3, than in extranodular healthy tissues in the same patients (2.3±2.3 and 3.3±1.9, respectively; and higher in papillary carcinomas than in benign nodules, when the scores were compared to each other (p<0.01 for all comparisons. Conclusions: Allred 8-unit scores for IGF-1 increase in the presence of benign thyroid nodules, papillary cancer. The results of our study support the findings of previous studies demonstrating the role of IGF-1 in the development of thyroidal nodules.

  13. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  14. Axillary node metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma with hürthle and signet ring cell differentiation. A case of disseminated thyroid cancer with peculiar histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is usually associated with an excellent prognosis and indolent course. Distant metastases are rare events at the onset of thyroid cancer. Among these presentations, metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes is even more unusual: only few cases were previously reported in the literature; there has been no report of axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis generally arises in the context of disseminated disease and carries an ominous prognosis. Here we present a case of axillary lymph node metastasis in the context of disseminated differentiated thyroid cancer. The patient underwent near total thyroidectomy and neck and axillary lymph node dissection. A histopathological diagnosis of poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with 'signet ring cells' and Hürthle cell features was established. The patient received radioactive iodine therapy and TSH suppression therapy. Subsequently his serum thyroglobulin level decreased to 44.000 ng/ml from over 100.000 ng/ml. Currently there are only few reported cases of axillary node metastases from thyroid cancer, and to our knowledge, this is the first report on axillary lymph node metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma. 'Signet ring cell' is a morphologic feature shared by both benign and, more rarely, malignant follicular thyroid neoplasm, and it generally correlates with an arrest in folliculogenesis. Our case is one of the rare 'signet ring cells' carcinomas so far described

  15. VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASIS – CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, D.; Liliana Fortu; Madalina Jacota

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a 56 years old, women, known with Recklinghausen’s Disease (RD) since 15 years old. She was in the evidence of Iasi Endocrynology Clinic with nodulary goitre since ’97, being treated with Euthyrox until 2005. Due to symptomatology worsening (asphyxia feeling, agitation, palpitations, insomnia, irritability, dizziness) and to thyroid increase the surgical procedure was recommended. A right lobeisthmectomy was performed in 2005, but the Histopathology Exam revealed an...

  16. Distribution of the Ca (Oxford) antigen in lung neoplasms and non-neoplastic lung tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradinas, F. J.; Boxer, G; Bagshawe, K. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Ca (Oxford) antigen was originally isolated from a malignant neoplasm and with few exceptions was reported to discriminate between malignant and non-malignant neoplasms or normal tissues. Using the Ca 1 antibody we have studied the Ca distribution in 54 lung neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. Staining of tumours was very focal and the proportion of positive cells varied from about 50% for adenocarcinomas to less than 1% for oat cell carcinomas, which were often negative. F...

  17. Etiology of thyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellabarba, D. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1983-12-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors.

  18. [Classification of vascular neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeiker, M

    1978-11-01

    Neoplasms of blood and lymph vessels differ from angiectatic and angiokeratotic nevi by real proliferating growth. According to their features of growth and their wall structures, they are classified into three main groups: angiomas, glomangiomas and malignant vascular tumors. Within the angiomas on the one hand, capillary angiomas are classified into: planotuberous and tuberonodous angiomas of childhood and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, multilocular hemangiomatosis, progressive multiple angiomas, tardive ("senile") angiomas, eruptive angiomas (granulomata pediculata), papular angioplasia, gemmangioma, and benign juvenile hemangioendothelioma. On the other hand, cavernous angiomas, i.e. arterial and venous cavernomas, as well as blue rubberbleb nevus, Mafucci's syndrome, angioleiomyoma, benign juvenile hemangiopericytoma and cavernous lymphangioma, form thick walled structures without involution. Glomangiomas occur as solitary, multiple systematized, and multiple disseminated and familiar forms. Within the group of malignant vascular tumors--Kaposi sarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma in lymphedema, hemangioendothelioma and angioplastic reticulosarcoma, hemangio- or lymphangiosarcoma, angioendotheliomastosis proliferans, rarity and increasing loss of characteristic differentiated structures give rise to difficulties in nosologic classification. PMID:214413

  19. Equivalent doses in thyroid tissue and residual body dose from radioiodine treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the thyroid as determined under therapeutic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doses actually administered to patients undergoing radiotherapy for hyperthyroidism (104), autonomous adenoma (16) and goiter without functional anomaly (22) averaged 90, 165 and 100 Sv. Attempts were made to elucidate the causes of deviations between the predetermined dose and that actually administered, which occurred quite irrespective of whether a one-staged or split-dose regimen was used. Significant differences were occasionally also seen between the individual doses of fractionation regimens in respect of their uptake and effective half-life in the thyroidal tissue. It was calculated that the mean body dose remaining after each administration of radioactivity amounted to 0.6 mSv/MBq. In the majority of patients examined, clinical follow-up observations could be made for periods ranging from 6 to 41 months. Records were kept of all the results obtained. Further analyses were made to assess the mean residual body dose of carcinoma bearers subjected to wholebody radioiodine scintigraphy in the follow-up (14 patients) as well as of patients, in which secondary radioiodine treatment was carried out after thyroidectomy (59 patients). This was found to vary between 0.05 and 0.07 mSv/MBq. The significant discrepancies formerly determined for uptake rate and effective half-life between the individual sessions of one treatment course were confirmed by these examinations. (VHE)

  20. Diagnostic value of tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-MIBI for pulmonary neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnotic value of tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) for pulmonary neoplasm. Methods: Twenty-eight cases pulmonary neoplasms traded by 99Tcm-MIBI imaging,then performed tomogram imaging after 1h. By the uptake ratio value exceeding 1.31 between pulmonary neoplasm (T) and normal tissue on the opposite side or vicinity tissue (N), benign or malignant was diagnosted. Results: The malignant pulmonary neoplasm had abnormal high uptake, but benign pulmonary neoplasm had light uptake. The sensitivity and specificity of 99Tcm-MIBI imaging for the malignant pulmonary neoplasm were 76.9% and 86.7% respectively, the false positive and false negative rate were 13.3% and 23.1% respectively. Conclusions: Tumor positive delay tomogram imaging with 99Tcm-MIBI for pulmonary neoplasm is an important detection in differentiating benign and malignant, it has high sensitivity, specificity, picture quanlity and no wound again. (authors)

  1. Carcinossarcoma tireoidiano em um cão / Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Rodrigues; Eduardo Kenji, Masuda; Maria Andréia, Inkelmann; Adriano Tony, Ramos; Brenda Maria Ferreira Prado, Marques; Tessie Beck, Martins; Glaucia Denise, Kommers.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela de dois anos de idade, sem raça definida, apresentou disfagia e aumento de volume da região cervical ventral, correspondendo à região tireoidiana. Duas massas localizadas nessa região foram removidas cirurgicamente. O cão morreu poucos dias após a cirurgia e não foi necropsiado. O diagnós [...] tico de carcinossarcoma de tireóide baseou-se na presença de componentes neoplásicos epiteliais e mesenquimais malignos, os quais foram confirmados pela reação imunoistoquímica positiva para citoqueratina e vimentina, respectivamente. A origem tireoidiana foi confirmada pela imunomarcação positiva para tireoglobulina nas células epiteliais foliculares e no colóide. Este é um neoplasma raramente diagnosticado em cães. Abstract in english A two year-old female mongrel dog was presented with dysphagia and focal swelling at the thyroid region. Two masses were surgically removed from that site. The dog died a few days after surgery and it was not submitted to necropsy. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinosarcoma was based on malignant epith [...] elial and mesenchymal cell components of the neoplasm and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. The thyroid origin was confirmed based on the positive immunostaining for thyroglobulin on the follicular epithelial cells and colloid. This is a neoplasm rarely diagnosed in dogs.

  2. Carcinossarcoma tireoidiano em um cão Thyroid carcinosarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma cadela de dois anos de idade, sem raça definida, apresentou disfagia e aumento de volume da região cervical ventral, correspondendo à região tireoidiana. Duas massas localizadas nessa região foram removidas cirurgicamente. O cão morreu poucos dias após a cirurgia e não foi necropsiado. O diagnóstico de carcinossarcoma de tireóide baseou-se na presença de componentes neoplásicos epiteliais e mesenquimais malignos, os quais foram confirmados pela reação imunoistoquímica positiva para citoqueratina e vimentina, respectivamente. A origem tireoidiana foi confirmada pela imunomarcação positiva para tireoglobulina nas células epiteliais foliculares e no colóide. Este é um neoplasma raramente diagnosticado em cães.A two year-old female mongrel dog was presented with dysphagia and focal swelling at the thyroid region. Two masses were surgically removed from that site. The dog died a few days after surgery and it was not submitted to necropsy. The diagnosis of thyroid carcinosarcoma was based on malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cell components of the neoplasm and confirmed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin and vimentin, respectively. The thyroid origin was confirmed based on the positive immunostaining for thyroglobulin on the follicular epithelial cells and colloid. This is a neoplasm rarely diagnosed in dogs.

  3. Autotaxin is an inflammatory mediator and therapeutic target in thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Ko, Yi M; Tang, Xiaoyun; Dewald, Jay; Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Zhao, Yuan Y; Lai, Raymond; Curtis, Jonathan M; Brindley, David N; McMullen, Todd P W

    2015-08-01

    Autotaxin is a secreted enzyme that converts extracellular lysophosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidate (LPA). In cancers, LPA increases tumour growth, metastasis and chemoresistance by activating six G-protein coupled receptors. We examined >200 human thyroid biopsies. Autotaxin expression in metastatic deposits and primary carcinomas was four- to tenfold higher than in benign neoplasms or normal thyroid tissue. Autotaxin immunohistochemical staining was also increased in benign neoplasms with leukocytic infiltrations. Malignant tumours were distinguished from benign tumours by high tumour autotaxin, LPA levels and inflammatory mediators including IL1?, IL6, IL8, GMCSF, TNF?, CCL2, CXCL10 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA. We determined the mechanistic explanation for these results and revealed a vicious regulatory cycle in which LPA increased the secretion of 16 inflammatory modulators in papillary thyroid cancer cultures. Conversely, treating cancer cells with ten inflammatory cytokines and chemokines or PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB increased autotaxin secretion. We confirmed that this autotaxin/inflammatory cycle occurs in two SCID mouse models of papillary thyroid cancer by blocking LPA signalling using the autotaxin inhibitor ONO-8430506. This decreased the levels of 16 inflammatory mediators in the tumours and was accompanied by a 50-60% decrease in tumour volume. This resulted from a decreased mitotic index for the cancer cells and decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in the tumours. Our results demonstrate that the autotaxin/inflammatory cycle is a focal point for driving malignant thyroid tumour progression and possibly treatment resistance. Inhibiting autotaxin activity provides an effective and novel strategy for decreasing the inflammatory phenotype in thyroid carcinomas, which should complement other treatment modalities. PMID:26037280

  4. Factores pronósticos en neoplasias malignas primarias de glándulas salivares: Estudio retrospectivo de 20 años / Prognostic factors in primary malignant salivary gland neoplasms: A 20-year retrospective study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Capote Moreno; L., Naval Gías; F.J., Rodríguez-Campo; M.F., Muñoz Guerra; V., Escorial; F.J., Díaz González.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar los posibles factores pronósticos que pueden influir en la supervivencia y el desarrollo de recurrencias en nuestra serie de pacientes con neoplasias malignas primarias de glándulas salivares. Diseño del estudio. Se realiza un estudio retrospectivo de 75 pacientes con carcinomas g [...] landulares tratados entre 1980 y el 2003. En todos los casos el tratamiento realizado ha sido la cirugía. Se administró radioterapia postoperatoria en un 52% de los pacientes. Se emplea el modelo de Kaplan-Meier para el análisis de supervivencia y el periodo libre de enfermedad. Así mismo, se analiza la posible asociación entre los diversos factores pronósticos y estas variables mediante el test Log Rank para el estudio univariante y el modelo de Cox para el multivariante. Resultado. La supervivencia global y causa-específica de la serie a 5 y 10 años ha sido del 74,9 y 63 y del 77,7 y 65,3% respectivamente. El periodo libre de enfermedad ha sido de 51,8 y 43,2% a 5 y 10 años. De los factores analizados, la localización tumoral, el sexo, el estadio patológico, el tamaño tumoral, la parálisis facial, la infiltración perineural y la infiltración vascular han mostrado una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la supervivencia y/o recurrencias (p Abstract in english Objective. To analyze the possible prognostic factors for survival and disease-free survival in a group of patients with primary malignant salivary gland tumors. Design. Seventy-five patients with salivary gland carcinomas were studied retrospectively from 1980 to 2003. All cases were initially trea [...] ted with surgery. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied in 52% of the patients. Survival and disease-free survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. The association between the different prognostic factors and survival was studied with the Log Rank test for univariate analysis and the Cox proportional model for multivariate analysis. Results. The 5-year and 10-year crude survival rates were 74.9% and 63% and cause-specific survival rates were 77.7% and 65.3% respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 51.8% and 43.2%. Tumor location, sex, pathologic stage, tumor size, facial palsy, perineural spread and vascular spread showed statistical significance in survival and recurrence (p

  5. Atypical fibroxanthoma: An unusual skin neoplasm in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive disorder related to defective deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA repair. Various cutaneous manifestations related to ultraviolet (UV damage characterize the clinical course. Primary malignant cutaneous neoplasms like squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma have been reported. Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare dermal neoplasm occurring in UV-damaged skin. We report an unusual case of atypical fibroxanthoma in a 20-year-old male with XP.

  6. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-I; Park, Kwang-Kuk; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy. PMID:25232322

  7. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  8. Thyroid nodule: first manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Gonçalves; Sara, Vale; Ema, Nobre; Ana Paula, Barbosa; Ema, Piloto; Ana, Wessling; Mário, Mascarenhas.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells in the thyroid gland is most likely due to a secondary involvement by a systemic disease. The reported incidence of CLL involving the thyroid is extremely low, representing about 3–4% of all thyroid lymphoproliferative neoplasm. We report a r [...] are case of CLL presenting initially in the thyroid gland. Systemic disease was detected as a result of thyroid investigation. An 85 years old woman, with multinodular goiter without adenophaties, was referred to our department, carrying a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) report of a private institution referring “lymphoid monomorphic proliferation” and suggesting a “Core-needle biopsy” for further investigation. She was euthyroid (TSH–0.5 uU/mL (0.4-4.0), thyroid antibodies negative, including TRab). The patient denied systemic symptoms and at physical examination there were no adenophaties or organomegalies. FNAB analysis was repeated. Although the patient denied constitutional symptoms and there were no relevant findings in physical examination, technetium 99m thyroid gamagraphy (GG) and blood count were additionally asked. FNAB analysis concluded lymphocytic tiroiditis, but thyroid GG revelled global hypocaptation and blood count showed 173.4 x 109 leukocyte/L with 94% lymphocyte. An ecoguided FNAB with flow cytometry identified thyroid infiltration by monotonous population of blasts with phenotype consistent with CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells. CLL/malignancy of mature B-cells was also detected in peripheral blood analysis, suggesting systemic disease with secondary thyroid involvement. The patient started chemotherapy with rituximab and chlorambucil with good response. Pos-treatment GG revelled “Increased levels of uptake in the middle third of the right lower lobe, with low uptake of the remaining parenchyma”. In conclusion, good communication with the pathologist can improve diagnostic accuracy and dictate appropriate therapy. The use of techniques such as flow cytometry, immunoglobulin gene rearrangements, and immunohistochemistry has improved diagnostic accuracy and obviated more invasive procedures, such as core needle or open surgery biopsy. Apart from chemotherapy, immunochemotherapy with anti-CD20 and anti-CD52 monoclonal antibodies can be used in the treatment of CLL.

  9. A case of quadruple primary malignancies including breast, tongue, and thyroid cancers and osteosarcoma in a young female without karyotype abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaka, Junko; Fujii, Kimihito; Yorozuya, Kyoko; Mouri, Yukako; Yoshida, Miwa; Nakano, Shogo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Takahashi, Emiko; Yokoi, Toyoharu

    2014-07-01

    The patient was a 41-year-old, premenopausal woman with a chief complaint of well-circumscribed palpable, right breast mass without nipple discharge. Although she noticed the lump 3 months previously, the size of the tumor (1.1 × 0.9 cm(2)) had been stable. The patient's mother suffered from gastric cancer. Her previous history of the triple different malignancies was as follows: (1) left osteosarcoma [amputation of left lower leg at 15 years old (y/o)]. After the operation, she was treated with various kinds of anticancer drugs including a total of 45 g ifosphamide and 342 g methotrexate; (2) tongue cancer (right radical neck resection; 23 y/o); and (3) thyroid cancer (right lobectomy; 40 y/o). There was no evidence of recurrence of these malignancies at the present consultation. At the time of tongue cancer operation, chromosome abnormality was investigated, but the results were normal. Physical examination showed a well-delimited, elastic-firm, mobile tumor in the central outer right breast. Regional lymph nodes were not palpable. Mammography showed a focal asymmetry in the right upper breast on the mediolateral oblique view. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass with irregular margins. Distant metastases could not be detected by whole-body computed tomography scan. The histology of the Mammotome(®) (vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy) specimen revealed that this tumor was low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). She underwent breast-conserving surgery with sentinel lymph node biopsy. On permanent histopathological examination, the diagnosis of the tumor was intracystic papilloma with low-grade DCIS. Surgical margin was negative, and sentinel lymph node metastases could not be observed. Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) were strongly positive, but human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) overexpression was not tested because the lesion was DCIS. She has received no adjuvant therapy and is currently disease free 3 months after surgery. PMID:21562838

  10. Thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bezzola, Pauli

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year old spayed, female Labrador retriever, with an 8-month history of weight loss, increased heart rate, and hyperactivity, was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and a thyroid neoplasm. Thyrotoxic heart disease is documented in this case.

  11. Uterine neoplasms, version 1.2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Wui-Jin; Greer, Benjamin E; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Apte, Sachin M; Campos, Susana M; Chan, John; Cho, Kathleen R; Cohn, David; Crispens, Marta Ann; Dupont, Nefertiti; Eifel, Patricia J; Fader, Amanda Nickles; Fisher, Christine M; Gaffney, David K; George, Suzanne; Han, Ernest; Huh, Warner K; Lurain, John R; Martin, Lainie; Mutch, David; Remmenga, Steven W; Reynolds, R Kevin; Small, William; Teng, Nelson; Tillmanns, Todd; Valea, Fidel A; McMillian, Nicole; Hughes, Miranda

    2014-02-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium (also known as endometrial cancer or more broadly as uterine cancer or carcinoma of the uterine corpus) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in the United States. An estimated 49,560 new uterine cancer cases will occur in 2013, with 8190 deaths resulting from the disease. Uterine sarcomas (stromal/mesenchymal tumors) are uncommon malignancies, accounting for approximately 3% of all uterine cancers. The NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms describe malignant epithelial carcinomas and uterine sarcomas; each of these major categories contains specific histologic groups that require different management. This excerpt of these guidelines focuses on early-stage disease. PMID:24586086

  12. Palliative radiation in primary squamous cell carcinoma of thyroid: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Ghoshal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. Until date, only around 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Primary treatment of the patient is radical surgery. With optimum treatment survival is not more than 6 months in this aggressive malignancy. However in our patient surgery it was not possible because of unresectability of the mass due to encroachment of major vessels. Hence, we have delivered radiotherapy alone, with which effective palliation could be achieved and patient is leading a good quality-of-life for last 1 year.

  13. "Evaluation of thyroid scan with 99mTc-MIBI in selected patients candidate for thyroid surgery "

    OpenAIRE

    N. Forghani; Mehrabi, M; S.R Zakavi; Z. Mousavi

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Thyroid scan with sestamibi is used for evaluation of thyroid nodules with the aim of increasing specificity before surgery. In this study we evaluated the role of Sestamibi thyroid scan in candidates for thyroid surgery. Methods and patients: During two years, 37 patients were studied with solitary thyroid nodules, referred for thyroid surgery due to malignant or suspicious FNAB results (66/7%), compressive effects or failure of medical therapy. Thyroid scan was performed after IV injec...

  14. Second Malignancy in Pediatric Patients: Imaging Findings and Differential Diagnosis

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    N. Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic advances in the treatment of pediatric neoplasms have improved the prognosis but have also increased the risk of developing rare second malignancies."nPrimary neoplasms which are often associated with second malignancies include lymphoma, retinoblas-toma, medulloblastoma and leukemia. The most common second malignancies are central nervous system (CNS tumors, sarcomas, thyroid and parathyroid gland carcinoma and leukemia, particularly acute myeloblastic leukemia. Genetic predisposition, chemotherapy, and especially radiation therapy are included as pathogenic factors in second malignancies. We know all survivors of childhood cancer should have lifelong follow-up, preferably with US, magnetic resonance imaging and other procedures with no ionizing radiation. A new progressive lesion may represent recurrence of the primitive neoplastic process, late radiation injury, or more infrequently, a second malignancy. Differential diagnosis may be very difficult and the outcome is often fatal. "nTreatment protocols should be modified to reduce the risk of second malignancies without compromising the effectiveness of initial therapy. "nClinicians should individualize treatment for patients who are genetically predisposed. In addition, radiologists should be familiar with the long-term consequences of antineoplastic therapy."nIn a report of new England journal of medicine in 2007, 357:227-2284 by Dr. Brenner and Hall, 2% of all carcinomas in U.S.A are due to more use of CT exam and children are three to four times more sensitive to ionization radiation. "nSo all the radiologists and clinicians should be aware of the complications and should recommend follow up exams in children who have had previous treatments for such carcinomas.

  15. Neoplasms in dogs receiving low-level gamma radiation during pre- and postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were given whole-body exposure to 60Co gamma radiation at one of six ages of pre- or postnatal life. Four-hundred and eighty dogs, 120 for each age at exposure, received 20 R at 8, 28 or 55 days postcoitus (dpc) or at 2 days postpartum (dpp). Similarity 480 dogs, in groups of 120, were exposed to 100 R at these same ages. Exposures of 100 R were also given to 118 dogs at 70 dpp and 231 dogs at 365 dpp. An additional 359 dogs were sham-irradiated. Mean values for each age at exposure ranged from 15.6 to 17.5 rads for 20 R exposures and from 80.8 to 88.3 rads for exposure to 100 R. Mortality due to neoplasia during the initial ten years of the experiment was examined. Twenty dogs died or were killed because of neoplasia, 19 having been irradiated. Tumours in these 19 irradiated dogs included five malignant lymphomas, eight carcinomas (two of mammary origin, two of prostatic origin, and one each of oral mucosa, ovary, urinary bladder, and thyroid origin), four sarcomas (two haemangiosarcomas, one fibrosarcoma and one mast cell sarcoma), one astrocytoma, and one hepatocellular adenoma. Neoplasms occurred in all irradiated groups except 8 dpc (20 and 100 R) and 70 dpp (100 R). Eleven neoplasms developed in dogs irradiated perinatally (55 dpc or 2 dpp) with 20 or 100 R. Four of the tumours in the perinatally irradiated dogs were detected before two years of age. The earliest death was at three months, due to an astrocytoma. Preliminary analyses point to findings of particular interest: (1) the preponderance of neoplasms causing death or euthanasia occurred in irradiated dogs; (2) the unusual finding of four deaths due to neoplasia before two years of age in perinatally irradiated dogs; and (3) the occurrence of five malignant lymphomas in this relatively small irradiated population

  16. Thyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world is a thyroid? What Is the Thyroid? The thyroid (say: THYE-royd) is a gland, ... keeps the temperature just right. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? There are two main kinds of thyroid ...

  17. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve the preoperative risk-based management of benign nodules with AUS/FLUS or FN/SFN cytology. PMID:25965083

  18. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  19. Incidental Thyroid Carcinoma Diagnosed after Total Thyroidectomy for Benign Thyroid Diseases: Incidence and Association with Thyroid Disease Type and Laboratory Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Askitis, D.; Efremidou, E.I.; Karanikas, M.; Mitrakas, A.; Tripsianis, G.; Polychronidis, A; Liratzopoulos, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Currently, total thyroidectomy (TT) is widely used to treat benign thyroid diseases and thyroid carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid disorders and the potential identification of thyroid microcarcinomas with biochemical markers remain controversial. This retrospective study aimed to estimate the prognostic validity of thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin (Tg), and the thyroid disease type in diagnostic approaches regarding the co-existence of ...

  20. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Evaluation of subjective estimates using a Bayesian analysis Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos. Evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sanabria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The main purpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs.
    Objective. To assess the subjective probabilities of malignancy that are as-signed to the clinical characteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clini-cal suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data.
    Material and methods. A Bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consulta-tion. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed.
    Results. The highest probability of malignancy (94% was assigned to the pooled case of a male who was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%.
    Conclusion. Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteris-tics of the nodules.
    Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si este corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones subjetivas.
    Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las característi-cas clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de in-fluencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de malignidad en comparación con los datos objetivos.
    Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de malignidad en un nódulo tiroideo basado en la relación causal conocida de factores clínicos y demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los ci-rujanos.
    Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de malignidad (94% se asignó al caso clíni-co de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de creci-miento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de ti-roides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de malignidad, la probabilidad de malignidad asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59%, para los de alto riesgo fue de 75,54%.
    Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creen-cias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos.

  1. Surgeons overestimate the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules, evaluation of subjective estimates using a bayesian analysis / Los cirujanos sobreestiman el riesgo de malignidad de los nódulos tiroideos, evaluación de los estimados subjetivos usando un análisis bayesiano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgar, Alfonso; Álvaro, Sanabria; Mario, Castillo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los nódulos tiroideos son la condición endocrina más frecuente para los cirujanos. El principio de la evaluación de un nódulo tiroideo es determinar si éste corresponde a un carcinoma. Las decisiones médicas sobre los nódulos tiroideos son influenciadas fuertemente por consideraciones [...] subjetivas. Objetivo. Determinar las probabilidades subjetivas asignadas a las características clínicas de un paciente con un nódulo tiroideo, para evaluar el grado de influencia de estas probabilidades en la sospecha clínica final de un proceso maligno en comparación con los datos objetivos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un análisis bayesiano para predecir el riesgo de un proceso maligno en un nódulo tiroideo, con base en la relación causal conocida de los factores clínicos y los demográficos durante la primera consulta. Se desarrolló un modelo con las variables clínicas y demográficas usando como expertos a los cirujanos. Resultados. La mayor probabilidad de un proceso maligno (94 %) se asignó al caso clínico de un hombre mayor de 60 años, con disfonía y disfagia, nódulo de crecimiento rápido, antecedentes de radioterapia cervical y familiar con cáncer de tiroides, con nódulos múltiples, mayores de 1 cm, de consistencia dura y con adenomegalias cervicales palpables. Para los casos de bajo riesgo, con nódulos sin características de un proceso maligno, la probabilidad de éste asignada por los clínicos fue de 33,59 % y para los de alto riesgo de 75,54 %. Conclusión. Los cirujanos toman decisiones diagnósticas basadas en creencias subjetivas que no necesariamente corresponden con los datos objetivos de las características de nódulos. Abstract in english Introduction: Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine condition treated by surgeons. The mainpurpose of the evaluation of a thyroid nodule is to rule out a carcinoma. Medical decisions concerning thyroid nodules are highly influenced by subjective beliefs. Objective: To assess the subjective p [...] robabilities of malignancy that are assigned to the clinicalcharacteristics of a patient with a thyroid nodule in order to determine the degree of influence that these probabilities have on the final clinical suspicion of malignancy compared with objective data. Material and methods: A bayesian analysis was designed to predict the risk of malignancy of a thyroid nodule based on the causal relationship between the demographic and clinical risk factors that are detected during the first consultation. A model with demographic and clinical variables using general surgeons as experts was developed. Results: The highest probability of malignancy (94%) was assigned to the pooled case of a malewho was older than 60 years, with dysphonia, dysphagia, accelerated growth rate of the nodule and previous neck radiotherapy and who had a relative with thyroid cancer as well as multiple nodules that were larger than 1 cm and with hard consistency and palpable neck lymph nodes. For low risk cases in which the nodule characteristics are not suggestive of malignancy, the probability of malignancy assigned by clinicians was 33.59%; for high risk cases this was 75.54%. Conclusion: Surgeons make diagnostic decisions based on subjective beliefs that do not necessarily correspond to the objective measures of the characteristics of the nodules.

  2. Utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides en la E.S.E Hospital Universitario del Caribe: un estudio retrospectivo / Utility of the fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland at Hospital Universitario del Caribe, Cartagena, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco, Herrera; Katherine, Redondo; Carlos, Osorio; Juan, Grice; Alberto, Fernández.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En este estudio se evaluó en forma retrospectiva la utilidad de la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides. Metodología. Se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de los pa [...] cientes con impresión diagnóstica de nódulo tiroideo, durante un periodo de 7 años, de 2007 a 2013, durante los cuales se practicó citología mediante aspiración con aguja fina antes del abordaje quirúrgico. El diagnóstico citológico se comparó con el estudio anatomopatológico, con el objetivo de determinar los parámetros de rendimiento. Resultados. La población de estudio fue de 149 pacientes. Para la citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina, se calcularon los siguientes parámetros de rendimiento en el diagnóstico de neoplasias foliculares: sensibilidad, 54,5 %; especificidad, 92,9 %; valor diagnóstico positivo, 57,1 %; valor diagnóstico negativo, 92,2 %; precisión diagnóstica, 87,2 %; falsos negativos, 6,9 % y falsos positivos, 6,1 %. Conclusión. La citología obtenida mediante aspiración con aguja fina posee una sensibilidad baja en el diagnóstico de las neoplasias foliculares de la glándula tiroides, comportamiento atribuible a la similitud citológica de este grupo de lesiones con los bocios con cambios adenomatosos. Abstract in english Introduction: This study evaluates retrospectively the performance of cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland. Methods: A review of medical records of patients with diagnostic impression of thyroid nodule over a period of seven years [...] from 2007 to 2013 was completed, in those patients in which a fine needle aspiration cytology prior to a surgical approach was performed. The cytological diagnosis was compared with pathologic study to determine the performance parameters. Results:The study population included 149 patients. The following performance parameters of the fine needle aspiration cytology were determined in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms: sensitivity, 54.5%; specificity, 92.9%; positive predictive value, 57.1%; negative predictive value, 92.2%; accurately diagnosed, 87.2%; false negatives and false positives 6.9%, 6.1% Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration cytology has a low sensitivity in the diagnosis of follicular neoplasms of the thyroid gland due to the cytologically similarity presented by this group of lesions with goiters with adenomatous changes.

  3. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  4. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  5. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  6. Cytologic findings and differential diagnoses of primary thyroid MALT lymphoma with striking plasma cell differentiation and amyloid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuoka, Yuri; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kuma, Seiji; Takagi, Nozomi; Higuchi, Miyoko; Masuoka, Hiroo; Miya, Akihiro; Kubota, Sumihisa; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with associated amyloid protein deposition. While other primary thyroid neoplasms sush as medullary carcinoma and plasmacytoma with associated amyloid protein are known to occur and have been previously described by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), to our knowledge, the current cases are the first of thyroid MALT lymphoma with amyloid deposition to be detailed in the cytopathology literature. Case 1 was a 73-year-old female with chronic thyroiditis. FNAC suspected MALT lymphoma. The amyloid material was not noticed, nevertheless it existed. Case 2 was a 71-year-old female with a nodule of the thyroid. Malignant lymphoma and medullary carcinoma were suspected by FNAC. The possibility of medullary carcinoma was excluded by a measurement of serum calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. After follow-up for two years, the nodule was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma associated with plasma cell differentiation and amyloidosis by the fourth FNAC. When we encounter small round cell tumors associated with amyloid in thyroid FNAC, we should consider not only medullary carcinoma but also MALT lymphoma. PMID:23636898

  7. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  8. Primary de novo malignant giant cell tumor of kidney: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkian Bahman

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoclast-like giant cell tumors are usually observed in osseous tissue or as tumors of tendon sheath, characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear stromal cells. It has been reported in various extraosseous sites including breast, skin, soft tissue, salivary glands, lung, pancreas, female genital tract, thyroid, larynx and heart. However, extraosseus occurrence of such giant cell tumors in the kidney is extremely rare and is usually found in combination with a conventional malignancy. De-novo primary malignant giant cell tumors of the kidney are unusual lesions and to our knowledge this is the second such case. Case Presentation We report a rare case of extraosseous primary denovo malignant giant cell tumor of the renal parenchyma in a 39-year-old Caucasian female to determine the histogenesis of this neoplasm with a detailed literature review. Conclusion Primary denovo malignant giant cell tumor of the kidney is extremely rare. The cellular origin of this tumor is favored to be a pluripotential mesenchymal stromal cell of the mononuclear/phagocytic cellular lineage. Awareness of this neoplasm is important in the pathological interpretation of unusual findings at either fine needle aspiration or frozen section of solid renal masses.

  9. Concordancia de la citología por punción con aguja fina para la detección de cáncer de tiroides en pediatría / Diagnostic yield of fine-needle aspiration cytology for the detection of thyroid cancer in pediatric patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisca, Grob; Diego, Carrillo; Alejandro, Martínez-Aguayo; Pablo, Zoroquain; Antonieta, Solar; Irini, Nicolaides; Hernán, González.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Despite the low frequency of thyroid nodules (TN) in children, one of every four is malignant. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has a high accuracy detecting thyroid cancer. Aim: To evaluate the performance of FNAC in TN in Chilean children to detect thyroid cancer. Patients and Me [...] thods: The pathological reports of 77 thyroidectomies and 103 FNAC carried out in patients aged less than 18 years, between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. In 36 patients aged 15 ± 2 years (77% women), both the reports of the thyroidectomy and FNAC were available. The cytological specimens were reclassified based on Bethesda 2010. The histology was classified as benign (nodular hyperplasia and follicular adenoma, n = 18), or malignant (papillary, follicular and medullar carcinoma, n = 18). The concordance of the cytology with the final biopsy report was calculated. Results: FNAC classified 13 specimens as definitively benign and 13 as definitively malignant. Among these, these concordances with the pathological study of the biopsy was 100%. Of six cytology tests considered "suspicious for follicular neoplasm" by FNAC, four were benign (67%), and two malignant (33%). Of four cytology tests considered "suggestive of carcinoma" by FNAC, one was benign (25%), and three malignant (75%). Conclusions: Among the studied children, there was a good concordance between FNAC and surgical biopsies. Therefore a FNAC should be carried out when malignancy is suspected in pediatric patients with a TN.

  10. Initial experience with MRI staging of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the technical development and clinical application of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is at an early phase, there is enough accumulated evidence to support a major radiologic role for MRI in the staging of human malignancy. Because MRI is evolving so rapidly, certain factual aspects of this brief review will almost certainly be somewhat outdated at publication. For this reason the authors present not only current data but also general observations concerning potential uses of proton MRI in the staging of neoplasms

  11. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update

    OpenAIRE

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct di...

  12. A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomei Sara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm. Methods The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers. Results The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers. Conclusion The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rogozinski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We made a prospective study evaluating the prevalence of thyroid nodular disease in acromegalic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy were performed when nodules were detected. Nodules were characterized by cytology and histopathology. RESULTS: We found high prevalence of nodular thyroid disorder, 23/34 (67% in acromegalic patients. High risk and malignant cytology were significantly higher in acromegalic patients than in our non-acromegalic population (25% vs. 9%. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was present in 11% of the acromegalic patients. CONCLUSIONS: We strongly recommend periodic thyroid evaluation by ultrasound in patients with acromegaly. Fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed in nodules larger than 10 mm, and in all suspicious nodules, regardless of the size.

  14. Horner syndrome as a manifestation of thyroid carcinoma: a rare association / Síndrome de Horner como manifestação clínica de carcinoma da tireoide: uma associação rara

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo, Pereira; Tiago, Silva; Henrique, Luiz; Isabel, Manita; Luísa, Raimundo; Jorge, Portugal.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 82 anos apresentando-se com nódulo tireoidiano de crescimento progressivo e ptose palpebral esquerda. O exame oftalmológico revelou ainda miose ipsilateral e achados diagnósticos de síndrome de Horner. A tomografia computadorizada mostrou massa tireoidiana de 7,5 cm infiltrando os grande [...] s vasos do pescoço. Apesar dos dados clínicos e imagiológicos sugestivos de um carcinoma pouco diferenciado da tireoide, a citologia aspirativa foi diagnóstica de carcinoma papilar. Em função do estádio avançado da neoplasia e das comorbilidades significativas, foi proposta para terapêutica paliativa. A síndrome de Horner é uma manifestação clínica infrequente em tumores tireoidianos, estando as condições benignas maioritariamente implicadas. As neoplasias malignas da tireoide representam uma causa rara de síndrome de Horner. Contudo, um diagnóstico adequado e expedito é fundamental para o tratamento atempado nos raros casos de malignidade da tireoide. Abstract in english An 82-year-old patient presented a progressively growing hard thyroid nodule, and left ptosis. Additionally, ophthalmologic evaluation revealed ipsilateral miosis, diagnostic findings of Horner syndrome. Computerized tomography revealed a 7.5-cm thyroid mass infiltrating the main neck vessels. Altho [...] ugh clinical and imaging data were suggestive of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, fine-needle aspiration led to the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Paliative care was proposed to the patient due to the advanced stage of the neoplasm and to significant comorbidities. Horner syndrome is an infrequent manifestation of thyroid disorders and benign etiologies are more often implied. Malignant thyroid neoplasms represent a rare cause of Horner syndrome. However, an appropriate and prompt diagnosis is paramount for timely treatment of rare thyroid malignancies.

  15. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients with invasive tumors or extensive lymph node involvement, in patients requiring a second thyroid surgery, and ... the lower front of the neck. The thyroid’s job is to make thyroid hormones, which are secreted ...

  16. Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic neoplasms of pancreas are rare lesions. Following the Compagno-Oertel classification, we differenciate serous microcystic adenomas (SMA) from mucinous macrocystic adenomas/adenocarcinomas (MMA). The former are benign tumors with slow growth, composed by innumerable small and tiny cystic with centra calcifications, resulting in a ''honeycomb'' pattern. They have a mixed US structure while CT densitometric values reflect a mixture of connective tissue and proteinaceous fluid. Postcontrast enhancement is frequently seen. MMA are potential (adenoma) or frankly (adenocarcinoma) malignant tumors. They appears as moltilocular cystic masses containing septa and/or papillary bulgings, with thickened walls. Both US and CT demonstrate their predominantly cystic character, and the eventual presence of excrescences. WE report a series of 23 cases (6 SMA, 17 MMA) of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas studied during the past five years. A correct diagnosis of SMA was possible in all 6 cases, while MMA was correctly diagnosed in 17 out of 18 cases. There were no false negatives, and 1 falsa positive. All differential diagnoses are also discussed

  17. Differential diagnostics and surgical indications of cold thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.; Fazakas, S.; Szikorszky, M., L.; Hajer, G.; Csaky, G.

    1974-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma, of thyroid tumours of potential malignancy and of thyroiditis was studied on the basis of the histological features of cold nodules observed in 300 thyroids from a population of a flat area with endemic goitre. Clinical parameters have been designed for use in the differentiation of cold nodules and the timing of surgery.

  18. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumors originating from soft tissue or bone. Diagnosis and treatment of sarcomas should be performed at specialized sarcoma centers, where patients are evaluated at a multidisciplinary tumor conference. We present a case where sarcoma was suspected from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasou...

  19. Pediatric Head and Neck Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaisi, Mohammed; Eid, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck malignancies are rare in pediatric patients, and represent 12% of all pediatric malignancies. The incidence for these head and neck tumors is 1.49 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. Among the most common pediatric head and neck malignancies are lymphomas (27%), neural tumors including primitive neurectodermal tumors (23%), thyroid malignancies (21%), soft tissue sarcomas including rhabdomyosarcoma (12%), nasopharyngeal carcinoma, skeletal and odontogenic malignancies including osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and ameloblastic carcinoma. This article presents an overview of pediatric head and neck malignancies with emphasis on diagnosis and management. PMID:26614697

  20. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by ?-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm-1), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm-1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm-1, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm-1) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm-1. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm-1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  1. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kuan-Yin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Lin, Cheng-Li [China Medical University Hospital, Management Office for Health Data, Taichung (China); China Medical University, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without {sup 131}I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. {sup 131}I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between {sup 131}I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  2. Fecaloma simulating colonic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M H; Martel, W

    1976-05-01

    Large, discrete fecal masses in the colon may be confused with neoplasms, particularly if they are relatively immobile. The radiologic features of such masses generally permit their true identification. PMID:1265606

  3. A rare case of thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXT: Thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, with only two previous cases in the literature. We report a case of pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the thyroid. We review the incidence, diagnosis, and management of this rare occurrence. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man with a synchronous 6-month history of thyroid swelling, presented with epigastric pain and signs of obstructive jaundice. He was investigated by abdominal computerised tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasm was made. His thyroid neoplasm was investigated at another tertiary centre and thought to be a papillary neoplasm. He underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy and recovered well post-operatively. Eight weeks later he had a total thyroidectomy. Histology confirmed that the thyroid mass was both morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to the pancreatic neoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates the importance of a full investigation when a patient with suspected neoplastic history presents with a thyroid nodule. We outline the crucial role that immunohistochemistry plays in detecting and classifying primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. The detection of a solitary thyroid metastasis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma may indicate a poor prognosis, and it is debatable whether resection of the primary should be undertaken when it presents with a solitary metastasis.

  4. Prolonged chronic GVHD is a risk factor for thyroid failure in long-term survivors after matched sibling donor stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Bipin N; Koklanaris, Eleftheria K.; Le, Quan; Shenoy, Aarthi; Goodman, Stacey; Barrett, A J

    2013-01-01

    We studied thyroid function in 81 long term survivors of allo-SCT (median follow-up 84 months, range 45–166). Median age at transplant was 35 years (range 6–66). Seventy two received a total body irradiation conditioning regimen (12Gy 23; 13Gy 49). Twenty one (25.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 9 (11.1%) developed overt hypothyroidism at a median of 28 months (range 3–78) after allo-SCT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed prolonged immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was significantly associated with subclinical (OR 3.8) and overt (OR 2.6) hypothyroidism. Anti-Thyroglobulin and Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody were detected in 12 of 60 (20%) patients tested. There was no correlation between the occurrence of thyroid antibodies and hypothyroidism (p=0.13) or cGVHD (p=0.55). In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction is relatively common after SCT and is more likely to occur in patients receiving prolonged IST for cGVHD. However, thyroid dysfunction did not appear to be related to an antibody-mediated autoimmune process. PMID:19203730

  5. Panorama of neoplasms of upper GI tract: a 5 year research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.S. Suman Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Results: we have received 120 specimens regarding the upper gastrointestinal system. Among these 120 specimens, 71 specimens were endoscopic biopsies and 49 specimens were surgically resected specimens. Out of 71 Endoscopic biopsies 28 biopsies were malignant among which 2 was esophagus and 26 were stomach. Out of 49 surgically resected specimens 1 was benign and 32 were malignant tumors. Out of 59 neoplasms of stomach there were single cases each of Sub mucosal Lipoma, Malignant lymphoma, GIST and 56 cases of Adenocarcinoma and its variants were noted. Conclusion: Most of the neoplasms are of stomach (97%. All the neoplasms are malignant except one benign lesion sub mucous lipoma of stomach. Most of the neoplasms of stomach were Adenocarcinoma (96.5%. Both tumors of esophagus were squamous cell carcinoma occurred after 50 years of age. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1313-1320

  6. Anti-apoptotic gene transcription signature of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of accurate therapeutic approaches to salivary gland neoplasms depends on better understanding of their molecular pathogenesis. Tumour growth is regulated by the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated apoptosis in salivary tumours relying almost exclusively on immunohistochemistry or TUNEL assay. Furthermore, there is no information regarding the mRNA expression profile of apoptotic genes in salivary tumors. Our objective was to investigate the quantitative expression of BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic), BAX and Caspase3 (pro-apoptotic genes) mRNAs in salivary gland neoplasms and examine the association of these data with tumour size, proliferative activity and p53 staining (parameters associated with a poor prognosis of salivary tumours patients). We investigated the apoptotic profile of salivary neoplasms in twenty fresh samples of benign and seven samples of malignant salivary neoplasms, using quantitative real time PCR. We further assessed p53 and ki-67 immunopositivity and obtained clinical tumour size data. We demonstrated that BCL-2 mRNA is overexpressed in salivary neoplasms, leading to an overall anti-apoptotic profile. We also found an association between the anti-apoptotic index (BCL-2/BAX) with p53 immunoexpression. A higher proliferative activity was found in the malignant tumours. In addition, tumour size was associated with cell proliferation but not with the transcription of apoptotic genes. In conclusion, we show an anti-apoptotic gene expression profile in salivary neoplasms in association with p53 staining, but independent of cell proliferation and tumour size

  7. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Thyroid Nodules Overview What is the thyroid? The thyroid is a small gland located at the base of your throat (near your ... which your body burns calories. What is a thyroid nodule? A thyroid nodule is a lump in ...

  8. A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident. Cyto-Histopathologic Correlation and Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy in Nodules Detected During the First Screening in Ukraine (1998-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhok, Yuriy; Greenebaum, Ellen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I.; McConnell, Robert J.; Zelinskaya, Anna; Brenner, Alina V.; Zurnadzhy, Lyudmyla Y.; Zablotska, Lydia; Tronko, Mykola D.; Hatch, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ukrainian American Cohort Study was established to evaluate the risk of thyroid disorders in a group exposed as children and adolescents to 131I by the Chornobyl accident (arithmetic mean thyroid dose=0.79 Gray). Subjects are screened by palpation and ultrasound and referred to surgery according to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA). However, the accuracy of FNA cytology for detecting histopathologically confirmed malignancy following this level of internal exposure to radioiodines is unknown. Methods As a result of the first screening cycle (1998-2000), 13,243 individuals were examined, 356 with thyroid nodules were referred for FNA, 288 completed the procedure, 85 were referred to surgery, 82 were operated upon, and pre-operative cytology was available for review in 78. Cytological interpretation for the nodule that resulted in surgical referral was correlated with final pathomorphology; discrepancies were retrospectively reviewed; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNA cytology were calculated. Results All 24 cytological interpretations definite for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) were histopathologically confirmed (PPV=100%) and of 11 suspect for PTC, 10 were confirmed (PPV=90.9%). Ten of 41 FNAs interpreted as either definite or suspect for follicular neoplasm (FN) were confirmed as malignant (PPV=24.4%): 2 follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) and 8 PTCs (all but one of the follicular or mixed subtypes). Depending on whether a cytological interpretation of FN was considered a “positive” or “negative”, sensitivity was 100% or 77.3%, respectively; similarly, specificity was 17.6% or 97.1 %, PPV 61.1% or 97.1% and NPV 100% or 76.7%. Conclusions Among children and adolescents exposed to 131I following Chornobyl and evaluated 12 to 14 years later, thyroid cytology has a sensitivity and predictive value similar to that reported in unexposed populations. PMID:19365829

  9. Neoplasms involving the heart, their simulators, and adverse consequences of their therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, William Clifford

    2001-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors involving the heart may be either benign or malignant. Most of the benign tumors are myxomas, which are most commonly located in the left atrium. Primary malignant neoplasms usually involve the myocardium and the interior of the cardiac cavities, whereas neoplasms metastatic to the heart most commonly involve pericardium, and pericardial effusion and constriction are the most common consequences. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are becoming the most u...

  10. Criterios ecográficos diagnósticos de neoplasia maligna en el nódulo tiroideo: correlación con la punción por aspiración con aguja fina y la anatomía patológica / Ultrasound diagnostic criteria of malignancy in a thyroid nodule: correlation with fine needle aspiration and pathology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés Ignacio, Chala; Rafael, Pava; Humberto Ignacio, Franco; Andrés, Álvarez; Armando, Franco.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ecografía de tiroides ha mejorado la certeza diagnóstica para neoplasia maligna del nódulo tiroideo. Es importante definir qué nódulos requieren biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina (BACAF) para disminuir el costo de un procedimiento innecesario y evitar que pase inadvertido el dia [...] gnóstico de neoplasia maligna. Objetivo. Validar los criterios ecográficos de neoplasia maligna que indican la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo a tres años para evaluar la concordancia entre los hallazgos ecográficos y la punción por aspiración con aguja fina de tiroides comparada con el estudio final de histopatología. Se evaluó la sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo, la concordancia medida por el coeficiente kappa y el coeficiente de correlación. Resultados. Se estudiaron 1.467 pacientes, 10,2 % hombres y 89,8 % mujeres, con edades entre los 10 y los 95 años; el tamaño promedio del nódulo fue de 16 mm. Un total de 623 requirieron tiroidectomía; al resto se les hizo seguimiento por ecografía. Se presentaron 269 carcinomas papilares, 14 foliculares, 4 indiferenciados, 159 bocios, 74 adenomas y 101 tiroiditis. Se obtuvo sensibilidad de 86,4 %, especificidad de 89,4 %, valor diagnóstico de un resultado positivo de 87,5 % y uno negativo de 84,1 %. Los hallazgos ecográficos relacionados con cáncer fueron: hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y flujo intranodular. Individualmente, la concordancia fue baja, pero con la combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones y papilas fue media y, con la adición de aumento del flujo intranodular, resultó alta. Conclusiones. La combinación de hipoecogenicidad, microcalcificaciones, papilas y alto flujo intranodular tiene alta concordancia con neoplasia maligna; sin embargo, cada criterio por separado no la tiene, y no pueden usarse individualmente para predecir o descartar neoplasia maligna. Abstract in english Introduction. Thyroid ultrasound has improved the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant neoplasia in thyroid nodules. It is important to define which nodules require fine needle aspiration so as to diminish the costs of unnecessary procedures and at the same time avoid unnoticed malignan [...] cy. Objective. To validate the echographic criteria of malignant neoplasia that validate fine needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule. Material and methods. Three-year prospective study to assess correlation between the ultrasound findings and fine needle aspiration with pathology findings, including sensibility, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and concordance measured by Kappa coefficient, and correlation coefficient. Results. The study included 1,467 patients, 10,2% males and 89,8% females, with ages ranging from 10 years to 95 years; average size of the nodule was 16 mm; 623 patients required thyroidectomy, while the remainder were followed by ultrasound. There were 269 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, 4 anaplastic carcinomas, 159 goiters, 74 adenomas, and 101 thyroiditis. Sensibility was 86,4%, specificity was 89,4%, positive predictive value 87,5%, and negative predictive value 84,1%. Ultrasound findings related with cancer were hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae, and intranodal flow; when adding intranodal flow, concordance was high. Conclusions. The combination of hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, papillae and high intranodal flow exhibit high concordance with malignancy; however, echographic criteria considered individually does not, and those individual criteria cannot be used to predict or rule out malignant neoplasia.

  11. Thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive idiom therapy may be helpful in patients with normal postoperative calcitonin levels in preventing recurrence. At this time, the concomitant use of I-131 whole body scintigraphy, serum thyroglobulin. and neck ultrasonography appears to be the most practical and efficacious methods of long-term follow-up. Ultrasound and or are being added to the armament atrium as it becomes clear that patient with a negative whole body iodine image and measurable serum T g may have recurrent disease that is amenable to surgical removal and/or further radiotherapy

  12. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Thyroid Antibodies Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Thyroid Autoantibodies; Antithyroid Antibodies; Antimicrosomal Antibody; Thyroid Microsomal Antibody; ...

  13. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. PMID:25591468

  14. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the key statistics about thyroid cancer? What is thyroid cancer? Thyroid cancer is a cancer that starts ... structure and function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland The thyroid gland is below the thyroid ...

  15. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The ?2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  16. Irradiation-related thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Cancer Control and Rehabilitation of NCI has posted information for physicians with regard to irradiation-related thyroid cancer. A summary about late effects of radiation of head and neck in infancy and childhood points out that irradiation of the thyroid gland during various therapeutic regimens is now recognized as a possible cause of development of both benign and malignant thyroid tumors many years later. The often benign and slow growing tumors may develop up to 35 years after treatment. They can be removed surgically. The greatest problem is identifying persons who received radiation in childhood. Careful inspection and palpation of the gland are recommended. Radioisotope scans may be helpful since cold nodules are more likely to be carcinomas. If a nodule is suspected on palpation, administrating thyroid hormone may shrink the gland and make the nodule more prominent. Some feel that hormone given to asymptomatic patients with irradiation history may help prevent tumor development. At-risk individuals and those who have been treated surgically for thyroid malignancy should be examined every 1--2 years. Surgical exploration should be considered for thyroid nodules. The nuclear medical section of the Wilmington Medical Center has established a tumor registry for thyroid tumors and has recorded 96 patients who are being followed by a special thyroid registry. Recommendations concerning identification of patients at-risk, detection, and scintiscanning are given

  17. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodules in detecting malignancy in childhood: comparison with conventional clinical, laboratory, and imaging approaches.

    OpenAIRE

    De Sanctis, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    In childhood the traditional diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules consists of clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluations. A safe and accurate procedure is needed to promptly identify patients who require surgery. In regard to the usefulness of fine needle aspiration biopsy, the data in the literature concerning children and adolescents are scanty. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of clinical, laboratory, and imaging data collected retrospectivel...

  18. Cribriform-Morular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar AKKAYA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This subtype is commonly reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. However, cases not associated with polyposis have also been reported. The differential diagnosis of this entity from other aggressive thyroid neoplasms is important. A 29-year old man presented with a solitary mass in the left thyroid lobe underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis, colonoscopy revealed a normal colon without polyposis. Herein, we report a case not associated with polyposis and discuss with the literature.

  19. Elastography of the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monpeyssen, H; Tramalloni, J; Poirée, S; Hélénon, O; Correas, J-M

    2013-05-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common, while thyroid cancer is rare and has a very good prognosis. Thyroid nodule ultrasound characterization performed by experienced clinicians allows the selection of the tumours to be punctured and guiding fine needle aspiration (FNA). FNA provide cytology information able to differentiate benign tumours from cancer in approximately 80% of cases. However, it remains difficult to identify thyroid cancers with ultrasound imaging, as demonstrated by the very low rate of cancers detected in all of the carried out FNA (approximately 5%). As a majority of thyroid cancers are hard, the stiffness evaluation has become part of nodular characterization. Since 2005, elastography has been used for the evaluation of thyroid nodules; quasi-static elastography was the first technique available and used, at first, an external pressure induced by the probe, which was then replaced by carotid internal excitation allowing improvement in sensitivity. Semi-quantitative analysis allows comparison of tissue elasticities between tissue with elasticity anomalies and normal tissue and provides therefore useful analytic information. Shear wave elastography (SWE) provides a map of the elasticity in a region and allows stiffness quantification of lesions in kilopascals in order to reinforce the predictive value of malignancy. A tumour whose stiffness is greater than 65kPa or for which the stiffness ratio is greater than 3.7 compared to surrounding healthy tissue is highly suspicious. SWE may enable the detection of malignant follicular tumours that currently escape detection by the ultrasound-guided ultrasound/aspiration cytology couple. Lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid cancer can also be detected by elastography due to its increased stiffness. PMID:23623210

  20. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; Linfoma Burkitt primario tiroideo. Coexistencia con tiroiditis de Hashimoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuera, A. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar Jaen (Spain); Vicente, J.; Lazaro, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia. Cordoba (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs.

  1. Metastatic Thyroid Carcinoma With Initial Presentation As Spinal Cord Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özerk OKUTAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord compression due to the follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare. In this paper, we report 6 unusual cases of isolated vertebrae metastasis of the follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting with spinal cord compression. It is unusual for this neoplasm to begin with present as a single metastasis to the spine. Comprehensive preoperative works up for metastatic tumors of vertebrae is significant. This should include evaluation of the thyroid gland consisting of detailed clinical history and physical examination.

  2. US Guided Fine-needle Non-suction Technique: A Useful and Comfortable Method for Thyroid Nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle non-suction technique is more comfortable and useful than the conventional suction technique for the cytopathologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. Cytopathologic findings at consecutive fine-needle non-suction biopsies of 415 thyroid nodules in 262 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The procedure was performed by non-suction technique with 25-guage needle under US guidance. For each nodule, the biopsy was repeated up to two passes. Cytopathologic diagnostic rate was 89.4% (371/415), and inadequate specimen rate was 10.6% (44/415). Among 371 adequate specimens, the nodules were benign in 282 (68%), malignant in 55 (13.3%), and suspicious for malignant or follicular neoplasm in 34 (8.2%). Among 44 inadequate specimens, nodules were calcified in 9, cystic in 2, and solid or mixed echoic in 33. US-guided fine-needle non-suction technique is more comfortable than and as useful as the conventional suction technique for the cytopathological evaluation of thyroid nodules

  3. Clinical application of EBCT in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To probe the clinical utilization of electron beam CT (EBCT) in the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasms. Methods: Between July 1995 and Feb 1999. EBCT was performed in 12024 patients in our hospital. 40 (0.33%) patients were diagnosed as cardiac neoplasms. Retrospective analysis of 22 patients confirmed by operation, autopsy or follow-up was done. In this group, there were 13 males and 9 females, age ranged from 5 months to 72 years old (averaged 41.9 years). 17 patients had both contrast single slice mode (contrast SSM) and movie mode, 3 patients only SSM, 1 patient movie mode and 1 patient plain SSM. Results: Accurate localization and quantitative diagnoses were made in all the 22 patients and correct histopathological diagnosis was made in 10 patients with myxoma. EBCT provided characteristic clues to proper histopathological determination in 6 of the 7 patients with non-myxomatous benign neoplasms. In the 5 patients with malignant masses, 4 patients acquired distinct histopathological classifications, and involvement of the adjacent anatomic structures was revealed. Conclusion: Because of excellent temporal, spatial and density resolution, EBCT has not only high accuracy in the diagnosis of myxoma, but also possesses advantage superior to echocardiography in the definition of non-myxomatous benign and malignant neoplasms, which are difficult to diagnose histopathologically using echocardiography. EBCT is also valuable for assessment of involvement of neighbouring organs. In the diagnosis of cardiac neoplasm without specific features, this method is limited and difficult

  4. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  5. Radiotherapy for Thymic Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Clifton D; Ramahi, Emma H.; Aherne, Noel; Eng, Tony Y.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of thymoma and thymic carcinoma has been evaluated by many investigators over the past two decades. The low incidence of these neoplasms has limited most published studies to small series spanning long time intervals or extant population-based studies. The exact indications and protocols for the use of RT as a part of the multidisciplinary approach to thymoma and thymic carcinoma are still unclear. However, a review of recent literature shows pot...

  6. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; NEGRI, E; D'Avanzo, B; Franceschi, S

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks ...

  7. Papillary thyroid cancer and ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Giovanni; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Di Bella, Camillo; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Baldini, Vittorio; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is associated with several malignancies. Here we report one such association, a rare one, with papillary thyroid carcinoma, and discuss the possible risk factors of such an association.

  8. Surgical Removal of the Thyroid Gland

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above on both sides. And, Dr. T, what causes an enlarged thyroid to begin with? A goiter ... be malignant, and so we’re trying to prevent her from having a nodule that is cance ...

  9. New insights in diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Klasina Maria van,

    2002-01-01

    The management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is the main topic of this thesis. Chapter I gives a short introduction in the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland. Knowlegde about the regulation of thryroid growth and the transformation into a malignant thyroid tumor is surnmarized. ... Zie: Summary

  10. ANTI-THYROID PEROXIDASE ANTIBODY LEVEL IN THYROID NODULES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THYROID NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bera Swati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-TPO antibody level was evaluated in 86 patients, along with 25 healthy controls to detect its change in various forms of thyroid nodules particularly in thyroid malignancy when compared with healthy controls. The study revealed that Anti-TPO antibody level was increased in Benign & toxic form of Multi nodular goiter and papillary carcinoma but there is no elevation of Anti- TPO antibody level in follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma.

  11. Prolonged chronic GVHD is a risk factor for thyroid failure in long-term survivors after matched sibling donor stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Savani, Bipin N; Koklanaris, Eleftheria K.; Le, Quan Van; Shenoy, Aarthi; Goodman, Stacey; Barrett, A J

    2009-01-01

    We studied thyroid function in 81 long term survivors of allo-SCT (median follow-up 84 months, range 45–166). Median age at transplant was 35 years (range 6–66). Seventy two received a total body irradiation conditioning regimen (12Gy 23; 13Gy 49). Twenty one (25.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 9 (11.1%) developed overt hypothyroidism at a median of 28 months (range 3–78) after allo-SCT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed prolonged immunosuppressive therapy (IST) was sign...

  12. Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    RishengMa; SimonBonnefond

    2014-01-01

    Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Furthermore, EMT is a critical process for epithelial tumor progression, local invasion, and metastasis formation. In addition, stemness provide...

  13. Thyroid tumors associated with radiation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, C

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of medically and environmentally exposed populations have been central to establishing ionizing radiation as a cause of malignant and benign thyroid tumors. Issues currently under investigation concern low dose effects, age sensitivity, the relative effectiveness of X-rays and iodine-131 in inducing thyroid cancer, and other risk factors. Excess thyroid tumors continue to appear in irradiated populations under study more than three decades after exposure.

  14. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy Call?oglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kaz?m; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first des...

  15. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Anani Aila MAT ZAIN; Irfan MOHAMAD; Balasubramanian, Anusha; Nur Asyilla CHE JALIL

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid gland either primary or metastatic is extremely rare. However, MEC is the most common malignant tumour of the salivary glands with the majority originating from the parotid gland. We report the case of a 54-year-old Malay lady who presented with recurrent MEC affecting the thyroid gland two years after being treated for primary parotid MEC.

  16. The results of combined therapy malignant neoplasms of maxillary sinus at Oncology Center in Poznan; Ocena wynikow leczenia skojarzonego chorych na nowotwory zlosliwe zatoki szczekowej w materiale Wielkopolskiego Centrum Onkologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamiak, E.; Cerkaska-Gluszak, B.; Gorny, A. [Wielkopolskie Centrum Onkologii im. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie, Poznan, (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Between 1985-1989 22 patients with malignant neoplasma maxillary sinus have been treated. At the first stage the surgical resection of maxilla was performed. Most of the patients (77%) had histopathological diagnosis of carcinoma planoepitheliale, 13% carcinoma solidum and 4% carcinoma adenoides cysticum. All patients had adjuvant therapy by Co-60 irradiation. Single fraction dose of 2 Gy/T 5 times a week up to total dose of 60-70 Gy/T has been applied. In the follow-up period of minimum 36 months the free-symptoms survival rate of 18%. (author) 5 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  17. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation (RFA recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1 the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2 robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  18. Mucin-producing Malignant Tumor of Lower Eyelid Presenting in a 14-year-old Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Andrea; Alghothani, Lana; Lambert, David; Jatana, Kris R.; Peters, Sara; Foster, Jill; Hill, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Malignancies of the ocular adnexa are rare, aggressive tumors with significant potential for local recurrence and metastases. Although basal cell carcinoma remains the most common malignancy of the eyelid, encompassing more than 90 percent of all periocular cancers, several other malignant neoplasms have been reported. Malignant ocular adnexal neoplasms are most commonly of sweat gland origin and include hidradenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine adenocarcinoma, and apocrine adenocarcinoma of the g...

  19. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat ARA; Saw OHNMAR

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  20. Technetium-99m scintimammography in the diagnosis of malignant breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaukovi? Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin scintigraphy is a new imaging method for the diagnosis of various malignancies, such as lung, thyroid, and most frequently breast neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin breast scintigraphy in the detection of malignant breast disease. Methods. 99mTc -Tetrofosmin scintimammography (SMM was performed in 28 patients with 30 breast lesions suspicious for malignancy. Standard mammography (MM was also done. After surgery, the results of SMM and MM were compared to definitive histopathological findings as the "gold standard". After intravenous injection of radiotracer, SMM was performed in prone and supine views of the thorax, using large field-of-view Gamma camera. Results. The results of SMM were interpreted visually and semiquantitatively, and evaluated as positive or negative. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, positive (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were obtained in relation to histopathology. After comparing the results of SMM and MM, SMM was proved more sensitive (95% for SMM vs. 80% for MM, while the specificity of both methods was similar. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate that the contribution of SMM as a nuclear medicine procedure has its place in the diagnostic protocol for patients suspected of malignant breast cancer.

  1. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  2. The interobserver reproducibility of thyroid cytopathology using Bethesda Reporting System: Analysis of 200 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine interobserver reproducibility of thyroid cytopathology in cases of thyroid fine needle aspirates. Methods: The retrospective, descriptive study, was conducted at the Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, using cases related to period between 2009 and 2011. A total of 200 cases of fine-needle aspirations were retrieved from the archives. Three histopathologists independently categorised them into 6 groups according to Bethesda reporting system guidelines without looking at previous reports. Kappa statistics were used for analysis of the results on SPSS 17. Results: Of the 200 patients, 194 (97%) were females and 6 (3%) were males. The overall mean age of patients was 46+-20 years. Kappa value calculated for observer-1 and observer-2 was 0.735; for observer-1 and observer-3, 0.841; and for observer-2 and observer-3, 0.838, showing substantial interobserver agreement. Histopathological correlation was available, for 39(19.5%). Of these cases, 5(13%) were non-diagnostic, 20(51%) benign, 2(5%) atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, 6(15%) follicular neoplasm, 1(3%) suspicious for malignancy, and 5(13%) malignant. Conclusions: Good overall interobserver agreement was found, but discordance was seen when certain categories were analysed separately. (author)

  3. Correlación entre biopsia rápida operatoria y biopsia diferida de tiroides: Revisión de 10 años en el Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau Concordance between intraoperative frozen section and deferred biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GASTÓN ASTROZA E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La biopsia rápida intraoperatoria es un examen esencial en el curso de una tiroidectomía para decidir la magnitud del procedimiento resectivo. Un patólogo experimentado va a redundar en un alto grado de concordancia en el resultado entre la biopsia rápida y el de la biopsia diferida. Para analizar cómo se dio esta concordancia en nuestro hospital, revisamos retrospectivamente 351 tiroidectomías, de las 795 realizadas en los últimos 10 años en nuestro Servicio. Para esta selección, excluimos aquellos procedimientos que no contaban con ambos tipos de biopsia. Se informó como proceso maligno por la biopsia rápida en 88 pacientes, lo que coincidió con la biopsia diferida en 75 pacientes (85,2%. En el resto (13 pacientes ó 14,8% la biopsia rápida informó malignidad y el resultado final fue benigno. En 263 pacientes la biopsia rápida informó lesión benigna, presentándose una concordancia en 238 pacientes (90,5%. Por tanto, en el resto (25 pacientes ó 9,5% el estudio diferido informó malignidad. Se calculó la sensibilidad y especificidad de la biopsia rápida intraoperatoria en relación a patología tiroídea, obteniéndose una sensibilidad de 75% y una especificidad de 94,8%. De los falsos negativos informados por biopsia rápida, el carcinoma papilar fue el tipo histológico más frecuente encontrado (15/25. Se concluye que si bien se obtuvo una buena especificidad lo que se acompaña de un bajo número de tiroidectomías totales en vano, la sensibilidad (75% pudo haber sido mayor, lo que obligó en los pacientes erróneamente catalogados en una primera instancia como benignos a ser sometidos a una segunda intervención. Es necesario buscar la forma de optimizar estos resultados, para así disminuir el número de pacientes que deben ser reintervenidosBackground: Intraoperative frozen section s essential procedure during thyroidectomy, to decide magnitude of the excision. There is usually a good concordance between fast and deferred biopsy results in hands of experimented pathologists. Aim: To assess the concordance between fast and deferred thyroid biopsies. Material and methods: Prospective study of 351 thyroidectomies, performed to 312 women and 39 men, aged 13 to 83 years, in which a fast and a deferred biopsy, were performed. Results: Intraoperative frozen section diagnosed a total of 88 malignant lesions, that were confirmed with the deferred biopsy in 75 cases (85.2%. In 13 (14.8% patients with a malignant lesion diagnosed with the fast biopsy, the final result was benign. In 263 cases, the fast biopsy reported a benign lesion, that was corroborated with the deferred biopsy in 238 patients (90,5%. In 25 of these patients (9.5%, the deferred biopsy showed a malignant lesion. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the fast biopsy were 75 and 95%, respectively. Papillary carcinoma was the most common pathological finding in 15 of 25cases. Conclusions: intraoperative frozen section thyroid has a high specificity for the diagnosis of malignant lesions, but sensitivity must be improved

  4. Use of 131-I metaiodinebenzylgunidine (131-I MIBG) in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the most common problems of modern oncology practice and nuclear medicine is the treatment of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), which is considered to be the tumor of the APUD system. The neoplasm originates from C-cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland. The tumor is hormone-active and can produce calcitonin. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland constitutes 3-13% of all malignant thyroid tumors. Metastases to cervical lymph nodes, mediastinum, lungs, liver, bones are frequent. The purpose of our work was to review the efficacy of MCT treatment done in our centre. Since 1999 131I-MIBG (Amersham-Nycomed) has been used in the treatment of MCT at the hospital of Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology. During 1999-2002, 131I-MIBG was administered in various doses (100 to 300 mCi) to 12 patients with different stages of MCT. Four non-radically operated patients with local dissemination of the tumor were cured following 131I-MIBG therapy (total activity 200-300 mCi, follow up period - 2 years). In four patients reduction in the tumor volume and/or disappearance of metastases in the cervical nodes (follow-up period 1.5 years, total activity of 131I-MIBG 100 - 200 mCi) was noticed. Three patients are still on follow up since 1.5 years (total activity of 131I-MIBG 100-200 mCi). One patient died due to the progression of disease. Myelosuppression was not observed in any of the treated patients. In conclusion, 131I-MIBG is a promising radiopharmaceutical for treatment medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  5. [Morphological and clinical evaluation of non-epithelial and mixed neoplasms of the female reproductive organs. II. Leiomyosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezabitowski, A; Karolewski, K; Medvey, W; Grucha?a, A; Ry?, J; Szklarski, W

    1990-01-01

    Among 12886 malignant neoplasms of female sex organ 34 leiomyosarcoma were found. Average age of suffering women was 50 years. Metrorrhagia and lower abdominal pain were most common symptoms reported. Surgical treatment was supplemented with radiotherapy. Significant impact on prognosis showed: number of mitoses, number of bizarre and giant cells, massive necrosis and hyalinization. Efficient early diagnosis these neoplasms still awaits improvement. PMID:2100792

  6. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Key Points Plasma cell neoplasms are ...

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiq S; Ahmad I; Colloby P

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in ...

  8. Is there loss or qualitative changes in the expression of thyroid peroxidase protein in thyroid epithelial cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Czarnocka, B; Pastuszko, D; Janota-Bzowski, M; Weetman, A.P.; Watson, P F; Kemp, E. H.; McIntosh, R S; Asghar, M S; Jarzab, B; Gubala, E; Wloch, J; Lange, D.

    2001-01-01

    There is disagreement concerning the expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in thyroid cancer, some studies finding qualitative as well as quantitative differences compared to normal tissue. To investigate TPO protein expression and its antigenic properties, TPO was captured from a solubilizate of thyroid microsomes by a panel of murine anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies and detected with a panel of anti-human TPO IgG? Fab. TPO protein expression in 30 samples of malignant thyroid tissue was comp...

  9. [Surgical Treatment of Thyroid Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Izumi; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Ookouchi, Chiyo

    2015-06-01

    The strategy for surgical treatment of thyroid cancer differs depending on the histopathological type. In papillary thyroid cancer, which accounts for most cases of thyroid cancer, total thyroidectomy is recommended in high-risk cases with tumors of more than 5 cm or with N1, EX2, or M1 tumors in Japan. On the other hand, ipsilateral lobectomy is performed for low-risk cases with T1N0M0. Our department has also added a treatment policy for the prognostic factor, age. Prophylactic lymph node dissection is performed in the central neck region but is not recommended in the lateral neck region. In follicular thyroid cancer, total thyroidectomy is recommended for widely invasive cancer, and hemithyroidectomy or ipsilateral lobectomy is performed for minimally invasive cancer. When widely invasive cancer is diagnosed after lobectomy, completion thyroidectomy is recommended. Whether minimally invasive follicular cancer with vascular invasion requires completion thyroidectomy is controversial. I also handle medullary thyroid cancer, poorly differentiated thyroid cancer, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and thyroid malignant lymphoma with a different policy. It is important to balance a surgical treatment strategy with a molecular targeted therapy and radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:26199237

  10. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  11. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THE BABY? Thyroid hormone is critical for brain development in the baby. Children born with congenital hypothyroidism (no thyroid function at birth) can have severe cognitive, neurological and developmental abnormalities if the condition is ...

  12. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  13. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation) of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... The cause of this type of thyroiditis is unknown, but it is ... also be caused by medicines such as interferon and amiodarone.

  14. Decrease in thyroid adenoma associated (THADA expression is a marker of dedifferentiation of thyroid tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloth Lars

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid adenoma associated (THADA has been identified as the target gene affected by chromosome 2p21 translocations in thyroid adenomas, but the role of THADA in the thyroid is still elusive. The aim of this study was to quantify THADA gene expression in normal tissues and in thyroid hyper- and neoplasias, using real-time PCR. Methods For the analysis THADA and 18S rRNA gene expression assays were performed on 34 normal tissue samples, including thyroid, salivary gland, heart, endometrium, myometrium, lung, blood, and adipose tissue as well as on 85 thyroid hyper- and neoplasias, including three adenomas with a 2p21 translocation. In addition, NIS (sodium-iodide symporter gene expression was measured on 34 of the pathological thyroid samples. Results Results illustrated that THADA expression in normal thyroid tissue was significantly higher (p p p THADA mRNA expression was found to be inversely correlated with HMGA2 mRNA. HMGA2 expression was recently identified as a marker revealing malignant transformation of thyroid follicular tumors. A correlation between THADA and NIS has also been found in thyroid normal tissue and malignant tumors. Conclusions The results suggest THADA being a marker of dedifferentiation of thyroid tissue.

  15. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies: Its effect on thyroid gland and breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Kandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid peroxidase (TPO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of thyroid hormone. TPO is involved in thyroid hormone synthesis (organification and coupling reactions. TPO is a major antigen corresponding to thyroid-microsomal autoantibodies. Anti-TPO auto antibodies are very important to diagnose autoimmune thyroid diseases and also in estimating its clinical course. Autoimmune thyroid disease is detected mostly by measuring circulating antibodies to thyroglobulin which is uncommon measurement of antibodies to TPO that gives reliable information about autoimmune thyroid disease. Eighty percent of Grave?s disease patients have high levels of antiTPO antibodies. About 4% of subclinical hypothyroid patients with positive TPO antibodies develop clinical hypothyroidism. There is always a controversy on the relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. As these tissues, i.e., breast and thyroid, originate embryologically from the same type of cells, hypothyroid/hyperthyroid females are more prone to develop benign or malignant breast tumors. The studies on breast cancer patients indicate increased thyroid disorders in breast cancer patients, most commonly Hashimoto?s thyroiditis accounts to increased thyroid disorders in these patients. This is independent of hormonal receptor status of the patient. These findings suggest the usefulness of screening for thyroid disease in any patient with breast cancer.

  16. Thyroid Tissue Connected to Normally Located Thyroid Gland: Ectopic or Exophytic?

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Keles; Sule Ozkara; Turgut Karlidag; ?brahim Hanifi Ozercan

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is seen rarely. It is often seen in cervical midline, and rarely in other areas such as submandibular area. Diagnosis is made histopathologically by fine needle biopsy after the elimination of malignancy. In the treatment of ectopic thyroid tissue, surgical excision is mostly applied. According to our knowledge, there is no exophytic thyroid tissue reported in the literature. In this paper, a 32-year-old woman who presented with a swelling under the right jaw and found ...

  17. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  18. A Malignant Granular Cell Tumor Excised with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    David Crowe; Ayli, Elias E.; Gloster, Hugh M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant granular cell tumors are extremely rare, aggressive neoplasms displaying rapid growth and frequent associated metastatic disease. Excision and evaluation for metastatic disease are mandatory. We present a 54-year-old patient with a malignant granular cell tumor, treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Cutaneous granular cell tumors are uncommon neoplasms, likely of perineural origin. Most follow a benign and uneventful course, with wide local excision being the treatment of choice (...

  19. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  20. Part 2: CT characterisation of pancreatic neoplasm: tumour mimics

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Tom; Galvin, Angela; Little, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous pancreatic and peripancreatic conditions that can mimic pancreatic neoplasms. Many of these can be confidently diagnosed on computed tomography (CT), while others will require further imaging. Knowledge of these tumour mimics is important to avoid misclassification of benign conditions as malignant and to avoid unnecessary surgery. Mimics can be grouped as parenchymal, vascular, biliary and peripancreatic. These are discussed and illustrated in this review.

  1. Papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas in a teenage boy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herskovits, M.; Loberant, N. [Department of Radiology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (Israel); Cohen, I.; Szvalb, S. [Department of Pathology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya (Israel)

    1999-09-01

    We present a case of a 13-year-old boy with a left-sided abdominal mass which proved to be a papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. This low-grade malignant lesion of young patients is very rare, and exceedingly rare in males. The prognosis following resection of this tumor is good. We present the ultrasound and computed tomographic picture of this lesion, as well as the gross and microscopic pathology. (orig.) With 4 figs., 11 refs.

  2. Papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas in a teenage boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of a 13-year-old boy with a left-sided abdominal mass which proved to be a papillary cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. This low-grade malignant lesion of young patients is very rare, and exceedingly rare in males. The prognosis following resection of this tumor is good. We present the ultrasound and computed tomographic picture of this lesion, as well as the gross and microscopic pathology. (orig.)

  3. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; FALCONI, MASSIMO

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs...

  4. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ?20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ?20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of cystic and endocrine pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Young Mi; Shin, Sang Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Semelka, Richard C

    2009-02-01

    This article describes the appearance of miscellaneous cystic and endocrine neoplasms using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful diagnostic modality in the assessment of various pancreatic neoplasms. Pancreatic endocrine tumors are moderately low in signal intensity on T1-weighted fat-suppressed images and moderately high in signal intensity on T2-weighted fat-suppressed images and demonstrate homogeneous, ring, or diffuse heterogeneous enhancement on immediate postgadolinium gradient echo images. Cystic pancreatic neoplasms, including intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, are well demonstrated and subcategorized according to their characteristic cystic configurations on MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography images. Microcystic serous cystadenomas are demonstrated as a honeycombed appearance on T2-weighted images and have a central stellate scar. Mucinous cystic neoplasms usually appear as multilocular cystic masses, with benign forms of macrocystic tumors possessing uniform thickness septations and malignant forms exhibiting irregular septations and tumor nodules. The presence of tumor stroma, invasion of adjacent tissue, or liver metastases can be assessed by MRI. The connection between the pancreatic duct and the cystic tumor is usually well shown on MR cholangiopancreatography images. PMID:19687721

  6. Molecular biology of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Vidal, Campregher; Fábio Pires de Souza, Santos; Guilherme Fleury, Perini; Nelson, Hamerschlak.

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms are clonal diseases of hematopoietic stem cells characterized by myeloid hyperplasia and increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are caused, as any other malignancy, by genetic defects that culminate in the neoplastic phenotype. [...] In the past six years, since the identification of JAK2V617F, we have experienced a substantial increase in our knowledge about the genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Mutations described in several genes have revealed a considerable degree of molecular homogeneity between different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. At the same time, the molecular differences between each subtype have become clearer. While mutations in several genes, such as JAK2, myeloproliferative leukemia (MPL) and LNK have been validated in functional assays or animal models as causative mutations, the roles of other recurring mutations in the development of disease, such as TET2 and ASXL1 remain to be elucidated. In this review we will examine the most prevalent recurring gene mutations found in myeloproliferative neoplasms and their molecular consequences.

  7. Spontaneous gastric squamous cell carcinomas and other neoplasms in Greenland collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, I. K.; F.F. Mallory; Brooks, R J

    1982-01-01

    Malignant neoplasms were present in 39/66 Dicrostonyx groenlandicus of varying ages, examined from a laboratory colony. The presence of multiple neoplasms in some resulted in an overall average of 1.15 tumors/affected animal. Gastric squamous papillomas were present in nine, and locally invasive or metastatic gastric squamous cell carcinomas in a further 36 animals. Three mammary adenocarcinomas, one pancreatic islet cell tumor, one probable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and one adrenal cortical ...

  8. [Neoplasms in nevus spilus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, C; Ernst, K; Hundeiker, M

    1996-10-01

    Among 946 patients with nevus spilus we observed 5 patients (3 women and 2 men) with transformations on it-2 cases with malignant melanoma and 3 cases with spitz-nevus. Histologically the nevus spilus is a superficial variant on congenital pigmented nevus missing corial parts. Because of the risk of transformation a regular skin examination is advisable, a prophylactical excision of nevi spili as used in congenital pigmented nevi should be discussed. PMID:9036124

  9. Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiq S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump. Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases. A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone. Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma. There was no history of a neck lump, head and neck examination was normal. Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid. A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

  10. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, L J; Hansen, A B

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide overlaps. The results suggest that SPN is a tumor with mixed endocrine and exocrine features. Its low malignant potential compared to ductal adenocarcinoma is reflected in the mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index. The presence of estrogen receptors may prove therapeutically useful.

  11. Molecular profiling of endometrial malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarnthai, Norasate; Hall, Kevin; Yeh, I-Tien

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of endometrial neoplasms reveals genetic changes in endometrial carcinomas that support the dualistic model, in which type I carcinomas are estrogen-dependent, low grade lesions and type II carcinomas are nonestrogen dependent and high grade. The molecular changes in type I endometrial carcinomas include mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, and beta-catenin, along with microsatellite instability, whereas type II endometrial carcinomas are characterized by genetic alterations in p53, HER2/neu, p16, and E-cadherin. For endometrial neoplasms with a malignant mesenchymal component, C-MYC mutations and loss of heterozygosity are frequently seen in carcinosarcomas, and a fusion gene, JAZF1/JJAZ1, is distinctive for endometrial stromal sarcoma. In addition, p53 mutations may play an important role in tumorigenesis of undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. These molecular changes can help in the diagnosis of endometrial neoplasms, as well as form the basis of molecular targeted therapy. PMID:20368795

  12. Pathologic Classification of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, David S

    2016-02-01

    The pathologic classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms has evolved over the past decades, as new understanding of the biological behavior, histologic characteristics, and genetic features have emerged. Nonetheless, many aspects of the classification systems remain confusing or controversial. Despite these difficulties, much progress has been made in determining the features predicting behavior. Genetic findings have helped establish relationships among different types of neuroendocrine neoplasms and revealed potential therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the current approach to the diagnosis, classification, grading, and therapeutic stratification of neuroendocrine neoplasms, with a focus on those arising in the lung and thymus, pancreas, and intestines. PMID:26614366

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  14. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis ... Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a common thyroid gland disorder. It can occur at any age, but is most often seen in ...

  15. Diagnostic accuracy between fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA and pathological examination of the thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerso Menegassi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the fact that the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is commonly used in the initial evaluation and distinction of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid nodules, it may yield variable results, inasmuch as it is contingent on the pathologist's analysis and expertise in collecting appropriate samples. OBJECTIVE: To check the diagnostic accuracy between FNA and pathological examination of thyroid nodules, both performed in a diagnostic pathology service. METHODS: Retrospective study carried out in a diagnostic pathology service in Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Brazil. All patients who underwent FNA and pathological examination in the period from January 1st 2005 to December 31 2010 were included in this study. RESULTS: 1,172 FNA were conducted during this period and 265 patients underwent both FNA and pathological examination. Most patients were female (85%, with mean age 47.75 years (standard deviation [SD] = 14.93 years. Cytopathological examinations yielded the following results: benignity (43.77 %, suspected malignancy (23.77%, follicular neoplasm (5.28%, atypical follicular lesion of undetermined significance (1.51% and unsatisfactory sample (1.51%. In the pathological examination, the most predominant diagnoses were colloid goiter (38.87%, follicular adenoma (22.64% and classic papillary carcinoma (18.87%. In satisfactory samples (n = 261, the following results were obtained: diagnostic accuracy (89.66%, sensitivity (82.14%, specificity (93.22%, negative predictive value (91.67% and positive predictive value (75.19%. CONCLUSION: We concluded that FNA provides a good predictive value for benign thyroid, constituting a reliable and effective tool for diagnosis and surgical indication.

  16. Photon-deficient finding in sternum on bone scintigraphy in patients with malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sternum is known as a common site of bone metastasis in a variety of neoplasms. Sternal metastasis is usually visualized as hot spot on bone scintigraphy. However, photon deficiency in the sternum on bone scintigraphy is reported in few cases with malignancy. We undertook a retrospective analysis to clarify the clinical significance of photon deficiency in the sternum in 12 patients with malignancy. Twelve patients (five breast cancer, two multiple myeloma, one lung cancer, one renal cell cancer, one hepatocellular carcinoma, one malignant lymphoma, and one thyroid cancer) showing cold sternal metastasis on bone scintigraphy were identified among 9,430 patients in whom bone scintigraphy was performed. Except for two cases with pathologically confirmed sternal metastasis, all patients showed lytic change in the sternum on tomography or CT scan. Six cases of solitary sternal metstasis showed partial effect of systemic therapy (chemotherapy, humoral therapy, and radiation therapy) and surgical treatment. It is necessary to keep in mind that this type of lesion may occur as a manifestation of metastatic disease. (author)

  17. Correlación entre biopsia rápida operatoria y biopsia diferida de tiroides: Revisión de 10 años en el Hospital Barros Luco-Trudeau / Concordance between intraoperative frozen section and deferred biopsy for the diagnosis of malignant thyroid lesions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GASTÓN, ASTROZA E; MIGUEL, GONZÁLEZ P; PABLO, PALADINES Z; RAÚL, CASAS C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La biopsia rápida intraoperatoria es un examen esencial en el curso de una tiroidectomía para decidir la magnitud del procedimiento resectivo. Un patólogo experimentado va a redundar en un alto grado de concordancia en el resultado entre la biopsia rápida y el de la biopsia diferida. Para analizar c [...] ómo se dio esta concordancia en nuestro hospital, revisamos retrospectivamente 351 tiroidectomías, de las 795 realizadas en los últimos 10 años en nuestro Servicio. Para esta selección, excluimos aquellos procedimientos que no contaban con ambos tipos de biopsia. Se informó como proceso maligno por la biopsia rápida en 88 pacientes, lo que coincidió con la biopsia diferida en 75 pacientes (85,2%). En el resto (13 pacientes ó 14,8%) la biopsia rápida informó malignidad y el resultado final fue benigno. En 263 pacientes la biopsia rápida informó lesión benigna, presentándose una concordancia en 238 pacientes (90,5%). Por tanto, en el resto (25 pacientes ó 9,5%) el estudio diferido informó malignidad. Se calculó la sensibilidad y especificidad de la biopsia rápida intraoperatoria en relación a patología tiroídea, obteniéndose una sensibilidad de 75% y una especificidad de 94,8%. De los falsos negativos informados por biopsia rápida, el carcinoma papilar fue el tipo histológico más frecuente encontrado (15/25). Se concluye que si bien se obtuvo una buena especificidad lo que se acompaña de un bajo número de tiroidectomías totales en vano, la sensibilidad (75%) pudo haber sido mayor, lo que obligó en los pacientes erróneamente catalogados en una primera instancia como benignos a ser sometidos a una segunda intervención. Es necesario buscar la forma de optimizar estos resultados, para así disminuir el número de pacientes que deben ser reintervenidos Abstract in english Background: Intraoperative frozen section s essential procedure during thyroidectomy, to decide magnitude of the excision. There is usually a good concordance between fast and deferred biopsy results in hands of experimented pathologists. Aim: To assess the concordance between fast and deferred thyr [...] oid biopsies. Material and methods: Prospective study of 351 thyroidectomies, performed to 312 women and 39 men, aged 13 to 83 years, in which a fast and a deferred biopsy, were performed. Results: Intraoperative frozen section diagnosed a total of 88 malignant lesions, that were confirmed with the deferred biopsy in 75 cases (85.2%). In 13 (14.8%) patients with a malignant lesion diagnosed with the fast biopsy, the final result was benign. In 263 cases, the fast biopsy reported a benign lesion, that was corroborated with the deferred biopsy in 238 patients (90,5%). In 25 of these patients (9.5%), the deferred biopsy showed a malignant lesion. Therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of the fast biopsy were 75 and 95%, respectively. Papillary carcinoma was the most common pathological finding in 15 of 25cases. Conclusions: intraoperative frozen section thyroid has a high specificity for the diagnosis of malignant lesions, but sensitivity must be improved

  18. Mortalidade por neoplasia maligna do fígado e vias biliares intra-hepáticas no Brasil, 1980-2010 / Mortality due to malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in Brazil, 1980-2010 / Mortalidad por neoplasia maligna de hígado y vías biliares intrahepáticas en Brasil, 1980-2010

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Rodrigues de, Amorim; Edgar, Merchán-Hamann.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a tendência da mortalidade por neoplasia maligna do fígado e das vias biliares intra-hepáticas no Brasil, entre 1980 e 2010. Trata-se de um estudo de séries temporais com dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. Coeficientes de mortalidade brutos, pad [...] ronizados, específicos por idade, região de residência e sexo foram calculados e as tendências analisadas utilizando-se modelos de regressão polinomial. Tendência crescente da mortalidade foi observada no Brasil, para ambos os sexos. O coeficiente médio de mortalidade para o país foi de 3,59 óbitos por 100 mil habitantes com aumento linear anual de 0,020 (R² = 0,588; p Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la tendencia de la mortalidad por neoplasia maligna de hígado y vías biliares intrahepáticas en Brasil, entre 1980 y 2010. Se trata de un estudio de series temporales con datos del Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad. Se calcularon las tasas brutas y [...] estandarizadas de mortalidad específicas por edad, región de residencia y sexo. Se analizaron las tendencias, utilizando modelos de regresión polinomial. Fue observada una tendencia creciente de la mortalidad en el país para ambos sexos. La tasa general de mortalidad fue 3,59 muertes /100 mil habitantes, mostrando aumento lineal anual de 0,020 (R² = 0,588; p Abstract in english This study aimed to analyze trends in mortality due to malignant neoplasms of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts in Brazil from 1980 to 2010. This was a time series study using data provided by the Mortality Information System. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated according to a [...] ge, area of residence, and gender. Trends were analyzed using polynomial regression models. An increasing trend in mortality was observed for both males and females in Brazil. Mean overall mortality was 3.59, with a linear increase of 0.020 (R² = 0.588; p

  19. Both F-18 FDG-avidity and Malignant Shape of Cervical Lymph Nodes on PET/CT after Total Thyroidectomy Predict Resistance to High-dose I-131 Therapy in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Hyun Byun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resistance of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs to high dose I-131 therapy is associated with high morbidity in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the prediction of resistance to high dose I-131 therapy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Methods: The subjects were 307 patients who underwent total or near total thyroidectomy followed by high dose (5.55-6.66 GBq I-131 therapy. We divided the patients into three subgroups by visual assessment of regional LNs: FDG-avid LNs with a malignant shape on CT (PET/CT-positive group, FDG-avid LNs with a benign shape on CT (PET/CT-intermediate group and no FDG-avid lesion (PET/CT-negative group. We measured the maximum SUV (SUVmax of FDG-avid LNs in each patient. The presence or absence of focal increased uptake of I-131 was evaluated by whole body scan (WBS, and was denoted as WBS-positive group or WBS-negative group, respectively. Resistance to therapy was defined as presence of thyroglobulin (Tg in serum (Tg ?1.0 ng/ml 3-6 months after I-131 therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between resistance to I-131 therapy and various clinico-pathologic variables. Results: PET/CT-positive, intermediate, and negative groups included 20 (6.5%, 44 (14.3% and 243 (79.2% patients, respectively. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in the PET/CT-positive group than that of the PET/CT-intermediate group (4.6 vs. 2.7, P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that the PET/CT-positive group (P <0.001, T2-4 stage (P <0.001, N1b stage (P = 0.001, lower dose (5.55 GBq of I-131 (P <0.001, and the WBS-positive group (P = 0.029 were associated with resistance to therapy. In multivariate analysis, the PET/CT-positive group, lower dose of I-131, N1b stage, and T2-4 stage remained significant with odds ratios of 10.07 (P <0.001, 3.82 (P <0.001, 3.58 (P = 0.001, and 2.53 (P = 0.009, respectively. Conclusion: FDG-avidity and malignant shape of cervical LNs on pre-therapy FDG PET/CT were a strong risk factors predicting resistance to high dose I-131 therapy. A lower dose of administered I-131 (5.55 GBq and more extensive tumors (T2-4 and N1b were also associated with resistance to high dose I-131 therapy.

  20. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P?0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition. Keywords: genetic susceptibility, incidence study, hereditary, multiple primary neoplasms, survival analysis, prognosis

  1. Diagnostic value of CD-10 marker in differentiating of papillary thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using of CD10 in accordance with clinical and histological features of thyroid lesions could be used as both diagnostic and prognostic tool, which consequently influence the management and their prognosis for survival of patients with thyroid neoplasms especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC. The aim of this study was to determine its expression in PTC and different benign thyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, paraffin-embedded tissues of patients with definitive pathologic diagnosis of different benign thyroid lesions and PTC were retrieved. Immunostained sections of each slides was performed using immunohistochemistry methods and expression of CD10 was compared in two groups of benign thyroid lesions and PTC. Results: From selected cases 134 sections studied in two groups of PTC (n = 67 and benign thyroid lesions (n = 67. CD10 were immunohistochemically positive in 29.9% of PTC cases, but in none of the thyroid benign lesions (0% (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that due to the higher expression of CD10 in PTC than benign thyroid lesions it might be used for differentiating mentioned lesions. But for using it as a diagnostic tool further studies with larger sample size and determination of its sensitivity, specificity and cut-off point is necessary.

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat ARA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malignant melanoma of the vagina. She was treated with radiotherapy as her disease was locally extensive and she was not a candidate for pelvis exenteration. This is the first recorded case of malignant melanoma to be diagnosed in Brunei Darussalam.

  3. FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghazala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case.

  4. FNAC diagnosis of medullary carcinoma thyroid: A report of three cases with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Ghazala; Maheshwari, Veena; Ansari, Hena A; Sadaf, Lubna; Khan, Mohammad Amanullah

    2010-04-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is an unusual neoplasm, which is associated with specific supportive diagnostic markers. Despite this, its cytological diagnosis is often difficult. We report herewith three cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma. The diagnosis was established on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Plasmacytoid cell pattern was observed in two cases and spindle cell pattern in the third case. PMID:21157553

  5. Possible association between hepatitis C virus and malignancies different from hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Sirio; Bacchi-Reggiani, Letizia; de Biase, Dario; Fornelli, Adele; Masetti, Michele; Tura, Andrea; Grizzi, Fabio; Zanello, Matteo; Mastrangelo, Laura; Lombardi, Raffaele; Acquaviva, Giorgia; di Tommaso, Luca; Bondi, Arrigo; Visani, Michela; Sabbatani, Sergio; Pontoriero, Laura; Fabbri, Carlo; Cuppini, Andrea; Pession, Annalisa; Jovine, Elio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the current knowledge about the potential relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the risk of several extra-liver cancers. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) Statement. We extracted the pertinent articles, published in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library, using the following search terms: neoplasm/cancer/malignancy/tumor/carcinoma/adeno-carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, kidney/renal-, cholangio-, pancreatic-, thyroid-, breast-,oral-, skin-, prostate-, lung-, colon-, stomach-, haematologic. Case series, case-series with control-group, case-control, cohort-studies as well as meta-analyses, written in English were collected. Some of the main characteristics of retrieved trials, which were designed to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection in each type of the above-mentioned human malignancies were summarised. A main table was defined and included a short description in the text for each of these tumours, whether at least five studies about a specific neoplasm, meeting inclusion criteria, were available in literature. According to these criteria, we created the following sections and the corresponding tables and we indicated the number of included or excluded articles, as well as of meta-analyses and reviews: (1) HCV and haematopoietic malignancies; (2) HCV and cholangiocarcinoma; (3) HCV and pancreatic cancer; (4) HCV and breast cancer; (5) HCV and kidney cancer; (6) HCV and skin or oral cancer; and (7) HCV and thyroid cancer. RESULTS: According to available data, a clear correlation between regions of HCV prevalence and risk of extra-liver cancers has emerged only for a very small group of types and histological subtypes of malignancies. In particular, HCV infection has been associated with: (1) a higher incidence of some B-cell Non-Hodgkin-Lymphoma types, in countries, where an elevated prevalence of this pathogen is detectable, accounting to a percentage of about 10%; (2) an increased risk of intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma; and (3) a correlation between HCV prevalence and pancreatic cancer (PAC) incidence. CONCLUSION: To date no definitive conclusions may be obtained from the analysis of relationship between HCV and extra-hepatic cancers. Further studies, recruiting an adequate number of patients are required to confirm or deny this association. PMID:26668515

  6. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid cancers are especially common in patients who have received irradiation to the head and neck region for benign diseases. Well-differentiated papillary and/or follicular carcinomas are the most common types of thyroid cancer. They grow slowly and have a very good prognosis when managed with an appropriate combination of surgical and medical therapy. Other types of thyroid cancer often require more intensive therapy and follow-up. It is especially important to evaluate relatives of patients with medullary thyroid cancer

  7. Sonographic Findings of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Associated Nodular Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and associated nodular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic findings of twenty patients who had surgically confirmed Hashimoto's thyroiditis between 1 March 2005, and 26 November 2005. In these patients, we reviewed the sonographic findings of the associated focal nodular lesion. Assessed were size, homogeneity, and echogenicity of the diseased thyroid gland and shape, echogenicity, margin, rim, microcal cification of the associated nodules. Without knowledge of the pathological diagnosis of the nodular lesions, based on the sonographic criteria, the nodules were classified as either malignant or benign. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates a variety of sonographic findings for size, homogeneity, and echogenicity. Among the nineteen nodules that were sonographically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed, nine papillary cancers, seven nodular hyperplasias, two Huthle cell adenomas, and one focal hyalinized fibrosing nodule were included. All of the nine papillary cancers showed more than one malignant finding such as marked hypoechogenicity, an irregular shape, a taller than wide shape, a spiculated margin, or microcalcifications that were classified as malignant nodulea, and all of the ten benign nodules showed no malignant findings. Circumscribed isoechoic, hyperechoic, or hypoechoic nodules without calcification were classified as bending nodules. Hashimoto's thyroiditis demonstrates various findings on a sonographic examination,and associated various benign and malignant lesions. Moreover, a sonographic examination is helpful to differentiate between malignant and benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis as in the normal thyroid

  8. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  9. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia / Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Alberto Salgueiro, Molinari; Diego Mendonça, Uchôa; Vanessa, Yépez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP) são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfa [...] gia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME), cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1). O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido. Abstract in english Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP) are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination [...] and computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME), kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1). The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.

  10. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  11. Thyroid scintigraphy in patients with thyroid tumors using 99mTc-hexakis 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early and delayed thyroid scintigraphy with 99mTc-hexakis 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) was performed in 18 patients with thyroid tumor, including 8 with papillary carcinoma, 1 each with follicular carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and malignant lymphoma, and 7 with thyroid adenoma. Scintigrams obtained were compared with those taken with other radionuclides. In all 11 patients with malignant tumors, increased 99mTc-MIBI uptake was noted in the tumors on early images, although anaplastic carcinoma and malignant lymphoma had mild uptake. On delayed images, 99mTc-MIBI washout was noted in 45.4% (5/11). In one patient with extensive cervical lymph node metastasis, 99mTc-MIBI concentration was evident in the metastatic foci. In the 4 where the thyroid adenoma consisted mainly of cystic degeneration, a focal defect was noted, but two of the three patients whose thyroid adenoma consisted mainly of a solid component had an intense tracer uptake in the tumors on early and delayed images. In conclusion, there were increased 99mTc-MIBI accumulations in all of the 14 solid thyroid tumors. The quality of 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphic images of thyroid tumors was equal or slightly superior to that taken with 201Tl scintigraphy. 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy may be useful in detecting a solid thyroid tumor and its metastasis, although it cannot be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. (author)

  12. Value of thyroid scintigraphy using thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of thallium-201 scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of cold thyroid nodules demonstrated on the thyroid scan with technetium-99m was emphasized. From the clinical results it can be deduced that if a cold nodule is positive with thallium-201 the lesion has a high percentage of being a high risk of malignancy. This information might be quite valuable in selecting patients for operation

  13. Adenocarcinoma with Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm Arising in Jejunal Heterotopic Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ju Young; Han, Jee Young; Choi, Sun Keun; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Park, In Suh; Chu, Young Chae; Kim, Kyu Ho; Kim, Joon Mee

    2012-01-01

    A 74-year-old man suffered from jejunal perforation and adhesion to sigmoid colon due to adenocarcinoma associated with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) arising in a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. The jejunal lesion showed direct extension to the sigmoid colon, which was mistaken as sigmoid colon cancer by surgeons. Malignant transformation is a rare complication of a heterotopic pancreas. About half of malignancies in reported cases were ductal adenocarcinoma arising in the stom...

  14. Loss of heterozygosity 4q24 and TET2 mutations associated with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Szpurka, Hadrian; Tiu, Ramon V.; Makishima, Hideki; Afable, Manuel; Huh, Jungwon; O'Keefe, Christine L; Ganetzky, Rebecca; McDevitt, Michael A.; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are frequent in myeloid malignancies, but in most cases of myelodysplasia (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), underlying pathogenic molecular lesions are unknown. We identified recurrent areas of somatic copy number–neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and deletions of chromosome 4q24 in a large cohort of patients with myeloid malignancies including MDS and related mixed MDS/MPN syndromes using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. We then investigated gen...

  15. Analysis of thyroid malignant pathological findings identified during three rounds of screening (1997-2008) of a Belarusian cohort of children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines after the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Lydia; Nadyrov, Eldar; Rozhko, Alexander; Gong, Zhihong; Polyanskaya, Olga; McConnell, Robert; O'Kane, Patrick; Brenner, Alina; Little, Mark P.; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, Andre; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Viktor; Demidchik, Yuri; Nerovnya, Alexander; Yauseyenka, Vassilina; Savasteeva, Irina; Nikonovich, Sergey; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Hatch, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies of children and adolescents exposed to radioactive iodine-131 (I-131) after the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident in Ukraine showed significant dose-related increase in the risk of thyroid cancer, but the association of radiation doses with tumor histological and morphological features is not clear. Methods A cohort of 11,664 individuals in Belarus ?18 years at the time of the accident underwent three cycles of thyroid screening in 1997-2008. I-131 thyroid doses were estimated from individual thyroid activity measurements taken within two months after the accident and dosimetric data from questionnaires. Demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of thyroid cancer cases were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, chi-square or Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Results As a result of screening, 158 thyroid cancers were identified. The majority of cases had T1a and T1b tumors (93.7%), with many regional N1 (60.6%) but few distant M1 (<1%) metastases. Higher I-131 doses were associated with higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer (P<0.01) and histological features of cancer aggressiveness, such as lymphatic vessel invasion, intrathyroidal infiltration, and multifocality (all P<0.03). Latency was not correlated with radiation dose. Fifty-two cases of self-reported thyroid cancers diagnosed prior to 1997 were younger at the time of the accident and had a higher percentage of solid variant cancers compared to screening-detected cases (all P<0.0001). Conclusions I-131 thyroid radiation doses were associated with significantly higher frequency of solid or diffuse sclerosing variants of thyroid cancer and various features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25351557

  16. Screening of colorectal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany approximately 29,000 people died of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in 2002; the risk of getting CRC is 4-6% in Germany, rising with age from the 50th year of life. About one third of all people over 50 years of age have polyps with the potential for malignant transformation in the colorectum, which is a sufficiently high prevalence rate to justify screening. In contrast to most other cancer diseases, in the case of CRC it is possible to prevent the cancer and not only to detect it at an early stage. Application of the test for occult blood in persons between their 45th and 80th years can reduce the mortality of CRC by 14%. We can assume that already regular sigmoidoscopies with consistent performance of polypectomy when needed could reduce the incidence of CRC by 50-70%. There is no doubt that coloscopy is the technique of choice for secondary prevention, as it unites the possibility of complete diagnosis and treatment with a justifiably low level of risk. The economic advantages of an avoidance strategy compared with the treatment of CRC, which is certainly expensive, have been documented. On the basis of all the data reported, in the case of CRC preventive strategies can be emphatically recommended. (orig.)

  17. Risk factors in larynx and oropharyngeal malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Corina Kodjabashija

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are most strongly and best-recognized risk factors of oral cavity cancer (OCC and laryngeal cancer (LC. Alcohol multiplicative interaction includes acetaldehyde effects, reactive oxygen compound, epithelial cells irritation, increasing cross links penetration in mucosal cells. Some of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke and induction of oxidative stress by inhalation of free radicals of O2 and N2 are gunanine derivatives like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-nitrosamines. There is substantial evidence that N-nitrosamines have an important role in DNA alkylation as a result of reactions with N, O and P atoms. The mutagenic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-Nitrosamines are known as important factors in pulmonary carcinogenesis. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking metabolism derivatives mutually play a roll in carcinogenesis. Alcohol's role as solvent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and N-nitrosamines stimulates carcinogenics absorption and transport to tissues. Alcohol has a role in the selective inhibition of nitrostamines metabolism in liver and cigarette smoking increased risk of extra hepatic tissues exposure of nitrostamines. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, but may play an important role as risk factor in extra hepatic carcinogenesis.

  18. Radiogenic Risk of Malignant Neoplasms for Techa Riverside Residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste into the Techa River from the Mayak PA in the 1950s, residents of the riverside villages were for decades exposed to external and internal radiation resulting from consumption of locally produced food and river water. Presented in the paper is a brief description of the radiation conditions, organization of medical follow-up of the exposed population, principles for dose estimation, epidemiological analyses of cancer mortality and incidence for residents of the Techa RIverside villages. The estimates of excess relative risk of radiation-related leukemia and solid cancer mortality and incidence obtained for members of the Techa River cohort point to a clear-cut dependence of the rates on radiation exposure. Attributive risk of cancer incidence characterizing the proportion of radiation-related cancer cases among the total cancers was comparable with that for mortality: 3.2% derived for cancer incidence and 2.5% for cancer mortality. Based on the non-CLL leukemia excess relative risk (ERR) estimates calculated using the linear dose-effect model and the nature of the cohort, it was estimated that 31 (60%) out of 49 leukemia death cases (with the exclusion of 12 cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia) can be related to a long-term radiation exposure due to the contamination of the Techa River.

  19. Pineal malignant neoplasm in association with hereditary retinoblastoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Stannard, C; Knight, B K; Sealy, R

    1985-01-01

    A patient with unilateral hereditary retinoblastoma who was successfully treated at the age of 7 weeks developed a tumour in the pineal region two and a half years later. The initial response to radiation treatment of the latter lesion was not maintained. Subsequent necropsy findings are described. Clinically and pathologically this case represents an example of the recently described trilateral retinoblastoma. The response to treatment after early recognition was disappointing.

  20. Neoplasias malignas en el neonato / Malignant neoplasms in the neonate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marta, Zapata-Tarrés; Daniel, Ibarra-Ríos; Irma Viridiana, Cruz-Rodríguez; Luis Enrique, Juárez-Villegas; Humberto, Peña-del Castillo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer en la edad pediátrica presenta características que lo diferencian de otros tipos reportados en edades posteriores. La supervivencia global a 3 años es de hasta el 70%, dependiendo de la neoplasia estudiada. Los principales aparatos y sistemas afectados son el sistema hematopoyético, el sis [...] tema nervioso central y simpático, así como tejidos mesenquimatosos. El incremento en la incidencia de tumores neonatales observado en este y otros estudios se basa en el aumento del número de tumores sólidos (teratomas y neuroblastomas), ya que los casos de tumores en el sistema nervioso central y leucemias han permanecido constantes. La ultrasonografía es la primera línea de abordaje y puede detectar hasta el 70% de las anomalías fetales. La fisiología del neonato hace que el tratamiento multidisciplinario necesario en las enfermedades neoplásicas sea modificado sustancialmente en este grupo de edad, para evitar toxicidad y secuelas. El tratamiento más utilizado es la cirugía. Logrando el diagnóstico oportuno existen opciones terapéuticas efectivas para mejorar la supervivencia de estos pacientes. Abstract in english Cancer in children has characteristics that differentiate it from other types reported in later ages. Overall survival at 3 years is up to 70% depending on the tumor studied. Major organs and systems affected are the hematopoietic system, central nervous system and sympathetic and mesenchymal tissue [...] s. The increased incidence of neonatal tumors observed in this and other studies is based on the increasing number of solid tumors (teratomas and neuroblastomas) because cases of central nervous system tumors and leukemias have remained constant. Ultrasonography is the first line of approach and can detect up to 70% of fetal anomalies. The physiology of the newborn causes the necessary multidisciplinary treatment in neoplastic disease to be modified substantially in this age group to avoid toxicity and sequelae. The most common treatment is surgery. Achieving timely diagnostic treatment options are effective in improving the survival of these patients.

  1. Study of papillary carcinoma of thyroid with uncommon sites of metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthy, Vallabhaneni Kalyan; Rao, Naveen D. Chandra; Chandra, Satish T.

    2010-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PCT) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and metastasis to cervical lymph nodes is very common [1]. Blood borne metastases from PCT are less frequent than with the other thyroid carcinomas [2]. Uncommon sites include lungs, bone, atrium, cerebrum, kidney, skin [3].

  2. Primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland in an young Iranian woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Navabii, Hossein; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein; Zand, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    Angiosarcoma of the thyroid gland is a rare and aggressive primary malignant tumour of the thyroid, originally reported in patient from Swiss Alpine region. Here, the authors describe a case of primary angiosarcoma of the thyroid in an 21-year-old Iranian woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass associated with compressive symptoms. PMID:22693296

  3. Stent placement in treating tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical efficacy and safety of stent placement for tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm or compression of esophageal stent. Methods: 11 patients with tracheal stenosis, including 6 men and 5 women, with age ranging from 50 to 73 years(mean age 63.5 years). The etiology of tracheal stenosis consisted of esophageal malignancy in 8 patiens and compression by esophageal stent in 3. All together 11 nitinol stents(7 bare stents and 4 covered stents)were implanted in trachea under X rays guidance, with diameter of the stent ranging from 16 to 18 millimeters, and length from 40 to 60 millimeters. Results: All stents were implanted into trachea successfully, and symptoms such as dyspnea were relieved immediately after placement of stents in all patients, without severe complications. Conclusion: Stent placement to treat tracheal stenosis caused by esophageal neoplasm or compression of esophageal stent is a safe and effective approach, providing immediate relief of symptom. (authors)

  4. CYTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NON - NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THYROID: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dr Purushotham Krishnappa; Dr Sowmya Ramakrishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are one among the common clinical encounters, which range from congenital disorders to the malignant lesions. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid is accepted globally as the best screening tool to differentiate neoplastic versus non neoplastic lesions. The cytological features of the non-neoplastic disorders of thyroid have a good amount of overlap between them and with a few neoplastic lesions as well, thus leading to wrong interpretation and possible inappropriate mana...

  5. Thyroid metastasis as initial presentation of clear cell renal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pablo Ramírez-Plaza

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The possibility of finding of an incidental metastatic tumor in the thyroid gland from a previous unknown and non-diganosed primary (as CCRC in our case was is rare and account only for less than 1% of malignancies. Nonetheless, the thyroid gland is a frequent site of metastasis and the presence of “de novo” thyroid nodules in oncologic patients must be always considered and studied.

  6. Thyroid Nodules in Children: A Single Institution's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Nini Khozeimeh; Cynthia Gingalewski

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid nodules in children are uncommon but often present an increased risk of malignancy in comparison to their adult counterpart. Multiple diagnostic modalities are frequently employed to characterize these nodules including ultrasound, radionuclide scans, fine needle aspiration (FNA), thyroid function tests, and evaluation of patient demographics. We chose to evaluate if any of these modalities influence treatment or signify a tendency for a nodule to represent a malignant lesion. A retro...

  7. [Thyroid in the elderly (part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retornaz, F; Castinetti, F; Molines, C; Oliver, C

    2013-11-01

    Aging is associated with an increased prevalence of thyroid diseases. The diagnosis of overt hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism may be difficult since they are often pauci- or monosymptomatic. Subclinical forms of thyroid diseases, in particular hypothyroidism, are even more frequent. Therapeutic abstention with regular follow-up is usually recommended in hypothyroidism. Radical treatment is usually preferred for subclinical hyperthyroidism since heart complications may be severe. Increased prevalence of benign and malignant nodules is observed in the elderly. The prognosis of thyroid cancer is less favorable than in adults, due to a higher proportion of histological types with a worse evolution. Whatever the thyroid disease, diagnosis and treatment modalities should be adapted to the age and general conditions of the patient. Contradictory results have been reported on the relationship between thyroid status and neuromuscular and cognitive alterations linked to aging. PMID:23669556

  8. Diagnostic Assays for the Detection of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents a disease particularly amenable to improved methods of diagnosis. Current methods of diagnosis determining the malignancy of thyroid nodules involve needle biopsies and microscopic inspections which are subjective, often leading to inconclusive results and the need for surgery. Therefore, there is a need for improved methods of diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm and absolute monocytosis has not been described and may, in fact, have prognostic value. Keywords: blastic, plasmacytoid, dendritic, monocytosis

  10. The impact of ruxolitinib treatment on inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis and related neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2015-06-01

    The inflammation-mediated comorbidities in myelofibrosis (MF) and related neoplasms (MPNs) likely reflect the concurrent immune deregulation and systemic inflammatory nature of the MPNs, emphasizing the link between chronic systemic inflammation, immune deregulation, and the malignant clone. JAK1-2 inhibitors in MF-patients reduce constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly, but also taget autoimmune and inflammation-mediated comorbidities. PMID:26185657

  11. Application of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in thyroid ultrasonography interpretation by less experienced physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To verify the usefulness of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for thyroid nodule diagnosis by less experienced physicians. From March 2012 to May 2012, ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 204 thyroid nodules in 195 consecutive patients by four less experienced radiologists (<1 year in thyroid imaging). The number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score of each thyroid nodule were calculated according to the previous two models suggested by Kwak et al. The Delong method was used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the two models. Associations between the two models and the risk of malignancy were analyzed using penalized B-splines and the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Among 204 thyroid nodules, 65 were malignant and 139 were benign. The probability of malignancy tended to increase as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features, and the sum of risk scores increased. There was no significant difference in the AUCs of the two models (P=0.673). The Cochran-Armitage trend test demonstrated an increased risk of malignancy as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score increased (P=0.001). Both the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score are applicable and show comparable results in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules by less experienced radiologists in thyroid imaging.

  12. Application of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in thyroid ultrasonography interpretation by less experienced physicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Yeon; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Sun [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Medical Research Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To verify the usefulness of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) for thyroid nodule diagnosis by less experienced physicians. From March 2012 to May 2012, ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed in 204 thyroid nodules in 195 consecutive patients by four less experienced radiologists (<1 year in thyroid imaging). The number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score of each thyroid nodule were calculated according to the previous two models suggested by Kwak et al. The Delong method was used to compare the areas under the curve (AUCs) of the two models. Associations between the two models and the risk of malignancy were analyzed using penalized B-splines and the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Among 204 thyroid nodules, 65 were malignant and 139 were benign. The probability of malignancy tended to increase as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features, and the sum of risk scores increased. There was no significant difference in the AUCs of the two models (P=0.673). The Cochran-Armitage trend test demonstrated an increased risk of malignancy as the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score increased (P=0.001). Both the number of suspicious ultrasonography features and the total risk score are applicable and show comparable results in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules by less experienced radiologists in thyroid imaging.

  13. Postirradiation sarcoma (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) following cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of postirradiation sarcoma is described. The tumor, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, occurred in the radiation field 11 years following postoperative external beam radiation therapy (7,000 rad) for carcinoma of the cervix. Reports of postirradiation malignant fibrous histiocytoma are rare, and the occurrence of this neoplasm following treatment for cervix cancer has not previously been described. The literature concerning postirradiation bone and soft tissue sarcomas is briefly reviewed, with special attention to malignant fibrous histiocytomas. (author)

  14. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid ...

  15. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer develops in the follicular cells of the thyroid. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck below the voice box. The thyroid gland secretes hormones that control heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight.

  16. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  17. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other parts of your body. Continue What Is Thyroid Disease? Thyroid disease occurs when the thyroid gland ... medication adjustments as needed. Back Continue Goiters and Thyroid Nodules It can take months or years for ...

  18. Femoral Pathological Fracture as the First Clinical Manifestation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Primigravida

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abu-Zaid; Ayman Azzam; Hindi Al-Hindi; Tarek Amin

    2013-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common differentiated type of thyroid malignancy. It is largely a loco-regional disease with a high tendency to metastasize to regional cervical lymph nodes. Distant hematogenous metastases are very rare and primarily include lungs and bones. Distant bone metastases are present in approximately 1.7% of patients with differentiated thyroid malignancy. Sternum, ribs, and spine are the most frequent sites of osseous metastases. Up to our knowledge, we repo...

  19. Equivalent doses in thyroid tissue and residual body dose from radioiodine treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the thyroid as determined under therapeutic conditions. Bestimmung der Aequivalentdosen von Schilddruesengewebe und Restkoerper bei der Radiojodtherapie benigner und maligner Schilddruesenerkrankungen unter Therapiebedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schad, K.

    1989-11-08

    The doses actually administered to patients undergoing radiotherapy for hyperthyroidism (104), autonomous adenoma (16) and goiter without functional anomaly (22) averaged 90, 165 and 100 Sv. Attempts were made to elucidate the causes of deviations between the predetermined dose and that actually administered, which occurred quite irrespective of whether a one-staged or split-dose regimen was used. Significant differences were occasionally also seen between the individual doses of fractionation regimens in respect of their uptake and effective half-life in the thyroidal tissue. It was calculated that the mean body dose remaining after each administration of radioactivity amounted to 0.6 mSv/MBq. In the majority of patients examined, clinical follow-up observations could be made for periods ranging from 6 to 41 months. Records were kept of all the results obtained. Further analyses were made to assess the mean residual body dose of carcinoma bearers subjected to wholebody radioiodine scintigraphy in the follow-up (14 patients) as well as of patients, in which secondary radioiodine treatment was carried out after thyroidectomy (59 patients). This was found to vary between 0.05 and 0.07 mSv/MBq. The significant discrepancies formerly determined for uptake rate and effective half-life between the individual sessions of one treatment course were confirmed by these examinations. (VHE).

  20. Immunosuppression involving increased myeloid-derived suppressor cell levels, systemic inflammation and hypoalbuminemia are present in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Shibata, Masahiko; Gonda, Kenji; KANKE, YASUYUKI; ASHIZAWA, MAI; UJIIE, DAISUKE; SUZUSHINO, SEIKO; NAKANO, KEIICHI; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Kenichi; Tomita, Ryouichi; KUMAMOTO, KENSUKE; Takenoshita, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most aggressive neoplasms in humans and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to the negative regulation of immune responses in the context of cancer and inflammation. In order to investigate the pathophysiology of thyroid cancer, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 49 patients with thyroid cancer, 18 patients with non-cancerous thyroid diseases and 22 healthy volunteers. The MDSC levels were found to be ...

  1. [Eye manifestation of extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prívarová, E; Griš?íková, L; Lokaj, M; Vokurková, J; Mazánek, P; Autrata, R

    2014-04-01

    Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour (EMRT) is very rare and aggresive childhood neoplasm with a rapid progression. The prognosis is still very poor with 80 % mortality rate. We report a case of a newborn baby with extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumour of an upper eyelid. An EMRT was diagnosed based on the histological examination. This case report highlights the clinical presentation, radiological features and difficulty in diagnosis. The purpose is to underline the importance of its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of any aggresive lesion in a child. Key words: malignant rhabdoid tumour, childhood, diagnostic process. PMID:25030315

  2. Primary malignant melanoma of proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, Aditya K; Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Saini, Raghav; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2012-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (clear cell sarcoma) of bone is a very rare neoplasm. Although metastatic melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary malignant melanoma of bone is extremely uncommon. To date, only nine cases have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising from the medial aspect of the proximal tibia in a 26-year-old woman. We treated the patient with above-knee amputation without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. At final follow-up of 18 months, the patient was free of disease. PMID:22624252

  3. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery

  4. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood that are extremely helpful in diagnosing Hashimoto’s disease. Two principal types of antithyroid antibodies are ... Test TSH T 3 /T 4 Antithyroid Antibody Hashimoto’s disease (thyroiditis, early stage) ? ? or Normal + Hashimoto’s disease ( ...

  6. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR); Diagnostico de lesoes da tireoide pela espectroscopia de absorcao no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier - FTIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by {mu}-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm{sup -1}), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm{sup -1} and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm{sup -1}, with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm{sup -1}) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm{sup -1}. Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm{sup -1} were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were included many types of thyroid lesions. To obtain a more precise diagnosis for FNA of follicular thyroid the sample size should be increased. The results of this study suggest that FTIR spectroscopy may be useful for discriminate thyroid carcinomas from goiters in tissue samples. (author)

  7. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  8. Thermoradiotherapy in treatment of vulva neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities of increasing of radiotherapy efficiency using local SHF-hyperthermia in treating primary and relapsed neoplasms as well as metastases in patients with vulva neoplasms are clarified. It is shown that immediate and early results of thermoradiotherapy of vulva neoplasms and metastases are favourable. Further investigations in this field are necessary. 4 refs

  9. PET/CT in thyroid carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovi? Jasna

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic imaging procedures that have a role in detection of malignant thyroid tissue are radioiodine (131I) diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), neck ultrasound, and CT and MRI for evaluation of the mediastinal area. Despite excellent morphologic characterization of metastatic nodal recurrences, MRI cannot reliably make a differentiation between benign and malignant lymph nodes. Although it detects enlarged metastatic lymph nodes, there are also many small nodal metastases t...

  10. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Post treatment thyroid dysfunction and obesity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to effects of thyroid dysfunction on short stature and obesity in adolescent with ALL and NHL, we suggest to have more attention about growth, thy-roid test to avoid late side effect of malignancy treatment.

  12. Simultaneous ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome and adrenal metastasis of a medullary thyroid carcinoma causing paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Michael; Uecker, Samuel; Bechara, Falk G; Gelos, Marcos; Sand, Daniel; Wiese, Till H; Mann, Benno

    2007-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) constitute about 5 to 7 % of thyroid neoplasms. They originate from parafollicular C-cells which can secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and/or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in abnormally high concentrations, potentially causing paraneoplastic Cushing's Syndrome (CS).

  13. Management and follow-up of thyroid cancer in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Gibelli, B; ZAMPERINI, P.; Proh, M; GIUGLIANO, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, is often detected in young female patients. Therefore, pregnancy following thyroid cancer is not infrequent, and about 10% of thyroid cancers occurring during the reproductive years are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the early post-partum period. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in young people generally has an excellent prognosis, and disease-free survival among women with DTC diagnosed during pregnancy may not differ from that in ag...

  14. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Sarcomas are rare tumors originating from soft tissue or bone. Diagnosis and treatment of sarcomas should be performed at specialized sarcoma centers, where patients are evaluated at a multidisciplinary tumor conference. We present a case where sarcoma was suspected from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re-evaluation of previous pathology and a thorough patient history enabled a final diagnosis. PMID:26600943

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Hashimoto thyroiditis and may include treatment providers. American Thyroid Association: Thyroid Function Tests Genetic Testing Registry: Hashimoto thyroiditis National Institute of Diabetes ...

  16. Hallazgos anatomopatológicos definitivos en pacientes tiroidectomizados con diagnóstico preoperatorio de neoplasia folicular / Definitive anatomopathological findings in thyroidectomized patients with preoperative diagnosis of follicular neoplasm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignacio, Goñi E; Claudio, Krsulovic R; Augusto, León R; Hernán, González D; Antonieta, Solar; Claudia, Campusano M; Catalina, Ruiz A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El hallazgo de una neoplasia folicular por PAAF, obliga a realizar una tiroidectomía parcial o total, para definir la naturaleza maligna o benigna definitiva de la lesión tiroidea. Junto a este diagnóstico preoperatorio se identifican finalmente con alta frecuencia lesiones histológica [...] s adicionales. Objetivo: Conocer y describir los hallazgos anatomopatológicos definitivos que se encuentran en tiroidectomías por neoplasias foliculares diagnosticadas por PAAF. Materiales y Métodos: Revisión transversal de las biopsias definitivas de 133 pacientes sometidos a tiroidectomía total entre 2003 y 2009, que cumplieron los requisitos establecidos para evaluar la histología definitiva del nódulo puncionado y de la glándula tiroides completa. Resultados: En el 33,1% de los pacientes el diagnóstico definitivo del nódulo puncionado fue efectivamente una neoplasia folicular (adenoma en el 26,3% y cáncer en el 6,8%). El 51,9% correspondió a hiperplasia folicular y el 8,3% otro cáncer. La prevalencia de malignidad final en la glándula completa fue de un 29,3%. Conclusiones: Siendo la indicación de tiroidectomía en estos pacientes un tratamiento y procedimiento diagnóstico aceptado y necesario, se concluye que la alta prevalencia de lesiones malignas (29,3%) tanto en el nódulo puncionado como, adicionalmente, en el resto de la glándula, reforzaría la necesidad de este tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english Background: The finding of follicular neoplasm, using a FNAP, is an indication for partial or total thyroidectomy, to obtain the definitive malignant or benign histology. Frequently, it is possible to identify significant additional histological diagnosis. Aim: To obtain the definitive histological [...] findings in patients with follicular neoplasm by FNAP. Patients and Method: Transversal analysis of 133 patients that underwent to total thyroidectomy between 2003 and 2009, that filled de requirements for adequate histological assessment. Results: In 33.1% of the treated patients the final diagnosis was indeed a follicular neoplasm (adenoma in 26.3% and cancer in 6.8%). In the 51.9% the finding was follicular colloidal hyperplasia and other thyroid cancer in 8.3%. The total malignant prevalence in the whole gland was 29.3%. Conclusions: The thyroidec-tomy is the treatment of choice and the final diagnostic procedure for these patients. The histological findings of cancer different from follicular not only in the punctioned nodule are a secondary and an additional argument for reinforcing the surgical indication.

  17. Effect of radio- and chemotherapy on tumor and organs of immunogenesis in patients with neoplasms of large intestine and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sharp suppression and depression of hyperplastic, proliferative and transformation processes in the organs of immunogenesis was revealed in patients with large intestine and rectum neoplasms of 3-4 clinical stages in the course of observation. Obtained data confirm that applicable nowadays chemical preparations (5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphane) in treatment of large intestine and rectum neoplasms at neglected illness stages, radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy, prescribed to patients with rectum neoplasm produce a negative action on the system of immunological homeostasis and inconsiderably depress tumor growth. Malignant tumors of colloid structure turned out to be more stable to the effect of radiotherapy and chemotherapy

  18. Multi-targeted approach in the treatment of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N Pinchot

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Scott N Pinchot, Rebecca S Sippel, Herbert Chen11Endocrine Surgery Research Laboratories, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: While accounting for only 1% of solid organ malignancies (9% in women, thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although most patients have a favorable prognosis, over 1,500 people will die from thyroid carcinoma each year. The spectrum of disease types range from papillary thyroid cancer, which is a well-differentiated indolent tumor, to anaplastic carcinoma, a poorly differentiated fulminant cancer. With advances in diagnostic methods, surgical techniques, and clinical care of patients with thyroid carcinoma, the current management of thyroid cancer demands a multidisciplinary approach. The majority of patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular cell origin are cured with adequate surgical management; however, some thyroid malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas frequently metastasize, precluding patients from a curative resection. As such, novel palliative and therapeutic strategies are needed for this patient population. Here, we explore the current management of thyroid carcinoma, including surgical management of the primary tumor, lymph node disease, and locoregional recurrence. Likewise, we explore the application of current molecular techniques, reviewing nearly two decades of data that have begun to elucidate critical genetic pathways and therapeutic drug targets which may be important in specific thyroid tumor types.Keywords: thyroid carcinoma; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; RET tyrosine kinase (RTK; glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?

  19. Recurrent Atypical Fibroxanthoma Versus Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Leslie G; Albertini, John G; Leshin, Barry

    2015-06-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) has been characterized variously as a benign noninvasive neoplasm with rare recurrence. We report 2 cases of recurrent AFX. There is ongoing controversy over the diagnosis of AFX versus malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the clinical context of recurrent AFX. Histopathologic diagnosis of fibrohistiocytic neoplasms can be quite challenging and small foci of cancer can be easily overlooked. This is particularly problematic when scarring associated with recurrent tumors is present. The utility of en face sections, as utilized in Mohs micrographical surgery, and the employment of immunohistochemical stains may be helpful in diagnosis. Recurrence of AFX can occur but is difficult to distinguish from MFH. PMID:26080249

  20. Image reporting and characterization system for ultrasound features of thyroid nodules: Multicentric Korean retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this retrospective study was to develop and validate a simple diagnostic prediction model by using ultrasound (US) features of thyroid nodules obtained from multicenter retrospective data. Patient data were collected from 20 different institutions and the data included 2000 thyroid nodules from 1796 patients. For developing a diagnostic prediction model to estimate the malignant risk of thyroid nodules using suspicious malignant US features, we developed a training model in a subset of 1402 nodules from 1260 patients. Several suspicious malignant US features were evaluated to create the prediction model using a scoring tool. The scores for such US features were estimated by calculating odds ratios, and the risk score of malignancy for each thyroid nodule was defined as the sum of these individual scores. Later, we verified the usefulness of developed scoring system by applying into the remaining 598 nodules from 536 patients. Among 2000 tumors, 1268 were benign and 732 were malignant. In our multiple regression analysis models, the following US features were statistically significant for malignant nodules when using the training data set: hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, non-parallel orientation, microlobulated or spiculated margin, ill-defined margins, and microcalcifications. The malignancy rate was 7.3% in thyroid nodules that did not have suspicious-malignant features on US. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.867, which shows that the US risk score help predict thyroid malignancy well. In the test data set, the malignancy rates were 6.2% in thyroid nodules without malignant features on US. Area under the ROC curve of the test set was 0.872 when using the prediction model. The predictor model using suspicious malignant US features may be helpful in risk stratification of thyroid nodules.

  1. Thyroid neoplasia following irradiation in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To describe a cohort of survivors of childhood malignancy at risk of developing thyroid abnormality, and propose guidelines for management of such patients. 142 patients who had received irradiation to the thyroid from the 1970s onwards, who attended the late-effects clinic from May 1989 to December 1998 were included in this study. Thyroid palpation by an endocrinologist or surgeon, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone assay and thyroid ultrasound examination were performed on all subjects and, depending on findings, some subjects proceeded to fine-needle biopsy or surgery (total thyroidectomy). A few patients required adjuvant I-131 administration. 49 subjects (24 of 65 patients who received scatter irradiation to the thyroid and 25 of 78 patients who received direct irradiation) had thyroid surgery. Of these, 12 in the scatter and six in the direct irradiation group were found to have thyroid malignancy. Fifty subjects with abnormal ultrasound results remain under surveillance. Having a palpable thyroid was predictive of malignancy, but age at original diagnosis, sex, current age, time since irradiation, radiation dose, nodule type and nodal involvement were not. It was concluded that there is a significant risk of cancer in thyroid glands exposed to radiation as part of therapy for childhood cancer. This risk is greater for patients who received scatter (versus direct) irradiation. Nodular change is usually not apparent for many years, so lifelong surveillance is necessary. Palpation alone is not sufficient to detect thyroid cancer and thyroid ultrasound examination is recommended

  2. DNA Cytometry and Nuclear Morphometry in Ovarian Benign, Borderline and Malignant Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Gamal el Din

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: We suggest that DNA ploidy and nuclear area combined, may be adjuncts to histopathology; in ovarian serous and mucinous benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms; identifying the aggressive borderline tumours.

  3. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-?1 and TGF-?3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  4. Association between computed tomography-detected calcification and thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Dong, X; Zhu, C; Yang, J; Yang, J; Shao, K; Yuan, L; Chen, H; Lu, W; Zhu, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of calcification detected by computed tomography (CT) for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. This is a retrospective study of 930 consecutive patients (709 women, 221 men; mean age 51 years) with pathologically proven thyroid nodules. The characteristics of calcification on CT images were correlated with the pathological results. A total of 168 patients were pathologically diagnosed with thyroid carcinomas and 762 patients with benign thyroid nodules. Calcification was found in 231 cases (24.84%). The incidence of calcification was significantly higher in patients with thyroid carcinoma (52.38%) than in those with benign nodules (18.77%; P < 0.001). Detection of calcification in diagnosing thyroid carcinoma had a sensitivity of 52.38% (88/168) and specificity of 81.23% (619/762). No significant difference was noticed in the incidence of microcalcification (? 2 mm) between malignant and benign nodules (P = 0.305). Calcification is more frequently found in thyroid carcinomas than benign nodules. CT detected-calcification may suggest malignant disease. Further confirmation of the suspected malignancy with fine-needle aspiration or surgery is still needed. PMID:25997969

  5. Computed tomography of the thyroid and adjacent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT of the thyroid makes possible exact measurement of the volume of the organ together with its retrosternal parts. A CT examination can locate spread into the frontal and posterior mediastinum, and can thus ascertain optimal operative access to retrosternal struma. Displacement and constriction of the trachea as well as functional disorders (tracheomalacia) can be described exactly. Recidivism of thyroid malignancies, lymph-node metastases, infiltration into the sternum, and occlusions of larger vessels due to tumor growth are visible in the CT regardless of the differentiation of the tumor. In cases of thyroid malignancy which has not infiltrated the area surrounding the organ, differentiation between a malignant tumor and a benign adenom is not possible. Hyperthyreosis and thyroiditis are not indications for CT examinations. Contrast media containing iodine should be used as rarely as possible because of the danger of inducing hyperthyreosis and interference in other diagnostic and theapeutic measures. (orig.)

  6. Spectrum of Intestinal Neoplasms: A study of 400 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminder Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is a five-year analysis of all the tumors of small and large intestine received in the Pathology Department of Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana. Methods: All the cases were grossly and microscopically examined and were staged according to Astler Coller Staging and classified and subtyped according to WHO classification. The important differences between the small and large intestine tumors were also analyzed. Results: There were 400 cases out of which 356 were in large intestine while 44 were in the small intestine. There were only 56 benign neoplasms while 344 were malignant tumors. Adenomas were the most common benign tumors while majority of malignant tumors were adenocarcinomas. Lymphomas, mesenchymal tumors, and carcinoid tumors were much more common in a small intestine as compared to large intestine. Majority of adenocarcinomas were located in the large intestine with most of them being moderately differentiated having Astler Coller Stage B II. Mucinous carcinomas had the worst prognosis as compared to adenocarcinomas. Anal canal had mainly squamous cell carcinomas. Conclusions: Tumors of large intestine were much commoner than of small intestine. There was a higher incidence of tumor in males with M:F ratio of 2.2:1. Mean age of presentation of benign tumor was younger, i.e., 32.6 years when compared to 54.5 years for malignant tumors. Tubular adenoma was the most common benign tumor and adenocarcinoma the commonest malignant neoplasm. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2015; 3(1.000: 19-23

  7. Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing sarcoma of the bone is a highly malignant round-cell tumor that typically presents between 10 to 20 years of age and is more common in boys. It can have an extraosseous origin, although it is rare. We report a case of extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in the thyroid gland in a 9-year-old girl. (orig.)

  8. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  9. Diagnostic value of frozen section study for thyroid nodules in patients referred to Shariati Hospital 1997-2000

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    "Shirzad M

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section is a useful method in the diagnosis of different malignancies including those of thyroid origin. However, there are still controversies about its application, sensitivity and specificity for thyroid neoplasm. In this study, diagnostic value of frozen section (FS was compared with permanent histopathologic and Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA. In this study, which was conducted in process research method, permanent sample, FNA, and frozen section results in 214 patients was compared. All of these 214 patients had been seeking medical evaluation for thyroid nodules between years 1997 and 1999 in Shariati hospital. All pathologic evaluations were performed by pathology staff of this hospital. Permanent pathology was considered as the gold standard; so the specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic precision of FNA and FS were evaluated on the basis of its results. We use Macnemar test for this purpose. The number of patients during this period were 214 (160 women and 54 men. Mean age of our patients was 42.3±5.4 and their age ranged between 12 to 84 years. Pathologic results revealed that 163 of the patients (76 percent had benign lesions, and 51 of them (24 percent had malignant lesions. Thyroid malignancies comparised papillary carcinoma (70 percent, follicular carcinoma (13.5 percent, papilofollicular carcinoma (6 percent, medulary carcinoma (6 percent, Hurtle cell carcinoma (4 percent and anaplastic carcinoma (5 percent. FNA was done in all of the patients before surgery and was able to determine the status of nodules in 150 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and precision of FNA in these 150 patients were 72, 96 and 90 percents respectively. When FNA was unable to determine the status of a nodule (64 remaining patients, FS was applied to do the job. A sensitivity of 36 percent, specificity of 85 percent and precision of 73 percent was found in this group of patients. Macnemar test showed that there is no significant difference between FNA and FS methods. This study showed: when FNA is not conclusive, FS will not bring any further benefit. It seems that only in suspicious cases of papillary, undifferentiated and medulary carcinomas, FS can be useful in certifying the results of FNA and choosing the appropriate surgical plan. We should wait for permanent sample reports in the case of follicular or Hurtle cell carcinoma.

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Garza-Guajardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  11. A Pilot Study of Galectin-3, HBME-1, and p27 Triple Immunostaining Pattern for Diagnosis of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules in Cytology With Correlation to Histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Krausz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Indeterminate thyroid nodules form a heterogenous group of lesions that constitute 5% to 30% of thyroid cytology diagnoses. We introduce a triple immunostaining protocol for subtyping. Galectin-3, HBME-1, and p27 triple immunostaining, performed on destained cytology slides and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, was developed and applied to 51 patients retrospectively with preoperative cytologic diagnoses of follicular lesion of undetermined significance (n=40), atypia of undetermined significance (n=6), and suspicious for follicular neoplasm (n=5). The malignant rate in this series was 43.1% (22/51). A hierarchal evaluation algorithm was generated based on digital image quantitation of triple-stained histologic sections, and applied to both cytology and histology specimens. Fifty of 51 cytology cases have triple staining validated by internal controls. In cytology specimens, the individual sensitivities and specificities of p27, Galectin3, and HBME1 for cancer with 95% confidence interval are: 86.2% (0.674, 0.955)/66.7% (0.431, 0.845); 77.3% (0.542, 0.913)/72.4% (0.525, 0.866); and 72.7% (0.496, 0.884)/93.1% (0.758, 0.988), respectively. Sensitivity is increased to 95.5% (0.751, 0.998), but specificity is decreased to 69.0% (0.490, 0.840), if Galectin3 and HBME1 are both used in combination as markers for malignancy. However, the level of specificity is increased to 86.2% (0.674, 0.955) and sensitivity remains high 100% (0.808, 1) if in addition, using the Galectin3/HBME1:p27 ratio (ratio ?2 indicating malignancy) for 2 or 3 markers positive cases. Thus, the triple staining method on cytology slides and histology sections shows a similar sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value/negative predictive value of 100.0%/86.2%/84.0%/100.0% and 95.5%/86.2%/84.0%/96.2%, respectively (P=0.92). Overall, p27 is the most frequent single positive marker (19/50, 38% in cytology), consistent with benign nature of most indeterminate thyroid nodules. Galectin-3 and HBME-1 colocalization (positive in the same cell) was demonstrated in thyroid cancer in 45.5% (10/22) of histology sections, but in none of the normal thyroid tissues and benign thyroid lesions. This supports the notion that synchronous activation of Galectin-3 and HBME-1 occurs in thyroid malignancy and is highly specific for malignancy. We have demonstrated the performance and pattern of triple immunostaining for subtyping indeterminate thyroid nodules. Further studies and validation in different larger populations are warranted. PMID:25221953

  12. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy.

  13. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of less common pancreatic malignancies and pancreatic tumors with malignant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are an increasingly common finding in abdominal imaging. Various kinds of pathologies of the pancreas are well known, but it often remains difficult to classify the lesions radiologically in respect of type and grade of malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the method of choice for the evaluation of pancreatic pathologies due to its superior soft tissue contrast. In this article we present a selection of less common malignant and potentially malignant pancreatic neoplasms with their characteristic appearance on established MRI sequences with and without contrast enhancement.

  15. Focal thyroid incidentalomas identified with whole-body FDG-PET warrant further investigation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prichard, R S

    2012-02-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) whole body positron emission computed tomography (PET-CT) detects clinically occult malignancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and significance of focal thyroid 18F - fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. A retrospective review of all patients who had FDG PET-CT examinations, in a single tertiary referral centre was performed. PET scan findings and the final pathological diagnosis were collated. 2105 scans were reviewed. Focal uptake was identified in 35 (1.66%) patients. Final surgical histology was available on eight patients, which confirmed papillary carcinoma in four (20%) patients and lymphoma and metastatic disease in two patients respectively. This gave an overall malignancy rate in focal thyroid uptake of at least 33%. Thyroid incidentalomas occurred with a frequency of 2.13%, with an associated malignancy rate of at least 33% in focal thyroid uptake. The high malignancy rate associated with focal thyroid uptake mandates further investigation in medically fit patients.

  16. Secondary ovarian neoplasms in children: imaging features with histopathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, M.B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hill, D.A. [Dept. of Pathology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Miller, B.E. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States); Pratt, C.B. [Dept. of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Background. Although the pathologic features and imaging appearance of childhood primary ovarian neoplasms have been well described, little information is available about the malignancies that may secondarily involve the ovary. Objective. To determine the relationship between the imaging features and the histopathology of secondary ovarian neoplasms in children treated at our institution. Materials and methods. We searched our institutional database for codes indicating metastatic ovarian disease. Of the 35 patients with such codes, 18 had pathologically proven secondary ovarian disease. From their medical records we recorded demographic data, presenting symptoms, and evidence of endocrine dysfunction. We reviewed the pre-oophorectomy imaging and the subsequent pathologic specimens. Results. One-third of the patients had bilateral pelvic masses; another third had large masses indistinguishable from the ovaries. Twelve (67 %) had either ascites, peritoneal implants, matted bowel, adenopathy, pleural effusions, or some combination of these. Five (28 %) had other metastatic disease. Primary tumors included colon adenocarcinoma (9), Burkitt's lymphoma (3), alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (3), Wilms' tumor (1), neuroblastoma (1), and retinoblastoma (1). Conclusion. Although rare, secondary ovarian tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with ovarian masses. Bilateral ovarian masses or large masses indistinguishable from the ovaries, particularly in the presence of other metastatic foci, may help distinguish primary from secondary ovarian malignancies. (orig.)

  17. Squash preparation of a malignant triton tumor in a rare location

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram Sandhya; Prathiba D; Rajendiran S; Rao Shalinee; Ganesh K

    2008-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasms of neural origin. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors arising in a cranial nerve are rare with only a few cases being reported in literature. An MPNST with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation is also known as malignant triton tumor (MTT). MTT has a worse prognosis than the classic MPNST. The cytomorphological patterns of these tumors are insufficiently documented in literature. We present here the ...

  18. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Kandil; Mohamed Abdel Khalek; Haytham Alabbas; Philip Daroca; Tina Thethi; Paul Friedlander; Ryan Leblanc; Obai Abdullah; Bernard Jaffe; Byron Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black...

  19. Use of the gamma probe and of 99mTc-DMSA (V) in the identification of the neck recurrence of medullary carcinoma thyroid; Uso do gama probe e do 99mTc-DMSA (V) na identificacao de recorrencias cervicais de carcinoma medular de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Rosana Leite de; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Ubrich, Fabio F. [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Dept. de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco e Otorrinolaringologia; Lima, Eduardo N. Pereira; Torres, Ivone C.G. [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear

    2003-03-01

    Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, a malignant neoplasm of para follicular C cells, represent about 5-10% of thyroid tumors. The symptoms are related to local invasion and hormonal secretion. The clinical course is variable, from indolent cases to extremely aggressive. Many radionuclide imaging have been described to locate metastasis of medullary cancer. Tl-201 and Tc-99m (V)DMS A showed to be useful in the evaluation o persistent elevated serum calcitonin levels. On the other hand, the use of the 131 I-Mibg, that is the isotope more used, has not been demonstrating efficiency in identifying metastasis. Our objective is to report a case of a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma in which the follow-up use DMS A(V) demonstrated a recurrence no identified for other methods. A 34-year-old man had a diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma and has submitted a total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection. He presented elevated serum calcitonin levels and DMS A(V) scintigraphy demonstrated focal area of pathologic uptake at the medline of the neck, but the surgical exploration was negative. He persisted with high calcitonin levels and it was used a new DMS A(V). On this occasion he was submitted to the radio-guided surgery that located the recurrence and it was confirmed with anatomo-pathologic exam. This case allowed to demonstrate that the use of radionuclide associated to the gamma-probe is promising, allowing a precise surgical approach. (author)

  20. An open access thyroid ultrasound image database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Lina; Vargas, Carlos; Narváez, Fabián.; Durán, Oscar; Muñoz, Emma; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD) have been developed to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of abnormalities and a large number of pattern recognition techniques have been proposed to obtain a second opinion. Most of these strategies have been evaluated using different datasets making their performance incomparable. In this work, an open access database of thyroid ultrasound images is presented. The dataset consists of a set of B-mode Ultrasound images, including a complete annotation and diagnostic description of suspicious thyroid lesions by expert radiologists. Several types of lesions as thyroiditis, cystic nodules, adenomas and thyroid cancers were included while an accurate lesion delineation is provided in XML format. The diagnostic description of malignant lesions was confirmed by biopsy. The proposed new database is expected to be a resource for the community to assess different CAD systems.

  1. Thyroid function in pregnancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Angela M

    2012-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism.

  2. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Planned Giving Work of the ATA Give Online Thyroid and Weight Thyroid and Weight FAQs THYROID, BMR & WEIGHT WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THYROID ... be regained after treatment is discontinued. HYPOTHYROIDISM AND THYROID HORMONE WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ...

  3. Oncocytic Adrenocortical Neoplasm Diagnosed after Robot-Assisted Adrenalectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbin, Andrew C.; Chen, Andrew; Bhattacharyya, Siddharth; Khurana, Jasvir S.; Kaplan, Joshua R.; Eun, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Oncocytic tumors, composed of eosinophilic, mitochondria-rich cells, can occur in several locations throughout the body. These tumors can occur in the adrenal cortex and are rarely malignant. We report a case of a patient presenting with an incidental adrenal mass which was later diagnosed as a oncocytic adrenocortical neoplasm (OAN). The patient is a 53-year-old man found to have a 7.2?cm right adrenal mass, incidentally found by computed tomography (CT). After metabolic workup was negative, a right robotic adrenalectomy (RA) was performed. Pathologic analysis revealed clusters of large cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, consistent with OAN. This pathology is rare, with only about 150 cases described in the literature. It occurs in females 2.5 times more frequently and more commonly on the left side. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging criteria, typically with CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment is generally surgical, since OAN can be malignant in some cases. Differentiation between benign and malignant OAN is done based on the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria and can be difficult. If malignancy is diagnosed, recurrence is common and close surveillance should be performed. PMID:26664816

  4. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovi? Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular care of health workers in order to enable the application of adequate measures in the prevention of suicides in persons with malignant diseases. The suicide analyses performed so far indicated that a malignant disease was the motive. Doctors have to show maximal interest for the patient. Prevention is crucial, so the patient should be provided with such surroundings in which the person will not feel alone and abandoned.

  5. Lingual thyroid

    OpenAIRE

    Basaria, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an uncommon entity (Incidence: 1 per 10,000 individuals). The first case was noted in 1869 by Hickmann. In 1972, a total number of 373 cases were collected from the world literature. Because of the rarity and the suprahyoid approach of Operation Choosen, this case is reported.

  6. Carcinoembryonic antigen in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the usefulness of determining the serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a specific tumor marker in thyroid cancer, CEA serum levels were measured (enzymeimmunoassay, Abbott-Kit) repeatedly at the routine followup checks performed at various intervals after total thyroidectomy, in 65 patients with papillary, 82 with follicular, 25 with mixed type (papillary/follicular), 8 with anaplastic, and in 18 patients with medullary thyroid cancer. The postoperative observation period of these patients ranged from 2 to 36 months. Calcitonin serum levels were additionally determined in patients with medullary carcinoma (radioimmunoassay kit of Immuno-Nuclear Corp.). In the family of one patient with medullary carcinoma we also had an opportunity to investigate, within the framework of family screening (pentagastrin tests, etc.), the value of preoperative CEA determination. In the patients with ''non-medullary'' histological types of thyroid cancer, the maximum CEA serum concentration was 9.8 ng/ml. 6% of the patients with papillary, 9% of the patients with follicular, and 8% of those with mixed type thyroid cancer had serum levels above the upper limit of our normal range (5 ng/ml). All patients with anaplastic carcinoma had values below 3 ng/ml. The values quoted represent maximal values and were confirmed at various follow-up checks. However, 1 year after thyroidectomy, a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma developed an adenocarcinoma of the rectum: The CEA levels measured in this patient were: 4.2 ng/ml 3 weeks after thyroidectomy, 8.4 ng/ml 6 months later, and 37 ng/ml 1 week before operation on the rectum. In none of the other patients with elevated CEA levels were metastases of thyroid cancer, or any other malignancy, detected. (orig.)

  7. Interactions between thyroid disorders and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Basu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ?s disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin - angiotensin - aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by a low T3 syndrome which is now considered a part of an atypical nonthyroidal illness. CKD patients also have increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The physiological benefits of a hypothyroid state in CKD, and the risk of CKD progression with hyperthyroidism emphasize on a conservative approach in the treatment of thyroid hormone abnormalities in CKD. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with glomerulonephritis often by a common autoimmune etiology. Several drugs could affect both thyroid and kidney functions. There are few described interactions between thyroid and renal malignancies. A detailed knowledge of all these interactions is important for both the nephrologists and endocrinologists for optimal management of the patient.

  8. Clinically malignant atypical glomus tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Zahir, Shokouh Taghipour; Bovanlu, Taghi Roshan

    2013-01-01

    Glomus tumours (GTs) resemble the normal glomus body and have a predilection for skin and subcutaneous tissue. Although the majority of glomus tumours are small, benign neoplasms that occur in the dermis or subcutis of the extremities and cases of atypical or malignant variants have been reported. We report a case of a man who presented with a 1-year history of subcutaneous nodule in the right scapular area which was mildly tender. The nodule measured 2?cm. Microscopic examination showed features of glomus tumour with increased mitotic activity. These features, by current definition, would suggest glomus tumour of uncertain malignant potential. Three months later, he presented with recurrence. During his metastasis work-up, we noticed bilateral pulmonary metastasis. Metastasising GTs are rare. The patient underwent wide local excision and received chemotherapy. PMID:23291816

  9. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal location of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum). This article discusses ...

  10. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as lymphocytes. In many patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, lymphocytes make antibodies against their thyroid that either stimulate or damage the gland. Two common antibodies that cause thyroid problems are directed against thyroid cell proteins: ...

  11. Detecting thyroid cancer: utopia or reality; possibilities for thallium 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with a diagnosis of cold thyroid nodule as evidenced by routine scintigraphy, the clinician has to determine whether this nodule is malignant or not. This is a serious problem since, according to literature, 7-20 per cent of cold thyroid nodules are malignant. In 1982 some Japanese authors demonstrated the possibility of using 201 T1 in diagnosing thyroid tumors. This study refers to 120 patients who underwent an operation for thyroid disorders characterized by the presence of one or several cold nodules (as evaluated with conventional scintigraphy) and enables a comparison between a thorough evaluation of the thyroidal status and the 201 T1 scintigrams. These were obtained with a gamma-camera using a pinhole collimator. If a cold nodule is positive with 201 T1, surgery is incontestably indicated, as such a finding correlates with the existence of a thyroid tumor (benign follicular adenoma or carcinoma) in 89.5 per cent of the observed cases. In the cancer group the sensibility of the Thallium test is of 85 per cent and its specificity 80 per cent. We may assert that there is a very low risk of Thallium negative (old) nodules being malignant. The pre-operative 201 T1 scintigraphy is easy to perform in any Nuclear Medicine department. Nowadays, the combination of aspiration cytology and 201 T1 scintigraphy should make it possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid cancers

  12. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma or Thyroid Metastasis from Cholangiocarcinoma? A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presents as an extremely localy invasive neck mass while metastases in the thyroid are most commonly described as small, indolent, solitary nodules usually originating from kidney, breast, lungs and skin tumors. We report the case of a 74-year old male patient illustrating the difficulties of differential diagnosis between an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and a thyroid metastasis of a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma in a cirrhotic patient diagnosed and operated for a locally advanced thyroid tumor. The history, clinical and imagistical features strongly pleaded for the diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma presumably with liver metastases, also supported by the rapid recurrence following total thyroidectomy. Immunohistochemical tests showed a malignant carcinomatous proliferation with anaplastic prophile. Positive immunochemical staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK7 and negative CK20, AFP, CD15, CD30, CD5, TTF1 and thyroglobulin directed the possible diagnosis toward a secondary thyroid tumor from a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical tests showed a malignant carcinomatous proliferation with anaplastic prophile. Positive immunochemical staining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK7 and negative CK20, AFP, CD15, CD30, CD5, TTF1 and thyroglobulin directed the possible diagnosis toward a secondary thyroid tumor from a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. A CT-guided percutaneous hepatic punction biopsy was planned but the patient presented an ischemic stroke with fatal outcome. In conclusion, in spite of surgical treatment the rapid recurrent thyroid cancer either primary or metastatic had a poor prognosis with fatal outcome mainly in the presence liver cirrhosis and cardio-vascular co-morbidities.

  13. Management of thyroid disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also ...

  14. Genetic and Chromosomal Aberrations and Their Clinical Significance in Renal Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Ning Yi; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Ng, Keng Lim; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Fadzli, Ahmad; Gobe, Glenda Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The most common form of malignant renal neoplasms is renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which is classified into several different subtypes based on the histomorphological features. However, overlaps in these characteristics may present difficulties in the accurate diagnosis of these subtypes, which have different clinical outcomes. Genomic and molecular studies have revealed unique genetic aberrations in each subtype. Knowledge of these genetic changes in hereditary and sporadic renal neoplasms has given an insight into the various proteins and signalling pathways involved in tumour formation and progression. In this review, the genetic aberrations characteristic to each renal neoplasm subtype are evaluated along with the associated protein products and affected pathways. The potential applications of these genetic aberrations and proteins as diagnostic tools, prognostic markers, or therapeutic targets are also assessed. PMID:26448938

  15. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Imamura; Masahiro Asaka; Junji Tanaka; Reiki Ogasawara; Kazuhiro Kudo; Shinichi Ito; Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab) positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of rec...

  16. Identification of Unique, Heterozygous Germline Mutation, STK11 (p.F354L), in a Child with an Encapsulated Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma within Six Months of Completing Treatment for Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryk, Melissa A; Picarsic, Jennifer L; Creary, Susan E; Shaw, Peter H; Simons, Jeffrey P; Deutsch, Melvin; Monaco, Sara E; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is rare in children, although it is a known secondary malignancy after treatment for neuroblastoma (NB). The interval between NB treatment completion and PTC is usually more than 5 years. A 4-year-old, female patient with a high risk adrenal NB was found to have a 2.9-cm, right thyroid nodule on surveillance chest computed tomography (CT) 6 months after completion of her NB treatment (induction chemotherapy, tumor resection, autologous stem cell transplantation, external beam radiation to the abdominal tumor site, immunotherapy, and retinoic acid). Posttreatment surveillance included iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine scans and CT scans. Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid nodule diagnosed a follicular neoplasm, which was negative for BRAF, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, PAX8/PPARg, and RET/PTC mutations, without evidence of metastatic NB. Nodule histology demonstrated an encapsulated follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC). Next-generation sequence analysis for a 46 cancer-gene profile was performed on both tumors with subsequent peripheral blood DNA testing. A heterozygous missense mutation in STK11 (F354L) was identified in both the NB and FVPTC. This mutation was also detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Two additional heterozygous somatic missense mutations of uncertain significance were identified: KDR/VEGF receptor 2 (Q472H) on chromosome 4 and MET (N375S) on chromosome 7. To our knowledge, this is the shortest reported duration from completion of NB treatment to detection of thyroid cancer. The association of the STK11 gene with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, lung adenocarcinomas, and medullary thyroid cancer leads to a possible association between this genetic variant and our patient's tumors. PMID:25751324

  17. Malignant neuroectodermal tumor with melanocytic and rhabdomyoblastic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Rubin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma can metastasize widely and vary significantly in its histological appearance; it rarely presents as a deep-seated mass without an obvious primary site elsewhere. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a high-grade sarcoma characterized by conventional and epithelioid subtypes. MPNST can demonstrate heterologous differentiation, usually in the form of osteosarcomatous, chondrosarcomatous, or rhabdo-myosarcomatous differentiation. MPNST does not harbor true melanocytic differentiation, although epithelioid MPNST typically is diffusely S-100 protein positive and superficially can resemble malignant melanoma. An unusual intra-abdominal mass was recently encountered with features of both melanoma and conventional or epithelioid MPNST containing a fascicular spindle cell component, an epithelioid component with melanocytic differentiation, as well as a rhabdomyosarcomatous component. The terminology “malignant neuroectodermal tumor with melanocytic and rhabdomyoblastic differentiation” is proposed to describe this neoplasm, reflecting the unusual concomittant lines of differentiation as well as offering a possible rationale for nosologically challenging aspects of this neoplasm.

  18. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU)

  19. Malignant ascites visualized on a radionuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case report of malignant ascites visualized on a Tc-99 m methylene diphosphate (MDP) radionuclide bone scan is presented. The exact mechanism of increased radioactivity in malignant ascites is not known. Increased blood flow and vascular permeability were postulated to the more likely explanations for the accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in ascites and that when the increased peritoneal activity is detected, ascites due to neoplasm should be strongly suggested

  20. Primary clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) in the right radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Aburano, Tamio [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, 078-8510, Asahikawa (Japan); Takahashi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, 078-8510, Asahikawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa (United States); Tandai, Susumu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Matsuno, Takeo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa (Japan); Miyokawa, Naoyuki [Section of Surgical Pathology, Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2003-10-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) originating in bone is an extremely rare occurrence, which has been reported twice previously. It is challenging to differentiate this neoplasm from skeletal metastasis of malignant melanoma because it shows no specific imaging, pathological or immunohistochemical features. However, this differentiation is clinically important due to significant differences in patient management. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old man with primary clear cell sarcoma arising in the right radius. (orig.)

  1. Primary clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) in the right radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) originating in bone is an extremely rare occurrence, which has been reported twice previously. It is challenging to differentiate this neoplasm from skeletal metastasis of malignant melanoma because it shows no specific imaging, pathological or immunohistochemical features. However, this differentiation is clinically important due to significant differences in patient management. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old man with primary clear cell sarcoma arising in the right radius. (orig.)

  2. Adenolipoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Soares Corrêa Silva; Sérgio Almeida Pinheiro Chagas; Maurício Buzelin Nunes; Rodrigo Assis de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Os adenolipomas tireoidianos são neoplasias raras e benignas, compostas de tecido adiposo maduro e folículos tireoidianos, de histogênese ainda indefinida, que acometem geralmente pacientes adultas do sexo feminino. Relata-se um caso de adenolipoma tireoidiano em paciente feminina de 65 anos de idade, discutindo-se os aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais e o diagnóstico diferencial.Adenolipomas of the thyroid gland are rare and benign neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue and thyroid folli...

  3. A study on the incidence of thyroid cancer in gender ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroid nodules are an endocrine disease often found in clinical practice, and patients with thyroid nodules found by chance have rapidly increased alongside development of thyroid ultrasound techniques for health examination purposes. This study analyzes the subjects’ general characteristics, thyroid ultrasounds, and fine needle aspiration cytology in order to find out the relationship between male and female thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer frequency. An ultrasound examination of the thyroid was performed for 32,973 individuals who visited the K Hospital of Health Examination. Subjects have no history of thyroid disease and are 20 years old or over. Data of general characteristics, diabetes) was collected by a written survey completed by the subject, and the ultrasound of the thyroid (thyroid nodules existence, size, number) and FNAC was used to find out the malignancy rate. Frequency of patients with thyroid nodule was 4,611 (26.1%) in men and 5,341 (34.9%) in women between 32,973 individuals. Women’s prevalence rate is significantly higher than men, and the prevalence rate significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The prevalence of multiple nodules was significantly higher in women (43.5%) than in men (35.6%), and significantly increased with age in men and women (p<0.05). The fine needle aspiration cytology was performed in 692 (men 342, women 350) subjects who showed signs of malignancy through ultrasound. Prevalence of malignancy of the nodules was higher in men (33.3%) than in women (29.4%) although it is not statistically significant. It is known that thyroid nodule prevalence in women is much higher than in men. But this study shows the men’s prevalence rate was not too low compared with women, and the men showed a rather higher malignancy rate in nodules than women. It is considered that the role of thyroid ultrasound is both important in men and women

  4. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  5. Incidência de malignidade na doença nodular da tiróide com baixa suspeita clínica: estudo observacional prospectivo por dois anos numa coorte de 50 pacientes Incidence of malignant lesions in patients with clinically benign thyroid nodules: observational and prospective study in a cohort of 50 patients followed during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Yamazaki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a ocorrência de lesões malignas em pacientes com nódulos tiroidianos clinicamente benignos e o valor da repetição da citologia aspirativa da tiróide (PAAF. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional prospectivo por 2 anos em coorte de 50 mulheres com nódulos tiroidianos clinicamente benignos, com exame clínico, ultra-sonografia (US e PAAF inicial, seguidas por acompanhamento clínico, US e repunção dos mesmos nódulos (PAAF2. RESULTADOS: A palpação não é bom método para o seguimento dos nódulos quando comparada ao US. O quadro clínico foi parâmetro de confiança, pois 47/50 pacientes (94% evoluíram sem malignidade durante o seguimento. PAAF1 e PAAF2 concordaram em 33/39 pacientes quando PAAF1 foi negativa (85%; 11 pacientes foram operadas, 8 por PAAF suspeita e 3 por aumento do volume nodular durante o seguimento. O anátomo-patológico (AP foi benigno nas lesões suspeitas (8 adenomas e 3 bócios colóides. Houve 2 casos de microcarcinoma papilífero não invasivo em área distante dos nódulos e 1 caso de carcinoma papilífero não invasivo em bócio multi-nodular. CONCLUSÕES: Houve concordância entre características clínicas de benignidade com PAAF, US e acompanhamento clínico ou cirurgia; numa paciente encontramos carcinoma papilífero. O US deve ser considerado em pacientes com suspeita de nódulos de tiróide ao exame clínico; na maioria das vezes quando o resultado da PAAF1 é negativo para malignidade, o segundo exame citológico confirma o primeiro.INTRODUCTION: To study the frequency of malignant lesions in patients with clinically benign thyroid nodules and the value of the repetition of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. METHODS: Observational and prospective 2-year study in a cohort of 50 patients with clinically benign thyroid nodules. Patients were initially submitted to clinical examination, ultrasound (US and FNAB1 patients, followed by a second FNAB and US. RESULTS: Palpation is not a good test for diagnosis and follow-up of thyroid nodules. On the other hand, the initial consideration that these patients should harbor benign lesions is a very useful parameter, since 47/50 patients (94% did not present malignant lesions during the follow-up. FNAB1 and FNAB2 were concordant in 33/39 patients when FNAB1 was negative (85%; 11 patients were operated, 8 by suspicious FNAB and 3 due to nodule growth. We observed 2 patients with non-invasive papillary microcarcinoma and 1 patient with papillary carcinoma outside of the main nodules. CONCLUSION: there was concordance between initial clinical benign diagnosis, FNAB and the follow-up. In one case there was a papillary carcinoma. In addition, ultrasonography should be considered for all patients with suspected thyroid nodules. Finally, we demonstrated that a second cytology usually confirms the result of the first cytology in benign thyroid nodules.

  6. Intraductal neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct: Clinicopathological study of 24 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Naito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological features of intraductal neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile duct (INihB. METHODS: Clinicopathological features of 24 cases of INihB, which were previously diagnosed as biliary papillomatosis or intraductal growth of intrahepatic biliary neoplasm, were reviewed. Mucin immunohistochemistry was performed for mucin (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Ki-67, P53 and ?-catenin immunoreactivity were also examined. We categorized each tumor as adenoma (low grade, borderline (intermediate grade, and malignant (carcinoma in situ, high grade including tumors with microinvasion. RESULTS: Among 24 cases of INihB, we identified 24 tumors. Twenty of 24 tumors (83% were composed of a papillary structure; the same feature observed in intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB. In contrast, the remaining four tumors (17% showed both tubular and papillary structures. In three of the four tumors (75%, macroscopic mucin secretion was limited but microscopic intracellular mucin was evident. Histologically, 16 tumors (67% were malignant, three (12% were borderline, and five (21% were adenoma. Microinvasion was found in four cases (17%. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MUC1 was not expressed in the borderline/adenoma group but was expressed only in malignant lesions (P = 0.0095. Ki-67 labeling index (LI was significantly higher in the malignant group than in the borderline/adenoma group (22.2 ± 15.5 vs 7.5 ± 6.3, P < 0.01. In the 16 malignant cases, expression of MUC5AC showed borderline significant association with high Ki-67 LI (P = 0.0622. Nuclear expression of ?-catenin was observed in two (8% of the 24 tumors, and these two tumors also showed MUC1 expression. P53 was negative in all tumors. CONCLUSION: Some cases of INihB have a tubular structure, and are subcategorized as IPNB with tubular structure. MUC1 expression in INihB correlates positively with degree of malignancy.

  7. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  9. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms ... the throat can make it hard to swallow. Multiple myeloma In multiple myeloma , abnormal plasma cells ( myeloma cells ) ...

  10. Ultrasound elastography for thyroid nodules: recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Ultrasonography (US)-based elastography has been introduced as a noninvasive technique for evaluating thyroid nodules that encompasses a variety of approaches such as supersonic shear imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse imaging as well as real-time tissue elastography. However, the diagnostic performances for differentiating malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones with elastography as an adjunctive tool of gray-scale US is still under debate. In this review article, diagnostic performances of conventional US and a combination of conventional US and elastography are compared according to the type of elastography. Further, the interobserver variability of elastography is presented according to the type of elastography.

  11. Feasibility of an Ultrasonographic Categorical Reporting System for Thyroid Incidentaloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the feasibility of an ultrasonographic category system for the proper management of incidentally found thyroid nodules. We retrospectively evaluated 2,688 patients who had thyroid nodules and underwent ultrasonography- guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We made an ultrasonographic categorical reporting system by logistic regression analysis for comparison with the pathologic results of cytology and biopsy. The distribution of malignancy probability for benign nodules was 0.07 to 0.23 and for malignant nodules was 0.37 to 0.91 (95% confidence intervals). We stratified the distribution of the probability of malignancy of each nodule into 6 categories (category 0, no nodule: 1, highly suggestive of benignancy: 2, probably benign: 3, indeterminate: 4, probably malignant: and 5, highly suggestive of malignancy) and summarized the representative US findings. We compared the category of each nodule with the pathological results. In nodules with surgically proven pathologic diagnoses, benign lesions were 96.1% (348/361) in category 1 and malignant lesions were 98.6% (139/141) in category 5. We suggest that the ultrasonographic category system for thyroid incidentaloma may provide optimal strategies to manage incidentally found thyroid nodules

  12. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Nsame, D.; Chadli, A.; L. Hallab; El Aziz, S.; el Ghomari, H; A. Farouqi

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves' hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto's thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintisc...

  13. Primary Oral Malignant Melanoma: Two Case Reports and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm. The tumors tend to metastasize or locally invade tissue more readily than other malignant tumors in the oral region. The survival of patients with mucosal melanomas is less than for those with cutaneous melanomas. Tumor size and metastases are related to the prognosis of the disease. Early detection, therefore, is important.

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nikhil [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: nikhil_ms26@yahoo.co.in; Kakar, Arun K. [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Chowdhury, Veena [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Gulati, Praveen [MR Centre, A-23 Green Park, New Delhi (India); Shankar, L. Ravi [Department of Radioiodine Uptake and Imaging, Institute of Nucler Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, New Delhi (India); Vindal, Anubhav [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid.

  15. Histologic and immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for melan A, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase (CNPase), and Ki-67. The tumors were classified as 23 adrenocortical adenomas, 12 adrenocortical carcinomas, 2 schwannomas, 2 pheochromocytomas (1 malignant), and 1 ganglioneuroma. Five histologic features were characteristic of metastasizing adrenocortical tumors: invasion of the capsule, vascular invasion, diffuse growth pattern, spindle-cell morphology, and nuclear pleomorphism. Adrenocortical tumors with at least 3 of these features were classified as malignant. Immunohistochemically, adrenocortical tumors expressed melan A (16/19), vimentin (14/26), cytokeratin(11/26), and chromogranin A (9/27), whereas pheochromocytomas expressed chromogranin A (2/2), synaptophysin (2/2), and vimentin (1/2). Both schwannomas expressed CNPase. An immunohistochemistry panel consisting of antibodies against melan A, synaptophysin, and CNPase was considered most useful to classify bovine adrenal tumors. However, the distinction between benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors was based on histologic features as in human medicine.

  16. Mucinous neoplasm arising in a urachal cyst: a first in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubham; Bhaijee, Feriyl; Harmon, Edwin P

    2014-02-01

    Urachal anomalies are relatively uncommon and result because of incomplete obliteration of the urachus prenatally. In children, urachal cysts and sinuses constitute the common presentations, and these can sometimes become secondarily infected. Malignant involvement of the urachus in the pediatric population is rare, and primary urachal adenocarcinoma is reported exclusively in adults. Herein, we present the case of an adolescent girl with a low-grade mucinous neoplasm arising in a urachal cyst and discuss its significance. PMID:24231219

  17. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with leukemic manifestation and ETV6 gene rearrangement: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, NA; WANG, XUE-XIA; Sun, Jian-Rong; YU, WEN-ZHENG; GUO, NONG-JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare malignant tumor of the hemopoietic system that arises from plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors with a highly aggressive course. BPDCN frequently involves the skin, lymph nodes, peripheral blood and bone marrow. BPDCN is known to develop leukemic dissemination as a feature of myelomonocytic leukemia in the late phase of the disease, which leads to a poorer prognosis. In the present study, a case of BPDCN with leukemic manifestat...

  18. Biology and Clinical Management of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms and Development of the JAK Inhibitor Ruxolitinib

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, J.; Mughal, TI; Verstovsek, S.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are debilitating stem cell-derived clonal myeloid malignancies. Conventional treatments for the BCR-ABL1-negative MPN including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) have, so far, been unsatisfactory. Following the discovery of dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling in patients with MPN, many efforts have been directed toward the development of molecularly targeted therapies, including inhibitors of JAK1 and JAK2. R...

  19. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  20. Malignant meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracranial meningiomas are tumors in general of benign type of a slow growth originating in the arachnoid cells layer, especially in arachnoid granulations. The anaplastic or malignant meningiomas accounted for only the 1-3%. Sometimes they simulate malignant neuroepithelial lesions due to its fast growth and the frequent invasion of surrounding cerebral tissue with very frequent relapses and many times they required adjuvant therapy. The topographic images of this type of tumor are hyper-denses with a good contrast capture, regular and well defined with not much or not associated edema, quite the contrary that observed in present case where images seems to correspond with those of a malignant glioma (multiforme glioblastoma). (author)

  1. Principles of surgery for thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džodi? Radan R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery is the initial therapy in thyroid carcinoma. The basic principles of surgical oncology in malignant epithelial tumors have their full improvement in thyroid carcinoma (TC. The surgery is performed on organ of tumor origin and regional lymphatic basins. The aim of surgery in thyroid carcinoma is to eradicate all tumor foci, cure the most number of patients, reduce recurrence and mortality rate, and provide good quality of life. There is no doubt between oncologists that the surgery for thyroid carcinoma has no alternative. The extent of surgery is matter of actual controversies. Surgery is the initial treatment for all differentiated, papillary and follicular, as well as medullary and even anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. It should be performed by well-trained surgeons. The surgery of thyroid gland is the surgery of laryngeal recurrent nerve and parathyroid glands. The extent of primary surgery should be dictated by stage of disease and prognostic factors. The quality of surgery and incidence of complications depends on surgeon's skill and experience. That is why the surgeon is factor of prognosis in treatment of patients with TC.

  2. Malignant Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Ozkul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is a syndrome characterized by mutism, immobility, negativism, stereotypy, mannerisms, echophenomena, perseveration and passive obedience. The underlying causes can be psychiatric or may be associated with general medical status or neurological diseases. Additionally catatonia has two subtypes as malignant and nonmalignant catatonia. Main symptoms of malignant catatonia are hyperthermia and autonomic symptoms such as tachycardia, tachypnea and hyperhidrosis. It is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible for an appropriate medical treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the fatal outcome of the disease.

  3. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A.

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinas...

  4. Interaction of proteins identified in human thyroid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Sickmann, Albert; Weber, Gerhard; Grosse, Jirka; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerabl...

  5. Treatment of thyroid carcinoma as a problem of internal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of gallium-67 as a radiopharmaceutical for the detection of carcinoma of the thyroid gland is investigated. Gallium-67 does not accumulate in a benign goitre. In combination with iodide and pertechnetate scintigraphy of the thyroid, the application of gallium-67 is important for the detection of malignancy in large goitres. To increase the efficiency of iodine-131 therapy, a low-iodine diet and intensive diuresis during four days preceding administration of radioactive iodide is recommended

  6. Risk stratification and prediction of cancer of focal thyroid fluorodeoxyglucose uptake during cancer evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal thyroid incidentaloma by F-18 2-deoxy-2-F18-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported 1-4% of cancer patients and normal healthy population, with a risk of cancer ranging 14-50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma in F-18 FDG PET/CT and risk of cancer, usefulness of visual and SUVmax and SUVmean differentiating malignant nodules and to define the predictable variables. A total 159 patients with focal thyroid FDG incidentaloma during cancer evaluation with non-thyroid cancer were enrolled. After F-18 PET/CT, we analyzed the image visually and obtained semiquantitative indices. The incidence of focal FDG thyroid incidentaloma is 1.36% and cancer risk is 23.3%. The incidence of focal thyroid FDG uptake was significantly higher in women (2.88 vs. 0.31%; X2=136.4, pmax (malignant: median 4.53, range 2.1-12.0; benign: median 3.08, range 1.6-35, p=0.0093). However, SUVmean have no statistical differences (malignant: median 2.17, range 1.77-3.19; benign: median 2.05, range 1.15-5.77, p=0.0541). In ROC analyses, the optimal visual grades were >grade 3, and the optimal semiquantitative indices were 4.46 for SUVmax, 2.03 for SUVmean. The visual grade was superior to other variables for the differentiation malignant from benign thyroid incidentalomas. The size and visual grade was the potent predictor by logistic regression analysis. Focal thyroid FDG incidentalomas in non-thyroid cancer patients during evaluation have a high risk of malignancy. The size and visual grade are potential predictors for malignant thyroid incidentaloma. (author)

  7. Follicular-patterned thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Our aim is to determine the minimal cytopathologic criteria needed to make differential diagnosis in follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid gland.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 56 fine needle aspiration cytology specimens which were reported as “suspicious for follicular-patterned lesions of thyroid” between years 2001 and 2005 in our hospital and their histological slides. Parameters for cytopathologic assesment are cellularity, colloid formation, multilayered rosette formation, follicular cell rings, monolayered sheets, intact follicles, hyperplastic papillae, hyaline stromal fragments, intranuclear inclusions, nuclear grooves, angulated nuclei, nucleoli, cerebriform nuclei, nuclear size, macrophages, flame cells and Hurthle cells. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 and Fisher's-exact tests and Kolmogorov-Simirnov test.Results: Four cytopathologic features–cerebriform nuclei, angulated nuclei, nuclear grooves and intranuclear inclusion- were constantly observed in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (p< 0.05. Diluted colloid, monolayered sheet, nuclear size, macrophage and nucleoli were frequently seen in nodular hyperplasia (p< 0.05. The nuclear size was the sole differential cytopathologic criteria between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma (p<0.05.Conclusion: Detailed cytopathologic examination was found to be important in differentiating follicular variant of papillary carcinoma from nodular hyperplasia. On the other hand, none of the cytopathologic findings were sufficient to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma. Therefore, cytopathologists should report such lesions as “follicular neoplasms”.

  8. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients who were managed based on dominant nodule in benign nodular thyroid disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rafet Kaplan; Selim Birol; Atilla Çelik; Deniz Güzey; Aysun ?im?ek Çelik; Fatih Çelebi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Frequency of the incidental thyroid carcinoma (ITC) is variable in patients operated on for benign nodular thyroid disease (BNTD). The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of incidental carcinoma or microcarcinoma among patients with BNTD, to investigate the malignancy rate in dominant or non dominant nodule and discuss our operation choice in patients having BNTD. Material and methods: The records of 643 patients operated for BNTD were reviewed retrospectively. Initiall...

  9. Statistical observations on postirradiation skin malignancies reported in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 358 cases on postirradiation skin malignancies reported in Japan up to the end of 1980 were analysed clinically. The male: female ratio was about 2 : 1 and the mean year of onset was 53.1 years. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma occupied about 60 percent. Recently, BCC and sarcoma have increased in number. Occupational postirradiation skin malignancies have not decreased as yet. 60Cobalt and high voltage X-ray therapy produced 4 cases of postirradiation skin malignancies respectively; most cases were sarcomas. The latent period of postirradiation skin malignancies was longer in occupationally-induced postirradiation skin malignancies than skin malignancies which occurred after irradiation for benign conditions, and the period was shortest in skin malignancies which occurred after irradiation for malignant conditions. Histologically, the latent period was long in BCC, shorter in SCC and shortest in sarcomas. An excessive dosage of Grenz ray was mostly to be blamed for postirradiation neoplasms due to Grenz ray. The latent period of Grenz ray-induced neoplasms was markedly shorter than that related to other energy sources. (author)

  10. Comparison of Results of Ultrasound and FNA in Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Studying thyroid nodules in"nultrasound and comparing its results with FNA was"nthe aim of this study. Thyroid nodules are one of the"nmost important thyroid diseases and considering their"nhigh prevalence, their diagnosis and evaluation is very"nimportant. Ultrasound and FNA are two diagnostic"nmethods in thyroid nodular diseases."nPatients and Methods: This Cohort study was"nperformed during 2007-2009. After routine thyroid"nexamination, cases with suspicious thyroid nodules"nand its symptoms (tremor, tachycardia were referred"nfor ultrasonography (Medison V20 and linear probe"nwith 2.5 -12 multifrequency and findings such as solid"nor cystic, size, location, number, echogenicity and"ncalcification were reported. Then FNA of the thyroid"nnodule was performed."nResults: 87.5% of patients were female, the highest"nprevalence was in 40-50 years (56.2%. The most"nfrequent chief complaint and clinical finding was"na cervical mass (81.2%. In most cases there was no"nhistory of radiation. The most common diagnosis"nsuggested in ultrasound and also in cytologic findings"nfrom FNA was multinodular goiter (60% and 56.2%,"nrespectively. The diagnostic coordination rate between"ntwo methods was 68.7%. Other diagnosis in ultrasound"nwere adenoma, neoplasm, thyroid cyst, abcess and"nmultinodular goiter and in FNA, multinodular goiter,"nadenoma, carcinoma and undiagnostic."nConclusion: According to this study and the high"ncoordination rate between ultrasound and FNA"n(approximately 68%, the ultrasound is the first"nimaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid nodules"n(noninvasive and no radiation."nKeywords: Thyroid Nodules, Ultrasonography, FNA

  11. In vivo thyroid studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphic imaging plays an important role in determining function of thyroid nodules, detecting occult thyroid lesions, localizing ectopic thyroid tissue, and evaluating metastases from papilary-follicular thyroid carcinoma. The clinical usefulness of thyroid uptake and scintigraphic imaging can be maximized by proper selection of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation and by knowledge of the clinical status of the patient. These considerations, together with the clinical applications, are discussed

  12. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio [Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-03-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  13. Susceptibility of rats with altered thyroid status to malignant arrhythmias is primarily related to myocardial levels of connexin-43 and can be partially ameliorated by supplementation with red palm oil.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ba?ová, B.; Vinczenzová, C.; Žurmanová, J.; Kašparová, Dita; Knezl, V.; Radošinská, J.; Be?ová, T.; Pavelka, Stanislav; Soukup, Tomáš; Tribulová, N.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 18, Suppl A (2013), 41A-46A. ISSN 1205-6626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ?R(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ?R(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 628412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * cardiac arrhythmias * connexin-43 * PKC.epsilon * red palm oil Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2013

  14. Thyroid nodules in Graves? disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra A; Mishra S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves? disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves? disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves? disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9&#...

  15. Glycerol as a chemical chaperone enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emoto Mie; Yuki Kazue; Takahashi Akihisa; Yane Katsunari; Ota Ichiro; Ohnishi Ken; Hosoi Hiroshi; Ohnishi Takeo

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is one of the most aggressive, malignant tumors in humans, results in an extremely poor prognosis despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The present study was designed to evaluate therapeutic effects of radiation by glycerol on p53-mutant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells (8305c cells). To examine the effectiveness of glycerol in radiation induced lethality for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma 8305c cells, we performed colony formation as...

  16. Deregulated Expression of Aurora Kinases Is Not a Prognostic Biomarker in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini, Enke; Tuccilli, Chiara; Prinzi, Natalie; Sorrenti, Salvatore; Falvo, Laura; De Vito, Corrado; Catania, Antonio; Tartaglia, Francesco; Mocini, Renzo; Coccaro, Carmela; Alessandrini, Stefania; Barollo, Susi; Mian, Caterina; Antonelli, Alessandro; De Antoni, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    A number of reports indicated that Aurora-A or Aurora-B overexpression represented a negative prognostic factor in several human malignancies. In thyroid cancer tissues a deregulated expression of Aurora kinases has been also demonstrated, butno information regarding its possible prognostic role in differentiated thyroid cancer is available. Here, weevaluated Aurora-A and Aurora-B mRNA expression and its prognostic relevance in a series of 87 papillary thyroid cancers (PTC), with a median fol...

  17. Serum anti — TPO levels in benign and malignant breast tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Sabitha; Suneetha; Mohanty, Shruti; Rao, Pragna

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a hormone dependent neoplasm. Conflicting results regarding the clinical correlation between breast cancer and thyroid diseases have been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the association of anti — TPO levels in patients having complaints of a lump in breast. Serum samples and Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) samples were collected from 31 female patients with a lump in breast between the age group of 20–75 years. 31 age matched normal healthy contr...

  18. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Surgical Histopathology Histopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Nargess Ghazaleh; Shahram Haddadinezhad; Mohammad Jafari

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 7% of people have thyroid nodules. The most important consideration in evaluating patients with thyroid nodules is whether the nodule is malignant. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the best, safest, and most cost-effective measure for distinguishing malignancy, thus preventing unnecessary surgeries. In this survey, adequacy of smears, cytologic findings, histologic findings, and their concordance, have been studied. Materials and Methods: FNA biopsy was performe...

  19. Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Gia-Khanh

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid nodules (TN are a common clinical problem. Fine needle aspiration (FNA of the thyroid now is practiced worldwide and proves to be the most economical and reliable diagnostic procedure to identify TNs that need surgical excision and TNs that can be managed conservatively. The key for the success of thyroid FNA consists of an adequate or representative cell sample and the expertise in thyroid cytology. The FNA cytologic manifestations of TNs may be classified into seven working cytodiagnostic groups consisting of a few heterogenous lesions each to facilitate the differential diagnosis. Recent application of diagnostic molecular techniques to aspirated thyroid cells proved to be useful in separating benign from malignant TNs in several cases of indeterminate lesions.

  20. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.